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Wikipedia:FAQ - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
cal, legal, financial, safety, and other critical issues? 8 Who owns Wikipedia? 9 Why am I having trouble logging in? 10 How can I contact Wikipedia? How do I create a new page? <span>You are required to have a Wikipedia account to create a new article—you can register here. To see other benefits to creating an account, see Why create an account? For creating a new article see Wikipedia:Your first article and Wikipedia:Article development; and you may wi




#inner-product-space #vector-space
Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions.

These vector spaces are generally endowed with additional structure, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity.

Among these topologies, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used, as having a notion of distance between two vectors. This is particularly the case of Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces, which are fundamental in mathematical analysis.
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Vector space - Wikipedia
roperties, which in some cases can be visualized as arrows. Vector spaces are the subject of linear algebra and are well characterized by their dimension, which, roughly speaking, specifies the number of independent directions in the space. <span>Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions. These vector spaces are generally endowed with additional structure, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity. Among these topologies, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used, as having a notion of distance between two vectors. This is particularly the case of Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces, which are fundamental in mathematical analysis. Historically, the first ideas leading to vector spaces can be traced back as far as the 17th century's analytic geometry, matrices, systems of linear equations, and Euclidean vectors.




Flashcard 1733076061452

Tags
#inner-product-space #vector-space
Question
[...] arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions.
Answer
Infinite-dimensional vector spaces

Think multivariate Gaussian and Gaussian Process

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Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions.

Original toplevel document

Vector space - Wikipedia
roperties, which in some cases can be visualized as arrows. Vector spaces are the subject of linear algebra and are well characterized by their dimension, which, roughly speaking, specifies the number of independent directions in the space. <span>Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions. These vector spaces are generally endowed with additional structure, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity. Among these topologies, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used, as having a notion of distance between two vectors. This is particularly the case of Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces, which are fundamental in mathematical analysis. Historically, the first ideas leading to vector spaces can be traced back as far as the 17th century's analytic geometry, matrices, systems of linear equations, and Euclidean vectors.








Reading 41  Portfolio Risk and Return: Part I (Intro)
#has-images #portfolio-session #reading-rocky-balboa

Construction of an optimal portfolio is an important objective for an investor. In this reading, we will explore the process of examining the risk and return characteristics of individual assets, creating all possible portfolios, selecting the most efficient portfolios, and ultimately choosing the optimal portfolio tailored to the individual in question.

During the process of constructing the optimal portfolio, several factors and investment characteristics are considered. The most important of those factors are risk and return of the individual assets under consideration. Correlations among individual assets along with risk and return are important determinants of portfolio risk. Creating a portfolio for an investor requires an understanding of the risk profile of the investor. Although we will not discuss the process of determining risk aversion for individuals or institutional investors, it is necessary to obtain such information for making an informed decision.

In this reading, we will explain the broad types of investors and how their risk–return preferences can be formalized to select the optimal portfolio from among the infinite portfolios contained in the investment opportunity set.

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Reading 41  Portfolio Risk and Return: Part I (Intro)
Construction of an optimal portfolio is an important objective for an investor. In this reading, we will explore the process of examining the risk and return characteristics of individual assets, creating all possible portfolios, selecting the most efficient portfolios, and ultimately choosing the optimal portfolio tailored to the individual in question. During the process of constructing the optimal portfolio, several factors and investment characteristics are considered. The most important of those factors are risk and return of the individual assets under consideration. Correlations among individual assets along with risk and return are important determinants of portfolio risk. Creating a portfolio for an investor requires an understanding of the risk profile of the investor. Although we will not discuss the process of determining risk aversion for individuals or institutional investors, it is necessary to obtain such information for making an informed decision. In this reading, we will explain the broad types of investors and how their risk–return preferences can be formalized to select the optimal portfolio from among the infinite portfolios contained in the investment opportunity set. The reading is organized as follows: Section 2 discusses the investment characteristics of assets. In particular, we show the various types of returns and risks, their comp




Flashcard 1739928505612

Tags
#forward-backward-algorithm #hmm
Question

In the first pass, the forward–backward algorithm computes [...]

Answer
.

the distribution over hidden states given the observations up to the point.

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The forward-backward algorithm In the first pass, the forward–backward algorithm computes a set of forward probabilities which provide, for all , the probability of ending up in any particular state given the first observations in the sequence, i.e. . In the second pass, the algorithm computes a set of backward probabilities which provide the probability of observing the remaining observations given any starting point , i.e. . Thes

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Forward–backward algorithm - Wikipedia
cific instance of this class. Contents [hide] 1 Overview 2 Forward probabilities 3 Backward probabilities 4 Example 5 Performance 6 Pseudocode 7 Python example 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Overview[edit source] <span>In the first pass, the forward–backward algorithm computes a set of forward probabilities which provide, for all k ∈ { 1 , … , t } {\displaystyle k\in \{1,\dots ,t\}} , the probability of ending up in any particular state given the first k {\displaystyle k} observations in the sequence, i.e. P ( X k | o 1 : k ) {\displaystyle P(X_{k}\ |\ o_{1:k})} . In the second pass, the algorithm computes a set of backward probabilities which provide the probability of observing the remaining observations given any starting point k {\displaystyle k} , i.e. P ( o k + 1 : t | X k ) {\displaystyle P(o_{k+1:t}\ |\ X_{k})} . These two sets of probability distributions can then be combined to obtain the distribution over states at any specific point in time given the entire observation sequence: P ( X k | o 1 : t ) = P ( X k | o 1 : k , o k + 1 : t ) ∝ P ( o k + 1 : t | X k ) P ( X k | o 1 : k ) {\displaystyle P(X_{k}\ |\ o_{1:t})=P(X_{k}\ |\ o_{1:k},o_{k+1:t})\propto P(o_{k+1:t}\ |\ X_{k})P(X_{k}|o_{1:k})} The last step follows from an application of the Bayes' rule and the conditional independence of o k + 1 : t {\displaystyle o_{k+1:t}} and o 1 : k {\displaystyle o_{1:k}} given X k {\displaystyle X_{k}} . As outlined above, the algorithm involves three steps: computing forward probabilities computing backward probabilities computing smoothed values. The forward and backward steps m







Flashcard 1740067966220

Tags
#has-images #measure-theory #stochastics
Question
measure theoretic notations for the relation between Probability measure P and Expectation operator E are [...]
[unknown IMAGE 1740066655500]
Answer
The integral signs here do not mean integration in the sense of calculus (so-called Riemann integration).

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Call Money/ Notice Money

used by Banks to borrow money w/o collateral from other banks to maintain CRR
Call money market- funds are transacted on overnight basis & notice money market,-- btwn 2-14 days

An over-the-counter (OTC) market -no brokers Highly liquid All scheduled Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), Cooperative Banks other than Land Development banks and Primary dealers are the participants
Actions like banks subscribing to large issues of government securities, increase in CRR or repo rate, = low liquidity - increase in call rate

Call Rate: The interest rate paid on call loans

NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Bid Rate (MIBID) and the NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets:

MIBID: In this, borrower banks quote an interest rate

MIBOR: In this, lender banks quote a rate

Term Market: A market where maturity of debt btwn 3 months to 1 year
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The multiple-processor systems in use today are of two types. Some systems use asymmetric multiprocessing, in which each processor is assigned a specific task. A boss processor controls the system; the other processors either look to the boss for instruction or have predefined tasks. This scheme defines a boss–worker relationship. The boss processor schedules and allocates work to the worker processors. The most common systems use symmetric multiprocessing ( SMP),in which each processor performs all tasks within the operating system. SMP means that all processors are peers; no boss–worker relationship exists between processors. Figure 1.6 illustrates a typical SMP architecture. Notice that each processor has its own set of registers, as well as a private—or local —cache. However, all processors share physical memory.
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UMA is defined as the situation in which access to any RAM from any CPU takes the same amount of time. With NUMA, some parts of memory may take longer to access than other parts, creating a performance penalty. Operating systems can minimize the NUMA penalty through resource management, as discussed in Section 9.5.4. A recent trend in CPU design is to include multiple computing cores on a single chip. Such multiprocessor systems are termed multicore.They can be more efficient than multiple chips with single cores because on-chip communication is faster than between-chip communication. In addition, one chip with multiple cores uses significantly less power than multiple single-core chips
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blade servers are a relatively recent development in which multiple processor boards, I/O boards, and networking boards are placed in the same chassis. The difference between these and traditional multiprocessor systems is that each blade-processor board boots independently and runs its own operating system.
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1.3 Computer-System Architecture 17 1.3.3 Clustered Systems Another type of multiprocessor system is a clustered system, which gathers together multiple CPUs. Clustered systems differ from the multiprocessor systems described in Section 1.3.2 in that they are composed of two or more individual systems—or nodes—joined together. Such systems are considered loosely coupled
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Clustering is usually used to provide high-availability service—that is, service will continue even if one or more systems in the cluster fail. Generally, we obtain high availability by adding a level of redundancy in the system. A layer of cluster software runs on the cluster nodes. Each node can monitor one or more of the others (over the LAN). If the monitored machine fails, the monitoring machine can take ownership of its storage and restart the applications that were running on the failed machine. The users and clients of the applications see only a brief interruption of service
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Multiprogramming increases CPU utilization by organizing jobs (code and data) so that the CPU always has one to execute. The idea is as follows: The operating system keeps several jobs in memory simultaneously (Figure 1.9). Since, in general, main memory is too small to accommodate all jobs, the jobs are kept initially on the disk in the job pool. This pool consists of all processes residing on disk awaiting allocation of main memory.
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Multiprogrammed systems provide an environment in which the various system resources (for example, CPU, memory, and peripheral devices) are utilized effectively, but they do not provide for user interaction with the computer system. Time sharing (or multitasking) is a logical extension of multiprogramming. In time-sharing systems, the CPU executes multiple jobs by switching among them, but the switches occur so frequently that the users can interact with each program while it is running
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A trap (or an exception) is a software-generated interrupt caused either by an error (for example, division by zero or invalid memory access) or by a specific request from a user program that an operating-system service be performed.
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rrupt service routine is provided to deal with the interrupt. Since the operating system and the users share the hardware and software resources of the computer system, we need to make sure that an error in a user program could cause problems only for the one program running. With sharing, many processes could be adversely affected by a bug in one program. For example, if a process gets stuck in an infinite loop, this loop could prevent the correct operation of many other processes. More subtle errors can occur in a multiprogramming system, where one erroneous program might modify another program, the data of another program, or even the operating system itself.
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At the very least, we need two separate modes of operation: user mode and kernel mode (also called supervisor mode, system mode,orprivileged mode). A bit, called the mode bit, is added to the hardware of the computer to indicate the current mode: kernel (0) or user (1). With the mode bit, we can distinguish between a task that is executed on behalf of the operating system and one that is executed on behalf of the user. When the computer system is executing on behalf of a user application, the system is in user mode. However, when a user application requests a service from the operating system (via a system call), the system must transition from user to kernel mode to fulfill the request.
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The dual mode of operation provides us with the means for protecting the operating system from errant users—and errant users from one another. We accomplish this protection by designating some of the machine instructions that may cause harm as privileged instructions. The hardware allows privileged instructions to be executed only in kernel mode. If an attempt is made to execute a privileged instruction in user mode, the hardware does not execute the instruction but rather treats it as illegal and traps it to the operating system
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For a program to be executed, it must be mapped to absolute addresses and loaded into memory. As the program executes, it accesses program instructions and data from memory by generating these absolute addresses. Eventually, the program terminates, its memory space is declared available, and the next program can be loaded and executed. To improve both the utilization of the CPU and the speed of the computer’s response to its users, general-purpose computers must keep several programs in memory, creating a need for memory management
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Protection, then, is any mechanism for controlling the access of processes or users to the resources defined by a computer system. This mechanism must provide means to specify the controls to be imposed and to enforce the controls. Protection can improve reliability by detecting latent errors at the interfaces between component subsystems. Early detection of interface errors can often prevent contamination of a healthy subsystem by another subsystem that is malfunctioning. Furthermore, an unprotected resource cannot defend against use (or misuse) by an unauthorized or incompetent user. A protection-oriented system provides a means to distinguish between authorized and unauthorized usage, as we discuss in Chapter 14. A system can have adequate protection but still be prone to failure and allow inappropriate access. Consider a user whose authentication information (her means of identifying herself to the system) is stolen. Her data could be copied or deleted, even though file and memory protection are working. It is the job of security to defend a system from external and internal attacks. Such attacks spread across a huge range and include viruses and worms, denial-of- service attacks (which use all of a system’s resources and so keep legitimate users out of the system), identity theft, and theft of service (unauthorized use of a system). Prevention of some of these attacks is considered an operating-system function on some systems, while other systems leave it to policy or additional software.
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Protection and security require the system to be able to distinguish among all its users. Most operating systems maintain a list of user names and associated user identifiers (user IDs). In Windows parlance, this is a security ID (SID). These numerical IDs are unique, one per user. When a user logs in to the system, the authentication stage determines the appropriate user ID for the user. That user ID is associated with all of the user’s processes and threads. When an ID needs to be readable by a user, it is translated back to the user name via the user name list. In some circumstances, we wish to distinguish among sets of users rather than individual users. For example, the owner of a file on a UNIX system may be allowed to issue all operations on that file, whereas a selected set of users may be allowed only to read the file. To accomplish this, we need to define a group name and the set of users belonging to that group. Group functionality can be implemented as a system-wide list of group names and group identifiers. A user can be in one or more groups, depending on operating-system design decisions. The user’s group IDs are also included in every associated process and thread
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#inner-product-space #vector-space
Functional spaces are generally endowed with additional structure than vector spaces, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity.
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Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions. These vector spaces are generally endowed with additional structure, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity. Among these topologies, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used, as having a notion of distance between two vectors. This is particularly the

Original toplevel document

Vector space - Wikipedia
roperties, which in some cases can be visualized as arrows. Vector spaces are the subject of linear algebra and are well characterized by their dimension, which, roughly speaking, specifies the number of independent directions in the space. <span>Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions. These vector spaces are generally endowed with additional structure, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity. Among these topologies, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used, as having a notion of distance between two vectors. This is particularly the case of Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces, which are fundamental in mathematical analysis. Historically, the first ideas leading to vector spaces can be traced back as far as the 17th century's analytic geometry, matrices, systems of linear equations, and Euclidean vectors.




Flashcard 1741386812684

Tags
#inner-product-space #vector-space
Question
A vector space with a topology allows the consideration of issues of [...].
Answer
proximity and continuity

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Functional spaces are generally endowed with additional structure than vector spaces, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity.

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Vector space - Wikipedia
roperties, which in some cases can be visualized as arrows. Vector spaces are the subject of linear algebra and are well characterized by their dimension, which, roughly speaking, specifies the number of independent directions in the space. <span>Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions. These vector spaces are generally endowed with additional structure, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity. Among these topologies, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used, as having a notion of distance between two vectors. This is particularly the case of Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces, which are fundamental in mathematical analysis. Historically, the first ideas leading to vector spaces can be traced back as far as the 17th century's analytic geometry, matrices, systems of linear equations, and Euclidean vectors.







Flashcard 1741389171980

Tags
#topology
Question
topology concerns the properties of space that are preserved under [...]
Answer
continuous deformations

i.e. homeomorphisms. Remeber scrub

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In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.

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Topology - Wikipedia
ogy (disambiguation). For a topology of a topos or category, see Lawvere–Tierney topology and Grothendieck topology. [imagelink] Möbius strips, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied in topology. <span>In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing. This can be studied by considering a collection of subsets, called open sets, that satisfy certain properties, turning the given set into what is known as a topological space. Important







Flashcard 1741390744844

Tags
#topology
Question
topology is concerned with [...] that are preserved under continuous deformations
Answer
the properties of space

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In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.

Original toplevel document

Topology - Wikipedia
ogy (disambiguation). For a topology of a topos or category, see Lawvere–Tierney topology and Grothendieck topology. [imagelink] Möbius strips, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied in topology. <span>In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing. This can be studied by considering a collection of subsets, called open sets, that satisfy certain properties, turning the given set into what is known as a topological space. Important







#sets
In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size.
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Bounded set - Wikipedia
towards the right. "Bounded" and "boundary" are distinct concepts; for the latter see boundary (topology). A circle in isolation is a boundaryless bounded set, while the half plane is unbounded yet has a boundary. <span>In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size. Conversely, a set which is not bounded is called unbounded. The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric. Contents [hide] 1




Flashcard 1741410405644

Tags
#sets
Question
a set is called [...], if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size.
Answer
bounded

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In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size.

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Bounded set - Wikipedia
towards the right. "Bounded" and "boundary" are distinct concepts; for the latter see boundary (topology). A circle in isolation is a boundaryless bounded set, while the half plane is unbounded yet has a boundary. <span>In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size. Conversely, a set which is not bounded is called unbounded. The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric. Contents [hide] 1







Flashcard 1741411978508

Tags
#sets
Question
a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of [...].
Answer
finite size

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In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size.

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Bounded set - Wikipedia
towards the right. "Bounded" and "boundary" are distinct concepts; for the latter see boundary (topology). A circle in isolation is a boundaryless bounded set, while the half plane is unbounded yet has a boundary. <span>In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size. Conversely, a set which is not bounded is called unbounded. The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric. Contents [hide] 1







#sets
The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric.
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Bounded set - Wikipedia
le the half plane is unbounded yet has a boundary. In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size. Conversely, a set which is not bounded is called unbounded. <span>The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric. Contents [hide] 1 Definition 2 Metric space 3 Boundedness in topological vector spaces 4 Boundedness in order theory 5 See also 6 References Definition[edit source]




Flashcard 1741415124236

Tags
#sets
Question
The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding [...].
Answer

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The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric.

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Bounded set - Wikipedia
le the half plane is unbounded yet has a boundary. In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size. Conversely, a set which is not bounded is called unbounded. <span>The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric. Contents [hide] 1 Definition 2 Metric space 3 Boundedness in topological vector spaces 4 Boundedness in order theory 5 See also 6 References Definition[edit source]







#lebesgue-integration
The Lebesgue integral extends the (Riemann) integral to a larger class of functions. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined.
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Lebesgue integration - Wikipedia
culus[show] Glossary of calculus v t e In mathematics, the integral of a non-negative function of a single variable can be regarded, in the simplest case, as the area between the graph of that function and the x-axis. <span>The Lebesgue integral extends the integral to a larger class of functions. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined. Long before the advent of the 20th century, mathematicians already understood that for non-negative functions with a smooth enough graph—such as continuous functions on closed bounded




Flashcard 1741422726412

Tags
#lebesgue-integration
Question
The Lebesgue integral extends the (Riemann) integral to [...]. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined.
Answer
a larger class of functions

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The Lebesgue integral extends the (Riemann) integral to a larger class of functions. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined.

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Lebesgue integration - Wikipedia
culus[show] Glossary of calculus v t e In mathematics, the integral of a non-negative function of a single variable can be regarded, in the simplest case, as the area between the graph of that function and the x-axis. <span>The Lebesgue integral extends the integral to a larger class of functions. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined. Long before the advent of the 20th century, mathematicians already understood that for non-negative functions with a smooth enough graph—such as continuous functions on closed bounded







Flashcard 1741424299276

Tags
#lebesgue-integration
Question
The Lebesgue integral extends the (Riemann) integral to a larger class of functions and [...] on which these functions can be defined.
Answer
more domains

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The Lebesgue integral extends the (Riemann) integral to a larger class of functions. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined.

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Lebesgue integration - Wikipedia
culus[show] Glossary of calculus v t e In mathematics, the integral of a non-negative function of a single variable can be regarded, in the simplest case, as the area between the graph of that function and the x-axis. <span>The Lebesgue integral extends the integral to a larger class of functions. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined. Long before the advent of the 20th century, mathematicians already understood that for non-negative functions with a smooth enough graph—such as continuous functions on closed bounded







In the latter half of the 20th century, computing resources were relatively scarce. (Before that, they were nonexistent!) For a period of time, systems were either batch or interactive. Batch systems processed jobs in bulk, with predetermined input from files or other data sources. Interactive systems waited for input from users. To optimize the use of the computing resources, multiple users shared time on these systems. Time-sharing systems used a timer and scheduling algorithms to cycle processes rapidly through the CPU, giving each user a share of the resources.
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A distributed system is a collection of physically separate, possibly heteroge- neous, computer systems that are networked to provide users with access to the various resources that the system maintains.
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Networks are characterized based on the distances between their nodes. A local-area network ( LAN) connects computers within a room, a building, or a campus. A wide-area network ( WAN) usually links buildings, cities, or countries. A global company may have a WAN to connect its offices worldwide, for example.
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A network operating system is an operating system that provides features such as file sharing across the network, along with a communication scheme that allows different processes on different computers to exchange messages. A computer running a network operating system acts autonomously from all other computers on the network, although it is aware of the network and is able to communicate with other networked computers. A distributed operating system provides a less autonomous environment. The different computers communicate closely enough to provide the illusion that only a single operating system controls the network.
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Server systems can be broadly categorized as compute servers and file servers: • The compute-server system provides an interface to which a client can send a request to perform an action (for example, read data). In response, the server executes the action and sends the results to the client. A server running a database that responds to client requests for data is an example of such a system. • The file-server system provides a file-system interface where clients can create, update, read, and delete files. An example of such a system is a web server that delivers files to clients running web browsers.
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Another structure for a distributed system is the peer-to-peer (P2P) system model. In this model, clients and servers are not distinguished from one another. Instead, all nodes within the system are considered peers, and each may act as either a client or a server, depending on whether it is requesting or providing a service. Peer-to-peer systems offer an advantage over traditional client-server systems. In a client-server system, the server is a bottleneck; but in a peer-to-peer system, services can be provided by several nodes distributed throughout the network.
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To participate in a peer-to-peer system, a node must first join the network of peers. Once a node has joined the network, it can begin providing services to—and requesting services from—other nodes in the network. Determining what services are available is accomplished in one of two general ways: • When a node joins a network, it registers its service with a centralized lookup service on the network. Any node desiring a specific service first contacts this centralized lookup service to determine which node provides the service. The remainder of the communication takes place between the client and the service provider. • An alternative scheme uses no centralized lookup service. Instead, a peer acting as a client must discover what node provides a desired service by broadcasting a request for the service to all other nodes in the network. The node (or nodes) providing that service responds to the peer making the request. To support this approach, a discovery protocol must be provided that allows peers to discover services provided by other peers in the network
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Virtualization is a technology that allows operating systems to run as appli- cations within other operating systems.
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Cloud computing is a type of computing that delivers computing, storage, and even applications as a service across a network. In some ways, it’s a logical extension of virtualization, because it uses virtualization as a base for its functionality. For example, the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud ( EC2) facility has thousands of servers, millions of virtual machines, and petabytes of storage available for use by anyone on the Internet.
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Embedded systems almost always run real-time operating systems.A real-time system is used when rigid time requirements have been placed on the operation of a processor or the flow of data; thus, it is often used as a control device in a dedicated application. Sensors bring data to the computer. The computer must analyze the data and possibly adjust controls to modify the sensor inputs. Systems that control scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, and certain display systems are real- time systems. Some automobile-engine fuel-injection systems, home-appliance controllers, and weapon systems are also real-time systems. A real-time system has well-defined, fixed time constraints. Processing must be done within the defined constraints, or the system will fail. For instance, it would not do for a robot arm to be instructed to halt after it had smashed into the car it was building. A real-time system functions correctly only if it returns the correct result within its time constraints. Contrast this system with a time-sharing system, where it is desirable (but not mandatory) to respond quickly, or a batch system, which may have no time constraints at all
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Flashcard 1741462572300

Question
Call Money/ Notice Money

used by Banks to borrow money [...] collateral from other banks to maintain CRR
Call money market- funds are transacted on overnight basis & notice money market,-- btwn 2-14 days

An over-the-counter (OTC) market -no brokers Highly liquid All scheduled Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), Cooperative Banks other than Land Development banks and Primary dealers are the participants
Actions like banks subscribing to large issues of government securities, increase in CRR or repo rate, = low liquidity - increase in call rate

Call Rate: The interest rate paid on call loans

NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Bid Rate (MIBID) and the NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets:

MIBID: In this, borrower banks quote an interest rate

MIBOR: In this, lender banks quote a rate

Term Market: A market where maturity of debt btwn 3 months to 1 year
Answer
w/o

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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Call Money/ Notice Money used by Banks to borrow money w/o collateral from other banks to maintain CRR Call money market- funds are transacted on overnight basis & notice money market,-- btwn 2-14 days &

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Flashcard 1741464145164

Question
Call Money/ Notice Money

used by Banks to borrow money w/o collateral from other banks to maintain CRR
Call money market- funds are transacted on [...] basis & notice money market,-- btwn 2-14 days

An over-the-counter (OTC) market -no brokers Highly liquid All scheduled Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), Cooperative Banks other than Land Development banks and Primary dealers are the participants
Actions like banks subscribing to large issues of government securities, increase in CRR or repo rate, = low liquidity - increase in call rate

Call Rate: The interest rate paid on call loans

NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Bid Rate (MIBID) and the NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets:

MIBID: In this, borrower banks quote an interest rate

MIBOR: In this, lender banks quote a rate

Term Market: A market where maturity of debt btwn 3 months to 1 year
Answer
overnight

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Call Money/ Notice Money used by Banks to borrow money w/o collateral from other banks to maintain CRR Call money market- funds are transacted on overnight basis & notice money market,-- btwn 2-14 days An over-the-counter (OTC) market -no brokers Highly liquid All scheduled Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), Coop

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Flashcard 1741465718028

Question
Call Money/ Notice Money

used by Banks to borrow money w/o collateral from other banks to maintain CRR
Call money market- funds are transacted on overnight basis & notice money market,-- btwn
[...]
An over-the-counter (OTC) market -no brokers Highly liquid All scheduled Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), Cooperative Banks other than Land Development banks and Primary dealers are the participants
Actions like banks subscribing to large issues of government securities, increase in CRR or repo rate, = low liquidity - increase in call rate

Call Rate: The interest rate paid on call loans

NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Bid Rate (MIBID) and the NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets:

MIBID: In this, borrower banks quote an interest rate

MIBOR: In this, lender banks quote a rate

Term Market: A market where maturity of debt btwn 3 months to 1 year
Answer
2-14 days

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Call Money/ Notice Money used by Banks to borrow money w/o collateral from other banks to maintain CRR Call money market- funds are transacted on overnight basis & notice money market,-- btwn <span>2-14 days An over-the-counter (OTC) market -no brokers Highly liquid All scheduled Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), Cooperative Banks other than Land Development banks and Primary

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Flashcard 1741467815180

Question
The interest rate paid on call loans
Answer
Call Rate

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r than Land Development banks and Primary dealers are the participants Actions like banks subscribing to large issues of government securities, increase in CRR or repo rate, = low liquidity - increase in call rate Call Rate: <span>The interest rate paid on call loans NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Bid Rate (MIBID) and the NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets: MIBID: In this, borrower banks quote an intere

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Flashcard 1741469388044

Question
Call Money/ Notice Money

used by Banks to borrow money w/o collateral from other banks to maintain CRR
Call money market- funds are transacted on overnight basis & notice money market,-- btwn 2-14 days

An over-the-counter (OTC) market -no brokers Highly liquid All scheduled Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), Cooperative Banks other than Land Development banks and Primary dealers are the participants
Actions like banks subscribing to large issues of government securities, increase in CRR or repo rate, = low liquidity - increase in call rate

Call Rate: The interest rate paid on call loans

NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Bid Rate (MIBID) and the NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets:

MIBID: In this, [...] banks quote an interest rate

MIBOR: In this, lender banks quote a rate

Term Market: A market where maturity of debt btwn 3 months to 1 year
Answer
borrower

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ty - increase in call rate Call Rate: The interest rate paid on call loans NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Bid Rate (MIBID) and the NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets: MIBID: In this, <span>borrower banks quote an interest rate MIBOR: In this, lender banks quote a rate Term Market: A market where maturity of debt btwn 3 months to 1 year <span></

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Flashcard 1741470960908

Question
Call Money/ Notice Money

used by Banks to borrow money w/o collateral from other banks to maintain CRR
Call money market- funds are transacted on overnight basis & notice money market,-- btwn 2-14 days

An over-the-counter (OTC) market -no brokers Highly liquid All scheduled Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), Cooperative Banks other than Land Development banks and Primary dealers are the participants
Actions like banks subscribing to large issues of government securities, increase in CRR or repo rate, = low liquidity - increase in call rate

Call Rate: The interest rate paid on call loans

NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Bid Rate (MIBID) and the NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets:

MIBID: In this, borrower banks quote an interest rate

MIBOR: In this, [...] banks quote a rate

Term Market: A market where maturity of debt btwn 3 months to 1 year
Answer
lender

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
ate paid on call loans NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Bid Rate (MIBID) and the NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets: MIBID: In this, borrower banks quote an interest rate MIBOR: In this, <span>lender banks quote a rate Term Market: A market where maturity of debt btwn 3 months to 1 year <span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1741472533772

Question
Call Money/ Notice Money

used by Banks to borrow money w/o collateral from other banks to maintain CRR
Call money market- funds are transacted on overnight basis & notice money market,-- btwn 2-14 days

An over-the-counter (OTC) market -no brokers Highly liquid All scheduled Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), Cooperative Banks other than Land Development banks and Primary dealers are the participants
Actions like banks subscribing to large issues of government securities, increase in CRR or repo rate, = low liquidity - increase in call rate

Call Rate: The interest rate paid on call loans

NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Bid Rate (MIBID) and the NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets:

MIBID: In this, borrower banks quote an interest rate

MIBOR: In this, lender banks quote a rate

Term Market: A market where maturity of debt btwn [...]
Answer
3 months to 1 year

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
nter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets: MIBID: In this, borrower banks quote an interest rate MIBOR: In this, lender banks quote a rate Term Market: A market where maturity of debt btwn <span>3 months to 1 year <span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1741474106636

Question
DIPAM
Answer
Dep. of Disninvestment renamed to Dep of Investmennt & Public Assets Management
under under the Ministry of Finance

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4.0 メリアム・ウェブスターの学習者用英英辞書 投稿者 mouse 2014年1月9日 形式: ハードカバー | Amazonで購入  学習者用。 見出し語・成句 100,000。 発音表記は、アメリカの出版社ですが学習者用なので、IPAです。

 見出し語・成句の数は、ロングマン、オックスフォードに比べると、少ないです。

 3,000語のキーワードで、語義を定義しています。 語義は、1.フレーズでの意味の言い換え 2.用法の説明 という従来タイプ(句定義)と 3.フルセンテンス(文定義) の3通りで定義していて、それぞれ記号(コロン・ダッシュ・正方形)で区別しています。 語義は、的確で、わかりやすいです。 しかし、多義語において、他の学習者用英英辞書にあるような、語義の内容を簡略化して各語義の前に目印として置くサインポストはありません。 (ちなみに、コウビルドにもありません。)  語義は明解でわかりやすいのですが、その表現の仕方は、オックスフォード、ロングマン、コウビルドなどのイギリスの出版社の学習者用英英辞書とは、異なる気がします。

 語彙の文法的な説明は、正確です。 しかし、語法の説明は、可算名詞・不可算名詞、自動詞・他動詞の区別などしかありません。 他の学習者用英英辞書は、語法の表示が工夫されています。  ex 1. ~ (make) sth for sb (オックスフォード)  ex 2. take sb to do sth (ロングマン)  ex 3. v n to-inf (コウビルド)  語法の説明が少ないので、利用者は例文から語法を推測しなければなりません。 コロケーションは、太字ではなくイタリック体で表示されているので、多少見つけづらいです。 (ちなみに、コロケーションは、ロングマンが充実しています。) この辞書は、よく使われるコモンフレーズを、太字で印刷しています。 

 レイアウトについては、最初に語義、その後に、句動詞とイディオムをまとめて、アルファベット順に掲載しています。 ちなみに、オックスフォードは、最初に語義、その後、句動詞とイディオムを分けて、アルファベット順に掲載しています。 ロングマンは、まず語義とイディオムとフレーズを別々に分けずに頻度順、その後に句動詞をアルファベット順に掲載しています。 コウビルドは、語義を品詞別にまとめないで頻度順( ex. 名詞 → 動詞 → 名詞 などの順番になることがある)、 次にフレーズを頻度順、最後に句動詞をアルファベット順に掲載するというレイアウトです。

 アメリカ英語で、単語の意味(語義)がよく理解できる、良質の例文です。 例文数は、160,000 と豊富です。 見出し語の数が少ないので、その分、見出し語当たりの例文数は多くなっています。 多量の例文を読ませて、語義を理解させるというタイプかもしれません。

 語義は黒、例文は青の2色刷り。 現在、アメリカの出版社としては、唯一の学習者用英英辞書です。 的確でわかりやすい語義と、良質な多数の例文が特色の辞書です。 まだ、初版(2008)なので、語法・コロケーションの表示やサインポストなど、今後の進化が期待されます。"
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Amazon.co.jp:カスタマーレビュー: Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's Dictionary
のガイドラインをご覧ください。 コメントを投稿するには、Amazon.co.jp から商品を少なくとも1個ご購入いただく必要があります コメントの送信中に問題が発生しました。後でもう一度試してください。 ガイドライン コメントを投稿 0 コメントを表示 並べ替え: 最新 古い順 コメントの読み込み中に問題が発生しました。後でもう一度試してください。 5つ星のうち<span>4.0メリアム・ウェブスターの学習者用英英辞書 投稿者mouse2014年1月9日 形式: ハードカバー|Amazonで購入  学習者用。 見出し語・成句 100,000。 発音表記は、アメリカの出版社ですが学習者用なので、IPAです。 見出し語・成句の数は、ロングマン、オックスフォードに比べると、少ないです。 3,000語のキーワードで、語義を定義しています。 語義は、1.フレーズでの意味の言い換え 2.用法の説明 という従来タイプ(句定義)と 3.フルセンテンス(文定義) の3通りで定義していて、それぞれ記号(コロン・ダッシュ・正方形)で区別しています。 語義は、的確で、わかりやすいです。 しかし、多義語において、他の学習者用英英辞書にあるような、語義の内容を簡略化して各語義の前に目印として置くサインポストはありません。 (ちなみに、コウビルドにもありません。)  語義は明解でわかりやすいのですが、その表現の仕方は、オックスフォード、ロングマン、コウビルドなどのイギリスの出版社の学習者用英英辞書とは、異なる気がします。 語彙の文法的な説明は、正確です。 しかし、語法の説明は、可算名詞・不可算名詞、自動詞・他動詞の区別などしかありません。 他の学習者用英英辞書は、語法の表示が工夫されています。  ex 1. ~ (make) sth for sb (オックスフォード)  ex 2. take sb to do sth (ロングマン)  ex 3. v n to-inf (コウビルド)  語法の説明が少ないので、利用者は例文から語法を推測しなければなりません。 コロケーションは、太字ではなくイタリック体で表示されているので、多少見つけづらいです。 (ちなみに、コロケーションは、ロングマンが充実しています。) この辞書は、よく使われるコモンフレーズを、太字で印刷しています。  レイアウトについては、最初に語義、その後に、句動詞とイディオムをまとめて、アルファベット順に掲載しています。 ちなみに、オックスフォードは、最初に語義、その後、句動詞とイディオムを分けて、アルファベット順に掲載しています。 ロングマンは、まず語義とイディオムとフレーズを別々に分けずに頻度順、その後に句動詞をアルファベット順に掲載しています。 コウビルドは、語義を品詞別にまとめないで頻度順( ex. 名詞 → 動詞 → 名詞 などの順番になることがある)、 次にフレーズを頻度順、最後に句動詞をアルファベット順に掲載するというレイアウトです。 アメリカ英語で、単語の意味(語義)がよく理解できる、良質の例文です。 例文数は、160,000 と豊富です。 見出し語の数が少ないので、その分、見出し語当たりの例文数は多くなっています。 多量の例文を読ませて、語義を理解させるというタイプかもしれません。 語義は黒、例文は青の2色刷り。 現在、アメリカの出版社としては、唯一の学習者用英英辞書です。 的確でわかりやすい語義と、良質な多数の例文が特色の辞書です。 まだ、初版(2008)なので、語法・コロケーションの表示やサインポストなど、今後の進化が期待されます。" 0コメント| 7人のお客様がこれが役に立ったと考えています. このレビューは参考になりましたか? はい いいえ フィードバックを送信中... フィードバックをお寄せいただきありがとうございま




Disinvestment proceeds: Are credited into National Investment Fund (NIF) constituted in 2005 . uses for-
1. To ensure 51% undiluted govt. ownership in CPSEs
by subscribing to rights & preferential shares

2. Recapitalize public sector banks & insurance companies (for BASEL III )

3. Investment by Government in RRBs/IIFCL/NABARD/Exim Bank

4. Equity infusion in various Metro projects

5. Investment in Bhartiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Limited and Uranium Corporation of India Ltd

6. Investment in Indian Railways
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Reserve 20 per cent of shares on PSUs-OFS transactions with a price discount up to 5 per cent for retail investors
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Flashcard 1741483805964

Question
Reserve [...] per cent of shares on PSUs-OFS transactions with a price discount up to 5 per cent for retail investors
Answer
20

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Reserve 20 per cent of shares on PSUs-OFS transactions with a price discount up to 5 per cent for retail investors

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#has-images #pie-de-cabra-session #reading-molo
The goal of effective working capital management is to ensure that a company has adequate ready access to the funds necessary for day-to-day operating expenses, while at the same time making sure that the company’s assets are invested in the most productive way.
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Reading 38  Working Capital Management Intro
The focus of this reading is on the short-term aspects of corporate finance activities collectively referred to as working capital management . The goal of effective working capital management is to ensure that a company has adequate ready access to the funds necessary for day-to-day operating expenses, while at the same time making sure that the company’s assets are invested in the most productive way. Achieving this goal requires a balancing of concerns. Insufficient access to cash could ultimately lead to severe restructuring of a company by selling off assets, reorganization via ba





#bill-cosby #has-images #pie-de-cabra-session #reading-molo
Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capital Needs
Internal FactorsExternal Factors
  • Company size and growth rates

  • Organizational structure

  • Sophistication of working capital management

  • Borrowing and investing positions/activities/capacities

  • Banking services

  • Interest rates

  • New technologies and new products

  • The economy

  • Competitors

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Reading 38  Working Capital Management Intro
ement also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. <span>Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capital Needs Internal Factors External Factors Company size and growth rates Organizational structure Sophistication of working capital management Borrowing and investing positions/activities/capacities Banking services Interest rates New technologies and new products The economy Competitors The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for





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The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus:

  • Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment.

  • Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively.

  • Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented.

  • Focus requires that organizations of all sizes today must have a global viewpoint with strong emphasis on liquidity.

In this reading, we examine the different types of working capital and the management issues associated with each. We also look at methods of evaluating the effectiveness of working capital management.

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Reading 38  Working Capital Management Intro
13; Banking services Interest rates New technologies and new products The economy Competitors <span>The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment. Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively. Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented. Focus requires that organizations of all sizes today must have a global viewpoint with strong emphasis on liquidity. In this reading, we examine the different types of working capital and the management issues associated with each. We also look at methods of evaluating the effectiveness of working capital management. <span><body><html>





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The focus of this reading is on the short-term aspects of corporate finance activities collectively referred to as working capital management . The goal of effective working capital management is to ensure that a company has adequate ready access to the funds necessary for day-to-day operating expenses, while at the same time making sure that the company’s assets are invested in the most productive way. Achieving this goal requires a balancing of concerns. Insufficient access to cash could ultimately lead to severe restructuring of a company by selling off assets, reorganization via bankruptcy proceedings, or final liquidation of the company. On the other hand, excessive investment in cash and liquid assets may not be the best use of company resources.

Effective working capital management encompasses several aspects of short-term finance: maintaining adequate levels of cash, converting short-term assets (i.e., accounts receivable and inventory) into cash, and controlling outgoing payments to vendors, employees, and others. To do this successfully, companies invest short-term funds in working capital portfolios of short-dated, highly liquid securities, or they maintain credit reserves in the form of bank lines of credit or access to financing by issuing commercial paper or other money market instruments.

Working capital management is a broad-based function. Effective execution requires managing and coordinating several tasks within the company, including managing short-term investments, granting credit to customers and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances.

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Reading 38  Working Capital Management Intro
The focus of this reading is on the short-term aspects of corporate finance activities collectively referred to as working capital management . The goal of effective working capital management is to ensure that a company has adequate ready access to the funds necessary for day-to-day operating expenses, while at the same time making sure that the company’s assets are invested in the most productive way. Achieving this goal requires a balancing of concerns. Insufficient access to cash could ultimately lead to severe restructuring of a company by selling off assets, reorganization via bankruptcy proceedings, or final liquidation of the company. On the other hand, excessive investment in cash and liquid assets may not be the best use of company resources. Effective working capital management encompasses several aspects of short-term finance: maintaining adequate levels of cash, converting short-term assets (i.e., accounts receivable and inventory) into cash, and controlling outgoing payments to vendors, employees, and others. To do this successfully, companies invest short-term funds in working capital portfolios of short-dated, highly liquid securities, or they maintain credit reserves in the form of bank lines of credit or access to financing by issuing commercial paper or other money market instruments. Working capital management is a broad-based function. Effective execution requires managing and coordinating several tasks within the company, including managing short-term investments, granting credit to customers and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capit