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Agnosticism about experience: the threat of alien abductions
#sharf
Felicitas Goodman, in her study of spirit possession, goes a step further, assum - ing a decidedly agnostic stance toward the existence of the spirits reported by her subjects. The experience of [the] presence [of spirits] during possession is accompanied by observable physical changes. We should remember that whether these changes are internally generated or created by external agencies is not discoverable. No one can either prove or disprove that the obvious changes of the brain map in possession or in a patient with a multiple personality disorder, for that matter, are produced by psy - chological processes or by an invading alien being (Goodman, 1988, p. 126). Goodman’s agnosticism is but a small step away from John Mack’s qualified acceptance of the existence of alien abductors

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They are writing AGAINST the rhetoric of experience. It is not private. Rather shared. It is not independent from beliefs. It is not subjective???? Is this a conclusion?
The rhetoric of experience regards religious experiences as being four things: absolutely private, subjective, indubitable (for the experiencer), and immediate, in the sense that the experience is independent of the experiencer’s concepts and beliefs.

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apothegmata 95 - you must have tools
#has-images

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The philosophically significant aspects of a historical theory can sometimes be illuminated by comparing them with later views. This does not involve anachronism, provided that one does not maintain that past philosophers said something that they did not say or mean. Reading older philosophical works as philosophical involves understanding them as particular answers to questions which are dealt with in other ways by other thinkers. This systematic aspect is lacking in non-philosophical doxographic history of philosophy, which itself is an important branch of research

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lato and Aristotle thought that emotions were acts of natural potencies and could not be eradicated. A contrary v iew was defended by the Stoics, who endorsed the unity of the rational soul without an emotional part, and consequently believed that one can learn to live without emotions, which they treated as self-regarding and action-initiating evaluative judge- ments (sections 1.3–4).

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In his On Anger (De ira) Seneca writes that certain appearances can induce transient affective states and suggest an emotional reaction without being them- selves emotions as long as they are not assented to. The theor y of first movements was included in a modified form in early Christian theology and became an important theme in Western psychagogic literature.

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In discussing the good society and the good human life in his Republic, Plato divided the human soul into three parts: the reasoning (logistikon), the spirited (thumoeides), and the appetitive (epithume ¯ tikon). The reasoning part is able to love knowledge and wisdom. Ideally, it should govern the entire soul. The appetitive part pursues immediate sensual pleasure and avoids suffering, whereas the intermediate, spirited part is the seat of emotions connected with self-assurance and self-affirmation (Rep. 4.435a–441c; 9.580d–583a)

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n his earlier dialogues, especially in the Phaedo, Plato was inclined to see all appetites and emotions outside the reasoning part as taking place in the body. The soul–body dichotomy embodied a distinction between the functions of the immortal rational soul and the mortal and irrational parts of human beings (Phaedo 66b–c). It is part of Plato’s early asceticism that he did not find anything positive in the desires and passions of the body. The philosopher was understood to aim at detachment from them as much as possible (Phaedo 66e–67a). 2 In the Republic and some other middle dialogues, Plato treats desires and emotions as movements of the soul, and his attitude towards them is slightly different from that found in the Phaedo.

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The spirited part is primarily the source of aggressive self-assessment. Its acts share with those of the appetitive part the association with physiological changes, but, unlike it, the spirited part can be habituated to becoming a servant of reason. It is naturally disposed to this task (Rep. 4.440a–441a).

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If the reasoning part is not the strongest factor and its attempts are conquered by the lower parts, the person suffers from akrasia. One knows (in the reasoning part) what should be done, but is persuaded to let something else happen

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krasia becomes practically impos- sible when the evaluative judgements of the reasoning part are sufficiently authoritative. This happens when one has undergone the philosopher’s education. In the optimal case, the spirited part is habituated to listening to reason and is activated only by things which the reasoning part regards as worthy of emotional response, and the appetitive part is wholly satisfied with the limited role left to it (4.443c–444a; 9.589a–590d). But even a less perfect soul is not akratic if the controlling power of the reasoning part is stronger than the spontaneous suggestions of the lower parts (9.571b). 9

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In the Republic Plato locates most of the movements of the soul which we would call occurrent emotions in the lower par ts, but this classification is not exhaustive. The rational part has its own desires and pleasures, its most salient dynamic feature being the love for truth and wisdom (Rep. 9.580d, 581b, 583a; 10.604d, 611e). The rational part seems also to be the seat of shame which is often accompanied by physical changes in the same way as the passions of the lower parts.

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In an often-quoted passage (Rep. 9.571c–d), Plato describes the state of a tyrannical soul in sleep when the reasoning part and the sense of shame are not actual: It does not shrink from attempting to lie with mother or with anyone else, man, god, or brute. It is ready for any foul deed of blood. It abstains from no food and, in a word, eschews no extreme of folly and shamelessness. 12

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12 Plato thought that shame, which he later characterized as fear of bad repute and hence apparently located in the spirited part (Laws 2.646e–647b), plays an important controlling role in the soul. 13 Shame 10 Proclus

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Fortenbaugh connects the development of Plato’s conception of emo- tion with a transition from a tripartite view of the soul towards a bipartite moral psychology. Plato began to regard emotions as a special class of cognitive phenomena open to reasoned persuasion in a way that bodily desires are not, and, furthermore, he tried to develop a distinction be- tween emotional response and reasoned reflection as two types of cogni- tive activities. Emotions were sharply distinguished from bodily sensations and drives, and the cognitive phenomena were divided into calculations and reflections, on the one hand, and pleasant and painful emotions, on the other

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he distinction between reasoned and non- reasoned cognitive acts was, Fortenbaugh maintained, fully formulated in Aristotle’s dichotomy between the logical and alogical halves of the soul. Aristotle gathered together all desires and emotions which involved

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There is a useful discussion of love in the Phaedrus in chapter 7 of Martha Nussbaum’s The Fragility of Goodness. In Socrates’ first speech in the Phaedrus, ero ¯ s is assigned to the non-rational part. It is a special form of madness, which is contrasted to self-control (so ¯ phrosune ¯ ) and insight (nous). In the second speech, ero ¯ s is the inspired madness of the person who is reminded of the form of beauty, growing from a passionate love between two people with a philosophical soul. Erotic love can make people lovers of beauty by making them aware of good and beaut y as those aspects of reality which deeply affect them, an

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ristotle’s critical target in EN 7 is the process view of pleasure. What is enjoyed is not a process but rather an activity. Pleasures are mistakenly identified as processes, because the activities of the faculties which pro- duce processes may be pleasures.

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Aristotle confirms my method of applying grammar to peer into the experiences that words and the grammar that binds them represents - by applying this method himself
The discussion in EN 10 deals with a quite different theme attempting to distinguish enjoyment from what is enjoyed. Aristotle sheds light on enjoyment by explaining how the gram- mar of enjoyment-verbs differs from the grammar of process-verbs, such as building something or walking somewhere. According to Owen, he ¯ done ¯ , like its English counterpart ‘pleasure’, has two distinct uses. We can say: ‘Gaming is one of my pleasures’ or ‘Gaming gives me pleasure’. In EN 7 Aristotle mainly deals with the first alternative, identifying pleasure with the activity enjoyed, and in EN 10 he mainly treats pleasures as enjoyments. 29 G. E. L. Owen, ‘Aristotelian Pleasures’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 72 (1971–2), 135–52; repr. in G. E. L. Owen, Log

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A large part of the Philebus concentrates on the question of false pleas- ures (Phil. 36c–50d). The theme is divided into discussions of (1) false pleasures of anticipation (36c–41a), (2) over-estimation of future pleasures (41a–42c), (3) mistaking a neutral intermediate state for pleasure (42c– 44b), and (4) falsit y arising from the mistaken understanding of a mixed condition (44c–50d). The discussion begins with some terminological remarks. Plato first distinguishes the pleasures and pains attached to actual bodily events from the pleasures and pains which are felt in anticipating such pleasures and pains (31d–32d).

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Plato: book of the Soul
#marked
Plato describes the existence of opinions in the soul as follows. The opinions formed by the operations of memory and perception are as it were written in the book of the soul. They can be expressed in spoken language and are true or false. These opinions are also illustrated in the same book by pictures formed by imagination. When something pertain- ing to perceptions is believed, there is also a picture in the soul which shows the perceptual content as it was revealed to the subject (39a–40d)

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#book #marked
The theory of a mental scribe and a mental painter seems to be purported to explain these two aspects. When an experience of a bodily pleasure is stored in the book of the soul, it contains a proposition which states that a certain activity was pleasant and, furthermore, contains the corresponding imagining of one- self as enjoying it. As far as the imagination actualizes the perceptual content of the experience, it is possible to remember the feeling quality of the experience by ‘feeling’ it in the same way as one can remember a colour by ‘seeing’ it in the soul. A vivid mental recollection of a past experience of pleasure or pain may affect the s

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bject in a pleasant or unpleasant manner, and this is what happens in the anticipation of future pleasures and pains. Plato says that the feelings in this connection ‘depend entirely on memory’ (33c

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The Academy’s interest in the emotions appears in some passages of Aristotle’s early logical writings. In Topics 4.5, 126a8–10, he exemplifies a topical rule by stating that ‘shame exists in the reasoning part, fear in the spirited part, distress in the appetitive part, for pleasure is also in this, and anger in the spirited part’. In Topics 2.7, 113a35–b3, the appetitive faculty and the spirited faculty are said to have contrar y acts. It is suggested that one should place love within the spirited faculty, since its contrary, hatred

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The second book of Aristotle’s Rhetoric contains the first detailed and systematic analysis of a number of individual emotions in Greek philoso- phy. This survey serves the rhetorician’s purposes, but it can be taken as a source of information about Aristotle’s considered views. All the main themes of the philosophical analysis of emotion i

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Article 1393933552908

Protein and Amino Acid requirements http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK234922/
#diet #has-images #health

Both animal and plant proteins are made up of about 20 common amino acids. The proportion of these amino acids varies as a characteristic of a given protein, but all food proteins—with the exception of gelatin—contain some of each. Amino nitrogen accounts for approximately 16% of the weight of proteins. Amino acids are required for the synthesis of body protein and other important nitrogen-containing compounds, such as creatine, peptide hormones, and some neurotransmitters. Although allowances are expressed as protein, a the biological requirement is for amino acids. Proteins and other nitrogenous compounds are being degraded and resynthesized continuously. Several times more protein is turned over daily within the body than is ordinarily consumed, indicating that reutilization of amino acids is a major feature of the economy of protein metabolism. This process of recapture is not completely efficient, and some amino acids are lost by oxidative catabolism. Metabolic products of amino acids (urea, creat



ristotle next states that actions due to people themselves (i.e. not due to natural necessity, chance, or force) have their origin in a habit or in a rational or irrational desire (Rhet. 1.10, 1368b32–1369a4). In accordance with the terminology of Plato’s doctrine of the tripartite soul, rational desire (logistike ¯ orexis) is separated from two t ypes of non-rational desire (alogos orexis), which are called anger (thumos) and appetite (epithumia). Rational desire is called wish (boule ¯ sis). 45 Aristotle treats wish in his later works as a dynamic attitude to those goals which make people deliberate about how to achieve them. ‘Choice’ (prohairesis) initiates action toward a premeditated goal (EN 3.2–4).

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Both animal and plant proteins are made up of about 20 common amino acids. The proportion of these amino acids varies as a characteristic of a given protein, but all food proteins—with the exception of gelatin—contain some of each

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Protein and Amino Acid requirements
Both animal and plant proteins are made up of about 20 common amino acids. The proportion of these amino acids varies as a characteristic of a given protein, but all food proteins—with the exception of gelatin—contain some of each. Amino nitrogen accounts for approximately 16% of the weight of proteins. Amino acids are required for the synthesis of body protein and other important nitrogen-containing compounds, s




#marked #plotinuspaper
n his v iew it is usually better to act on rational desire than to follow non-reasoned suggestions. However, one can see from the second book of the Rhetoric that emotional responses and feelings were also regarded as sources of information for rational decision making and the well-educated emotions as supporting motivation for virtuous action. (For the ambivalent nature of emotions, see Rhet. 1.10, 1369a18–24.)

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The term ‘rational’ in this connection means simply that considerations concerning a good goal and practical reasoning about the means for achieving it are involved. As some scholars have put it, non-rational actual attitudes, whatever value-thoughts they may contain, do not have investigations or considerations concerning their appropriate- ness in their causal history. 46 This is how Aristotle thinks about emotion

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Nine amino acids—histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine—are not synthesized by mammals and are therefore dietarily essential

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Protein and Amino Acid requirements
constituents are not stored but are degraded; the nitrogen is excreted as urea, and the keto acids left after removal of the amino groups are either utilized directly as sources of energy or are converted to carbohydrate or fat. <span>Nine amino acids—histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine—are not synthesized by mammals and are therefore dietarily essential or indispensable nutrients. These are commonly called the essential amino acids. Histidine is an essential amino acid for infants, but was not demonstrated to be required by adults until




. The required amounts of the nine essential amino acids must be provided in the diet, but because cystine can replace approximately 30% of the requirement for methionine, and tyrosine about 50% of the requirement for phenylalanine, these amino acids must also be considered.

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Protein and Amino Acid requirements
ion based on reasonable biological principles. Go to: THE REQUIREMENT FOR AMINO ACIDS In determining the requirement for protein, the subcommittee first considered requirements for the essential amino acids<span>. The required amounts of the nine essential amino acids must be provided in the diet, but because cystine can replace approximately 30% of the requirement for methionine, and tyrosine about 50% of the requirement for phenylalanine, these amino acids must also be considered. The essential amino acid requirements of infants, children, men, and women were studied extensively from 1950 to 1970. Except for infants, where the criterion was growth and nitrogen acc




The international group examined the data from several short-term studies in which men were fed habitual mixed diets of ordinary food. The requirements were predicted to be 0.54 to 0.99 g/kg per day, the larger estimates deriving from diets of lower digestibility and quality. The adult requirement for absorbed protein appears not to differ between reference and practical diets.

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Protein and Amino Acid requirements
2 SDs) above the average requirement would be expected to meet the needs of 97.5% of a normally distributed population. Thus, 0.75 g/kg per day (0.6 × 1.25) is the recommended allowance of reference protein for young male adults. <span>The international group examined the data from several short-term studies in which men were fed habitual mixed diets of ordinary food. The requirements were predicted to be 0.54 to 0.99 g/kg per day, the larger estimates deriving from diets of lower digestibility and quality. The adult requirement for absorbed protein appears not to differ between reference and practical diets. There are fewer data for young adult women, but there is evidence (Calloway and Kurzer, 1982) that requirement values, when adjusted for body weight, are not substantially different from




There are also physical changes which are caused by emo- tions and are regarded as signs of them, such as blushing with shame and shivering or turning pale with fear. 59 Aristotle assumes that such visible bodily changes are physically caused by the small expansions and contrac- tions of the heart, the centre of psychic activities. These primary changes, which are produced by heating and chilling, are not perceived, but may cause large-scale emotional expressive movements and initiate intended action (MA 7, 701b24–32). The heating and chilling of the heart may be caused by perceptions, imagination, or thought (MA 7–9). 60 These cardiac movements are also associated w ith the expansion or contraction of the connate pneuma, an airiform substance, due to the changes of the vital heat in the hear t (MA 10). 6

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#diet #has-images #health

Example of Calculations Needed for Adjustment of Protein Allowances for a Diet with 33% Animal- and 67% Vegetable-Source Protein.



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Protein and Amino Acid requirements
e protein allowance for a 3-year-old child is 1.1 × 100/88 × 100/92, or 1.4 g/kg. For older children and adults, an adjustment of the allowance would be made only for digestibility. [Open in BuboFlash] TABLE 6-7 <span>Example of Calculations Needed for Adjustment of Protein Allowances for a Diet with 33% Animal- and 67% Vegetable-Source Protein. Go to: OTHER EFFECTS ON PROTEIN REQUIREMENTS There is little evidence that muscular activity increases the need for protein, except for the small amount required




Aristotle refers to physiognomic theories in the History of Animals 1.8–11. They were extensively dealt with in the pseudo-Aristotelian Physiognomics. For ancient physiognomy in general, see S. Vogt’s introduction and commentary in Physiognomonica, Aristoteles. Werke in deutscher U ¨ bersetzung, 18. 6 (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1999) and the collection of texts in R. Foerster (ed.), Scriptores physiognomonici graeci et latini, BT, 2 vols., (Leipzig: Teubner, 1893).

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Amino acid(s)mg per kg body weightmg per 70 kgmg per 100 kg
H Histidine107001000
I Isoleucine2014002000
L Leucine3927303900
K Lysine3021003000
M Methionine

+ C Cysteine

10.4 + 4.1 (15 total)10501500
F Phenylalanine

+ Y Tyrosine

25 (total)17502500
T Threonine1510501500
W Tryptophan4280400
V Valine2618202600

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Essential amino acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
ists the WHO recommended daily amounts currently in use for essential amino acids in adult humans, together with their standard one-letter abbreviations. [6] Food sources are identified based on the USDA National Nutrient Database Release. <span>Amino acid(s) mg per kg body weight mg per 70 kg mg per 100 kg H Histidine 10 700 1000 I Isoleucine 20 1400 2000 L Leucine 39 2730 3900 K Lysine 30 2100 3000 M Methionine + C Cysteine 10.4 + 4.1 (15 total) 1050 1500 F Phenylalanine + Y Tyrosine 25 (total) 1750 2500 T Threonine 15 1050 1500 W Tryptophan 4 280 400 V Valine 26 1820 2600 The recommended daily intakes for children aged three years and older is 10% to 20% higher than adult levels and those for infants can be as much as 150% higher in the first year of life




n On respiration Aristotle states that the increase of cold near the heart, which may be due to disease or to fear, causes contraction and palpation. Correspondingly, pulsation and expan- sion are caused by an increase in heat. When the hot blood is concentrated in the heart, fleeing the increased cold, it is rushed into so small a space that sometimes life is extinguished and the animals die of fear (497b24–6).

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#physiogomy
For Aristotle’s sketchy remarks on the mechanism of heating and chilling and the movements of the innate pneuma (sumphuton pneuma), see Tracy (1969), 354–9, and the more detailed accounts in Nussbaum (1978), 143–64, and G. Freudenthal, Aristotle’s Theory of Material Substance, Heat and Pneuma, Form and Soul (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), 134–7

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‘Let fear be a distress or a disturbance due to imagining some destructive and painful evil in the future’). In some places the evaluative representation itself is called an emotion (‘Shame is the appearance of disgrace’, 2.6, 1384a22), and sometimes it is the dynamic inclination (‘Anger may be defined as a desire’, 2.2, 1378a30). This variation shows that one can refer to an occurrent emotion by referring to the whole or to one constituent part of the whole. Referring to one constituent

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Martha Nussbaum argues that Aristotle was inclined to regard beliefs as necessary and sufficient conditions of emotions, ‘as if the feeling were not even a proper part of the passion’. Referring to Rhet. 1378a19–22, quoted above, she writes that ‘Aristotle defines passions as followed by distress and pleasure’. 64 In EN 2.5, 1105b21–3, there is an analogous formulation using the verb hepesthai, which could be translated as ‘follow’ or ‘accompany’. I think that the verb refers to a conceptual link in these texts. In fact Aristotle explicitly defines many of the emotions discussed in Rhetoric as

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ussbaum’s point is to stress the cognitivity of Aristo- telian passions. An emotional reaction involves a distinct mode of seeing things from the point of view of an emotionally sensitive being. Therefore a choice based on practical wisdom is described as either desiderative deliberation or deliberative desire (EN 6.2, 1139a23, b4–5)

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Tryptophan (Trp) Content of Various Foods[24][25]
FoodTryptophan
[g/100 g of food]
Protein
[g/100 g of food]
Tryptophan/Protein [%]
egg white, dried 1.00 81.10 1.23
spirulina, dried 0.93 57.47 1.62
cod, atlantic, dried 0.70 62.82 1.11
soybeans, raw 0.59 36.49 1.62
cheese, Parmesan 0.56 37.90 1.47
sesame seed 0.37 17.00 2.17
cheese, cheddar 0.32 24.90 1.29
sunflower seed 0.30 17.20 1.74
pork, chop 0.25 19.27 1.27
turkey 0.24 21.89 1.11
chicken 0.24 20.85 1.14
beef 0.23 20.13 1.12
oats 0.23 16.89 1.39
salmon 0.22 19.84 1.12
lamb, chop 0.21 18.33 1.17
perch, Atlantic 0.21 18.62 1.12
chickpeas, raw 0.19 19.30 0.96
egg 0.17 12.58 1.33
wheat flour, white 0.13 10.33 1.23
baking chocolate, unsweetened 0.13 12.9 1.23
milk 0.08 3.22 2.34
rice, white, medium-grain, cooked 0.028 2.38 1.18
quinoa, uncooked 0.167 14.12 1.2
quinoa, cooked 0.052 4.40 1.1
potatoes, russet 0.02
...

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Tryptophan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
lmonds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, buckwheat, spirulina, bananas, and peanuts. Contrary to the popular belief [21] [22] [23] that turkey contains an abundance of tryptophan, the tryptophan content in turkey is typical of poultry. [24] <span>Tryptophan (Trp) Content of Various Foods [24] [25] Food Tryptophan [g/100 g of food] Protein [g/100 g of food] Tryptophan/Protein [%] egg white, dried 1.00 81.10 1.23 spirulina, dried 0.93 57.47 1.62 cod, atlantic, dried 0.70 62.82 1.11 soybeans, raw 0.59 36.49 1.62 cheese, Parmesan 0.56 37.90 1.47 sesame seed 0.37 17.00 2.17 cheese, cheddar 0.32 24.90 1.29 sunflower seed 0.30 17.20 1.74 pork, chop 0.25 19.27 1.27 turkey 0.24 21.89 1.11 chicken 0.24 20.85 1.14 beef 0.23 20.13 1.12 oats 0.23 16.89 1.39 salmon 0.22 19.84 1.12 lamb, chop 0.21 18.33 1.17 perch, Atlantic 0.21 18.62 1.12 chickpeas, raw 0.19 19.30 0.96 egg 0.17 12.58 1.33 wheat flour, white 0.13 10.33 1.23 baking chocolate, unsweetened 0.13 12.9 1.23 milk 0.08 3.22 2.34 rice, white, medium-grain, cooked 0.028 2.38 1.18 quinoa, uncooked 0.167 14.12 1.2 quinoa, cooked 0.052 4.40 1.1 potatoes, russet 0.02 2.14 0.84 tamarind 0.018 2.80 0.64 banana 0.01 1.03 0.87 Turkey meat and drowsiness[edit] See also: Postprandial somnolence § Turkey and tryptophan A common assertion in the US is that heavy consumption of turkey meat results in drowsiness




An emotion involves an affect which is the felt aspect of an evaluation. To feel bodily pleasure or pain is to have a pleasant or unpleasant awareness of something taking place in one’s body

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The role of the feeling as a specific aspect of self-regarding evaluation is often referred to along with the discussions of anger, feeling mildly, shame, pity, emulation, and other emotions. The analysis of anger and its oppos- ite, feeling mildly (Rhet. 2.2–3), distinguishes between various kinds of slighting which the ill-treated consider unjustified attempts to belittle them and which are correspondingly

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Shame involves a special form of self-consciousness, since people feeling shame think of themselves as being seen through the eyes of others (Rhet. 2.6, 1384a22–b1). 77 Emulation is distress caused by seeing good things in people who are similar to us, not because others have the goods, but because we do not have them ourselves (Rhet 2.11, 1388a32–5)

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Ernst Tugendhat refers to Aristotle’s ideas in discussing Heidegger’s view of emotions as modes of relating oneself to oneself—through emo- tions one is confronted with one’s being in relation to a state of affairs which affects oneself. This confrontation is particularly clear in those affective states which are called moods (Stimmungen): states such as depression, cheerfulness, happiness, boredom, ill humour, and anxiety

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What is included in the emotional part which forms emotional judgements by using the faculty of reason, which primarily belongs to the reasoning part? It is taken for granted that the emotional part is the seat of behavioural impulses. In Phys. 7.3, 247a3–12, Aristotle locates the feelings which are associated with virtues in the perceptual (aisthe ¯ tikon) part. These are said to be pleasures or distresses, either in actual perception or in memory or in anticipation. 85 In EE 2.2, 1220b12–14, the emotions are said to be accompanied by perceptual pleasure or distress, and these aspects are apparently located in the part of the soul which is called ‘perceptual and desiderative’ (EE 2.2

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The deficiency, whether it should be called unangriness, or whatever, is blamed. For those who do not get angry at things at which they should get angry seem retarded . . . for they seem to be without perception or distress. And a person who is not angry will not defend himself; but to allow oneself and one’s friends to be trampled underfoot and to overlook it is slavish. (EN 4.5, 1126a3–8) 93

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The question of the functional parts of the soul remained a controversial subject in ancient philosophy after Plato and Aristotle, because the Stoics put for- ward a radically unitary theory of the human soul as entirely rational and corporeal.

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Herophilus and Erasistratus made new discoveries about the nervous system, and Erasistratus ex- plained the relationship between the system of arteries and the nerves by distinguishing between two kinds of pneuma. Air breathed moves through the ‘vein-like artery’ (the pulmonary vein) into the left ventricle of the heart, whence it is distributed as vital pneuma (pneuma zo ¯ tikon) through the arteries. Some of this is transformed into psychic pneuma (pneuma psychikon) in the brain and serves the living being’s cognitive and motor activities in the brain and nerves. 100 Chrysippus, like Herophilus and Erasistratus, identified the soul with pneuma. The psychic pneuma is a special t ype of corporeal spirit, which Chrysippus describes as a spirit with sufficiently high tension (tonos).

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The best-known part of Stoic epistemology is the doctrine of an ap- pearance which grasps its object (phantasia katale ¯ ptike ¯ ) and functions as a criterion of truth. It was assumed that when people have adequate con- ceptual abilities and their souls are not disturbed, a great number of their perceptual appearances give them an objective guarantee that the appear- ances represent states of affairs correctly. A cataleptic appearance was described as something that ‘seizes us by the hair and pulls us to assent, needing nothing else to achieve this effect or to establish its difference from other appearances’ (Sextus Empiricus, Against the Mathematicians, in Opera, vol. ii, 7.253–7 (LS 40K))

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Some of the appearances which may be assented to are motivating (horme ¯ tike ¯ , ‘impulsive’). 109 Assenting to them means that we make an evaluative judgement, and this is an impulse (horme ¯ ) to act in a way suggested by the evaluation. Chrysippus characterizes the impulse as ‘a person’s reason prescribing action to him’ (Plutarch, On the Contradic- tions of the Stoics 1037f (SVF 3.175, LS 53R)). The horme ¯ is also defined as a ‘movement of the soul towards something’ (Stobaeus 2.86.19 (SVF 3.169, LS 53Q))

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t is characterized as an intention to act (mental level) and a behavioural movement (physical level), if this is not prevented. 110 An often-quoted formulation runs as follows: They say that all impulses are assents but that the practical ones contain a motive element. But assents are to one thing and impulses towards another. Assents are to propositions and impulses are toward predicates, which are contained in a sense in the propositions. (Stobaeus 2.88.2–6 (SVF 3.171, LS 33I)

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Galen made use of Posidonius’ On Emotions in order to show that not even all Stoics could tolerate Chrysippus’ views. According to Galen, Posidonius accepted Plato’s tripartite psychology and criticized Chrysippus for not recognizing the irrational emotional faculties of the soul as distinct and separa

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In his Physical Postulates Chrysippus delineates the relationship be- tween ethics and other parts of philosophy as follows: There is no other or more appropriate way of approaching the theory of good and bad things or the virtues or happiness than from universal nature and from the administration of the world . . . For the theor y of good and bad things must be attached to these, since there is no other starting-point or reference to them that is better, and physical speculation is to be adopted for no other purpose than for the differentiation of good and bad things. (Plutarch, On the Contradictions of the Stoics 1035c–d (SVF 3.68, trans. LS 60A))

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