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cal, legal, financial, safety, and other critical issues? 8 Who owns Wikipedia? 9 Why am I having trouble logging in? 10 How can I contact Wikipedia? How do I create a new page? <span>You are required to have a Wikipedia account to create a new article—you can register here. To see other benefits to creating an account, see Why create an account? For creating a new article see Wikipedia:Your first article and Wikipedia:Article development; and you may wi

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roperties, which in some cases can be visualized as arrows. Vector spaces are the subject of linear algebra and are well characterized by their dimension, which, roughly speaking, specifies the number of independent directions in the space. <span>Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions. These vector spaces are generally endowed with additional structure, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity. Among these topologies, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used, as having a notion of distance between two vectors. This is particularly the case of Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces, which are fundamental in mathematical analysis. Historically, the first ideas leading to vector spaces can be traced back as far as the 17th century's analytic geometry, matrices, systems of linear equations, and Euclidean vectors.

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Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions.

roperties, which in some cases can be visualized as arrows. Vector spaces are the subject of linear algebra and are well characterized by their dimension, which, roughly speaking, specifies the number of independent directions in the space. <span>Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions. These vector spaces are generally endowed with additional structure, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity. Among these topologies, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used, as having a notion of distance between two vectors. This is particularly the case of Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces, which are fundamental in mathematical analysis. Historically, the first ideas leading to vector spaces can be traced back as far as the 17th century's analytic geometry, matrices, systems of linear equations, and Euclidean vectors.

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Construction of an optimal portfolio is an important objective for an investor. In this reading, we will explore the process of examining the risk and return characteristics of individual assets, creating all possible portfolios, selecting the most efficient portfolios, and ultimately choosing the optimal portfolio tailored to the individual in question. During the process of constructing the optimal portfolio, several factors and investment characteristics are considered. The most important of those factors are risk and return of the individual assets under consideration. Correlations among individual assets along with risk and return are important determinants of portfolio risk. Creating a portfolio for an investor requires an understanding of the risk profile of the investor. Although we will not discuss the process of determining risk aversion for individuals or institutional investors, it is necessary to obtain such information for making an informed decision. In this reading, we will explain the broad types of investors and how their risk–return preferences can be formalized to select the optimal portfolio from among the infinite portfolios contained in the investment opportunity set. The reading is organized as follows: Section 2 discusses the investment characteristics of assets. In particular, we show the various types of returns and risks, their comp

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The forward-backward algorithm In the first pass, the forward–backward algorithm computes a set of forward probabilities which provide, for all , the probability of ending up in any particular state given the first observations in the sequence, i.e. . In the second pass, the algorithm computes a set of backward probabilities which provide the probability of observing the remaining observations given any starting point , i.e. . Thes

cific instance of this class. Contents [hide] 1 Overview 2 Forward probabilities 3 Backward probabilities 4 Example 5 Performance 6 Pseudocode 7 Python example 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Overview[edit source] <span>In the first pass, the forward–backward algorithm computes a set of forward probabilities which provide, for all k ∈ { 1 , … , t } {\displaystyle k\in \{1,\dots ,t\}} , the probability of ending up in any particular state given the first k {\displaystyle k} observations in the sequence, i.e. P ( X k | o 1 : k ) {\displaystyle P(X_{k}\ |\ o_{1:k})} . In the second pass, the algorithm computes a set of backward probabilities which provide the probability of observing the remaining observations given any starting point k {\displaystyle k} , i.e. P ( o k + 1 : t | X k ) {\displaystyle P(o_{k+1:t}\ |\ X_{k})} . These two sets of probability distributions can then be combined to obtain the distribution over states at any specific point in time given the entire observation sequence: P ( X k | o 1 : t ) = P ( X k | o 1 : k , o k + 1 : t ) ∝ P ( o k + 1 : t | X k ) P ( X k | o 1 : k ) {\displaystyle P(X_{k}\ |\ o_{1:t})=P(X_{k}\ |\ o_{1:k},o_{k+1:t})\propto P(o_{k+1:t}\ |\ X_{k})P(X_{k}|o_{1:k})} The last step follows from an application of the Bayes' rule and the conditional independence of o k + 1 : t {\displaystyle o_{k+1:t}} and o 1 : k {\displaystyle o_{1:k}} given X k {\displaystyle X_{k}} . As outlined above, the algorithm involves three steps: computing forward probabilities computing backward probabilities computing smoothed values. The forward and backward steps m

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Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions. These vector spaces are generally endowed with additional structure, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity. Among these topologies, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used, as having a notion of distance between two vectors. This is particularly the

roperties, which in some cases can be visualized as arrows. Vector spaces are the subject of linear algebra and are well characterized by their dimension, which, roughly speaking, specifies the number of independent directions in the space. <span>Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions. These vector spaces are generally endowed with additional structure, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity. Among these topologies, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used, as having a notion of distance between two vectors. This is particularly the case of Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces, which are fundamental in mathematical analysis. Historically, the first ideas leading to vector spaces can be traced back as far as the 17th century's analytic geometry, matrices, systems of linear equations, and Euclidean vectors.

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Functional spaces are generally endowed with additional structure than vector spaces, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity.

roperties, which in some cases can be visualized as arrows. Vector spaces are the subject of linear algebra and are well characterized by their dimension, which, roughly speaking, specifies the number of independent directions in the space. <span>Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions. These vector spaces are generally endowed with additional structure, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity. Among these topologies, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used, as having a notion of distance between two vectors. This is particularly the case of Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces, which are fundamental in mathematical analysis. Historically, the first ideas leading to vector spaces can be traced back as far as the 17th century's analytic geometry, matrices, systems of linear equations, and Euclidean vectors.

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In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.

ogy (disambiguation). For a topology of a topos or category, see Lawvere–Tierney topology and Grothendieck topology. [imagelink] Möbius strips, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied in topology. <span>In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing. This can be studied by considering a collection of subsets, called open sets, that satisfy certain properties, turning the given set into what is known as a topological space. Important

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In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.

ogy (disambiguation). For a topology of a topos or category, see Lawvere–Tierney topology and Grothendieck topology. [imagelink] Möbius strips, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied in topology. <span>In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing. This can be studied by considering a collection of subsets, called open sets, that satisfy certain properties, turning the given set into what is known as a topological space. Important

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towards the right. "Bounded" and "boundary" are distinct concepts; for the latter see boundary (topology). A circle in isolation is a boundaryless bounded set, while the half plane is unbounded yet has a boundary. <span>In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size. Conversely, a set which is not bounded is called unbounded. The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric. Contents [hide] 1

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In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size.

towards the right. "Bounded" and "boundary" are distinct concepts; for the latter see boundary (topology). A circle in isolation is a boundaryless bounded set, while the half plane is unbounded yet has a boundary. <span>In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size. Conversely, a set which is not bounded is called unbounded. The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric. Contents [hide] 1

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In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size.

towards the right. "Bounded" and "boundary" are distinct concepts; for the latter see boundary (topology). A circle in isolation is a boundaryless bounded set, while the half plane is unbounded yet has a boundary. <span>In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size. Conversely, a set which is not bounded is called unbounded. The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric. Contents [hide] 1

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le the half plane is unbounded yet has a boundary. In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size. Conversely, a set which is not bounded is called unbounded. <span>The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric. Contents [hide] 1 Definition 2 Metric space 3 Boundedness in topological vector spaces 4 Boundedness in order theory 5 See also 6 References Definition[edit source]

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The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric.

le the half plane is unbounded yet has a boundary. In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size. Conversely, a set which is not bounded is called unbounded. <span>The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric. Contents [hide] 1 Definition 2 Metric space 3 Boundedness in topological vector spaces 4 Boundedness in order theory 5 See also 6 References Definition[edit source]

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culus[show] Glossary of calculus v t e In mathematics, the integral of a non-negative function of a single variable can be regarded, in the simplest case, as the area between the graph of that function and the x-axis. <span>The Lebesgue integral extends the integral to a larger class of functions. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined. Long before the advent of the 20th century, mathematicians already understood that for non-negative functions with a smooth enough graph—such as continuous functions on closed bounded

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The Lebesgue integral extends the (Riemann) integral to a larger class of functions. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined.

culus[show] Glossary of calculus v t e In mathematics, the integral of a non-negative function of a single variable can be regarded, in the simplest case, as the area between the graph of that function and the x-axis. <span>The Lebesgue integral extends the integral to a larger class of functions. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined. Long before the advent of the 20th century, mathematicians already understood that for non-negative functions with a smooth enough graph—such as continuous functions on closed bounded

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The Lebesgue integral extends the (Riemann) integral to a larger class of functions. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined.

culus[show] Glossary of calculus v t e In mathematics, the integral of a non-negative function of a single variable can be regarded, in the simplest case, as the area between the graph of that function and the x-axis. <span>The Lebesgue integral extends the integral to a larger class of functions. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined. Long before the advent of the 20th century, mathematicians already understood that for non-negative functions with a smooth enough graph—such as continuous functions on closed bounded

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Call Money/ Notice Money used by Banks to borrow money w/o collateral from other banks to maintain CRR Call money market- funds are transacted on overnight basis & notice money market,-- btwn 2-14 days &

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Call Money/ Notice Money used by Banks to borrow money w/o collateral from other banks to maintain CRR Call money market- funds are transacted on overnight basis & notice money market,-- btwn 2-14 days An over-the-counter (OTC) market -no brokers Highly liquid All scheduled Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), Coop

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Call Money/ Notice Money used by Banks to borrow money w/o collateral from other banks to maintain CRR Call money market- funds are transacted on overnight basis & notice money market,-- btwn <span>2-14 days An over-the-counter (OTC) market -no brokers Highly liquid All scheduled Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), Cooperative Banks other than Land Development banks and Primary

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r than Land Development banks and Primary dealers are the participants Actions like banks subscribing to large issues of government securities, increase in CRR or repo rate, = low liquidity - increase in call rate Call Rate: <span>The interest rate paid on call loans NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Bid Rate (MIBID) and the NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets: MIBID: In this, borrower banks quote an intere

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ty - increase in call rate Call Rate: The interest rate paid on call loans NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Bid Rate (MIBID) and the NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets: MIBID: In this, <span>borrower banks quote an interest rate MIBOR: In this, lender banks quote a rate Term Market: A market where maturity of debt btwn 3 months to 1 year <span></

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ate paid on call loans NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Bid Rate (MIBID) and the NSE Mumbai Inter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets: MIBID: In this, borrower banks quote an interest rate MIBOR: In this, <span>lender banks quote a rate Term Market: A market where maturity of debt btwn 3 months to 1 year <span><body><html>

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nter-Bank Offer Rate (MIBOR) for overnight money markets: MIBID: In this, borrower banks quote an interest rate MIBOR: In this, lender banks quote a rate Term Market: A market where maturity of debt btwn <span>3 months to 1 year <span><body><html>

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のガイドラインをご覧ください。 コメントを投稿するには、Amazon.co.jp から商品を少なくとも1個ご購入いただく必要があります コメントの送信中に問題が発生しました。後でもう一度試してください。 ガイドライン コメントを投稿 0 コメントを表示 並べ替え: 最新 古い順 コメントの読み込み中に問題が発生しました。後でもう一度試してください。 5つ星のうち<span>4.0メリアム・ウェブスターの学習者用英英辞書 投稿者mouse2014年1月9日 形式: ハードカバー|Amazonで購入 学習者用。 見出し語・成句 １００，０００。 発音表記は、アメリカの出版社ですが学習者用なので、IPAです。 見出し語・成句の数は、ロングマン、オックスフォードに比べると、少ないです。 ３，０００語のキーワードで、語義を定義しています。 語義は、1.フレーズでの意味の言い換え 2.用法の説明 という従来タイプ（句定義）と 3.フルセンテンス（文定義） の３通りで定義していて、それぞれ記号（コロン・ダッシュ・正方形）で区別しています。 語義は、的確で、わかりやすいです。 しかし、多義語において、他の学習者用英英辞書にあるような、語義の内容を簡略化して各語義の前に目印として置くサインポストはありません。 （ちなみに、コウビルドにもありません。） 語義は明解でわかりやすいのですが、その表現の仕方は、オックスフォード、ロングマン、コウビルドなどのイギリスの出版社の学習者用英英辞書とは、異なる気がします。 語彙の文法的な説明は、正確です。 しかし、語法の説明は、可算名詞・不可算名詞、自動詞・他動詞の区別などしかありません。 他の学習者用英英辞書は、語法の表示が工夫されています。 ex 1. ~ (make) sth for sb （オックスフォード） ex 2. take sb to do sth （ロングマン） ex 3. v n to-inf （コウビルド） 語法の説明が少ないので、利用者は例文から語法を推測しなければなりません。 コロケーションは、太字ではなくイタリック体で表示されているので、多少見つけづらいです。 （ちなみに、コロケーションは、ロングマンが充実しています。） この辞書は、よく使われるコモンフレーズを、太字で印刷しています。 レイアウトについては、最初に語義、その後に、句動詞とイディオムをまとめて、アルファベット順に掲載しています。 ちなみに、オックスフォードは、最初に語義、その後、句動詞とイディオムを分けて、アルファベット順に掲載しています。 ロングマンは、まず語義とイディオムとフレーズを別々に分けずに頻度順、その後に句動詞をアルファベット順に掲載しています。 コウビルドは、語義を品詞別にまとめないで頻度順（ ex. 名詞 → 動詞 → 名詞 などの順番になることがある）、 次にフレーズを頻度順、最後に句動詞をアルファベット順に掲載するというレイアウトです。 アメリカ英語で、単語の意味（語義）がよく理解できる、良質の例文です。 例文数は、１６０，０００ と豊富です。 見出し語の数が少ないので、その分、見出し語当たりの例文数は多くなっています。 多量の例文を読ませて、語義を理解させるというタイプかもしれません。 語義は黒、例文は青の２色刷り。 現在、アメリカの出版社としては、唯一の学習者用英英辞書です。 的確でわかりやすい語義と、良質な多数の例文が特色の辞書です。 まだ、初版（２００８）なので、語法・コロケーションの表示やサインポストなど、今後の進化が期待されます。" 0コメント| 7人のお客様がこれが役に立ったと考えています. このレビューは参考になりましたか？ はい いいえ フィードバックを送信中... フィードバックをお寄せいただきありがとうございま

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Reserve 20 per cent of shares on PSUs-OFS transactions with a price discount up to 5 per cent for retail investors

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The focus of this reading is on the short-term aspects of corporate finance activities collectively referred to as working capital management . The goal of effective working capital management is to ensure that a company has adequate ready access to the funds necessary for day-to-day operating expenses, while at the same time making sure that the company’s assets are invested in the most productive way. Achieving this goal requires a balancing of concerns. Insufficient access to cash could ultimately lead to severe restructuring of a company by selling off assets, reorganization via ba

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ement also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. <span>Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capital Needs Internal Factors External Factors Company size and growth rates Organizational structure Sophistication of working capital management Borrowing and investing positions/activities/capacities Banking services Interest rates New technologies and new products The economy Competitors The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for

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13; Banking services Interest rates New technologies and new products The economy Competitors <span>The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment. Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively. Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented. Focus requires that organizations of all sizes today must have a global viewpoint with strong emphasis on liquidity. In this reading, we examine the different types of working capital and the management issues associated with each. We also look at methods of evaluating the effectiveness of working capital management. <span><body><html>

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The focus of this reading is on the short-term aspects of corporate finance activities collectively referred to as working capital management . The goal of effective working capital management is to ensure that a company has adequate ready access to the funds necessary for day-to-day operating expenses, while at the same time making sure that the company’s assets are invested in the most productive way. Achieving this goal requires a balancing of concerns. Insufficient access to cash could ultimately lead to severe restructuring of a company by selling off assets, reorganization via bankruptcy proceedings, or final liquidation of the company. On the other hand, excessive investment in cash and liquid assets may not be the best use of company resources. Effective working capital management encompasses several aspects of short-term finance: maintaining adequate levels of cash, converting short-term assets (i.e., accounts receivable and inventory) into cash, and controlling outgoing payments to vendors, employees, and others. To do this successfully, companies invest short-term funds in working capital portfolios of short-dated, highly liquid securities, or they maintain credit reserves in the form of bank lines of credit or access to financing by issuing commercial paper or other money market instruments. Working capital management is a broad-based function. Effective execution requires managing and coordinating several tasks within the company, including managing short-term investments, granting credit to customers and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capit