Edited, memorised or added to reading list

on 07-Dec-2016 (Wed)

Do you want BuboFlash to help you learning these things? Click here to log in or create user.

Economics in a Global Context Study Session 6
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #study-session-6
Reading 20. International Trade and Capital Flows explains the flows of goods and services, physical capital, and financial capital across national borders.

The reading explains how the different types of flows are linked and how trade may benefit trade partners.

The accounting for these flows and the institutions that facilitate and regulate them are also covered.

The payment system supporting trade and investment depends on world currency markets.

Investment practitioners need to understand how these markets function in detail because of their importance in portfolio management and economic analysis.

Reading 21. Currency Exchange Rates provides an overview of currency market fundamentals.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on




GNP
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Gross national product (GNP) measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) supplied by residents of a country, regardless of whether such production takes place within the country or outside of the country.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

2.1. Basic Terminology
ic product (GDP) measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) located within a country/economy during a given period of time, generally a year or a quarter. <span>Gross national product (GNP), however, measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) supplied by residents of a country, regardless of whether such production takes place within the country or outside of the country. The difference between a country’s GDP and its GNP is that GDP includes, and GNP excludes, the production of goods and services by foreigners within that country, whereas GNP




#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) .

When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

2.1. Basic Terminology
e while those in Europe and the Middle East (which benefited from rising prices of their petroleum exports) experienced a substantial increase. Africa also experienced a small improvement in its terms of trade during this period. <span>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a go




#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
An open economy , is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and services at the price prevailing in the world market, the world price .

An open economy can provide domestic households with a larger variety of goods and services, give domestic companies access to global markets and customers, and offer goods and services that are more competitively priced.

In addition, it can offer domestic investors access to foreign capital markets, foreign assets, and greater investment opportunities.

For capital intensive industries, such as automobiles and aircraft, manufacturers can take advantage of economies of scale because they have access to a much larger market.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

2.1. Basic Terminology
ods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries. <span>An open economy , in contrast, is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and services at the price prevailing in the world market, the world price . An open economy can provide domestic households with a larger variety of goods and services, give domestic companies access to global markets and customers, and offer goods and services that are more competitively priced. In addition, it can offer domestic investors access to foreign capital markets, foreign assets, and greater investment opportunities. For capital intensive industries, such as automobiles and aircraft, manufacturers can take advantage of economies of scale because they have access to a much larger market. Free trade occurs when there are no government restrictions on a country’s ability to trade. Under free trade, global aggregate demand and supply determine the equilibrium quantity an




Study Session 4
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
This study session focuses on the microeconomic principles used to describe the marketplace behavior of consumers and firms.

Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.

Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption.

Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation.

Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on




Article 1425472097548

1. INTRODUCTION
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income. Macroeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logical starting point for the study of economics. This reading focuses on a fundamental subject in microeconomics: demand and supply analysis. Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. As we will see, prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit. In private enterprise market economies, which are the chief concern of investment analysts, demand and supply analysis encompasses the most basi



#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

1. INTRODUCTION
In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income. Macroeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and d




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

1. INTRODUCTION
In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income. Macroeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logi




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Macroeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

1. INTRODUCTION
he study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income. <span>Macroeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logical starting point for the study of economics. This reading focuses on a fundamental subject in microeconomics: demand and supply analysis. Demand




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

1. INTRODUCTION
f individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logical starting point for the study of economics. This reading focuses on a fundamental subject in microeconomics: demand and supply analysis. <span>Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. As we will see, prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit. In private enterprise market economies,




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

1. INTRODUCTION
; This reading focuses on a fundamental subject in microeconomics: demand and supply analysis. Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. As we will see, <span>prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit. In private enterprise market economies, which are the chief concern of investment analysts, demand and supply analysis encompasses the most basic set of microeconomic tools.




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
In private enterprise market economies, which are the chief concern of investment analysts, demand and supply analysis encompasses the most basic set of microeconomic tools.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

1. INTRODUCTION
is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. As we will see, prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit. <span>In private enterprise market economies, which are the chief concern of investment analysts, demand and supply analysis encompasses the most basic set of microeconomic tools. Traditionally, microeconomics classifies private economic units into two groups: consumers (or households) and firms. These two groups give rise, respectively, to the theor




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
microeconomics classifies private economic units into two groups: consumers (or households) and firms.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

1. INTRODUCTION
and the cost to the seller of that unit. In private enterprise market economies, which are the chief concern of investment analysts, demand and supply analysis encompasses the most basic set of microeconomic tools. Traditionally, <span>microeconomics classifies private economic units into two groups: consumers (or households) and firms. These two groups give rise, respectively, to the theory of the consumer and theory of the firm as two branches of study. The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the deman




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the demand for goods and services) by utility-maximizing individuals (i.e., individuals who make decisions that maximize the satisfaction received from present and future consumption)

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

1. INTRODUCTION
3; Traditionally, microeconomics classifies private economic units into two groups: consumers (or households) and firms. These two groups give rise, respectively, to the theory of the consumer and theory of the firm as two branches of study. <span>The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the demand for goods and services) by utility-maximizing individuals (i.e., individuals who make decisions that maximize the satisfaction received from present and future consumption). The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. The theory of the consumer and the theory of the firm are important because they help u




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

1. INTRODUCTION
y. The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the demand for goods and services) by utility-maximizing individuals (i.e., individuals who make decisions that maximize the satisfaction received from present and future consumption). <span>The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. The theory of the consumer and the theory of the firm are important because they help us understand the foundations of demand and supply. Subsequent readings will focus on the theory of




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Investment analysts, particularly equity and credit analysts, must regularly analyze products and services, their costs, prices, possible substitutes, and complements, to reach conclusions about a company’s profitability and business risk (risk relating to operating profits). Furthermore, unless the analyst has a sound understanding of the demand and supply model of markets, he or she cannot hope to forecast how external events—such as a shift in consumer tastes or changes in taxes and subsidies or other intervention in markets—will influence a firm’s revenue, earnings, and cash flows.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

1. INTRODUCTION
s. The theory of the consumer and the theory of the firm are important because they help us understand the foundations of demand and supply. Subsequent readings will focus on the theory of the consumer and the theory of the firm. <span>Investment analysts, particularly equity and credit analysts, must regularly analyze products and services, their costs, prices, possible substitutes, and complements, to reach conclusions about a company’s profitability and business risk (risk relating to operating profits). Furthermore, unless the analyst has a sound understanding of the demand and supply model of markets, he or she cannot hope to forecast how external events—such as a shift in consumer tastes or changes in taxes and subsidies or other intervention in markets—will influence a firm’s revenue, earnings, and cash flows. Having grasped the tools and concepts presented in this reading, the reader should also be able to understand many important economic relations and facts and be able to ans




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
This reading is organized as follows.

Section 2 explains how economists classify markets.

Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts of demand and supply analysis of markets.

Section 4 introduces measures of sensitivity of demand to changes in prices and income.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

1. INTRODUCTION
s to converge to an equilibrium price? What are the conditions that would make that equilibrium stable or unstable in response to external shocks? How do different types of auctions affect price discovery? <span>This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explains how economists classify markets. Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts of demand and supply analysis of markets. Section 4 introduces measures of sensitivity of demand to changes in prices and income. A summary and practice problems conclude the reading. <span><body><html>




Article 1425493069068

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

Analysts must understand the demand and supply model of markets because all firms buy and sell in markets. Investment analysts need at least a basic understanding of those markets and the demand and supply model that provides a framework for analyzing them. Markets are broadly classified as factor markets or goods markets. Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are organizations that buy the services of those factors. Firms then transform those services into intermediate or final goods and services. ( Intermediate goods and services are those purchased for use as inputs to produce other goods and services, whereas final goods and ser



#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production).

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
n markets. Investment analysts need at least a basic understanding of those markets and the demand and supply model that provides a framework for analyzing them. Markets are broadly classified as factor markets or goods markets. <span>Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are or




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are organizations that buy the services of those factors. Firms then transform those services into intermediate or final goods and services

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
ets. Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). <span>Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are organizations that buy the services of those factors. Firms then transform those services into intermediate or final goods and services. ( Intermediate goods and services are those purchased for use as inputs to produce other goods and services, whereas final goods and services are in the final form purchased by househ




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Generally, market interactions are voluntary. Firms offer their products for sale when they believe the payment they will receive exceeds their cost of production. Households are willing to purchase goods and services when the value they expect to receive from them exceeds the payment necessary to acquire them. Whenever the perceived value of a good exceeds the expected cost to produce it, a potential trade can take place. This fact may seem obvious, but it is fundamental to our understanding of markets. If a buyer values something more than a seller, not only is there an opportunity for an exchange, but that exchange will make both parties better off.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
n goods markets: firms are sellers and both households and firms are buyers. For example, firms are buyers of capital goods (such as equipment) and intermediate goods, while households are buyers of a variety of durable and non-durable goods. <span>Generally, market interactions are voluntary. Firms offer their products for sale when they believe the payment they will receive exceeds their cost of production. Households are willing to purchase goods and services when the value they expect to receive from them exceeds the payment necessary to acquire them. Whenever the perceived value of a good exceeds the expected cost to produce it, a potential trade can take place. This fact may seem obvious, but it is fundamental to our understanding of markets. If a buyer values something more than a seller, not only is there an opportunity for an exchange, but that exchange will make both parties better off. In one type of factor market, called labor markets , households offer to sell their labor services when the payment they expect to receive exceeds the value of the leisure




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
In one type of factor market, called labor markets , households offer to sell their labor services when the payment they expect to receive exceeds the value of the leisure time they must forgo. In contrast, firms hire workers when they judge that the value of the productivity of workers is greater than the cost of employing them. A major source of household income and a major cost to firms is compensation paid in exchange for labor services.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
fact may seem obvious, but it is fundamental to our understanding of markets. If a buyer values something more than a seller, not only is there an opportunity for an exchange, but that exchange will make both parties better off. <span>In one type of factor market, called labor markets , households offer to sell their labor services when the payment they expect to receive exceeds the value of the leisure time they must forgo. In contrast, firms hire workers when they judge that the value of the productivity of workers is greater than the cost of employing them. A major source of household income and a major cost to firms is compensation paid in exchange for labor services. Additionally, households typically choose to spend less on consumption than they earn from their labor. This behavior is called saving , through which households can accum




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Through, saving households can accumulate financial capital, the returns on which can produce other sources of household income, such as interest, dividends, and capital gains.

Households may choose to lend their accumulated savings (in exchange for interest) or invest it in ownership claims in firms (in hopes of receiving dividends and capital gains).

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
they judge that the value of the productivity of workers is greater than the cost of employing them. A major source of household income and a major cost to firms is compensation paid in exchange for labor services. Additionally, <span>households typically choose to spend less on consumption than they earn from their labor. This behavior is called saving , through which households can accumulate financial capital, the returns on which can produce other sources of household income, such as interest, dividends, and capital gains. Households may choose to lend their accumulated savings (in exchange for interest) or invest it in ownership claims in firms (in hopes of receiving dividends and capital gains). Households make these savings choices when their anticipated future returns are judged to be more valuable today than the present consumption that households must sacrifice when they save. Indeed, a major purpose of financial institutions and markets is to enable the transfer of these savings into capital investments. Firms use capital markets (markets for




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
A major purpose of financial institutions and markets is to enable the transfer of savings into capital investments.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
receiving dividends and capital gains). Households make these savings choices when their anticipated future returns are judged to be more valuable today than the present consumption that households must sacrifice when they save. <span>Indeed, a major purpose of financial institutions and markets is to enable the transfer of these savings into capital investments. Firms use capital markets (markets for long-term financial capital—that is, markets for long-term claims on firms’ assets and cash flows) to sell debt (in bond markets) or equity (in




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Indeed, a major purpose of financial institutions and markets is to enable the transfer of these savings into capital investments. Firms use capital markets (markets for long-term financial capital—that is, markets for long-term claims on firms’ assets and cash flows) to sell debt (in bond markets) or equity (in equity markets) in order to raise funds to invest in productive assets, such as plant and equipment. They make these investment choices when they judge that their investments will increase the value of the firm by more than the cost of acquiring those funds from households. Firms also use such financial intermediaries as banks and insurance companies to raise capital, typically debt funding that ultimately comes from the savings of households, which are usually net accumulators of financial capital.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
receiving dividends and capital gains). Households make these savings choices when their anticipated future returns are judged to be more valuable today than the present consumption that households must sacrifice when they save. <span>Indeed, a major purpose of financial institutions and markets is to enable the transfer of these savings into capital investments. Firms use capital markets (markets for long-term financial capital—that is, markets for long-term claims on firms’ assets and cash flows) to sell debt (in bond markets) or equity (in equity markets) in order to raise funds to invest in productive assets, such as plant and equipment. They make these investment choices when they judge that their investments will increase the value of the firm by more than the cost of acquiring those funds from households. Firms also use such financial intermediaries as banks and insurance companies to raise capital, typically debt funding that ultimately comes from the savings of households, which are usually net accumulators of financial capital. Microeconomics, although primarily focused on goods and factor markets, can contribute to the understanding of all types of markets (e.g., markets for financial securities)




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Microeconomics, although primarily focused on goods and factor markets, can contribute to the understanding of all types of markets (e.g., markets for financial securities).

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
Firms also use such financial intermediaries as banks and insurance companies to raise capital, typically debt funding that ultimately comes from the savings of households, which are usually net accumulators of financial capital. <span>Microeconomics, although primarily focused on goods and factor markets, can contribute to the understanding of all types of markets (e.g., markets for financial securities). <span><body><html>




Flashcard 1425508273420

Tags
#digital #work
Question
what is digital?
Answer
retail banks have digitized only 20 to 40 percent of their processes; 90 percent of European banks invest less than 0.5 percent of their total spending on digital. As a result, most have relatively shallow digital offerings focused on enabling basic customer transactions.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1425512992012

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
[...] measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production supplied by residents of a country, regardless of whether such production takes place within the country or outside of the country.
Answer
Gross national product (GNP)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Gross national product (GNP) measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) supplied by residents of a country, regardless of whether such p

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
ic product (GDP) measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) located within a country/economy during a given period of time, generally a year or a quarter. <span>Gross national product (GNP), however, measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) supplied by residents of a country, regardless of whether such production takes place within the country or outside of the country. The difference between a country’s GDP and its GNP is that GDP includes, and GNP excludes, the production of goods and services by foreigners within that country, whereas GNP







Flashcard 1425514564876

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
Gross national product (GNP) measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production supplied by residents of a country, regardless of whether such production takes place [...]
Answer
within the country or outside of the country.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
>Gross national product (GNP) measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) supplied by residents of a country, regardless of whether such production takes place within the country or outside of the country.<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
ic product (GDP) measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) located within a country/economy during a given period of time, generally a year or a quarter. <span>Gross national product (GNP), however, measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) supplied by residents of a country, regardless of whether such production takes place within the country or outside of the country. The difference between a country’s GDP and its GNP is that GDP includes, and GNP excludes, the production of goods and services by foreigners within that country, whereas GNP







Flashcard 1425516662028

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring [...] the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.
Answer
within


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
f citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada). Therefore, <span>GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment. Imports are goods and services that a domestic economy (i.e., households, firms, and government) purchases from other countries. For example, the US economy imports (purch







Flashcard 1425518234892

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
[...] is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.
Answer
GDP


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.</htm

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
f citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada). Therefore, <span>GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment. Imports are goods and services that a domestic economy (i.e., households, firms, and government) purchases from other countries. For example, the US economy imports (purch







Flashcard 1425519807756

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects [...], growth, and the investment environment.
Answer
employment


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
f citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada). Therefore, <span>GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment. Imports are goods and services that a domestic economy (i.e., households, firms, and government) purchases from other countries. For example, the US economy imports (purch







Flashcard 1425521380620

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects [...] , [...], and the investment environment.
Answer
employment

growth


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
f citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada). Therefore, <span>GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment. Imports are goods and services that a domestic economy (i.e., households, firms, and government) purchases from other countries. For example, the US economy imports (purch







Flashcard 1425522953484

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the [...].
Answer
investment environment


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
f citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada). Therefore, <span>GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment. Imports are goods and services that a domestic economy (i.e., households, firms, and government) purchases from other countries. For example, the US economy imports (purch







#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) .

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that count

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e while those in Europe and the Middle East (which benefited from rising prices of their petroleum exports) experienced a substantial increase. Africa also experienced a small improvement in its terms of trade during this period. <span>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a go




Flashcard 1425526885644

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
[...] is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports).
Answer


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, the

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e while those in Europe and the Middle East (which benefited from rising prices of their petroleum exports) experienced a substantial increase. Africa also experienced a small improvement in its terms of trade during this period. <span>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a go







Flashcard 1425528458508

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports i.e., [...].
Answer
value of exports minus imports)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (defici

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e while those in Europe and the Middle East (which benefited from rising prices of their petroleum exports) experienced a substantial increase. Africa also experienced a small improvement in its terms of trade during this period. <span>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a go







Flashcard 1425530031372

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
[...] is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports)
Answer


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (defici

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e while those in Europe and the Middle East (which benefited from rising prices of their petroleum exports) experienced a substantial increase. Africa also experienced a small improvement in its terms of trade during this period. <span>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a go







Flashcard 1425531604236

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
If the value of a country's exports equals the value of imports, then trade is [...].
Answer
balanced


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
tml>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) .<html>

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e while those in Europe and the Middle East (which benefited from rising prices of their petroleum exports) experienced a substantial increase. Africa also experienced a small improvement in its terms of trade during this period. <span>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a go







Flashcard 1425533177100

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a [...] .


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a <span>trade surplus (deficit) .<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e while those in Europe and the Middle East (which benefited from rising prices of their petroleum exports) experienced a substantial increase. Africa also experienced a small improvement in its terms of trade during this period. <span>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a go







#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
ts (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . <span>When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationshi

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e while those in Europe and the Middle East (which benefited from rising prices of their petroleum exports) experienced a substantial increase. Africa also experienced a small improvement in its terms of trade during this period. <span>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a go




#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country.

Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. The balance of payments explains these relationships.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
ts (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . <span>When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully.<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e while those in Europe and the Middle East (which benefited from rising prices of their petroleum exports) experienced a substantial increase. Africa also experienced a small improvement in its terms of trade during this period. <span>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a go




Flashcard 1425538157836

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
When a country has a trade surplus, it [...] to foreigners or [...]
Answer
lends or buys assets from foreigners


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade def

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e while those in Europe and the Middle East (which benefited from rising prices of their petroleum exports) experienced a substantial increase. Africa also experienced a small improvement in its terms of trade during this period. <span>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a go







Flashcard 1425539730700

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to [...] or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country.

Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. The balance of payments explains these relationships.
Answer
foreigners


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has t

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e while those in Europe and the Middle East (which benefited from rising prices of their petroleum exports) experienced a substantial increase. Africa also experienced a small improvement in its terms of trade during this period. <span>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a go







Flashcard 1425541303564

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
When a country has a trade surplus, it [...] or [...] reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country.

Answer
it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from f

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e while those in Europe and the Middle East (which benefited from rising prices of their petroleum exports) experienced a substantial increase. Africa also experienced a small improvement in its terms of trade during this period. <span>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a go







#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. The balance of payments explains these relationships.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. The balance of payments explains these relationships.

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e while those in Europe and the Middle East (which benefited from rising prices of their petroleum exports) experienced a substantial increase. Africa also experienced a small improvement in its terms of trade during this period. <span>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a go




#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
An open economy , is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and services at the price prevailing in the world market, the world price .

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
An open economy , is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and services at the price prevailing in the world market, the world price . An open economy can provide domestic households with a larger variety of goods and services, give domestic companies access to global markets and customers, and offer goods a

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
ods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries. <span>An open economy , in contrast, is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and services at the price prevailing in the world market, the world price . An open economy can provide domestic households with a larger variety of goods and services, give domestic companies access to global markets and customers, and offer goods and services that are more competitively priced. In addition, it can offer domestic investors access to foreign capital markets, foreign assets, and greater investment opportunities. For capital intensive industries, such as automobiles and aircraft, manufacturers can take advantage of economies of scale because they have access to a much larger market. Free trade occurs when there are no government restrictions on a country’s ability to trade. Under free trade, global aggregate demand and supply determine the equilibrium quantity an




Flashcard 1425546808588

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
An [...] , is an economy that trades with other countries.
Answer


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
An open economy , is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and services at the price prevailing in t

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
ods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries. <span>An open economy , in contrast, is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and services at the price prevailing in the world market, the world price . An open economy can provide domestic households with a larger variety of goods and services, give domestic companies access to global markets and customers, and offer goods and services that are more competitively priced. In addition, it can offer domestic investors access to foreign capital markets, foreign assets, and greater investment opportunities. For capital intensive industries, such as automobiles and aircraft, manufacturers can take advantage of economies of scale because they have access to a much larger market. Free trade occurs when there are no government restrictions on a country’s ability to trade. Under free trade, global aggregate demand and supply determine the equilibrium quantity an







Flashcard 1425548381452

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an [...] can buy and sell goods and services at the price prevailing in the world market, the world price .
Answer
open economy


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
An open economy , is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and services at the price prevailing in the world market, the world price .<

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
ods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries. <span>An open economy , in contrast, is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and services at the price prevailing in the world market, the world price . An open economy can provide domestic households with a larger variety of goods and services, give domestic companies access to global markets and customers, and offer goods and services that are more competitively priced. In addition, it can offer domestic investors access to foreign capital markets, foreign assets, and greater investment opportunities. For capital intensive industries, such as automobiles and aircraft, manufacturers can take advantage of economies of scale because they have access to a much larger market. Free trade occurs when there are no government restrictions on a country’s ability to trade. Under free trade, global aggregate demand and supply determine the equilibrium quantity an







Flashcard 1425549954316

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and services at the price prevailing in the world market, the [...]
Answer


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
d>An open economy , is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and services at the price prevailing in the world market, the world price .<html>

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
ods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries. <span>An open economy , in contrast, is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and services at the price prevailing in the world market, the world price . An open economy can provide domestic households with a larger variety of goods and services, give domestic companies access to global markets and customers, and offer goods and services that are more competitively priced. In addition, it can offer domestic investors access to foreign capital markets, foreign assets, and greater investment opportunities. For capital intensive industries, such as automobiles and aircraft, manufacturers can take advantage of economies of scale because they have access to a much larger market. Free trade occurs when there are no government restrictions on a country’s ability to trade. Under free trade, global aggregate demand and supply determine the equilibrium quantity an







#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Study Session 4
This study session focuses on the microeconomic principles used to describe the marketplace behavior of consumers and firms. Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive fr




Flashcard 1425554148620

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question

Reading 13 explains [...]—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.
Answer
the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
This study session focuses on the microeconomic principles used to describe the marketplace behavior of consumers and firms. Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive fr







Flashcard 1425555721484

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question

Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of [...] to determine transaction prices and quantities.
Answer
how buyers and sellers interact


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
This study session focuses on the microeconomic principles used to describe the marketplace behavior of consumers and firms. Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive fr







Flashcard 1425557294348

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question

Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine [...]
Answer
transaction prices and quantities.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
This study session focuses on the microeconomic principles used to describe the marketplace behavior of consumers and firms. Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive fr







#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Study Session 4
cribe the marketplace behavior of consumers and firms. Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. <span>Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the c




Flashcard 1425559915788

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Reading 14 covers [...] which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption.
Answer
the theory of the consumer,


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption.</

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
cribe the marketplace behavior of consumers and firms. Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. <span>Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the c







Flashcard 1425561488652

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Reading 14 addresses the [...] by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption.
Answer
demand for goods and services


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption.

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
cribe the marketplace behavior of consumers and firms. Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. <span>Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the c







Flashcard 1425563061516

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to [...] they receive from present and future consumption.
Answer
maximize the satisfaction


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption.

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
cribe the marketplace behavior of consumers and firms. Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. <span>Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the c







Flashcard 1425564634380

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
individuals, in the theory of the consumer, make decisions to [...] they receive from present and future consumption.
Answer
maximize the satisfaction


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption.

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
cribe the marketplace behavior of consumers and firms. Reading 13 explains the concepts and tools of demand and supply analysis—the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. <span>Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the c







#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Study Session 4
quantities. Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption. <span>Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools fo




Flashcard 1425568304396

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Reading 15 deals with the [...], focusing on the supply of goods and services by [...] .
Answer
1. theory of the firm

2. profit-maximizing firms


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation.

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
quantities. Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption. <span>Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools fo







Flashcard 1425569877260

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
The theory of the firm focuses on the supply of goods and services by [...].
Answer
profit-maximizing firms


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation.

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
quantities. Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption. <span>Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools fo







Flashcard 1425571450124

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Reading 15 provides the basis for understanding [...]
Answer
the cost side of firms’ profit equation.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation.

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
quantities. Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption. <span>Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools fo







Flashcard 1425573022988

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Reading 15 provides the basis for understanding [...] of [...]
Answer
the cost side of firms’ profit equation.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation.

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
quantities. Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption. <span>Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools fo







#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output.

Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Study Session 4
nsumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. <span>Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.<span><body><html>




Flashcard 1425575644428

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Reading 16 completes the picture by [...] and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output.
Answer
addressing revenue


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
nsumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. <span>Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.<span><body><html>







Flashcard 1425577217292

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Reading 16 explains [...] in which firms sell output.
Answer
the types of markets


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of dif

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
nsumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. <span>Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.<span><body><html>







Flashcard 1425578790156

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms [...].
Answer
sell output


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.</

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
nsumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. <span>Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.<span><body><html>







Flashcard 1425580363020

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms [...].
Answer
sell output


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.</

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
nsumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. <span>Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.<span><body><html>







#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
nsumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. <span>Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.<span><body><html>




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Overall, Study Session 4. provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
nsumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. <span>Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.<span><body><html>




Flashcard 1425586130188

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Overall, Study Session 4. provides the economic tools for understanding how [...] markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.
Answer
product and resource


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Overall, Study Session 4. provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
nsumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. <span>Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.<span><body><html>







Flashcard 1425587703052

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Overall, Study Session 4. provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the [...] of different industries.
Answer
competitive characteristics


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Overall, Study Session 4. provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.

Original toplevel document

Study Session 4
nsumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. <span>Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.<span><body><html>







Flashcard 1425589275916

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
[...] deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income.

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income. Macroeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logi







Flashcard 1425590848780

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Macroeconomics deals with [...]
Answer
aggregate economic quantities,


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income.

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income. Macroeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logi







Flashcard 1425592421644

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as [...] and [...]
Answer
national output

national income.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income.

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income. Macroeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logi







Flashcard 1425593994508

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and [...]
Answer
national income.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income.

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income. Macroeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logi







Flashcard 1425595567372

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as [...]
Answer
national output and national income.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income.

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income. Macroeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logi







Flashcard 1425598975244

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
[...] the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
f individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logical starting point for the study of economics. This reading focuses on a fundamental subject in microeconomics: demand and supply analysis. <span>Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. As we will see, prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit. In private enterprise market economies,







Flashcard 1425600548108

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Demand and supply analysis is the study of how [...] to determine transaction prices and quantities.
Answer
buyers and sellers interact


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
f individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logical starting point for the study of economics. This reading focuses on a fundamental subject in microeconomics: demand and supply analysis. <span>Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. As we will see, prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit. In private enterprise market economies,







Flashcard 1425602120972

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Demand and supply analysis is the study of [...]
Answer
how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
f individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logical starting point for the study of economics. This reading focuses on a fundamental subject in microeconomics: demand and supply analysis. <span>Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. As we will see, prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit. In private enterprise market economies,







Flashcard 1425603693836

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the [...] unit and the cost to the seller of that unit.
Answer
next (or marginal)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit.

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
; This reading focuses on a fundamental subject in microeconomics: demand and supply analysis. Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. As we will see, <span>prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit. In private enterprise market economies, which are the chief concern of investment analysts, demand and supply analysis encompasses the most basic set of microeconomic tools.







Flashcard 1425605266700

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the [...] of that unit.
Answer
cost to the seller


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit.

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
; This reading focuses on a fundamental subject in microeconomics: demand and supply analysis. Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. As we will see, <span>prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit. In private enterprise market economies, which are the chief concern of investment analysts, demand and supply analysis encompasses the most basic set of microeconomic tools.







Flashcard 1425607101708

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
The [...] deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms.
Answer
theory of the firm


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms.

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
y. The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the demand for goods and services) by utility-maximizing individuals (i.e., individuals who make decisions that maximize the satisfaction received from present and future consumption). <span>The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. The theory of the consumer and the theory of the firm are important because they help us understand the foundations of demand and supply. Subsequent readings will focus on the theory of







Flashcard 1425608674572

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
The theory of the firm deals with the [...] by profit-maximizing firms.
Answer
supply of goods and services


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms.

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
y. The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the demand for goods and services) by utility-maximizing individuals (i.e., individuals who make decisions that maximize the satisfaction received from present and future consumption). <span>The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. The theory of the consumer and the theory of the firm are important because they help us understand the foundations of demand and supply. Subsequent readings will focus on the theory of







Flashcard 1425610247436

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by [...]
Answer
profit-maximizing firms.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms.

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
y. The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the demand for goods and services) by utility-maximizing individuals (i.e., individuals who make decisions that maximize the satisfaction received from present and future consumption). <span>The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. The theory of the consumer and the theory of the firm are important because they help us understand the foundations of demand and supply. Subsequent readings will focus on the theory of







Flashcard 1425611820300

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
This reading is organized as follows.

Section 2 explains how [...].

Answer
economists classify markets


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explains how economists classify markets. Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts of demand and supply analysis of markets. Section 4 introduces measures of sensitivity of demand to changes in

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
s to converge to an equilibrium price? What are the conditions that would make that equilibrium stable or unstable in response to external shocks? How do different types of auctions affect price discovery? <span>This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explains how economists classify markets. Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts of demand and supply analysis of markets. Section 4 introduces measures of sensitivity of demand to changes in prices and income. A summary and practice problems conclude the reading. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1425613393164

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
This reading is organized as follows.

Section 2 explains how [...]

Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts of [...] of markets.

Section 4 introduces [...] of demand to changes in prices and income.
Answer
economists classify markets.

demand and supply analysis

measures of sensitivity


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explains how economists classify markets. Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts of demand and supply analysis of markets. Section 4 introduces measures of sensitivity of demand to changes in prices and income.

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
s to converge to an equilibrium price? What are the conditions that would make that equilibrium stable or unstable in response to external shocks? How do different types of auctions affect price discovery? <span>This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explains how economists classify markets. Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts of demand and supply analysis of markets. Section 4 introduces measures of sensitivity of demand to changes in prices and income. A summary and practice problems conclude the reading. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1425614966028

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Reading 13 is organized as follows.

Section 2 explains how economists classify markets.

Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts of demand and supply analysis of markets.

Section 4 introduces [...] of demand to changes in prices and income.
Answer
measures of sensitivity


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explains how economists classify markets. Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts of demand and supply analysis of markets. Section 4 introduces measures of sensitivity of demand to changes in prices and income. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
s to converge to an equilibrium price? What are the conditions that would make that equilibrium stable or unstable in response to external shocks? How do different types of auctions affect price discovery? <span>This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explains how economists classify markets. Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts of demand and supply analysis of markets. Section 4 introduces measures of sensitivity of demand to changes in prices and income. A summary and practice problems conclude the reading. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1425616538892

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
This reading is organized as follows.

Section 2 explains how economists classify markets.

Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts of demand and supply analysis of markets.

Section 4 introduces measures of sensitivity of demand to [...]
Answer
changes in prices and income.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
llows. Section 2 explains how economists classify markets. Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts of demand and supply analysis of markets. Section 4 introduces measures of sensitivity of demand to <span>changes in prices and income. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
s to converge to an equilibrium price? What are the conditions that would make that equilibrium stable or unstable in response to external shocks? How do different types of auctions affect price discovery? <span>This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explains how economists classify markets. Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts of demand and supply analysis of markets. Section 4 introduces measures of sensitivity of demand to changes in prices and income. A summary and practice problems conclude the reading. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1425618111756

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
[...] are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital,

Original toplevel document

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
n markets. Investment analysts need at least a basic understanding of those markets and the demand and supply model that provides a framework for analyzing them. Markets are broadly classified as factor markets or goods markets. <span>Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are or







Flashcard 1425619684620

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of [...]. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production).
Answer
factors of production


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production).

Original toplevel document

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
n markets. Investment analysts need at least a basic understanding of those markets and the demand and supply model that provides a framework for analyzing them. Markets are broadly classified as factor markets or goods markets. <span>Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are or







#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production).

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production).

Original toplevel document

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
n markets. Investment analysts need at least a basic understanding of those markets and the demand and supply model that provides a framework for analyzing them. Markets are broadly classified as factor markets or goods markets. <span>Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are or




Flashcard 1425622306060

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
In capitalist private enterprise economies, [...] own the factors of production.
Answer
households


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production).

Original toplevel document

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
n markets. Investment analysts need at least a basic understanding of those markets and the demand and supply model that provides a framework for analyzing them. Markets are broadly classified as factor markets or goods markets. <span>Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are or







Flashcard 1425623878924

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
In [...] economies, households own the factors of production.
Answer
capitalist private enterprise


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production).

Original toplevel document

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
n markets. Investment analysts need at least a basic understanding of those markets and the demand and supply model that provides a framework for analyzing them. Markets are broadly classified as factor markets or goods markets. <span>Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are or







Flashcard 1425625451788

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, [...] and materials used in production).
Answer
physical capital,


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production).

Original toplevel document

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
n markets. Investment analysts need at least a basic understanding of those markets and the demand and supply model that provides a framework for analyzing them. Markets are broadly classified as factor markets or goods markets. <span>Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are or







Flashcard 1425627024652

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
In capitalist private enterprise economies, factors of production are owned by...
Answer
households


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production).

Original toplevel document

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
n markets. Investment analysts need at least a basic understanding of those markets and the demand and supply model that provides a framework for analyzing them. Markets are broadly classified as factor markets or goods markets. <span>Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are or







Flashcard 1425628597516

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Factors of production are (the [...], labor, physical capital, and materials used in production).
Answer
land


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production).

Original toplevel document

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
n markets. Investment analysts need at least a basic understanding of those markets and the demand and supply model that provides a framework for analyzing them. Markets are broadly classified as factor markets or goods markets. <span>Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are or







#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Whenever the perceived value of a good exceeds the expected cost to produce it, a potential trade can take place. This fact may seem obvious, but it is fundamental to our understanding of markets.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
ts for sale when they believe the payment they will receive exceeds their cost of production. Households are willing to purchase goods and services when the value they expect to receive from them exceeds the payment necessary to acquire them. <span>Whenever the perceived value of a good exceeds the expected cost to produce it, a potential trade can take place. This fact may seem obvious, but it is fundamental to our understanding of markets. If a buyer values something more than a seller, not only is there an opportunity for an exchange, but that exchange will make both parties better off.<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
n goods markets: firms are sellers and both households and firms are buyers. For example, firms are buyers of capital goods (such as equipment) and intermediate goods, while households are buyers of a variety of durable and non-durable goods. <span>Generally, market interactions are voluntary. Firms offer their products for sale when they believe the payment they will receive exceeds their cost of production. Households are willing to purchase goods and services when the value they expect to receive from them exceeds the payment necessary to acquire them. Whenever the perceived value of a good exceeds the expected cost to produce it, a potential trade can take place. This fact may seem obvious, but it is fundamental to our understanding of markets. If a buyer values something more than a seller, not only is there an opportunity for an exchange, but that exchange will make both parties better off. In one type of factor market, called labor markets , households offer to sell their labor services when the payment they expect to receive exceeds the value of the leisure




Flashcard 1425639345420

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
Countries that have large differences between GDP and GNP generally have a large number of [...] (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of [...] in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada).
Answer
citizens who work abroad

foreign-owned capital


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Countries that have large differences between GDP and GNP generally have a large number of citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
NP is that GDP includes, and GNP excludes, the production of goods and services by foreigners within that country, whereas GNP includes, and GDP excludes, the production of goods and services by its citizens outside of the country. <span>Countries that have large differences between GDP and GNP generally have a large number of citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada). Therefore, GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.







Flashcard 1425640918284

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
Countries that have large differences between GDP and GNP generally pay more for the use of [...] in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada).
Answer
foreign-owned capital


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Countries that have large differences between GDP and GNP generally have a large number of citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada).

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
NP is that GDP includes, and GNP excludes, the production of goods and services by foreigners within that country, whereas GNP includes, and GDP excludes, the production of goods and services by its citizens outside of the country. <span>Countries that have large differences between GDP and GNP generally have a large number of citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada). Therefore, GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.







#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved becaus

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e to a South African diamond exporter, Britain would classify the cost of the insurance as an export of services to South Africa. Other examples of services exported/imported include engineering, consulting, and medical services. <span>The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services. Exhibit 1shows the terms of trade reported in Salvatore (2010). A value over (under) 100 indicates that the country, or group of countries, experienced better (worse) terms of trade rel




Flashcard 1425643539724

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
The [...] are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively.

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e to a South African diamond exporter, Britain would classify the cost of the insurance as an export of services to South Africa. Other examples of services exported/imported include engineering, consulting, and medical services. <span>The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services. Exhibit 1shows the terms of trade reported in Salvatore (2010). A value over (under) 100 indicates that the country, or group of countries, experienced better (worse) terms of trade rel







#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of e

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e to a South African diamond exporter, Britain would classify the cost of the insurance as an export of services to South Africa. Other examples of services exported/imported include engineering, consulting, and medical services. <span>The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services. Exhibit 1shows the terms of trade reported in Salvatore (2010). A value over (under) 100 indicates that the country, or group of countries, experienced better (worse) terms of trade rel




Flashcard 1425646161164

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
The terms of trade capture the [...] of imports in terms of exports.
Answer
relative cost


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports.

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e to a South African diamond exporter, Britain would classify the cost of the insurance as an export of services to South Africa. Other examples of services exported/imported include engineering, consulting, and medical services. <span>The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services. Exhibit 1shows the terms of trade reported in Salvatore (2010). A value over (under) 100 indicates that the country, or group of countries, experienced better (worse) terms of trade rel







#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. <span>If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experi

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e to a South African diamond exporter, Britain would classify the cost of the insurance as an export of services to South Africa. Other examples of services exported/imported include engineering, consulting, and medical services. <span>The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services. Exhibit 1shows the terms of trade reported in Salvatore (2010). A value over (under) 100 indicates that the country, or group of countries, experienced better (worse) terms of trade rel




Flashcard 1425648782604

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have [...]
Answer
improved


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e to a South African diamond exporter, Britain would classify the cost of the insurance as an export of services to South Africa. Other examples of services exported/imported include engineering, consulting, and medical services. <span>The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services. Exhibit 1shows the terms of trade reported in Salvatore (2010). A value over (under) 100 indicates that the country, or group of countries, experienced better (worse) terms of trade rel







#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. <span>If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order t

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e to a South African diamond exporter, Britain would classify the cost of the insurance as an export of services to South Africa. Other examples of services exported/imported include engineering, consulting, and medical services. <span>The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services. Exhibit 1shows the terms of trade reported in Salvatore (2010). A value over (under) 100 indicates that the country, or group of countries, experienced better (worse) terms of trade rel




#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, <span>if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base ye

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e to a South African diamond exporter, Britain would classify the cost of the insurance as an export of services to South Africa. Other examples of services exported/imported include engineering, consulting, and medical services. <span>The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services. Exhibit 1shows the terms of trade reported in Salvatore (2010). A value over (under) 100 indicates that the country, or group of countries, experienced better (worse) terms of trade rel




Flashcard 1425652976908

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have [...]
Answer
deteriorated


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports.

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e to a South African diamond exporter, Britain would classify the cost of the insurance as an export of services to South Africa. Other examples of services exported/imported include engineering, consulting, and medical services. <span>The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services. Exhibit 1shows the terms of trade reported in Salvatore (2010). A value over (under) 100 indicates that the country, or group of countries, experienced better (worse) terms of trade rel







Flashcard 1425654549772

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to [...]
Answer
purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports.

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e to a South African diamond exporter, Britain would classify the cost of the insurance as an export of services to South Africa. Other examples of services exported/imported include engineering, consulting, and medical services. <span>The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services. Exhibit 1shows the terms of trade reported in Salvatore (2010). A value over (under) 100 indicates that the country, or group of countries, experienced better (worse) terms of trade rel







#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
e same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. <span>Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services.<span></bod

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e to a South African diamond exporter, Britain would classify the cost of the insurance as an export of services to South Africa. Other examples of services exported/imported include engineering, consulting, and medical services. <span>The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services. Exhibit 1shows the terms of trade reported in Salvatore (2010). A value over (under) 100 indicates that the country, or group of countries, experienced better (worse) terms of trade rel




Flashcard 1425657171212

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an [...]
Answer
index number


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e to a South African diamond exporter, Britain would classify the cost of the insurance as an export of services to South Africa. Other examples of services exported/imported include engineering, consulting, and medical services. <span>The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services. Exhibit 1shows the terms of trade reported in Salvatore (2010). A value over (under) 100 indicates that the country, or group of countries, experienced better (worse) terms of trade rel







#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is al

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. <span>Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries. An open economy , in contrast, is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and service




Flashcard 1425660316940

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
[...] is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries.
Answer


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries.

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. <span>Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries. An open economy , in contrast, is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and service







Flashcard 1425661889804

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
Autarky is a state in which a country [...]
Answer
does not trade with other countries.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries.

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. <span>Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries. An open economy , in contrast, is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and service







#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
The price of a good or service in an economy that does not trade with other countries is called its autarkic price .

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries.

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. <span>Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries. An open economy , in contrast, is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and service




Flashcard 1425665821964

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
The price of a good or service in an economy that does not trade with other countries is called its [...]
Answer


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The price of a good or service in an economy that does not trade with other countries is called its autarkic price .

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. <span>Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries. An open economy , in contrast, is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and service







#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
n>Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries.<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. <span>Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries. An open economy , in contrast, is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and service




Flashcard 1425669754124

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
An autarkic economy is also known as a [...]


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries.

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
e deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. <span>Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a good or service in such an economy is called its autarkic price . An autarkic economy is also known as a closed economy because it does not trade with other countries. An open economy , in contrast, is an economy that trades with other countries. If there are no restrictions on trade, then members of an open economy can buy and sell goods and service







Flashcard 1425671851276

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: [...]cs
Answer
macroeconomics and microeconomi


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income. Macroeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and d







#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income. Macroeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and d




Flashcard 1425674472716

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
[...] is the study of production, distribution, and consumption
Answer


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption

Original toplevel document

1. INTRODUCTION
In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income. Macroeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and d







#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Goods markets are markets for the output of production.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are organizations that buy the services of those factors. Firms

Original toplevel document

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
ets. Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). <span>Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are organizations that buy the services of those factors. Firms then transform those services into intermediate or final goods and services. ( Intermediate goods and services are those purchased for use as inputs to produce other goods and services, whereas final goods and services are in the final form purchased by househ




Flashcard 1425677618444

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
[...] are markets for the output of production.
Answer


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Goods markets are markets for the output of production.

Original toplevel document

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
ets. Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). <span>Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are organizations that buy the services of those factors. Firms then transform those services into intermediate or final goods and services. ( Intermediate goods and services are those purchased for use as inputs to produce other goods and services, whereas final goods and services are in the final form purchased by househ







Flashcard 1425679191308

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Goods markets are markets for the [...]
Answer
output of production.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Goods markets are markets for the output of production.

Original toplevel document

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
ets. Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). <span>Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are organizations that buy the services of those factors. Firms then transform those services into intermediate or final goods and services. ( Intermediate goods and services are those purchased for use as inputs to produce other goods and services, whereas final goods and services are in the final form purchased by househ







Flashcard 1425681026316

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
labor markets is when [...] sell their labor [...]
Answer
households sell their labor services to firms if payment exceeds the value of the leisure time they must give up.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
In one type of factor market, called labor markets , households offer to sell their labor services when the payment they expect to receive exceeds the value of the leisure time they must forgo. In contrast, firms hire workers when they

Original toplevel document

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
fact may seem obvious, but it is fundamental to our understanding of markets. If a buyer values something more than a seller, not only is there an opportunity for an exchange, but that exchange will make both parties better off. <span>In one type of factor market, called labor markets , households offer to sell their labor services when the payment they expect to receive exceeds the value of the leisure time they must forgo. In contrast, firms hire workers when they judge that the value of the productivity of workers is greater than the cost of employing them. A major source of household income and a major cost to firms is compensation paid in exchange for labor services. Additionally, households typically choose to spend less on consumption than they earn from their labor. This behavior is called saving , through which households can accum







Flashcard 1425682599180

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
In labor markets , households offer to sell their labor services when the payment they expect to receive exceeds the value of the [...] they must forgo.
Answer
leisure time


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
In one type of factor market, called labor markets , households offer to sell their labor services when the payment they expect to receive exceeds the value of the leisure time they must forgo. In contrast, firms hire workers when they judge that the value of the productivity of workers is greater than the cost of employing them. A major source of household in

Original toplevel document

2. TYPES OF MARKETS
fact may seem obvious, but it is fundamental to our understanding of markets. If a buyer values something more than a seller, not only is there an opportunity for an exchange, but that exchange will make both parties better off. <span>In one type of factor market, called labor markets , households offer to sell their labor services when the payment they expect to receive exceeds the value of the leisure time they must forgo. In contrast, firms hire workers when they judge that the value of the productivity of workers is greater than the cost of employing them. A major source of household income and a major cost to firms is compensation paid in exchange for labor services. Additionally, households typically choose to spend less on consumption than they earn from their labor. This behavior is called saving , through which households can accum







Article 1425686793484

Reading 13. LEARNING OUTCOMES
#cfa-level-1 #economics #los #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

The candidate should be able to: distinguish among types of markets; explain the principles of demand and supply; describe causes of shifts in and movements along demand and supply curves; describe the process of aggregating demand and supply curves; describe the concept of equilibrium (partial and general), and mechanisms by which markets achieve equilibrium; distinguish between stable and unstable equilibria, including price bubbles, and identify instances of such equilibria; calculate and interpret individual and aggregate demand, and inverse demand and supply functions, and interpret individual and aggregate demand and supply curves; calculate and interpret the amount of excess demand or excess supply associated with a non-equilibrium price; describe types of auctions and calculate the winning price(s) of an auction; calculate and interpret consumer surplus, producer surplus, and total surplus; describe how



Article 1425693609228

3. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

In this reading, we will explore a model of household behavior that yields the consumer demand curve. Demand , in economics, is the willingness and ability of consumers to purchase a given amount of a good or service at a given price. Supply is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price. Later, study on the theory of the firm will yield the supply curve. The demand and supply model is useful in explaining how price and quantity traded are determined and how external influences affect the values of those variables. Buyers’ behavior is captured in the demand function and its graphical equivalent, the demand curve. This curve shows both the highest price buyers are willing to pay for each quantity, and the highest quantity buyers are willing and able to purchase at each price. Sellers’ behavior is captured in the supply function and its graphical equivalent, the supply curve. This curve shows simultaneously the lowest price sellers are willing to ac



#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
. Demand , in economics, is the willingness and ability of consumers to purchase a given amount of a good or service at a given price.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS
In this reading, we will explore a model of household behavior that yields the consumer demand curve. Demand , in economics, is the willingness and ability of consumers to purchase a given amount of a good or service at a given price. Supply is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price. Later, study on the theory of the firm will yield the supply curve.




Flashcard 1425695968524

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
[...] , in economics, is the willingness and ability of consumers to purchase a given amount of a good or service at a given price.
Answer


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
. Demand , in economics, is the willingness and ability of consumers to purchase a given amount of a good or service at a given price.

Original toplevel document

3. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS
In this reading, we will explore a model of household behavior that yields the consumer demand curve. Demand , in economics, is the willingness and ability of consumers to purchase a given amount of a good or service at a given price. Supply is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price. Later, study on the theory of the firm will yield the supply curve.







Flashcard 1425697541388

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
. Demand , in economics, is the willingness and ability of consumers to [...] of a good or service at a given price.
Answer
purchase a given amount


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
. Demand , in economics, is the willingness and ability of consumers to purchase a given amount of a good or service at a given price.

Original toplevel document

3. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS
In this reading, we will explore a model of household behavior that yields the consumer demand curve. Demand , in economics, is the willingness and ability of consumers to purchase a given amount of a good or service at a given price. Supply is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price. Later, study on the theory of the firm will yield the supply curve.







#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Supply is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS
#13; In this reading, we will explore a model of household behavior that yields the consumer demand curve. Demand , in economics, is the willingness and ability of consumers to purchase a given amount of a good or service at a given price. <span>Supply is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price. Later, study on the theory of the firm will yield the supply curve. The demand and supply model is useful in explaining how price and quantity traded are determined and ho




Flashcard 1425700162828

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
[...] is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price
Answer


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Supply is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price

Original toplevel document

3. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS
#13; In this reading, we will explore a model of household behavior that yields the consumer demand curve. Demand , in economics, is the willingness and ability of consumers to purchase a given amount of a good or service at a given price. <span>Supply is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price. Later, study on the theory of the firm will yield the supply curve. The demand and supply model is useful in explaining how price and quantity traded are determined and ho







Flashcard 1425701735692

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Supply is the willingness of sellers to offer a [...] for a given price
Answer
given quantity of a good or service


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Supply is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price

Original toplevel document

3. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS
#13; In this reading, we will explore a model of household behavior that yields the consumer demand curve. Demand , in economics, is the willingness and ability of consumers to purchase a given amount of a good or service at a given price. <span>Supply is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price. Later, study on the theory of the firm will yield the supply curve. The demand and supply model is useful in explaining how price and quantity traded are determined and ho







#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
The demand and supply model is useful in explaining how price and quantity traded are determined and how external influences affect the values of those variables. Buyers’ behavior is captured in the demand function and its graphical equivalent, the demand curve. This curve shows both the highest price buyers are willing to pay for each quantity, and the highest quantity buyers are willing and able to purchase at each price. Sellers’ behavior is captured in the supply function and its graphical equivalent, the supply curve. This curve shows simultaneously the lowest price sellers are willing to accept for each quantity and the highest quantity sellers are willing to offer at each price

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS
se a given amount of a good or service at a given price. Supply is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price. Later, study on the theory of the firm will yield the supply curve. <span>The demand and supply model is useful in explaining how price and quantity traded are determined and how external influences affect the values of those variables. Buyers’ behavior is captured in the demand function and its graphical equivalent, the demand curve. This curve shows both the highest price buyers are willing to pay for each quantity, and the highest quantity buyers are willing and able to purchase at each price. Sellers’ behavior is captured in the supply function and its graphical equivalent, the supply curve. This curve shows simultaneously the lowest price sellers are willing to accept for each quantity and the highest quantity sellers are willing to offer at each price. If, at a given quantity, the highest price that buyers are willing to pay is equal to the lowest price that sellers are willing to accept, we say the market has reached it




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
If, at a given quantity, the highest price that buyers are willing to pay is equal to the lowest price that sellers are willing to accept, we say the market has reached its equilibrium quantity.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS
supply function and its graphical equivalent, the supply curve. This curve shows simultaneously the lowest price sellers are willing to accept for each quantity and the highest quantity sellers are willing to offer at each price. <span>If, at a given quantity, the highest price that buyers are willing to pay is equal to the lowest price that sellers are willing to accept, we say the market has reached its equilibrium quantity. Alternatively, when the quantity that buyers are willing and able to purchase at a given price is just equal to the quantity that sellers are willing to offer at that same price, we say




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
equilibrium price and quantity are achieved simultaneously, and as long as neither the supply curve nor the demand curve shifts, there is no tendency for either price or quantity to vary from their equilibrium values.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS
ity. Alternatively, when the quantity that buyers are willing and able to purchase at a given price is just equal to the quantity that sellers are willing to offer at that same price, we say the market has discovered the equilibrium price. So <span>equilibrium price and quantity are achieved simultaneously, and as long as neither the supply curve nor the demand curve shifts, there is no tendency for either price or quantity to vary from their equilibrium values. <span><body><html>




Article 1425708027148

3.1. The Demand Function and the Demand Curve
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

We first analyze demand. The quantity consumers are willing to buy clearly depends on a number of different factors called variables. Perhaps the most important of those variables is the item’s own price. In general, economists believe that as the price of a good rises, buyers will choose to buy less of it, and as its price falls, they buy more. This is such a ubiquitous observation that it has come to be called the law of demand , although we shall see that it need not hold in all circumstances. Although a good’s own price is important in determining consumers’ willingness to purchase it, other variables also have influence on that decision, such as consumers’ incomes, their tastes and preferences, the prices of other goods that serve as substitutes or complements, and so on. Economists attempt to capture all of these influences in a relationship called the demand function . (In general, a function is a relationship that assigns a unique value to a dependent variable for any given set of values



#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
We first analyze demand. The quantity consumers are willing to buy clearly depends on a number of different factors called variables. Perhaps the most important of those variables is the item’s own price.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.1. The Demand Function and the Demand Curve
We first analyze demand. The quantity consumers are willing to buy clearly depends on a number of different factors called variables. Perhaps the most important of those variables is the item’s own price. In general, economists believe that as the price of a good rises, buyers will choose to buy less of it, and as its price falls, they buy more. This is such a ubiquitous observation that




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
In general, economists believe that as the price of a good rises, buyers will choose to buy less of it, and as its price falls, they buy more. This is such a ubiquitous observation that it has come to be called the law of demand , although we shall see that it need not hold in all circumstances.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.1. The Demand Function and the Demand Curve
head> We first analyze demand. The quantity consumers are willing to buy clearly depends on a number of different factors called variables. Perhaps the most important of those variables is the item’s own price. In general, economists believe that as the price of a good rises, buyers will choose to buy less of it, and as its price falls, they buy more. This is such a ubiquitous observation that it has come to be called the law of demand , although we shall see that it need not hold in all circumstances. Although a good’s own price is important in determining consumers’ willingness to purchase it, other variables also have influence on that decision, such as consumers’ inco




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Although a good’s own price is important in determining consumers’ willingness to purchase it, other variables also have influence on that decision, such as consumers’ incomes, their tastes and preferences, the prices of other goods that serve as substitutes or complements, and so on. Economists attempt to capture all of these influences in a relationship called the demand function .

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.1. The Demand Function and the Demand Curve
yers will choose to buy less of it, and as its price falls, they buy more. This is such a ubiquitous observation that it has come to be called the law of demand , although we shall see that it need not hold in all circumstances. <span>Although a good’s own price is important in determining consumers’ willingness to purchase it, other variables also have influence on that decision, such as consumers’ incomes, their tastes and preferences, the prices of other goods that serve as substitutes or complements, and so on. Economists attempt to capture all of these influences in a relationship called the demand function . (In general, a function is a relationship that assigns a unique value to a dependent variable for any given set of values of a group of independent variables.) We represent such a deman




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
In general, a function is a relationship that assigns a unique value to a dependent variable for any given set of values of a group of independent variables.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.1. The Demand Function and the Demand Curve
n, such as consumers’ incomes, their tastes and preferences, the prices of other goods that serve as substitutes or complements, and so on. Economists attempt to capture all of these influences in a relationship called the demand function . (<span>In general, a function is a relationship that assigns a unique value to a dependent variable for any given set of values of a group of independent variables.) We represent such a demand function in Equation 1: Equation (1)  Qdx=f(Px,I,Py,...) where Qdx represents the quantity demanded of some good X (su




Demand Function
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

Equation (1) 

Qdx=f(Px,I,Py,...)

Qdx = the quantity demanded of some good X (e.g. per household demand for gasoline in gallons per week),

Px = Price of good X

I = consumers’ income

Py is the price of another good, Y.

It may be read, “Quantity demanded of good X depends on (is a function of) the price of good X, consumers’ income, the price of good Y, and so on.”

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.1. The Demand Function and the Demand Curve
demand function . (In general, a function is a relationship that assigns a unique value to a dependent variable for any given set of values of a group of independent variables.) We represent such a demand function in Equation 1: <span>Equation (1)  Qdx=f(Px,I,Py,...) where Qdx represents the quantity demanded of some good X (such as per household demand for gasoline in gallons per week), P x is the price per unit of good X (such as $ per gallon), I is consumers’ income (as in $1,000s per household annually), and P y is the price of another good, Y. (There can be many other goods, not just one, and they can be complements or substitutes.) Equation 1 may be read, “Quantity demanded of good X depends on (is a function of) the price of good X, consumers’ income, the price of good Y, and so on.” Often, economists use simple linear equations to approximate real-world demand and supply functions in relevant ranges. A hypothetical example of a specific demand function




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

Often, economists use simple linear equations to approximate real-world demand and supply functions in relevant ranges. A hypothetical example of a specific demand function could be the following linear equation for a small town’s per-household gasoline consumption per week, where Py might be the average price of an automobile in $1,000s:

Equation (2) 

Qdx=8.4−0.4Px+0.06I−0.01Py

The signs of the coefficients on gasoline price (negative) and consumer’s income (positive) are intuitive, reflecting, respectively, an inverse and a positive relationship between those variables and quantity of gasoline consumed. The negative sign on average automobile price may indicate that if automobiles go up in price, fewer will be purchased and driven; hence less gasoline will be consumed. As will be discussed later, such a relationship would indicate that gasoline and automobiles have a negative cross-price elasticity of demand and are thus complements.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.1. The Demand Function and the Demand Curve
y other goods, not just one, and they can be complements or substitutes.) Equation 1 may be read, “Quantity demanded of good X depends on (is a function of) the price of good X, consumers’ income, the price of good Y, and so on.” <span>Often, economists use simple linear equations to approximate real-world demand and supply functions in relevant ranges. A hypothetical example of a specific demand function could be the following linear equation for a small town’s per-household gasoline consumption per week, where P y might be the average price of an automobile in $1,000s: Equation (2)  Qdx=8.4−0.4Px+0.06I−0.01Py The signs of the coefficients on gasoline price (negative) and consumer’s income (positive) are intuitive, reflecting, respectively, an inverse and a positive relationship between those variables and quantity of gasoline consumed. The negative sign on average automobile price may indicate that if automobiles go up in price, fewer will be purchased and driven; hence less gasoline will be consumed. As will be discussed later, such a relationship would indicate that gasoline and automobiles have a negative cross-price elasticity of demand and are thus complements. To continue our example, suppose that the price of gasoline (P x ) is $3 per gallon, per household income (I) is $50,000, and the price of the average automobile (P y ) is




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
To continue our example, suppose that the price of gasoline (Px) is $3 per gallon, per household income (I) is $50,000, and the price of the average automobile (Py) is $20,000. Then this function would predict that the per-household weekly demand for gasoline would be 10 gallons: 8.4 − 0.4(3) + 0.06(50) − 0.01(20) = 8.4 − 1.2 + 3 − 0.2 = 10, recalling that income and automobile prices are measured in thousands. Note that the sign on the own-price variable is negative, thus, as the price of gasoline rises, per household weekly consumption would decrease by 0.4 gallons for every dollar increase in gas price. Own-price is used by economists to underscore that the reference is to the price of a good itself and not the price of some other good.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.1. The Demand Function and the Demand Curve
e purchased and driven; hence less gasoline will be consumed. As will be discussed later, such a relationship would indicate that gasoline and automobiles have a negative cross-price elasticity of demand and are thus complements. <span>To continue our example, suppose that the price of gasoline (P x ) is $3 per gallon, per household income (I) is $50,000, and the price of the average automobile (P y ) is $20,000. Then this function would predict that the per-household weekly demand for gasoline would be 10 gallons: 8.4 − 0.4(3) + 0.06(50) − 0.01(20) = 8.4 − 1.2 + 3 − 0.2 = 10, recalling that income and automobile prices are measured in thousands. Note that the sign on the own-price variable is negative, thus, as the price of gasoline rises, per household weekly consumption would decrease by 0.4 gallons for every dollar increase in gas price. Own-price is used by economists to underscore that the reference is to the price of a good itself and not the price of some other good. In our example, there are three independent variables in the demand function, and one dependent variable. If any one of the independent variables changes, so does the value




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
In our example, there are three independent variables in the demand function, and one dependent variable. If any one of the independent variables changes, so does the value of quantity demanded. It is often desirable to concentrate on the relationship between the dependent variable and just one of the independent variables at a time, which allows us to represent the relationship between those two variables in a two-dimensional graph (at specific levels of the variables held constant). To accomplish this goal, we can simply hold the other two independent variables constant at their respective levels and rewrite the equation. In economic writing, this “holding constant” of the values of all variables except those being discussed is traditionally referred to by the Latin phrase ceteris paribus (literally, “all other things being equal” in the sense of “unchanged”). In this reading, we will use the phrase “holding all other things constant” as a readily understood equivalent for ceteris paribus.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.1. The Demand Function and the Demand Curve
ld weekly consumption would decrease by 0.4 gallons for every dollar increase in gas price. Own-price is used by economists to underscore that the reference is to the price of a good itself and not the price of some other good. <span>In our example, there are three independent variables in the demand function, and one dependent variable. If any one of the independent variables changes, so does the value of quantity demanded. It is often desirable to concentrate on the relationship between the dependent variable and just one of the independent variables at a time, which allows us to represent the relationship between those two variables in a two-dimensional graph (at specific levels of the variables held constant). To accomplish this goal, we can simply hold the other two independent variables constant at their respective levels and rewrite the equation. In economic writing, this “holding constant” of the values of all variables except those being discussed is traditionally referred to by the Latin phrase ceteris paribus (literally, “all other things being equal” in the sense of “unchanged”). In this reading, we will use the phrase “holding all other things constant” as a readily understood equivalent for ceteris paribus. Suppose, for example, that we want to concentrate on the relationship between the quantity demanded of the good and its own-price, P x . Then we would hold constant the val




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

Suppose, for example, that we want to concentrate on the relationship between the quantity demanded of the good and its own-price, Px. Then we would hold constant the values of income and the price of good Y. In our example, those values are 50 and 20, respectively. So, by inserting the respective values, we would rewrite Equation 2 as

Equation (3) 

Qdx=8.4−0.4Px+0.06(50)−0.01(20)=11.2−0.4Px

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.1. The Demand Function and the Demand Curve
n phrase ceteris paribus (literally, “all other things being equal” in the sense of “unchanged”). In this reading, we will use the phrase “holding all other things constant” as a readily understood equivalent for ceteris paribus. <span>Suppose, for example, that we want to concentrate on the relationship between the quantity demanded of the good and its own-price, P x . Then we would hold constant the values of income and the price of good Y. In our example, those values are 50 and 20, respectively. So, by inserting the respective values, we would rewrite Equation 2 as Equation (3)  Qdx=8.4−0.4Px+0.06(50)−0.01(20)=11.2−0.4Px Notice that income and the price of automobiles are not ignored; they are simply held constant, and they are “collected” in the new constant term, 11.2. Notice also that we




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #demand-function-and-demand-curve #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

Qdx=8.4−0.4Px+0.06(50)−0.01(20)=11.2−0.4Px

Notice that income and the price of automobiles are not ignored; they are simply held constant, and they are “collected” in the new constant term, 11.2. Notice also that we can rearrange Equation 3, solving for Px in terms of Qx. This operation is called “inverting the demand function,” and gives us Equation 4. (You should be able to perform this algebraic exercise to verify the result.)

Equation (4) 

Px = 28 – 2.5Qx  

Equation 4, which gives the per-gallon price of gasoline as a function of gasoline consumed per week, is referred to as the inverse demand function . We need to restrict Qx in Equation 4 to be less than or equal to 11.2 so price is not negative. Henceforward we assume that the reader can work out similar needed qualifications to the valid application of equations. The graph of the inverse demand function is called the demand curve , and is shown in Exhibit 1.1

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.1. The Demand Function and the Demand Curve
Then we would hold constant the values of income and the price of good Y. In our example, those values are 50 and 20, respectively. So, by inserting the respective values, we would rewrite Equation 2 as Equation (3)  <span>Qdx=8.4−0.4Px+0.06(50)−0.01(20)=11.2−0.4Px Notice that income and the price of automobiles are not ignored; they are simply held constant, and they are “collected” in the new constant term, 11.2. Notice also that we can rearrange Equation 3, solving for P x in terms of Q x . This operation is called “inverting the demand function,” and gives us Equation 4. (You should be able to perform this algebraic exercise to verify the result.) Equation (4)  P x = 28 – 2.5Q x   Equation 4, which gives the per-gallon price of gasoline as a function of gasoline consumed per week, is referred to as the inverse demand function . We need to restrict Q x in Equation 4 to be less than or equal to 11.2 so price is not negative. Henceforward we assume that the reader can work out similar needed qualifications to the valid application of equations. The graph of the inverse demand function is called the demand curve , and is shown in Exhibit 1.1 Exhibit 1. Household Demand Curve for Gasoline This demand curve is drawn with price on the vertical axis and quantity on the horizontal




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Exhibit 1. Household Demand Curve for Gasoline

This demand curve is drawn with price on the vertical axis and quantity on the horizontal axis. Depending on how we interpret it, the demand curve shows either the highest quantity a household would buy at a given price or the highest price it would be willing to pay for a given quantity. In our example, at a price of $3 per gallon households would each be willing to buy 10 gallons per week. Alternatively, the highest price they would be willing to pay for 10 gallons per week is $3 per gallon. Both interpretations are valid, and we will be thinking in terms of both as we proceed. If the price were to rise by $1, households would reduce the quantity they each bought by 0.4 units to 9.6 gallons. We say that the slope of the demand curve is 1/−0.4, or –2.5. Slope is always measured as “rise over run,” or the change in the vertical variable divided by the change in the horizontal variable. In this case, the slope of the demand curve is ΔPQ, where “Δ” stands for “the change in.” The change in price was $1, and it is associated with a change in quantity of negative 0.4

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.1. The Demand Function and the Demand Curve
ive. Henceforward we assume that the reader can work out similar needed qualifications to the valid application of equations. The graph of the inverse demand function is called the demand curve , and is shown in Exhibit 1.1 <span>Exhibit 1. Household Demand Curve for Gasoline This demand curve is drawn with price on the vertical axis and quantity on the horizontal axis. Depending on how we interpret it, the demand curve shows either the highest quantity a household would buy at a given price or the highest price it would be willing to pay for a given quantity. In our example, at a price of $3 per gallon households would each be willing to buy 10 gallons per week. Alternatively, the highest price they would be willing to pay for 10 gallons per week is $3 per gallon. Both interpretations are valid, and we will be thinking in terms of both as we proceed. If the price were to rise by $1, households would reduce the quantity they each bought by 0.4 units to 9.6 gallons. We say that the slope of the demand curve is 1/−0.4, or –2.5. Slope is always measured as “rise over run,” or the change in the vertical variable divided by the change in the horizontal variable. In this case, the slope of the demand curve is ΔP/ΔQ, where “Δ” stands for “the change in.” The change in price was $1, and it is associated with a change in quantity of negative 0.4 <span><body><html>




#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Inverse demand function is a restatement of the demand function in which price is stated as a function of quantity.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on




Article 1425729260812


#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

3.2. Changes in Demand vs. Movements along the Demand Curve As we just saw, when own-price changes, quantity demanded changes. This change is called a movement along the demand curve or a change in quantity demanded, and it comes only from a change in own price. Recall that to draw the demand curve, though, we had to hold everything except quantity and own-price constant. What would happen if income were to change by some amount? Suppose that household income rose by $10,000 per year to a value of 60. Then the value of Equation 3 would change to Equation (5)  Qdx=8.4−0.4Px+0.06(60)−0.01(20)=11.8−0.4Px and Equation 4 would become the new inverse demand function: Equation (6)  P x = 29.5 – 2.5Q x   Notice that the slope has remained constant, but the intercepts have both increased, resulting in an outward shift in the demand curve, as shown in Exhibit 2. Exhibit 2. Household Demand Curve for Gasoline before and after Change in Income In general, the only



#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
the only thing that can cause a movement along the demand curve is a change in a good’s own-price

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Open it
rcepts have both increased, resulting in an outward shift in the demand curve, as shown in Exhibit 2. Exhibit 2. Household Demand Curve for Gasoline before and after Change in Income In general, <span>the only thing that can cause a movement along the demand curve is a change in a good’s own-price. A change in the value of any other variable will shift the entire demand curve. The former is referred to as a change in quantity demanded, and the latter is referred to as a change in




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
A change in a good’s own-price causes a movement along the demand curve, this is referred to as a change in quantity demanded,

A change in the value of any other variable will shift the entire demand curve. This is referred to as a change in demand.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Open it
but the intercepts have both increased, resulting in an outward shift in the demand curve, as shown in Exhibit 2. Exhibit 2. Household Demand Curve for Gasoline before and after Change in Income <span>In general, the only thing that can cause a movement along the demand curve is a change in a good’s own-price. A change in the value of any other variable will shift the entire demand curve. The former is referred to as a change in quantity demanded, and the latter is referred to as a change in demand. More importantly, the shift in demand was both a vertical shift upward and a horizontal shift to the right. That is to say, for any given quantity, the household is now wil




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #changes-in-demand-vs-movements-along-the-demand-curve #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
More importantly, the shift in demand was both a vertical shift upward and a horizontal shift to the right. That is to say, for any given quantity, the household is now willing to pay a higher price; and at any given price, the household is now willing to buy a greater quantity. Both interpretations of the shift in demand are valid.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Open it
e is a change in a good’s own-price. A change in the value of any other variable will shift the entire demand curve. The former is referred to as a change in quantity demanded, and the latter is referred to as a change in demand. <span>More importantly, the shift in demand was both a vertical shift upward and a horizontal shift to the right. That is to say, for any given quantity, the household is now willing to pay a higher price; and at any given price, the household is now willing to buy a greater quantity. Both interpretations of the shift in demand are valid. EXAMPLE 2 Representing Consumer Buying Behavior with a Demand Function and Demand Curve An individual consumer’s monthly demand for dow




Article 1425736076556

3.3. The Supply Function and the Supply Curve
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

The willingness and ability to sell a good or service is called supply. In general, producers are willing to sell their product for a price as long as that price is at least as high as the cost to produce an additional unit of the product. It follows that the willingness to supply, called the supply function , depends on the price at which the good can be sold as well as the cost of production for an additional unit of the good. The greater the difference between those two values, the greater is the willingness of producers to supply the good. In another reading, we will explore the cost of production in greater detail. At this point, we need to understand only the basics of cost. At its simplest level, production of a good consists of transforming inputs, or factors of production (such as land, labor, capital, and materials) into finished goods and services. Economists refer to the “rules” that govern this transformation as the technology of production . Because producers have to purchase in



#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
In general, producers are willing to sell their product for a price as long as that price is at least as high as the cost to produce an additional unit of the product.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.3. The Supply Function and the Supply Curve
The willingness and ability to sell a good or service is called supply. In general, producers are willing to sell their product for a price as long as that price is at least as high as the cost to produce an additional unit of the product. It follows that the willingness to supply, called the supply function , depends on the price at which the good can be sold as well as the cost of production for an additional unit of t




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
the supply function , depends on the price at which the good can be sold as well as the cost of production for an additional unit of the good. The greater the difference between those two values, the greater is the willingness of producers to supply the good.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.3. The Supply Function and the Supply Curve
ervice is called supply. In general, producers are willing to sell their product for a price as long as that price is at least as high as the cost to produce an additional unit of the product. It follows that the willingness to supply, called <span>the supply function , depends on the price at which the good can be sold as well as the cost of production for an additional unit of the good. The greater the difference between those two values, the greater is the willingness of producers to supply the good. In another reading, we will explore the cost of production in greater detail. At this point, we need to understand only the basics of cost. At its simplest level, productio




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
At its simplest level, production of a good consists of transforming inputs, or factors of production (such as land, labor, capital, and materials) into finished goods and services. Economists refer to the “rules” that govern this transformation as the technology of production . Because producers have to purchase inputs in factor markets, the cost of production depends on both the technology and the price of those factors.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.3. The Supply Function and the Supply Curve
between those two values, the greater is the willingness of producers to supply the good. In another reading, we will explore the cost of production in greater detail. At this point, we need to understand only the basics of cost. <span>At its simplest level, production of a good consists of transforming inputs, or factors of production (such as land, labor, capital, and materials) into finished goods and services. Economists refer to the “rules” that govern this transformation as the technology of production . Because producers have to purchase inputs in factor markets, the cost of production depends on both the technology and the price of those factors. Clearly, willingness to supply is dependent on not only the price of a producer’s output, but also additionally on the prices (i.e., costs) of the inputs necessary to produce it. For si




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Clearly, willingness to supply is dependent on not only the price of a producer’s output, but also additionally on the prices (i.e., costs) of the inputs necessary to produce it. For simplicity, we can assume that the only input in a production process is labor that must be purchased in the labor market. The price of an hour of labor is the wage rate, or W. Hence, we can say that (for any given level of technology) the willingness to supply a good depends on the price of that good and the wage rate.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.3. The Supply Function and the Supply Curve
nomists refer to the “rules” that govern this transformation as the technology of production . Because producers have to purchase inputs in factor markets, the cost of production depends on both the technology and the price of those factors. <span>Clearly, willingness to supply is dependent on not only the price of a producer’s output, but also additionally on the prices (i.e., costs) of the inputs necessary to produce it. For simplicity, we can assume that the only input in a production process is labor that must be purchased in the labor market. The price of an hour of labor is the wage rate, or W. Hence, we can say that (for any given level of technology) the willingness to supply a good depends on the price of that good and the wage rate. This concept is captured in the following equation, which represents an individual seller’s supply function: Equation (7)  Qsx=f(Px,W,…) where Qsx




Supply Function
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

This concept is captured in the following equation, which represents an individual seller’s supply function:

Equation (7) 

Qsx=f(Px,W,…)

where Qsx is the quantity supplied of some good X, such as gasoline, Px is the price per unit of good X, and W is the wage rate of labor in, say, dollars per hour. It would be read, “The quantity supplied of good X depends on (is a function of) the price of X (its “own” price), the wage rate paid to labor, etc.”

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.3. The Supply Function and the Supply Curve
that must be purchased in the labor market. The price of an hour of labor is the wage rate, or W. Hence, we can say that (for any given level of technology) the willingness to supply a good depends on the price of that good and the wage rate. <span>This concept is captured in the following equation, which represents an individual seller’s supply function: Equation (7)  Qsx=f(Px,W,…) where Qsx is the quantity supplied of some good X, such as gasoline, P x is the price per unit of good X, and W is the wage rate of labor in, say, dollars per hour. It would be read, “The quantity supplied of good X depends on (is a function of) the price of X (its “own” price), the wage rate paid to labor, etc.” Just as with the demand function, we can consider a simple hypothetical example of a seller’s supply function. As mentioned earlier, economists often will simplify their an




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

Qsx=−175+250Px−5W

Notice that this supply function says that for every increase in price of $1, this seller would be willing to supply an additional 250 units of the good. Additionally, for every $1 increase in wage rate that it must pay its laborers, this seller would experience an increase in marginal cost and would be willing to supply five fewer units of the good.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.3. The Supply Function and the Supply Curve
unctions, although that is not to say that all demand and supply functions are necessarily linear. One hypothetical example of an individual seller’s supply function for gasoline is given in Equation 8: Equation (8)  <span>Qsx=−175+250Px−5W Notice that this supply function says that for every increase in price of $1, this seller would be willing to supply an additional 250 units of the good. Additionally, for every $1 increase in wage rate that it must pay its laborers, this seller would experience an increase in marginal cost and would be willing to supply five fewer units of the good. We might be interested in the relationship between only two of these variables, price and quantity supplied. Just as we did in the case of the demand function, we use the a




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
The graph of the inverse supply function is called the supply curve , and it shows simultaneously the highest quantity willingly supplied at each price and the lowest price willingly accepted for each quantity.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.3. The Supply Function and the Supply Curve
nly the two variables Qsx and P x appear. Once again, we can solve this equation for P x in terms of Qsx , which yields the inverse supply function in Equation 10: Equation (10)  P x = 1 + 0.004Q x   <span>The graph of the inverse supply function is called the supply curve , and it shows simultaneously the highest quantity willingly supplied at each price and the lowest price willingly accepted for each quantity. For example, if the price of gasoline were $3 per gallon, Equation 9 implies that this seller would be willing to sell 500 gallons per week. Alternatively, the lowest price she would ac




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
a change in the (own) price of a product causes a change in the quantity of that good willingly supplied. A rise in price typically results in a greater quantity supplied, and a lower price results in a lower quantity supplied. Hence, the supply curve has a positive slope, in contrast to the negative slope of a demand curve. This positive relationship is often referred to as the law of supply .

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

3.3. The Supply Function and the Supply Curve
ek. The increase in price has enticed the seller to supply a greater quantity of gasoline per week than at the lower price. 3.4. Changes in Supply vs. Movements along the Supply Curve As we saw earlier, <span>a change in the (own) price of a product causes a change in the quantity of that good willingly supplied. A rise in price typically results in a greater quantity supplied, and a lower price results in a lower quantity supplied. Hence, the supply curve has a positive slope, in contrast to the negative slope of a demand curve. This positive relationship is often referred to as the law of supply . What happens when a variable other than own-price takes on different values? We could answer this question in our example by assuming a different value for wage rate, say,