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Flashcard 1429130317068

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Humans are [...] and therefore have something to say.
Answer
rational


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humans alone among animals have the power to think. Consequently, they alone have language in the proper sense of the word. 1 This follows from their nature, for they are rational and therefore have something to say, social and therefore have someone to say it to, and animal and therefore require a physical mode of communicating ideas from one mind, which

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Flashcard 1602954857740

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #fra-introduction #income-statement
Question

For the calculation of diluted EPS using Treasury Method, at what price are the repurchase of shares estimated?

Answer
at the weighted average market price


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6.3.3. Diluted EPS When a Company Has Stock Options, Warrants, or Their Equivalents Outstanding
ld have been purchased with the proceeds. This method is called the treasury stock method under US GAAP because companies typically hold repurchased shares as treasury stock. The same method is used under IFRS but is not named. <span>For the calculation of diluted EPS using this method, the assumed exercise of these financial instruments would have the following effects: The company is assumed to receive cash upon exercise and, in exchange, to issue shares. The company is assumed to use the cash proceeds to repurchase shares at the weighted average market price during the period. As a result of these two effects, the number of shares outstanding would increase by the incremental number of shares issued (the difference between the number of s







In patients with AKI and oliguria, the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) may be helpful in differentiating between prerenal AKI and AKI from renal tubular cell damage or acute tubular necrosis (ATN).

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Flashcard 1634861976844

Question
In patients with AKI and oliguria, the [...] may be helpful in differentiating between prerenal AKI and AKI from renal tubular cell damage or acute tubular necrosis (ATN).
Answer
fractional excretion of sodium (FENa)


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In patients with AKI and oliguria, the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) may be helpful in differentiating between prerenal AKI and AKI from renal tubular cell damage or acute tubular necrosis (ATN).

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FENa measures the percent of filtered sodium excreted in the urine and is calculated as (USodium × PCr)/(UCr× PSodium) × 100. It is considered a more accurate measurement of kidney sodium avidity in prerenal states than the urine sodium concentration

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Flashcard 1634865122572

Question
FENa measures the percent of filtered sodium excreted in the urine and is calculated as [...] It is considered a more accurate measurement of kidney sodium avidity in prerenal states than the urine sodium concentration
Answer
(USodium × PCr)/(UCr× PSodium) × 100.


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FENa measures the percent of filtered sodium excreted in the urine and is calculated as (USodium × PCr)/(UCr× PSodium) × 100. It is considered a more accurate measurement of kidney sodium avidity in prerenal states than the urine sodium concentration

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FENa is less reliable when diuretics are being used because the urine sodium may not accurately reflect attempts by the kidney to retain sodium

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Flashcard 1634868530444

Question
FENa is less reliable when [...] are being used because the urine sodium may not accurately reflect attempts by the kidney to retain sodium
Answer
diuretics


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FENa is less reliable when diuretics are being used because the urine sodium may not accurately reflect attempts by the kidney to retain sodium

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FENa is less reliable to differentiate between prerenal and ATN if the patient use diuretics , so better to use FEUrea which is not affected by diuretics

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Flashcard 1634871676172

Question
FEUrea is calculated as [...], with values <35% suggesting a prerenal state.
Answer
(UUrea × PCr)/(UCr × PUrea) × 100


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FEUrea is calculated as (UUrea × PCr)/(UCr × PUrea) × 100, with values <35% suggesting a prerenal state.

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Flashcard 1634873249036

Question
FEUrea is calculated as (UUrea × PCr)/(UCr × PUrea) × 100, with values [...] suggesting a prerenal state.
Answer
<35%


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FEUrea is calculated as (UUrea × PCr)/(UCr × PUrea) × 100, with values <35% suggesting a prerenal state.

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Flashcard 1634874821900

Question
FEUrea is calculated as (UUrea × PCr)/(UCr × PUrea) × 100, with values <35% suggesting a [...]
Answer
prerenal state.


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FEUrea is calculated as (UUrea × PCr)/(UCr × PUrea) × 100, with values <35% suggesting a prerenal state.

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Flashcard 1634877181196

Question
FENa is less reliable to differentiate between prerenal and ATN if the patient use [...] , so better to use FEUrea which is not affected by diuretics
Answer
diuretics


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FENa is less reliable to differentiate between prerenal and ATN if the patient use diuretics , so better to use FEUrea which is not affected by diuretics

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Flashcard 1634878754060

Question
FENa is less reliable to differentiate between prerenal and ATN if the patient use diuretics , so better to use [...] which is not affected by diuretics
Answer
FEUrea


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FENa is less reliable to differentiate between prerenal and ATN if the patient use diuretics , so better to use FEUrea which is not affected by diuretics

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Most patients with class III lupus nephritis and all patients with class IV lupus nephritis benefit from aggressive combination immunosuppressive therap

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Flashcard 1634882424076

Question
Most patients with class [...] lupus nephritis and all patients with class IV lupus nephritis benefit from aggressive combination immunosuppressive therap
Answer
III


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Most patients with class III lupus nephritis and all patients with class IV lupus nephritis benefit from aggressive combination immunosuppressive therap

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Flashcard 1634883996940

Question
Most patients with class III lupus nephritis and all patients with class [...] lupus nephritis benefit from aggressive combination immunosuppressive therap
Answer
IV


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Most patients with class III lupus nephritis and all patients with class IV lupus nephritis benefit from aggressive combination immunosuppressive therap

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Flashcard 1634885569804

Question
Most patients with class III lupus nephritis and all patients with class IV lupus nephritis benefit from aggressive [...] therap
Answer
combination immunosuppressive


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Most patients with class III lupus nephritis and all patients with class IV lupus nephritis benefit from aggressive combination immunosuppressive therap

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Patients with class I or II LN may have minimal or no kidney findings, and those with classes III and IV present with varying degrees of the nephritic syndrome. Patients with class V LN present predominantly with proteinuria. Class VI is the end stage of long-standing LN.

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Flashcard 1634889239820

Question
Patients with class I or II LN may have [...] kidney findings, and those with classes III and IV present with varying degrees of the nephritic syndrome. Patients with class V LN present predominantly with proteinuria. Class VI is the end stage of long-standing LN.
Answer
minimal or no


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Patients with class I or II LN may have minimal or no kidney findings, and those with classes III and IV present with varying degrees of the nephritic syndrome. Patients with class V LN present predominantly with prot

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Flashcard 1634890812684

Question
Patients with class I or II LN may have minimal or no kidney findings, and those with classes III and IV present with varying degrees of the [...] syndrome. Patients with class V LN present predominantly with proteinuria. Class VI is the end stage of long-standing LN.
Answer
nephritic


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Patients with class I or II LN may have minimal or no kidney findings, and those with classes III and IV present with varying degrees of the nephritic syndrome. Patients with class V LN present predominantly with proteinuria. Class VI is the end stage of long-standing LN.

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Flashcard 1634892385548

Question
Patients with class I or II LN may have minimal or no kidney findings, and those with classes III and IV present with varying degrees of the nephritic syndrome. Patients with class V LN present predominantly with [...]. Class VI is the end stage of long-standing LN.
Answer
proteinuria


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Patients with class I or II LN may have minimal or no kidney findings, and those with classes III and IV present with varying degrees of the nephritic syndrome. Patients with class V LN present predominantly with proteinuria. Class VI is the end stage of long-standing LN.<span><body><html>

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Class IV LN represents diffuse glomerular involvement and is the most common and severe form of nephritis associated with lupus. It is also associated with elevated anti–double stranded DNA antibody levels and hypocomplementemia, particularly during periods of active disease.

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Flashcard 1634895531276

Question
Class IV LN represents [...] involvement and is the most common and severe form of nephritis associated with lupus. It is also associated with elevated anti–double stranded DNA antibody levels and hypocomplementemia, particularly during periods of active disease.
Answer
diffuse glomerular


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Class IV LN represents diffuse glomerular involvement and is the most common and severe form of nephritis associated with lupus. It is also associated with elevated anti–double stranded DNA antibody lev

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Flashcard 1634897104140

Question
Class IV LN represents diffuse glomerular involvement and is the most common and severe form of nephritis associated with lupus. It is also associated with elevated [...], particularly during periods of active disease.
Answer
anti–double stranded DNA antibody levels and hypocomplementemia


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Class IV LN represents diffuse glomerular involvement and is the most common and severe form of nephritis associated with lupus. It is also associated with elevated anti–double stranded DNA antibody levels and hypocomplementemia, particularly during periods of active disease.

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The optimal initial therapy is to increase glucocorticoid doses (typically an intravenous pulse followed by a tapering oral dose), which is accompanied by either intravenous cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil

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Flashcard 1634900249868

Question
what is the treatment of flare of type III LN or type IV LN ?
Answer
The optimal initial therapy is to increase glucocorticoid doses (typically an intravenous pulse followed by a tapering oral dose), which is accompanied by either intravenous cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil


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The optimal initial therapy is to increase glucocorticoid doses (typically an intravenous pulse followed by a tapering oral dose), which is accompanied by either intravenous cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil

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The addition of plasmapheresis to immunosuppressive therapy has not been shown to improve outcomes in patients with LN.

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Flashcard 1634904444172

Question
The addition of plasmapheresis to immunosuppressive therapy has [...] shown to improve outcomes in patients with LN.
Answer
not been


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The addition of plasmapheresis to immunosuppressive therapy has not been shown to improve outcomes in patients with LN.

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treatment goal of <150/90 mm Hg for patients with hypertension who are ≥60 years

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Flashcard 1634907852044

Question
treatment goal of [...] mm Hg for patients with hypertension who are ≥60 years
Answer
<150/90


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treatment goal of <150/90 mm Hg for patients with hypertension who are ≥60 years

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Flashcard 1634909424908

Question
treatment goal of <150/90 mm Hg for patients with hypertension who are [...] years
Answer
≥60


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treatment goal of <150/90 mm Hg for patients with hypertension who are ≥60 years

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infection-related glomerulonephritis (IRGN) following a streptococcal infection. Supportive evidence includes preceding symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection suggestive of streptococci (rapid streptococcal antigen test is positive and antistreptolysin O antibodies are elevated), followed by the nephritic syndrome in 1 week, and low C3 levels with normal C4 levels (suggesting an alternative pathway of complement activation, which is typical of IRGN).

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Flashcard 1634912832780

Question
infection-related glomerulonephritis (IRGN) following a streptococcal infection. Supportive evidence includes preceding symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection suggestive of streptococci (rapid streptococcal antigen test is positive and antistreptolysin O antibodies are elevated), followed by the nephritic syndrome in 1 week, and [...] C3 levels with normal C4 levels (suggesting an alternative pathway of complement activation, which is typical of IRGN).
Answer
low


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ing symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection suggestive of streptococci (rapid streptococcal antigen test is positive and antistreptolysin O antibodies are elevated), followed by the nephritic syndrome in 1 week, and <span>low C3 levels with normal C4 levels (suggesting an alternative pathway of complement activation, which is typical of IRGN).<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1634914405644

Question
infection-related glomerulonephritis (IRGN) following a streptococcal infection. Supportive evidence includes preceding symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection suggestive of streptococci (rapid streptococcal antigen test is positive and antistreptolysin O antibodies are elevated), followed by the nephritic syndrome in 1 week, and low C3 levels with [...] C4 levels (suggesting an alternative pathway of complement activation, which is typical of IRGN).
Answer
normal


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upper respiratory tract infection suggestive of streptococci (rapid streptococcal antigen test is positive and antistreptolysin O antibodies are elevated), followed by the nephritic syndrome in 1 week, and low C3 levels with <span>normal C4 levels (suggesting an alternative pathway of complement activation, which is typical of IRGN).<span><body><html>

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IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria with or without proteinuria is the most common presentation of IgAN, and episodic gross hematuria following an upper respiratory tract infection is a classic presentation. Kidney manifestations usually occur concomitantly with the respiratory infection in IgAN (“synpharyngitic” nephritis), as opposed to the typical 7- to 10-day latent period with IRGN. Moreover, complement levels are typically normal in IgAN, whereas C3 is typically low and C4 is normal in IRGN

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Flashcard 1634917813516

Question
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria with or without proteinuria is the most common presentation of IgAN, and episodic gross hematuria following an upper respiratory tract infection is a classic presentation. Kidney manifestations usually occur concomitantly with the respiratory infection in IgAN (“synpharyngitic” nephritis), as opposed to the typical [...]-day latent period with IRGN. Moreover, complement levels are typically normal in IgAN, whereas C3 is typically low and C4 is normal in IRGN
Answer
7- to 10


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hematuria following an upper respiratory tract infection is a classic presentation. Kidney manifestations usually occur concomitantly with the respiratory infection in IgAN (“synpharyngitic” nephritis), as opposed to the typical <span>7- to 10-day latent period with IRGN. Moreover, complement levels are typically normal in IgAN, whereas C3 is typically low and C4 is normal in IRGN<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1634919386380

Question
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria with or without proteinuria is the most common presentation of IgAN, and episodic gross hematuria following an upper respiratory tract infection is a classic presentation. Kidney manifestations usually occur concomitantly with the respiratory infection in IgAN (“synpharyngitic” nephritis), as opposed to the typical 7- to 10-day latent period with IRGN. Moreover, complement levels are typically [...] in IgAN, whereas C3 is typically low and C4 is normal in IRGN
Answer
normal


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presentation. Kidney manifestations usually occur concomitantly with the respiratory infection in IgAN (“synpharyngitic” nephritis), as opposed to the typical 7- to 10-day latent period with IRGN. Moreover, complement levels are typically <span>normal in IgAN, whereas C3 is typically low and C4 is normal in IRGN<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1634920959244

Question
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria with or without proteinuria is the most common presentation of IgAN, and episodic gross hematuria following an upper respiratory tract infection is a classic presentation. Kidney manifestations usually occur concomitantly with the respiratory infection in IgAN (“synpharyngitic” nephritis), as opposed to the typical 7- to 10-day latent period with IRGN. Moreover, complement levels are typically normal in IgAN, whereas C3 is typically [...] and C4 is normal in IRGN
Answer
low


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ally occur concomitantly with the respiratory infection in IgAN (“synpharyngitic” nephritis), as opposed to the typical 7- to 10-day latent period with IRGN. Moreover, complement levels are typically normal in IgAN, whereas C3 is typically <span>low and C4 is normal in IRGN<span><body><html>

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Lupus nephritis may occasionally be precipitated by infections. Patients with lupus typically experience systemic manifestations such as rash and arthritis, although kidney-limited disease is sometimes seen. Both C3 and C4 complement levels are depressed in this condition due to the classical pathway of complement being activated.

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Flashcard 1634924891404

Question
Lupus nephritis may occasionally be precipitated by infections. Patients with lupus typically experience systemic manifestations such as rash and arthritis, although kidney-limited disease is sometimes seen. Both C3 and C4 complement levels are [...] in this condition due to the classical pathway of complement being activated.
Answer
depressed


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nephritis may occasionally be precipitated by infections. Patients with lupus typically experience systemic manifestations such as rash and arthritis, although kidney-limited disease is sometimes seen. Both C3 and C4 complement levels are <span>depressed in this condition due to the classical pathway of complement being activated. <span><body><html>

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Small-vessel vasculitis is also associated with glomerulonephritis. However, there are frequently other clinical findings of vasculitis present, and complement levels are typically normal.

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Flashcard 1634928037132

Question
Small-vessel vasculitis is also associated with glomerulonephritis. However, there are frequently other clinical findings of vasculitis present, and complement levels are typically [...].
Answer
normal


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Small-vessel vasculitis is also associated with glomerulonephritis. However, there are frequently other clinical findings of vasculitis present, and complement levels are typically normal.

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Orlistat may be a cause of acute kidney injury by triggering acute oxalate nephropathy, particularly in patients with volume depletion or chronic kidney disease

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Flashcard 1634931707148

Question
Orlistat may be a cause of acute kidney injury by triggering acute [...] nephropathy, particularly in patients with volume depletion or chronic kidney disease
Answer
oxalate


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Orlistat may be a cause of acute kidney injury by triggering acute oxalate nephropathy, particularly in patients with volume depletion or chronic kidney disease

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Flashcard 1634933280012

Question
Orlistat may be a cause of acute kidney injury by triggering acute oxalate nephropathy, particularly in patients with [...]
Answer
volume depletion or chronic kidney disease


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Orlistat may be a cause of acute kidney injury by triggering acute oxalate nephropathy, particularly in patients with volume depletion or chronic kidney disease

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The clinical presentation of MG is indistinguishable from other causes of the nephrotic syndrome, although the propensity for venous thromboembolism, and particularly renal vein thrombosis, is much higher in MG than other disorders associated with the nephrotic syndrome, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or minimal change glomerulopathy

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Flashcard 1634938260748

Question
The clinical presentation of MG is indistinguishable from other causes of the nephrotic syndrome, although the propensity for venous thromboembolism, and particularly [...], is much higher in MG than other disorders associated with the nephrotic syndrome, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or minimal change glomerulopathy
Answer
renal vein thrombosis


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The clinical presentation of MG is indistinguishable from other causes of the nephrotic syndrome, although the propensity for venous thromboembolism, and particularly renal vein thrombosis, is much higher in MG than other disorders associated with the nephrotic syndrome, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or minimal change glomerulopathy</ht

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prophylactic anticoagulation is frequently given to patients with MG with a serum albumin level of ≤2.8 g/dL (28 g/L)

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Flashcard 1634941930764

Question
prophylactic anticoagulation is frequently given to patients with MG with a serum albumin level of ≤[...]
Answer
2.8 g/dL (28 g/L)


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prophylactic anticoagulation is frequently given to patients with MG with a serum albumin level of ≤2.8 g/dL (28 g/L)

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MG is the most common cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in adult white persons but may also be associated with infections, systemic lupus erythematosus, medications, and certain malignancies.

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Flashcard 1634945076492

Question
MG is the most common cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in adult white persons but may also be associated with [...]
Answer
infections, systemic lupus erythematosus, medications, and certain malignancies.


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MG is the most common cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in adult white persons but may also be associated with infections, systemic lupus erythematosus, medications, and certain malignancies.

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The diagnosis of white coat hypertension is applied to patients with average blood pressure readings ≥140/90 mm Hg in the office and average readings <135/85 mm Hg as determined by ABPM

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Flashcard 1634948746508

Question
The diagnosis of white coat hypertension is applied to patients with average blood pressure readings [...] mm Hg in the office and average readings <135/85 mm Hg as determined by ABPM
Answer
≥140/90


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The diagnosis of white coat hypertension is applied to patients with average blood pressure readings ≥140/90 mm Hg in the office and average readings <135/85 mm Hg as determined by ABPM

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Flashcard 1634950319372

Question
The diagnosis of white coat hypertension is applied to patients with average blood pressure readings ≥140/90 mm Hg in the office and average readings [...] mm Hg as determined by ABPM
Answer
<135/85


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The diagnosis of white coat hypertension is applied to patients with average blood pressure readings ≥140/90 mm Hg in the office and average readings <135/85 mm Hg as determined by ABPM

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Two anti-vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, bevacizumab and sunitinib, have been linked to thrombotic microangiopathy, which typically subsides after stopping the drug.

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Flashcard 1634953727244

Question
Two anti-vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, [...], have been linked to thrombotic microangiopathy, which typically subsides after stopping the drug.
Answer
bevacizumab and sunitinib


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Two anti-vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, bevacizumab and sunitinib, have been linked to thrombotic microangiopathy, which typically subsides after stopping the drug.

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All patients with stage G4 or G5 chronic kidney disease should be referred to a nephrologist for management, and referral for transplant evaluation is indicated once the estimated glomerular filtration rate is below 20 mL/min/1.73 m 2 .

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Flashcard 1634957135116

Question
All patients with stage G4 or G5 chronic kidney disease should be referred to a nephrologist for management, and referral for transplant evaluation is indicated once the estimated glomerular filtration rate is below [...] mL/min/1.73 m 2 .
Answer
20


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/head>All patients with stage G4 or G5 chronic kidney disease should be referred to a nephrologist for management, and referral for transplant evaluation is indicated once the estimated glomerular filtration rate is below 20 mL/min/1.73 m 2 .<html>

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Abdominal compartment syndrome should be suspected in patients with oliguria or increasing serum creatinine levels who have had abdominal surgery, who have received massive fluid resuscitation, who have a tense abdomen, or who have liver or pancreatic disease with ascites.

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Flashcard 1634961067276

Question
Abdominal compartment syndrome should be suspected in patients with oliguria or increasing serum creatinine levels who have had [...], who have received massive fluid resuscitation, who have a tense abdomen, or who have liver or pancreatic disease with ascites.
Answer
abdominal surgery


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Abdominal compartment syndrome should be suspected in patients with oliguria or increasing serum creatinine levels who have had abdominal surgery, who have received massive fluid resuscitation, who have a tense abdomen, or who have liver or pancreatic disease with ascites.

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Flashcard 1634962640140

Question
Abdominal compartment syndrome should be suspected in patients with oliguria or increasing serum creatinine levels who have had abdominal surgery, who have received massive [...], who have a tense abdomen, or who have liver or pancreatic disease with ascites.
Answer
fluid resuscitation


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Abdominal compartment syndrome should be suspected in patients with oliguria or increasing serum creatinine levels who have had abdominal surgery, who have received massive fluid resuscitation, who have a tense abdomen, or who have liver or pancreatic disease with ascites.

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Flashcard 1634964213004

Question
Abdominal compartment syndrome should be suspected in patients with oliguria or increasing serum creatinine levels who have had abdominal surgery, who have received massive fluid resuscitation, who have a [...] abdomen, or who have liver or pancreatic disease with ascites.
Answer
tense


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html>Abdominal compartment syndrome should be suspected in patients with oliguria or increasing serum creatinine levels who have had abdominal surgery, who have received massive fluid resuscitation, who have a tense abdomen, or who have liver or pancreatic disease with ascites. <html>

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Flashcard 1634966048012

Question
Abdominal compartment syndrome should be suspected in patients with oliguria or increasing serum creatinine levels who have had abdominal surgery, who have received massive fluid resuscitation, who have a tense abdomen, or who have [...]
Answer
liver or pancreatic disease with ascites.


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n>Abdominal compartment syndrome should be suspected in patients with oliguria or increasing serum creatinine levels who have had abdominal surgery, who have received massive fluid resuscitation, who have a tense abdomen, or who have liver or pancreatic disease with ascites. <span><body><html>

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ACS is typically defined as new organ dysfunction with an intra-abdominal pressure >20 mm Hg

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Flashcard 1634969718028

Question
ACS is typically defined as new organ dysfunction with an intra-abdominal pressure [...] mm Hg
Answer
>20


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ACS is typically defined as new organ dysfunction with an intra-abdominal pressure >20 mm Hg

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Diagnosis of intra-abdominal hypertension and ACS is accomplished by transduction of bladder pressure. Although medical treatment (diuresis, dialysis, management of ascites) can be tried, surgical decompression of the abdomen is often necessary to definitively treat ACS

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Flashcard 1634973125900

Question
Diagnosis of intra-abdominal hypertension and ACS is accomplished by [...]. Although medical treatment (diuresis, dialysis, management of ascites) can be tried, surgical decompression of the abdomen is often necessary to definitively treat ACS
Answer
transduction of bladder pressure


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Diagnosis of intra-abdominal hypertension and ACS is accomplished by transduction of bladder pressure. Although medical treatment (diuresis, dialysis, management of ascites) can be tried, surgical decompression of the abdomen is often necessary to definitively treat ACS

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Flashcard 1634974698764

Question
Diagnosis of intra-abdominal hypertension and ACS is accomplished by transduction of bladder pressure. Although medical treatment (diuresis, dialysis, management of ascites) can be tried, surgical [...] is often necessary to definitively treat ACS
Answer
decompression of the abdomen


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head><head>Diagnosis of intra-abdominal hypertension and ACS is accomplished by transduction of bladder pressure. Although medical treatment (diuresis, dialysis, management of ascites) can be tried, surgical decompression of the abdomen is often necessary to definitively treat ACS<html>

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Risk factors for the development of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis include advanced age, female gender, preexisting chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, high-dose statin therapy, and use of medications metabolized through cytochrome P450 3A4.

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Flashcard 1634978106636

Question
Risk factors for the development of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis include
Answer
advanced age, female gender, preexisting chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, high-dose statin therapy, and use of medications metabolized through cytochrome P450 3A4.


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Risk factors for the development of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis include advanced age, female gender, preexisting chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, high-dose statin therapy, and use of medications metabolized through cytochrome P450 3A4.

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Acquired cystic kidney disease is associated with a large number of small bilateral kidney cysts, reduced kidney size, and a markedly increased risk for developing renal cell carcinoma.

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Flashcard 1634981514508

Question
Acquired cystic kidney disease is associated with a large number of small bilateral kidney cysts, reduced kidney size, and a markedly increased risk for developing [...]
Answer
renal cell carcinoma.


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Acquired cystic kidney disease is associated with a large number of small bilateral kidney cysts, reduced kidney size, and a markedly increased risk for developing renal cell carcinoma.

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The hallmark of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is large kidneys with multiple kidney cysts, usually originating in the renal collecting duct.

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Flashcard 1634984660236

Question
The hallmark of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is [...] kidneys with multiple kidney cysts, usually originating in the renal collecting duct.
Answer
large


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The hallmark of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is large kidneys with multiple kidney cysts, usually originating in the renal collecting duct.

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Flashcard 1634986233100

Question
The hallmark of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is large kidneys with multiple kidney cysts, usually originating in the renal [...]
Answer
collecting duct.


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The hallmark of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is large kidneys with multiple kidney cysts, usually originating in the renal collecting duct.

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Renal angiomyolipomas and bilateral renal cysts are associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). However, because this is an autosomal dominant disease, there is almost always a positive family history

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Flashcard 1634989378828

Question
Renal angiomyolipomas and bilateral renal cysts are associated with [...] complex (TSC). However, because this is an autosomal dominant disease, there is almost always a positive family history
Answer
tuberous sclerosis


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Renal angiomyolipomas and bilateral renal cysts are associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). However, because this is an autosomal dominant disease, there is almost always a positive family history

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Flashcard 1634990951692

Question
Renal angiomyolipomas and bilateral renal cysts are associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). However, because this is an autosomal [...] disease, there is almost always a positive family history
Answer
dominant


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Renal angiomyolipomas and bilateral renal cysts are associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). However, because this is an autosomal dominant disease, there is almost always a positive family history

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Flashcard 1635052817676

Question

Medical availability and clinical practice varies across the world due to regional differences in culture and technology. Modern scientific medicine is highly developed in the Western world, while in developing countries such as parts of Africa or Asia, the population may rely more heavily on traditional medicine with limited evidence and efficacy and no required formal training for practitioners.

Answer
Medizinische Verfügbarkeit und die klinische Praxis variieren in der ganzen Welt aufgrund der regionalen Unterschiede in Kultur und Technik.


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Flashcard 1635073789196

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Question
The money-weighted rate of return has a serious drawback that involves clients, what is it?
Answer
Clients determine when money is given to the investment manager and those decisions may significantly influence the money-weighted rate of return.


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The money-weighted rate of return has a serious drawback. Generally, clients determine when money is given to the investment manager and those decisions may significantly influence the money-weighted rate of return .

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The money-weighted rate of return has a serious drawback. Generally, clients determine when money is given to the investment manager and those decisions may significantly influence the money-weighted rate of return . A general principle of evaluation, however, is that a person or entity should be judged only on the basis of their own actions, or actions under their control. An evaluation tool should







Flashcard 1635077459212

Question
This article is about vascular tissue in plants. For transport in animals, see Circulatory system.

Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants. The primary components of vascular tissue are the xylem and phloem. These two tissues transport fluid and nutrients internally. There are also two meristems associated with vascular tissue: the vascular cambium and the cork cambium. All the vascular tissues within a particular plant together constitute the vascular tissue system of that plant.

Answer
[default - edit me]


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Vascular tissue - Wikipedia
Jump to: navigation, search [imagelink] Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. [imagelink] Detail of the vasculature of a bramble leaf. <span>This article is about vascular tissue in plants. For transport in animals, see Circulatory system. Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants. The primary components of vascular tissue are the xylem and phloem. These two tissues transport fluid and nutrients internally. There are also two meristems associated with vascular tissue: the vascular cambium and the cork cambium. All the vascular tissues within a particular plant together constitute the vascular tissue system of that plant. The cells in vascular tissue are typically long and slender. Since the xylem and phloem function in the conduction of water, minerals, and nutrients throughout the plant, it is not su







#statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
  • where the returns are centered (central tendency);

  • how far returns are dispersed from their center (dispersion);

  • whether the distribution of returns is symmetrically shaped or lopsided (skewness); and

  • whether extreme outcomes are likely (kurtosis).

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Flashcard 1635080604940

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Question
central tendency analyzes [...]
Answer
where the returns are centered


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where the returns are centered (central tendency); how far returns are dispersed from their center (dispersion); whether the distribution of returns is symmetrically shaped or lopsided (skewness); and &#1







Flashcard 1635083226380

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#statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
dispersion analyzes [...]
Answer
how far returns are dispersed from their center


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where the returns are centered (central tendency); how far returns are dispersed from their center (dispersion); whether the distribution of returns is symmetrically shaped or lopsided (skewness); and whether extreme outcomes are likely (kurtosis). </s







Flashcard 1635085585676

Tags
#statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
skewness analyzes whether the distribution of returns is [...]
Answer
symmetrically shaped or lopsided


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where the returns are centered (central tendency); how far returns are dispersed from their center (dispersion); whether the distribution of returns is symmetrically shaped or lopsided (skewness); and whether extreme outcomes are likely (kurtosis).







Flashcard 1635088469260

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Question
The term statistics can have two broad meanings, one referring to [...] and the other to [...]
Answer
data

method.


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Flashcard 1635091352844

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Question
A quantity computed from or used to describe a sample of data is called a [...]
Answer
Statistic


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Flashcard 1635094236428

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Question
[...] is the study of how data can be summarized effectively to describe the important aspects of large data sets.


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Flashcard 1635096071436

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Question
[...] involves making forecasts, estimates, or judgments about a larger group from the smaller group actually observed.


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Flashcard 1635097906444

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Question
The foundation for statistical inference is [...]
Answer
probability theory


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Flashcard 1635099741452

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Question
Answer
all members of a specified group.


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Flashcard 1635101576460

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Question
Answer
subset of a population.


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Flashcard 1635103411468

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Question
  • Any descriptive measure of a population characteristic is called a [...]

Answer


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Just as a parameter is a descriptive measure of a population characteristic, a sample statistic (statistic, for short) is a descriptive measure of a sample characteristic.

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Flashcard 1635107081484

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Question
  • A [...] is a quantity computed from or used to describe a sample.


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Flashcard 1635107605772

Question
In leaves, the vascular bundles are located among the spongy mesophyll. The xylem is oriented toward the adaxial surface of the leaf (usually the upper side), and phloem is oriented toward the abaxial surface of the leaf. This is why aphids are typically found on the underside of the leaves rather than on the top, since the phloem transports sugars manufactured by the plant and they are closer to the lower surface.[ citation needed ]
Answer
The cells in vascular tissue are typically long and slender. Since the xylem and phloem function in the conduction of water, minerals, and nutrients throughout the plant, it is not surprising that their form should be similar to pipes. The individual cells of phloem are connected end-to-end, just as the sections of a pipe might be. As the plant grows, new vascular tissue differentiates in the


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Vascular tissue - Wikipedia
nutrients internally. There are also two meristems associated with vascular tissue: the vascular cambium and the cork cambium. All the vascular tissues within a particular plant together constitute the vascular tissue system of that plant. <span>The cells in vascular tissue are typically long and slender. Since the xylem and phloem function in the conduction of water, minerals, and nutrients throughout the plant, it is not surprising that their form should be similar to pipes. The individual cells of phloem are connected end-to-end, just as the sections of a pipe might be. As the plant grows, new vascular tissue differentiates in the growing tips of the plant. The new tissue is aligned with existing vascular tissue, maintaining its connection throughout the plant. The vascular tissue in plants is arranged in long, d







Flashcard 1635110751500

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Question
The four types of measurement scales are [...]
Answer
nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.


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Flashcard 1635112586508

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Question
The acronym for measurement of scale is [...]
Answer
NOIR


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Nominal scales represent the weakest level of measurement: They categorize data but do not rank them. If we assigned integers to mutual funds that follow different investment strategies, the number 1 might refer to a small-cap value fund, the number 2 to a large-cap value fund, and so on for each possible style. This nominal scale categorizes the funds according to their style but does not rank them.

Ordinal scales reflect a stronger level of measurement. Ordinal scales sort data into categories that are ordered with respect to some characteristic. For example, the Morningstar and Standard & Poor’s star ratings for mutual funds represent an ordinal scale in which one star represents a group of funds judged to have had relatively the worst performance, with two, three, four, and five stars representing groups with increasingly better performance, as evaluated by those services.

An ordinal scale may also involve numbers to identify categories. For example, in ranking balanced mutual funds based on their five-year cumulative return, we might assign the number 1 to the top 10 percent of funds, and so on, so that the number 10 represents the bottom 10 percent of funds. The ordinal scale is stronger than the nominal scale because it reveals that a fund ranked 1 performed better than a fund ranked 2. The scale tells us nothing, however, about the difference in performance between funds ranked 1 and 2 compared with the difference in performance between funds ranked 3 and 4, or 9 and 10.

Interval scales provide not only ranking but also assurance that the differences between scale values are equal. As a result, scale values can be added and subtracted meaningfully. The Celsius and Fahrenheit scales are interval measurement scales. The difference in temperature between 10°C and 11°C is the same amount as the difference between 40°C and 41°C. We can state accurately that 12°C = 9°C + 3°C, for example. Nevertheless, the zero point of an interval scale does not reflect complete absence of what is being measured; it is not a true zero point or natural zero. Zero degrees Celsius corresponds to the freezing point of water, not the absence of temperature. As a consequence of the absence of a true zero point, we cannot meaningfully form ratios on interval scales.

As an example, 50°C, although five times as large a number as 10°C, does not represent five times as much temperature. Also, questionnaire scales are often treated as interval scales. If an investor is asked to rank his risk aversion on a scale from 1 (extremely risk-averse) to 7 (extremely risk-loving), the difference between a response of 1 and a response of 2 is sometimes assumed to represent the same difference in risk aversion as the difference between a response of 6 and a response of 7. When that assumption can be justified, the data are measured on an interval scale.

Ratio scales represent the strongest level of measurement. They have all the characteristics of interval measurement scales as well as a true zero point as the origin. With ratio scales, we can meaningfully compute ratios as well as meaningfully add and subtract amounts within the scale. As a result, we can apply the widest range of statistical tools to data measured on a ratio scale. Rates of return are measured on a ratio scale, as is money. If we have twice as much money, then we have twice the purchasing power. Note th

...

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Flashcard 1635118091532

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Question
A [...] is a tabular display of data summarized into a relatively small number of intervals.


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Flashcard 1635119926540

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Question
When we analyze rates of return, our starting point is [...]
Answer
the holding period return


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Flashcard 1635121761548

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Question

Construction of a Frequency Distribution.

  1. [...]

  2. Calculate the range of the data, defined as Range = Maximum value − Minimum value.

  3. Decide on the number of intervals in the frequency distribution, k.

  4. Determine interval width as Range/k

Answer
Sort the data in ascending order.


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Flashcard 1635123596556

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Question

In Step 4 of a Frequency Distribution, when rounding the interval width, [...].

Answer
round up rather than down


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Flashcard 1635128315148

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Question

An [...] is a set of values within which an observation falls.

(Frequency distribution)

Answer


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Flashcard 1635130412300

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Question

The actual number of observations in a given interval is called the [...]

Answer
absolute frequency

or simply the frequency.


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Flashcard 1635132509452

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Question

The [...] is the list of intervals together with the corresponding measures of frequency.

Answer
frequency distribution


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Flashcard 1635134344460

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Question

We represent an interval with the letter [...]

Answer
k


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Flashcard 1635136179468

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Question

The [...] is the absolute frequency of each interval divided by the total number of observations.


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Flashcard 1635138014476

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Question

The [...] cumulates (adds up) the relative frequencies as we move from the first to the last interval.


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Flashcard 1635139849484

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Question

A [...] is a bar chart of data that have been grouped into a frequency distribution.

Answer


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Flashcard 1635141946636

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Question

A graph of a frequency distribution obtained by drawing straight lines joining successive points representing the class frequencies.

Answer
Frequency polygon


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Flashcard 1635145092364

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Question

A [...] specifies where the data are centered.


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Flashcard 1635146927372

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Question

[...] include not only measures of central tendency but other measures that illustrate the location or distribution of data.


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Flashcard 1635149286668

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Question

The [...] is the sum of the observations divided by the number of observations.


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Flashcard 1635151121676

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Question

The [...], μ, is the arithmetic mean value of a population.


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Flashcard 1635152956684

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Question

The population mean is represented by the greek letter [...],

Answer
μ


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Flashcard 1635154791692

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Question

The [...] , ¯¯¯X (read “X-bar”), is the arithmetic mean value of a sample

Answer
sample mean or average


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Flashcard 1635156626700

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Question

The sample mean or average is represented with the letter

Answer
\(\bar {X} \) (read “X-bar”


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Flashcard 1635158461708

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Question

Observations over individual units at a point in time, as opposed to time-series data.

Answer
Cross sectional data


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Flashcard 1635160296716

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Question

Observations of a variable over time.

Answer
Time-series data


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Subject 1. The Nature of Statistics
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Statistics can refer to numerical data (e.g., a company's average revenue for the past 20 years). It can also refer to methods of collecting, classifying, analyzing, and interpreting numerical data. Statistical methods provide a powerful set of tools for making decisions in business and other fields.

Statistics involves two different processes:

  • Describing sets of data. Descriptive statistical methods can be used to describe the important aspects of data sets that have been collected. This reading will focus on the use of descriptive statistics to consolidate a mass of numerical data into useful information.
  • Drawing conclusions (making estimates, judgments, predictions, etc.).Inferential statistical methods can be used to draw conclusions about a large group from a smaller group actually observed.
We use statistical methods to analyze the results of data. Since the amount of information available may be vast, it may be extremely time-consuming and expensive to collect all the necessary data. For instance, suppose we are interested in the durability of tennis balls. Theoretically, in order to carry out an accurate assessment, we would need to collect large quantities of all different makes of tennis balls from all over the world. Clearly, this is not practical; aside from taking up lots of time, it would be cost-prohibitive to purchase all the balls we would need for our study. A more practical solution would be to use a sample.

A population consists of an entire set of objects, observations, or scores that have something in common. It comprises every possible member of the specified group. In our example above, the population of tennis balls consists of every tennis ball that has ever been manufactured anywhere in the world. This is a huge number of tennis balls. Another example of a population would be all males between the ages of 15 and 18.

A sample is a subset of a population. The sample is comprised of some of the members of the population. Since it is usually impractical (or too expensive or time-consuming) to test every member of a population, using data gathered from a sample of the population is typically the best approach available for describing that population.

In our example above, a sample might be a selection of 1,000 tennis balls of various makes collected from different sources. It would be a virtually impossible task to collect every possible tennis ball in the world; this same size provides a manageable number to work with as well as a substantial amount of possible data.

Before we move on, there are several points worth noting:

  • Don't be fooled by the word "population." This does not necessarily refer to people. As with the example above, we can have a population of tennis balls. A population can consist of anything, living or not.
  • Although populations are often vast, they can also be of manageable size. For example, the population of even numbers between 1 and 9 would comprise the numbers 2, 4, 6 and 8. In this case, it is possible to sample the entire population and get accurate results. This is rare, however, and for your purposes, populations can generally be considered to be vast.
  • In general, the bigger the sample, the better your results will be (because you are using data from more of the population for analysis). However, this point can present difficulties, as you will see when we study variance and standard deviation later.
  • The ideal process would be to select a sample that is "representative" of the population (a sample that takes into account extreme values on both sides but contains many "average" values). In this way, the results that we get will be more meaningful. Because we frequently don't know about the exact values of a population (which is why we sample in the first place), we will never really know if our sample is truly representative or not. It's all we have to work with, however, so it's all we can
...

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Flashcard 1635165277452

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Question
Values from a population are called [...], and values from a sample are called [...]
Answer
parameters

statistics.


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Subject 1. The Nature of Statistics
btained if they were taught with this method. Both large groups of data (populations) and smaller groups (samples) have values associated with them, such as the average of all values in a sample and the average of all population values. <span>Values from a population are called parameters, and values from a sample are called statistics. A parameter is a numerical quantity measuring some aspect of a population of scores. The mean, for example, is a measure of central tendency. Greek letters are







Flashcard 1635167636748

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Question
[...] are used to designate parameters.
Answer
Greek letters


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Subject 1. The Nature of Statistics
tion are called parameters, and values from a sample are called statistics. A parameter is a numerical quantity measuring some aspect of a population of scores. The mean, for example, is a measure of central tendency. <span>Greek letters are used to designate parameters. Parameters are rarely known and are usually estimated by statistics computed in samples. Populations can have many parameters, but investment analysts are usually only concerned with a







Flashcard 1635170258188

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Question
How do you estimate a parameter?
Answer
They are usually estimated by statistics computed in samples.


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Subject 1. The Nature of Statistics
mple are called statistics. A parameter is a numerical quantity measuring some aspect of a population of scores. The mean, for example, is a measure of central tendency. Greek letters are used to designate parameters. <span>Parameters are rarely known and are usually estimated by statistics computed in samples. Populations can have many parameters, but investment analysts are usually only concerned with a few, such as the mean return or the standard deviation of returns.







#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Hint: One way to easily remember these terms is to recall that "population" and "parameter" both start with a "p," and "sample" and "statistic" both start with a "s."

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Subject 1. The Nature of Statistics
le, and by definition, we will always know the values within our sample. Ascertaining this information is the purpose of samples. Sample statistics will always be known, and can be used to estimate unknown population parameters. <span>Hint: One way to easily remember these terms is to recall that "population" and "parameter" both start with a "p," and "sample" and "statistic" both start with a "s." Inferential statistics generally require that sampling be random although some types of sampling (such as those used in voter polling) seek to make the sample as representat




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Inferential statistics generally require that sampling be random although some types of sampling (such as those used in voter polling) seek to make the sample as representative of the population as possible by choosing a sample that resembles the population on most important characteristics.

A typical statistical procedure:

  • Define the population and identify the parameter(s) of interest.
  • Draw a sample from the population.
  • Determine the corresponding statistic(s) of the sample and use it (or them) to estimate the parameter(s) of the population.

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Subject 1. The Nature of Statistics
13; Hint: One way to easily remember these terms is to recall that "population" and "parameter" both start with a "p," and "sample" and "statistic" both start with a "s." <span>Inferential statistics generally require that sampling be random although some types of sampling (such as those used in voter polling) seek to make the sample as representative of the population as possible by choosing a sample that resembles the population on most important characteristics. A typical statistical procedure: Define the population and identify the parameter(s) of interest. Draw a sample from the population. Determine the corresponding statistic(s) of the sample and use it (or them) to estimate the parameter(s) of the population. <span><body><html>




without the benefit of direct observation or live recordings it is difficult, but still possible, with the appropriate methods, to examine the oral and sociable dimension of classical Arabic poetry by interpreting the available sources with an eye for these performance issues.

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Anthologies of poetry and prose reveal themselves as transcripts of mujālasāt or as mnemonic devices for learning one’s lines

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Flashcard 1635224521996

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Question
Que signo debe de tener el PV?
Answer
negativo


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Most important, when these sources nonchalantly use the medium of writing to promote and ensure the oral dimensions of the tradition, they manifest certain norms of interplay between orality and writing.

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manuscript owners employed strategies to personalize and customize tradition

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This medieval convention confront our print-minded notion of “book.” Likewise, many works are not set “books” at all, since they served as personal notebooks composed by amateurs or customized renditions of well-known texts, so it is often difficult to supply a neat label, let alone a title. In effect, this problem illustrates the invigorating challenges researchers face in engaging medieval manuscript culture on its own terms, apart from our contemporary idea of stable printed book.

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the Arabo-Islamic literary heritage was governed by sociability and social interaction at heart. These interactions and the underlying social need to charm and be charmed enabled odes and stories to take on pragmatic value in social exchanges that took place in the salons.

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a canon can be authoritative only insofar as it remains appealing and current.

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I hope to put into question the presumption that canonicity is an a priori given and to show that a canon can be authoritative only insofar as it remains appealing and current.

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people transmit a canon by using it.

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Third, I employ a variety of methods from folklore studies and cultural anthropology to illustrate the way in which medieval littérateurs relied on manuscripts to prepare for oral performance. As such, I join a group of researchers that has argued against the so-called great divide theory—that paper-based technologies inevitably displace oral performance. 11 The great divide theory has the drawback of giving technology a determinative role in shaping knowledge and society, de-emphasizing the agency of people who perhaps might use those technologies to serve emerging goals rooted in their specific class, age, ethnicity, gender, and ideology. This book explores the ways in which individuals and groups use both oral and written modes of communication together to achieve social and political goals.

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I aim to question the rigid lines between genres and forms that were eminently combined and related in mujālasāt when performers alternated between them to entertain and edify their audiences.

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.'4 This would suggest that his transfer of allegiance from the Abbasids to the Tulunids was motivated by his property interests in Manb

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pragmatic goals, not faith in the Abbasids, spurred him to protect their rep- utation (and then the Tulunids') during their reign and their legacy for gen- erations thereaf

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courtiers generally found effective was change through engagement-and a measure of artifice. This principle of engaged resistance was captured in courtly advice manuals. In dealing with caliphs and sultans, if you are a courtier you must "teach them (tu'allimahum) as though they teach you, educate them (tu'addibahum) as though they educate you; if not, then stay as far away as possible!"'5 The aim was to blandish, coax, nudge, guilt, or even shame the ruler into action using verbal artifice to preserve the dignity of the offi

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The author wants also to argue that Jarīr and Farazdaq focus on their indi- vidual poetic talents in their exchanges. This is potentially interesting but the author should refuse contrasting this focus with other putatively self-effacing poets or poetic styles.

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The author is welcome to elucidate how Jarīr and Farazdaq turn the audience’s attention to their own talents in the course of their exchanges, but it would be difficult to argue con- vincingly that this is (1) in contrast to the style of pre-Islamic hijāʾ or (2) more marked than in the work of other Umayyad, Abbasid, etc. poets

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We may, therefore, usefully designate the Pre-Islamic qapda as Primary Qasida, to distinguish it from the type of qafida composed in later Islamic times to which we can give the name Secondary Qasida.

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As far as the qa{ida is concerned, the distinction between the two types is a very important one and we shall return to it later on in our discussion. With the radical change in the poet's social status and hence his function, as a result of the arrival of the new religion of Islam with its fundamentally different set of spiritual values, the poet's image and role underwent considerable change. Despite super- ficial resemblances the Secondary Qa{ida is, therefore, a different type of thing from the Primary: alike in its nature and its function and indeed in its raison d'etre.

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Discussions revealed that if a text ex pressed a "socialist77 perspective, many students read it as propaganda, although similar texts from a "Western77 point of view were accepted as information or public relations.

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Rather, the goal is for students to recognize the assumptions they make when they use language?their own or the target language?to describe and understand that other culture.

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In acute decompensated heart failure, elevated renal venous pressure can cause distended renal venules with increased tubular fluid pressure and backleak, leading to venous congestion and cardiorenal syndrome (CRS).

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Flashcard 1635285601548

Question
In acute decompensated heart failure, elevated renal venous pressure can cause distended renal [...] with increased tubular fluid pressure and backleak, leading to venous congestion and cardiorenal syndrome (CRS).
Answer
venules


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In acute decompensated heart failure, elevated renal venous pressure can cause distended renal venules with increased tubular fluid pressure and backleak, leading to venous congestion and cardiorenal syndrome (CRS).

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Flashcard 1635287174412

Question
In acute decompensated heart failure, elevated renal venous pressure can cause distended renal venules with increased tubular fluid pressure and backleak, leading to venous congestion and [...] syndrome (CRS).
Answer
cardiorenal


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In acute decompensated heart failure, elevated renal venous pressure can cause distended renal venules with increased tubular fluid pressure and backleak, leading to venous congestion and cardiorenal syndrome (CRS).

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CRS is categorized into five types: 1) acute heart failure leading to acute kidney injury (AKI) (CRS1), 2) chronic heart failure leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD), 3) AKI leading to acute heart failure, 4) CKD leading to cardiac dysfunction (heart failure, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias), and 5) systemic conditions leading to simultaneous heart and kidney dysfunction (such as sepsis).

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Flashcard 1635290320140

Question
CRS is categorized into five types:
Answer
1) acute heart failure leading to acute kidney injury (AKI) (CRS1), 2) chronic heart failure leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD), 3) AKI leading to acute heart failure, 4) CKD leading to cardiac dysfunction (heart failure, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias), and 5) systemic conditions leading to simultaneous heart and kidney dysfunction (such as sepsis).


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CRS is categorized into five types: 1) acute heart failure leading to acute kidney injury (AKI) (CRS1), 2) chronic heart failure leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD), 3) AKI leading to acute heart failure, 4) CKD leading to cardiac dysfunction (heart failure, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias), and 5) systemic conditions leading to simultaneous heart and kidney dysfunction (such as sepsis).

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In patients with heart failure–related CRS, treatment is directed toward improving cardiac function and fluid balance, which may optimize kidney function

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Flashcard 1635293465868

Question
In patients with heart failure–related CRS, treatment is directed toward improving [...] function and fluid balance, which may optimize kidney function
Answer
cardiac


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In patients with heart failure–related CRS, treatment is directed toward improving cardiac function and fluid balance, which may optimize kidney function

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Hypertension prior to the 20th week of gestation is most consistent with previously undiagnosed chronic hypertension

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Flashcard 1635296611596

Question
Hypertension prior to the [...] week of gestation is most consistent with previously undiagnosed chronic hypertension
Answer
20th


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Hypertension prior to the 20th week of gestation is most consistent with previously undiagnosed chronic hypertension

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guidelines recommend treating persistent blood pressure elevations of >160/105 mm Hg in women with chronic hypertension, with a goal blood pressure with medical therapy in these patients being 120-160/80-105 mm H

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Flashcard 1635299757324

Question
guidelines recommend treating persistent blood pressure elevations of >160/105 mm Hg in women with chronic hypertension, with a goal blood pressure with medical therapy in these patients being [...] mm H
Answer
120-160/80-105


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guidelines recommend treating persistent blood pressure elevations of >160/105 mm Hg in women with chronic hypertension, with a goal blood pressure with medical therapy in these patients being 120-160/80-105 mm H

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The diagnosis of gestational hypertension requires consistent hypertension after the 20th week of gestation without preexisting hypertension or features of preeclampsia and must resolve within 12 weeks of delivery.

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Flashcard 1635302903052

Question
The diagnosis of gestational hypertension requires consistent hypertension after the [...] week of gestation without preexisting hypertension or features of preeclampsia and must resolve within 12 weeks of delivery.
Answer
20th


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The diagnosis of gestational hypertension requires consistent hypertension after the 20th week of gestation without preexisting hypertension or features of preeclampsia and must resolve within 12 weeks of delivery.

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Flashcard 1635304475916

Question
The diagnosis of gestational hypertension requires consistent hypertension after the 20th week of gestation without preexisting hypertension or features of preeclampsia and must resolve within [...] weeks of delivery.
Answer
12


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<head>The diagnosis of gestational hypertension requires consistent hypertension after the 20th week of gestation without preexisting hypertension or features of preeclampsia and must resolve within 12 weeks of delivery.<html>

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Preeclampsia requires the combination of new-onset hypertension after 20 weeks of pregnancy and end-organ damage such as proteinuria, kidney dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, abnormal liver chemistry tests, pulmonary edema, and cerebral or visual symptoms.

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Flashcard 1635307621644

Question
Preeclampsia requires the combination of new-onset hypertension after 20 weeks of pregnancy and end-organ damage such as
Answer
proteinuria, kidney dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, abnormal liver chemistry tests, pulmonary edema, and cerebral or visual symptoms


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Preeclampsia requires the combination of new-onset hypertension after 20 weeks of pregnancy and end-organ damage such as proteinuria, kidney dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, abnormal liver chemistry tests, pulmonary edema, and cerebral or visual symptoms.

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Hyperglycemia causes the osmotic translocation of water from the intracellular to the extracellular fluid compartment, which results in a decrease in the serum sodium level by approximately 1.6 mEq/L (1.6 mmol/L) for every 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) increase in the plasma glucose above 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L).

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Flashcard 1635310767372

Question
Hyperglycemia causes the osmotic translocation of water from the intracellular to the extracellular fluid compartment, which results in a decrease in the serum sodium level by approximately [...] for every 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) increase in the plasma glucose above 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L).
Answer
1.6 mEq/L (1.6 mmol/L)


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Hyperglycemia causes the osmotic translocation of water from the intracellular to the extracellular fluid compartment, which results in a decrease in the serum sodium level by approximately 1.6 mEq/L (1.6 mmol/L) for every 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) increase in the plasma glucose above 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L).

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Flashcard 1635312340236

Question
Hyperglycemia causes the osmotic translocation of water from the intracellular to the extracellular fluid compartment, which results in a decrease in the serum sodium level by approximately 1.6 mEq/L (1.6 mmol/L) for every [...] mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) increase in the plasma glucose above 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L).
Answer
100


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body>Hyperglycemia causes the osmotic translocation of water from the intracellular to the extracellular fluid compartment, which results in a decrease in the serum sodium level by approximately 1.6 mEq/L (1.6 mmol/L) for every 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) increase in the plasma glucose above 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L).<body><html>

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Flashcard 1635313913100

Question
Hyperglycemia causes the osmotic translocation of water from the intracellular to the extracellular fluid compartment, which results in a decrease in the serum sodium level by approximately 1.6 mEq/L (1.6 mmol/L) for every 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) increase in the plasma glucose above [...] mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L).
Answer
100


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on of water from the intracellular to the extracellular fluid compartment, which results in a decrease in the serum sodium level by approximately 1.6 mEq/L (1.6 mmol/L) for every 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) increase in the plasma glucose above <span>100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L).<span><body><html>

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Pseudohyponatremia is caused by significant hyperlipidemia or the presence of paraproteins in the serum. In these situations, the laboratory measurement of plasma glucose is erroneously low, and the plasma osmolality is normal.

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Flashcard 1635317058828

Question
Pseudohyponatremia is caused by significant [...] or the presence of paraproteins in the serum. In these situations, the laboratory measurement of plasma glucose is erroneously low, and the plasma osmolality is normal.
Answer
hyperlipidemia


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Pseudohyponatremia is caused by significant hyperlipidemia or the presence of paraproteins in the serum. In these situations, the laboratory measurement of plasma glucose is erroneously low, and the plasma osmolality is normal.</s

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Flashcard 1635318631692

Question
Pseudohyponatremia is caused by significant hyperlipidemia or the presence of paraproteins in the serum. In these situations, the laboratory measurement of plasma glucose is erroneously [...], and the plasma osmolality is normal.
Answer
low


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Pseudohyponatremia is caused by significant hyperlipidemia or the presence of paraproteins in the serum. In these situations, the laboratory measurement of plasma glucose is erroneously low, and the plasma osmolality is normal.

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Flashcard 1635320204556

Question
Pseudohyponatremia is caused by significant hyperlipidemia or the presence of paraproteins in the serum. In these situations, the laboratory measurement of plasma glucose is erroneously low, and the plasma osmolality is [...].
Answer
normal


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pan>Pseudohyponatremia is caused by significant hyperlipidemia or the presence of paraproteins in the serum. In these situations, the laboratory measurement of plasma glucose is erroneously low, and the plasma osmolality is <span>normal.<span><body><html>

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Hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) are associated with hypo-osmolar hyponatremia caused by a decrease in the excretion of free water

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Flashcard 1635323350284

Question
Hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) are associated with [...]-osmolar hyponatremia caused by a decrease in the excretion of free water
Answer
hypo


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Hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) are associated with hypo-osmolar hyponatremia caused by a decrease in the excretion of free water

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Primary respiratory acidosis is due to decreased effective ventilation, often noted with opioid overdose, leading to hypercapnia and retention of hydrogen ion

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Flashcard 1635328593164

Question
Primary respiratory acidosis is due to decreased effective ventilation, often noted with opioid overdose, leading to [...] and retention of hydrogen ion
Answer
hypercapnia


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Primary respiratory acidosis is due to decreased effective ventilation, often noted with opioid overdose, leading to hypercapnia and retention of hydrogen ion

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The early phase of acetaminophen overdose is often not associated with any acid-base abnormality. After 72 to 96 hours, patients will often develop an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis related to lactic acidosis.

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Flashcard 1635331738892

Question
The early phase of acetaminophen overdose is often not associated with any acid-base abnormality. After 72 to 96 hours, patients will often develop an [...] anion gap metabolic acidosis related to lactic acidosis.
Answer
increased


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The early phase of acetaminophen overdose is often not associated with any acid-base abnormality. After 72 to 96 hours, patients will often develop an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis related to lactic acidosis.

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Flashcard 1635333311756

Question
The early phase of acetaminophen overdose is often not associated with any acid-base abnormality. After 72 to 96 hours, patients will often develop an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis related to [...]
Answer
lactic acidosis.


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ad>The early phase of acetaminophen overdose is often not associated with any acid-base abnormality. After 72 to 96 hours, patients will often develop an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis related to lactic acidosis. <html>

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Although decreased respiratory drive can occur in the setting of salicylate intoxication in the later stages, it is more commonly associated with a mixed acid-base abnormality, including an increased anion gap acidosis and respiratory alkalosi

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Flashcard 1635336457484

Question
Although decreased respiratory drive can occur in the setting of salicylate intoxication in the later stages, it is more commonly associated with a [...] abnormality, including an increased anion gap acidosis and respiratory alkalosi
Answer
mixed acid-base


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Although decreased respiratory drive can occur in the setting of salicylate intoxication in the later stages, it is more commonly associated with a mixed acid-base abnormality, including an increased anion gap acidosis and respiratory alkalosi

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Flashcard 1635338030348

Question
Although decreased respiratory drive can occur in the setting of salicylate intoxication in the later stages, it is more commonly associated with a mixed acid-base abnormality, including an [...]
Answer
increased anion gap acidosis and respiratory alkalosi


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Although decreased respiratory drive can occur in the setting of salicylate intoxication in the later stages, it is more commonly associated with a mixed acid-base abnormality, including an increased anion gap acidosis and respiratory alkalosi

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NSAID overdose typically presents with azotemia and hyperkalemia in addition to an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis (primarily a lactic acidosis)

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Flashcard 1635341176076

Question
NSAID overdose typically presents with [...] in addition to an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis (primarily a lactic acidosis)
Answer
azotemia and hyperkalemia


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NSAID overdose typically presents with azotemia and hyperkalemia in addition to an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis (primarily a lactic acidosis)

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Flashcard 1635342748940

Question
NSAID overdose typically presents with azotemia and hyperkalemia in addition to an [...] (primarily a lactic acidosis)
Answer
increased anion gap metabolic acidosis


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NSAID overdose typically presents with azotemia and hyperkalemia in addition to an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis (primarily a lactic acidosis)

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Hydroxyethyl starch is associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury, increased requirement of renal replacement therapy, a trend toward increased blood product transfusion, and increased mortality and is not recommended in patients with severe sepsis.

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Flashcard 1635345894668

Question
Hydroxyethyl starch is associated with an increased risk of [...], increased requirement of renal replacement therapy, a trend toward increased blood product transfusion, and increased mortality and is not recommended in patients with severe sepsis.
Answer
acute kidney injury


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Hydroxyethyl starch is associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury, increased requirement of renal replacement therapy, a trend toward increased blood product transfusion, and increased mortality and is not recommended in patients with severe sepsis.

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Flashcard 1635347729676

Question
Hydroxyethyl starch is associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury, increased requirement of renal replacement therapy, a trend toward increased blood product transfusion, and increased mortality and is not recommended in patients with severe [...]
Answer
sepsis.


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rch is associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury, increased requirement of renal replacement therapy, a trend toward increased blood product transfusion, and increased mortality and is not recommended in patients with severe <span>sepsis.<span><body><html>

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Volume resuscitation can be achieved with either crystalloid or colloid solutions. The crystalloid solutions are lactated Ringer solution and 0.9% sodium chloride; the colloid solutions include albumin

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Flashcard 1635351137548

Question
Volume resuscitation can be achieved with either crystalloid or colloid solutions. The crystalloid solutions are [...]; the colloid solutions include albumin
Answer
lactated Ringer solution and 0.9% sodium chloride


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Volume resuscitation can be achieved with either crystalloid or colloid solutions. The crystalloid solutions are lactated Ringer solution and 0.9% sodium chloride; the colloid solutions include albumin

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Flashcard 1635352710412

Question
Volume resuscitation can be achieved with either crystalloid or colloid solutions. The crystalloid solutions are lactated Ringer solution and 0.9% sodium chloride; the colloid solutions include [...]
Answer
albumin


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Volume resuscitation can be achieved with either crystalloid or colloid solutions. The crystalloid solutions are lactated Ringer solution and 0.9% sodium chloride; the colloid solutions include albumin

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Evidence from randomized trials and meta-analyses have found no convincing difference between using crystalloid solutions such as normal saline and lactated Ringer and albumin solutions in the treatment of severe sepsis or septic shock; however, colloid is far more expensive

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Flashcard 1635356904716

Question
Evidence from randomized trials and meta-analyses have found no convincing difference between using crystalloid solutions such as normal saline and lactated Ringer and [...] solutions in the treatment of severe sepsis or septic shock; however, colloid is far more expensive
Answer
albumin


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Evidence from randomized trials and meta-analyses have found no convincing difference between using crystalloid solutions such as normal saline and lactated Ringer and albumin solutions in the treatment of severe sepsis or septic shock; however, colloid is far more expensive

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risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and administration of intravenous isotonic saline (1-1.5 mL/kg/h) 3 to 12 hours before the procedure and continued for 6 to 24 hours afterward has been shown to decrease the incidence of CIN in high-risk patients.

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Flashcard 1635360050444

Question
risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and administration of intravenous isotonic saline [...] 3 to 12 hours before the procedure and continued for 6 to 24 hours afterward has been shown to decrease the incidence of CIN in high-risk patients.
Answer
(1-1.5 mL/kg/h)


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risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and administration of intravenous isotonic saline (1-1.5 mL/kg/h) 3 to 12 hours before the procedure and continued for 6 to 24 hours afterward has been shown to decrease the incidence of CIN in high-risk patients.

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Flashcard 1635361623308

Question
risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and administration of intravenous isotonic saline (1-1.5 mL/kg/h) [...] hours before the procedure and continued for 6 to 24 hours afterward has been shown to decrease the incidence of CIN in high-risk patients.
Answer
3 to 12


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risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and administration of intravenous isotonic saline (1-1.5 mL/kg/h) 3 to 12 hours before the procedure and continued for 6 to 24 hours afterward has been shown to decrease the incidence of CIN in high-risk patients.

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Flashcard 1635363196172

Question
risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and administration of intravenous isotonic saline (1-1.5 mL/kg/h) 3 to 12 hours before the procedure and continued for [...] hours afterward has been shown to decrease the incidence of CIN in high-risk patients.
Answer
6 to 24


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risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and administration of intravenous isotonic saline (1-1.5 mL/kg/h) 3 to 12 hours before the procedure and continued for 6 to 24 hours afterward has been shown to decrease the incidence of CIN in high-risk patients.

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Risk factors include age older than 75 years, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, conditions of decreased renal perfusion, and concurrent use of nephrotoxic drugs.

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Flashcard 1635366341900

Question
Risk factors for contrast indused nephroathy include
Answer
age older than 75 years, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, conditions of decreased renal perfusion, and concurrent use of nephrotoxic drugs.


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Risk factors include age older than 75 years, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, conditions of decreased renal perfusion, and concurrent use of nephrotoxic drugs.

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discontinuing omeprazole, repeat kidney function testing in 5 to 7 days is the most appropriate management for this patient with acute interstitial nephritis (AIN).

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Flashcard 1635370274060

Question
discontinuing omeprazole, repeat kidney function testing in [...] days is the most appropriate management for this patient with acute interstitial nephritis (AIN).
Answer
5 to 7


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discontinuing omeprazole, repeat kidney function testing in 5 to 7 days is the most appropriate management for this patient with acute interstitial nephritis (AIN).

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Drug-induced AIN is characterized by a slowly increasing serum creatinine 7 to 10 days after exposure; however, it can occur within 1 day of exposure if the patient has been exposed previously. Drug-induced AIN can also occur months after exposure, often with NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)

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Flashcard 1635373419788

Question
Drug-induced AIN is characterized by a slowly increasing serum creatinine [...] days after exposure; however, it can occur within 1 day of exposure if the patient has been exposed previously. Drug-induced AIN can also occur months after exposure, often with NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)
Answer
7 to 10


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Drug-induced AIN is characterized by a slowly increasing serum creatinine 7 to 10 days after exposure; however, it can occur within 1 day of exposure if the patient has been exposed previously. Drug-induced AIN can also occur months after exposure, often with NSAI

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Flashcard 1635374992652

Question
Drug-induced AIN is characterized by a slowly increasing serum creatinine 7 to 10 days after exposure; however, it can occur within [...] of exposure if the patient has been exposed previously. Drug-induced AIN can also occur months after exposure, often with NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)
Answer
1 day


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Drug-induced AIN is characterized by a slowly increasing serum creatinine 7 to 10 days after exposure; however, it can occur within 1 day of exposure if the patient has been exposed previously. Drug-induced AIN can also occur months after exposure, often with NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)

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Flashcard 1635376565516

Question
Drug-induced AIN is characterized by a slowly increasing serum creatinine 7 to 10 days after exposure; however, it can occur within 1 day of exposure if the patient has been exposed previously. Drug-induced AIN can also occur [...] after exposure, often with NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)
Answer
months


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y>Drug-induced AIN is characterized by a slowly increasing serum creatinine 7 to 10 days after exposure; however, it can occur within 1 day of exposure if the patient has been exposed previously. Drug-induced AIN can also occur months after exposure, often with NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)<body><html>

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AIN may be asymptomatic or present with mild, nonspecific symptoms; only 10% to 30% have the classic triad of fever, rash, and eosinophilia.

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Flashcard 1635379711244

Question
AIN may be asymptomatic or present with mild, nonspecific symptoms; only 10% to 30% have the classic triad of [...]
Answer
fever, rash, and eosinophilia.


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AIN may be asymptomatic or present with mild, nonspecific symptoms; only 10% to 30% have the classic triad of fever, rash, and eosinophilia.

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Subject 2. Measurement Scales
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns

Measurement is the assignment of numbers to objects or events in a systematic fashion. To choose the appropriate statistical methods for summarizing and analyzing data, we need to distinguish between different measurement scales or levels of measurement.

  • Nominal Scale
    • Nominal measurement represents the weakest level of measurement.
    • It consists of assigning items to groups or categories.
    • No quantitative information is conveyed and no ordering (ranking) of the items is implied.
    • Nominal scales are qualitative rather than quantitative.

    Religious preference, race, and sex are all examples of nominal scales. Another example is portfolio managers categorized as value or growth style will have a scale of 1 for value and 2 for growth. Frequency distributions are usually used to analyze data measured on a nominal scale. The main statistic computed is the mode. Variables measured on a nominal scale are often referred to as categorical or qualitative variables.

  • Ordinal Scale
    • Measurements on an ordinal scale are categorized.
    • The various measurements are then ranked in their categories.
    • Measurements with ordinal scales are ordered with higher numbers representing higher values. The intervals between the numbers are not necessarily equal.

    Example 1

    On a 5-point rating scale measuring attitudes toward gun control, the difference between a rating of 2 and a rating of 3 may not represent the same difference as that between a rating of 4 and a rating of 5.

    Example 2

    Two categories might be value and growth. Within each category, the portfolio managers measured will be weighted according to performance on a scale from 1 to 10, with 1 being the best- and 10 the worst-performing manager.

    There is no "true" zero point for ordinal scales, since the zero point is chosen arbitrarily. The lowest point on the rating scale in the example was arbitrarily chosen to be 1. It could just as well have been 0 or -5.

  • Interval Scale

    Interval scales rank measurements and ensure that the intervals between the rankings are equal. Scale values can be added and subtracted from each other.

    For example, if anxiety was measured on an interval scale, a difference between a score of 10 and a score of 11 would represent the same difference in anxiety as the difference between a score of 50 and a score of 51.

    Interval scales do not have a "true" zero point. Therefore, it is not possible to make statements about how many times higher one score is than another. For the anxiety example, it would not be valid to say that a person with a score of 30 was twice as anxious as a person with a score of 15. True interval measurement is somewhere between rare and nonexistent in the behavioral sciences. No interval scales measuring anxiety, such as the one described in the example, actually exist. A good example of an interval scale is the Fahrenheit measure of temperature. Equal differences on this scale represent equal differences in temperature, but a temperature of 30°F is not twice as warm as one of 15°F.

  • Ratio Scale

    Ratio scales are like interval scales except that they have true zero points. This is the strongest measurement scale. In addition to permitting ranking and addition or subtraction, ratio scales allow computation of meaningful ratios. A good example is the Kelvin scale of temperature. This scale has an absolute zero. Thus, a temperature of 300°K is twice as high as a temperature of 150°K. Two financial examples of ratio scales are rates of return and money. Both examples can be measured on a zero scale, where zero represents no return, or in the case of money, no money.

Note that as you move down through this list, the measurement scales get stronger.

Hint: Remember the orde

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Flashcard 1635386002700

Tags
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Question
[...] is the assignment of numbers to objects or events in a systematic fashion.
Answer
Measurement


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Subject 2. Measurement Scales
Measurement is the assignment of numbers to objects or events in a systematic fashion. To choose the appropriate statistical methods for summarizing and analyzing data, we need to distinguish between different measurement scales or levels of measurement. &#1







Flashcard 1635388361996

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
[...] measurement represents the weakest level of measurement.
Answer
Nominal


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Subject 2. Measurement Scales
systematic fashion. To choose the appropriate statistical methods for summarizing and analyzing data, we need to distinguish between different measurement scales or levels of measurement. Nominal Scale <span>Nominal measurement represents the weakest level of measurement. It consists of assigning items to groups or categories. No quantitative information is conveyed and no ordering (ranking) of the items is implied. Nominal scales are qualitative rather







Flashcard 1635390721292

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
[...] scale consists of assigning items to groups or categories.
Answer
Nominal Scale


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    Subject 2. Measurement Scales
    or summarizing and analyzing data, we need to distinguish between different measurement scales or levels of measurement. Nominal Scale Nominal measurement represents the weakest level of measurement. It <span>consists of assigning items to groups or categories. No quantitative information is conveyed and no ordering (ranking) of the items is implied. Nominal scales are qualitative rather than quantitative. Religious preference, r







    Flashcard 1635393080588

    Tags
    #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
    Question
    In this measurement scale no quantitative information is conveyed and no ordering (ranking) of the items is implied.
    Answer
    Nominal Scale


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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      uish between different measurement scales or levels of measurement. Nominal Scale Nominal measurement represents the weakest level of measurement. It consists of assigning items to groups or categories. <span>No quantitative information is conveyed and no ordering (ranking) of the items is implied. Nominal scales are qualitative rather than quantitative. Religious preference, race, and sex are all examples of nominal scales. Another example is portfolio managers cate







      Flashcard 1635395702028

      Tags
      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Question
      [...] scales are qualitative rather than quantitative.
      Answer
      Nominal scales


      statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      3; Nominal Scale Nominal measurement represents the weakest level of measurement. It consists of assigning items to groups or categories. No quantitative information is conveyed and no ordering (ranking) of the items is implied. <span>Nominal scales are qualitative rather than quantitative. Religious preference, race, and sex are all examples of nominal scales. Another example is portfolio managers categorized as value or growth style will have a scale of 1 f







      Flashcard 1635398061324

      Tags
      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Question
      Religious preference, race, and sex are all examples of [...] scales
      Answer
      nominal scales.


      statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      st level of measurement. It consists of assigning items to groups or categories. No quantitative information is conveyed and no ordering (ranking) of the items is implied. Nominal scales are qualitative rather than quantitative. <span>Religious preference, race, and sex are all examples of nominal scales. Another example is portfolio managers categorized as value or growth style will have a scale of 1 for value and 2 for growth. Frequency distributions are usually used to analyze data me







      Flashcard 1635400420620

      Tags
      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Question
      What kind of measurement scale would be portfolio managers categorized as value or growth style will have a scale of 1 for value and 2 for growth.
      Answer
      nominal scales.


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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      egories. No quantitative information is conveyed and no ordering (ranking) of the items is implied. Nominal scales are qualitative rather than quantitative. Religious preference, race, and sex are all examples of nominal scales. <span>Another example is portfolio managers categorized as value or growth style will have a scale of 1 for value and 2 for growth. Frequency distributions are usually used to analyze data measured on a nominal scale. The main statistic computed is the mode. Variables measured on a nominal scale are often referred t







      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Frequency distributions are usually used to analyze data measured on a nominal scale. The main statistic computed is the mode.

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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      tive rather than quantitative. Religious preference, race, and sex are all examples of nominal scales. Another example is portfolio managers categorized as value or growth style will have a scale of 1 for value and 2 for growth. <span>Frequency distributions are usually used to analyze data measured on a nominal scale. The main statistic computed is the mode. Variables measured on a nominal scale are often referred to as categorical or qualitative variables. Ordinal Scale Measurements on an ordinal scale are ca




      Flashcard 1635404352780

      Tags
      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Question
      Variables measured on a nominal scale are often referred to as [...] variables.
      Answer
      categorical or qualitative


      statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      ample is portfolio managers categorized as value or growth style will have a scale of 1 for value and 2 for growth. Frequency distributions are usually used to analyze data measured on a nominal scale. The main statistic computed is the mode. <span>Variables measured on a nominal scale are often referred to as categorical or qualitative variables. Ordinal Scale Measurements on an ordinal scale are categorized. The various measurements are then ranked in their categories. Measurements with ordinal sc







      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Measurements on an ordinal scale are categorized.

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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      ually used to analyze data measured on a nominal scale. The main statistic computed is the mode. Variables measured on a nominal scale are often referred to as categorical or qualitative variables. Ordinal Scale <span>Measurements on an ordinal scale are categorized. The various measurements are then ranked in their categories. Measurements with ordinal scales are ordered with higher numbers representing higher values. The intervals between the numb




      Flashcard 1635408284940

      Tags
      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Question
      Measurements with [...] are ordered with higher numbers representing higher values.
      Answer
      ordinal scales


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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      red on a nominal scale are often referred to as categorical or qualitative variables. Ordinal Scale Measurements on an ordinal scale are categorized. The various measurements are then ranked in their categories. <span>Measurements with ordinal scales are ordered with higher numbers representing higher values. The intervals between the numbers are not necessarily equal. Example 1 On a 5-point rating scale measuring attitudes toward gun control, the difference betwe







      Flashcard 1635410644236

      Tags
      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Question
      The intervals between the numbers are not necessarily equal in the [...] .
      Answer
      ordinal scale


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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      #13; Ordinal Scale Measurements on an ordinal scale are categorized. The various measurements are then ranked in their categories. Measurements with ordinal scales are ordered with higher numbers representing higher values. <span>The intervals between the numbers are not necessarily equal. Example 1 On a 5-point rating scale measuring attitudes toward gun control, the difference between a rating of 2 and a rating of 3 may not represent the same







      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Ordinal Scale

      On a 5-point rating scale measuring attitudes toward gun control, the difference between a rating of 2 and a rating of 3 may not represent the same difference as that between a rating of 4 and a rating of 5.

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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      measurements are then ranked in their categories. Measurements with ordinal scales are ordered with higher numbers representing higher values. The intervals between the numbers are not necessarily equal. Example 1 <span>On a 5-point rating scale measuring attitudes toward gun control, the difference between a rating of 2 and a rating of 3 may not represent the same difference as that between a rating of 4 and a rating of 5. Example 2 Two categories might be value and growth. Within each category, the portfolio managers measured will be weighted according to performance on a scal




      Ordinal Scale
      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Two categories might be value and growth. Within each category, the portfolio managers measured will be weighted according to performance on a scale from 1 to 10, with 1 being the best- and 10 the worst-performing manager.

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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      a 5-point rating scale measuring attitudes toward gun control, the difference between a rating of 2 and a rating of 3 may not represent the same difference as that between a rating of 4 and a rating of 5. Example 2 <span>Two categories might be value and growth. Within each category, the portfolio managers measured will be weighted according to performance on a scale from 1 to 10, with 1 being the best- and 10 the worst-performing manager. There is no "true" zero point for ordinal scales, since the zero point is chosen arbitrarily. The lowest point on the rating scale in the example was arbitrarily




      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      There is no "true" zero point for ordinal scales, since the zero point is chosen arbitrarily.

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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      13; Two categories might be value and growth. Within each category, the portfolio managers measured will be weighted according to performance on a scale from 1 to 10, with 1 being the best- and 10 the worst-performing manager. <span>There is no "true" zero point for ordinal scales, since the zero point is chosen arbitrarily. The lowest point on the rating scale in the example was arbitrarily chosen to be 1. It could just as well have been 0 or -5. Interval Scale Interval scale




      Flashcard 1635423751436

      Tags
      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Question
      [...] rank measurements and ensure that the intervals between the rankings are equal.
      Answer
      Interval scales


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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      o point for ordinal scales, since the zero point is chosen arbitrarily. The lowest point on the rating scale in the example was arbitrarily chosen to be 1. It could just as well have been 0 or -5. Interval Scale <span>Interval scales rank measurements and ensure that the intervals between the rankings are equal. Scale values can be added and subtracted from each other. For example, if anxiety was measured on an interval scale, a difference between a score of 10 and a score of 11 w







      Flashcard 1635426110732

      Tags
      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Question
      In an interval Scale, scale values can be [...] and [...] from each other.
      Answer
      added and subtracted


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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      rating scale in the example was arbitrarily chosen to be 1. It could just as well have been 0 or -5. Interval Scale Interval scales rank measurements and ensure that the intervals between the rankings are equal. <span>Scale values can be added and subtracted from each other. For example, if anxiety was measured on an interval scale, a difference between a score of 10 and a score of 11 would represent the same difference in anxiety as the diffe







      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      if anxiety was measured on an interval scale, a difference between a score of 10 and a score of 11 would represent the same difference in anxiety as the difference between a score of 50 and a score of 51.

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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      e been 0 or -5. Interval Scale Interval scales rank measurements and ensure that the intervals between the rankings are equal. Scale values can be added and subtracted from each other. For example, <span>if anxiety was measured on an interval scale, a difference between a score of 10 and a score of 11 would represent the same difference in anxiety as the difference between a score of 50 and a score of 51. Interval scales do not have a "true" zero point. Therefore, it is not possible to make statements about how many times higher one score is than another. For the




      Flashcard 1635430305036

      Tags
      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Question
      Do Interval scales have a "true" zero point?
      Answer
      No


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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      3; For example, if anxiety was measured on an interval scale, a difference between a score of 10 and a score of 11 would represent the same difference in anxiety as the difference between a score of 50 and a score of 51. <span>Interval scales do not have a "true" zero point. Therefore, it is not possible to make statements about how many times higher one score is than another. For the anxiety example, it would not be valid to say that a person with a score







      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Interval scales do not have a "true" zero point. Therefore, it is not possible to make statements about how many times higher one score is than another. For the anxiety example, it would not be valid to say that a person with a score of 30 was twice as anxious as a person with a score of 15. True interval measurement is somewhere between rare and nonexistent in the behavioral sciences.

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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      3; For example, if anxiety was measured on an interval scale, a difference between a score of 10 and a score of 11 would represent the same difference in anxiety as the difference between a score of 50 and a score of 51. <span>Interval scales do not have a "true" zero point. Therefore, it is not possible to make statements about how many times higher one score is than another. For the anxiety example, it would not be valid to say that a person with a score of 30 was twice as anxious as a person with a score of 15. True interval measurement is somewhere between rare and nonexistent in the behavioral sciences. No interval scales measuring anxiety, such as the one described in the example, actually exist. A good example of an interval scale is the Fahrenheit measure of temperature. Equal diffe




      Flashcard 1635434237196

      Tags
      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Question
      A good example of an interval scale is the [...]
      Answer
      Fahrenheit measure of temperature.


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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      s twice as anxious as a person with a score of 15. True interval measurement is somewhere between rare and nonexistent in the behavioral sciences. No interval scales measuring anxiety, such as the one described in the example, actually exist. <span>A good example of an interval scale is the Fahrenheit measure of temperature. Equal differences on this scale represent equal differences in temperature, but a temperature of 30°F is not twice as warm as one of 15°F. Ratio Scale Rat







      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Equal differences on this scale represent equal differences in temperature, but a temperature of 30°F is not twice as warm as one of 15°F.

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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      s somewhere between rare and nonexistent in the behavioral sciences. No interval scales measuring anxiety, such as the one described in the example, actually exist. A good example of an interval scale is the Fahrenheit measure of temperature. <span>Equal differences on this scale represent equal differences in temperature, but a temperature of 30°F is not twice as warm as one of 15°F. Ratio Scale Ratio scales are like interval scales except that they have true zero points. This is the strongest measurement scale. In addition to permitti




      Flashcard 1635438169356

      Tags
      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Question
      [...] are like interval scales except that they have true zero points.
      Answer
      Ratio scales


      statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      an interval scale is the Fahrenheit measure of temperature. Equal differences on this scale represent equal differences in temperature, but a temperature of 30°F is not twice as warm as one of 15°F. Ratio Scale <span>Ratio scales are like interval scales except that they have true zero points. This is the strongest measurement scale. In addition to permitting ranking and addition or subtraction, ratio scales allow computation of meaningful ratios. A good example is the Kelvin







      Flashcard 1635440790796

      Tags
      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Question
      This is the strongest measurement scale
      Answer
      Ratio Scale


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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      on this scale represent equal differences in temperature, but a temperature of 30°F is not twice as warm as one of 15°F. Ratio Scale Ratio scales are like interval scales except that they have true zero points. <span>This is the strongest measurement scale. In addition to permitting ranking and addition or subtraction, ratio scales allow computation of meaningful ratios. A good example is the Kelvin scale of temperature. This scale has an







      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      In addition to permitting ranking and addition or subtraction, ratio scales allow computation of meaningful ratios.

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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      s in temperature, but a temperature of 30°F is not twice as warm as one of 15°F. Ratio Scale Ratio scales are like interval scales except that they have true zero points. This is the strongest measurement scale. <span>In addition to permitting ranking and addition or subtraction, ratio scales allow computation of meaningful ratios. A good example is the Kelvin scale of temperature. This scale has an absolute zero. Thus, a temperature of 300°K is twice as high as a temperature of 150°K. Two financial examples of ra




      Flashcard 1635444722956

      Tags
      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Question
      Two financial examples of ratio scales are [...] and [...]
      Answer
      rates of return and money.


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      Subject 2. Measurement Scales
      ing and addition or subtraction, ratio scales allow computation of meaningful ratios. A good example is the Kelvin scale of temperature. This scale has an absolute zero. Thus, a temperature of 300°K is twice as high as a temperature of 150°K. <span>Two financial examples of ratio scales are rates of return and money. Both examples can be measured on a zero scale, where zero represents no return, or in the case of money, no money. Note that as you move down through this list, the measur







      Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
      #has-images #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns

      Very often, the data available is vast, leading to a situation where dealing with individual numbers becomes laborious and messy. In such circumstances, it is neater and more convenient to summarize results into what is known as a frequency table. The data in the display is called a frequency distribution.

      An interval, also called a class, is a set of values within which an observation falls.

      • Each interval has a lower limit and an upper limit.
      • Intervals must be all-inclusive and non-overlapping.
      A frequency distribution is a tabular display of data categorized into a small number of non-overlapping intervals. Note that:
      • Each observation can only lie in one interval.
      • The total number of intervals will incorporate the whole population.
      • The range for an interval is unique. This means a value (observation) can only fall into one interval.
      It is important to consider the number of intervals to be used. If too few intervals are used, too much data may be summarized and we may lose important characteristics; if too many intervals are used, we may not summarize enough.

      A frequency distribution is constructed by dividing the scores into intervals and counting the number of scores in each interval. The actual number of scores and the percentage of scores in each interval are displayed. This helps in the analysis of large amount of statistical data, and works with all types of measurement scales.

      • Absolute frequency is the actual number of observations in a given interval.

      • Relative frequency is the result of dividing the absolute frequency of each return interval by the total number of observations.

      • Cumulative absolute frequency and cumulative relative frequency are the results from cumulating the absolute and relative frequencies as we move from the first to the last interval.
      The following steps are required when organizing data into a frequency distribution together with suggestions on constructing the frequency distribution.
      • Identify the highest and lowest values of the observations.

      • Setup classes (groups into which data is divided). The classes must be mutually exclusive and of equal size.

      • Add up the number of observations and assign each observation to its class.

      • Count the number of observations in each class. This is called the class frequency.
      Data can be divided into two types: discrete and continuous.
      • Discrete: The values in the data set can be counted. There are distinct spaces between the values, such as the number of children in a family or the number of shares comprising an index.
      • Continuous: The values in the data set can be measured. There are normally lots of decimal places involved and (theoretically, at least) there are no gaps between permissible values (i.e., all values can be included in the data set). Examples would include the height of a person and the time to complete an assignment. These values can be measured using sufficiently accurate tools to numerous decimal places.
      There are two methods that graphically represent continuous data: histograms and frequency polygons.

      1. A histogram is a bar chart that displays a frequency distribution. It is constructed as follows:

      • The class frequencies are shown on the vertical (y) axis (by the heights of bars drawn next to each other).
      • The classes (intervals) are shown on the horizontal (x) axis.
      • There is no space between the bars.

      From a histogram, we can see quickly where most of the observations lie. The shapes of histograms will vary, depending on the choice of the size of the interv

      ...

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      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      A frequency distribution is a tabular display of data categorized into a small number of non-overlapping intervals. Note that:
      • Each observation can only lie in one interval.
      • The total number of intervals will incorporate the whole population.
      • The range for an interval is unique. This means a value (observation) can only fall into one interval.

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      Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
      ency distribution. An interval, also called a class, is a set of values within which an observation falls. Each interval has a lower limit and an upper limit. Intervals must be all-inclusive and non-overlapping. <span>A frequency distribution is a tabular display of data categorized into a small number of non-overlapping intervals. Note that: Each observation can only lie in one interval. The total number of intervals will incorporate the whole population. The range for an interval is unique. This means a value (observation) can only fall into one interval. It is important to consider the number of intervals to be used. If too few intervals are used, too much data may be summarized and we may lose important characteristics; if too ma




      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      In a frequency distribution It is important to consider the number of intervals to be used. If too few intervals are used, too much data may be summarized and we may lose important characteristics; if too many intervals are used, we may not summarize enough.

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      Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
      that: Each observation can only lie in one interval. The total number of intervals will incorporate the whole population. The range for an interval is unique. This means a value (observation) can only fall into one interval. <span>It is important to consider the number of intervals to be used. If too few intervals are used, too much data may be summarized and we may lose important characteristics; if too many intervals are used, we may not summarize enough. A frequency distribution is constructed by dividing the scores into intervals and counting the number of scores in each interval. The actual number of scores and the percent




      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      A frequency distribution is constructed by dividing the scores into intervals and counting the number of scores in each interval. The actual number of scores and the percentage of scores in each interval are displayed. This helps in the analysis of large amount of statistical data, and works with all types of measurement scales.

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      Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
      It is important to consider the number of intervals to be used. If too few intervals are used, too much data may be summarized and we may lose important characteristics; if too many intervals are used, we may not summarize enough. <span>A frequency distribution is constructed by dividing the scores into intervals and counting the number of scores in each interval. The actual number of scores and the percentage of scores in each interval are displayed. This helps in the analysis of large amount of statistical data, and works with all types of measurement scales. Absolute frequency is the actual number of observations in a given interval. Relative frequency is the result of dividing the absolute frequency of e




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      The following steps are required when organizing data into a frequency distribution together with suggestions on constructing the frequency distribution.
      • Identify the highest and lowest values of the observations.

      • Setup classes (groups into which data is divided). The classes must be mutually exclusive and of equal size.

      • Add up the number of observations and assign each observation to its class.

      • Count the number of observations in each class. This is called the class frequency.

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      Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
      by the total number of observations. Cumulative absolute frequency and cumulative relative frequency are the results from cumulating the absolute and relative frequencies as we move from the first to the last interval. <span>The following steps are required when organizing data into a frequency distribution together with suggestions on constructing the frequency distribution. Identify the highest and lowest values of the observations. Setup classes (groups into which data is divided). The classes must be mutually exclusive and of equal size. Add up the number of observations and assign each observation to its class. Count the number of observations in each class. This is called the class frequency. Data can be divided into two types: discrete and continuous. Discrete: The values in the data set can be counted. There are distinct spaces between the values, such as




      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Discrete: The values in the data set can be counted. There are distinct spaces between the values, such as the number of children in a family or the number of shares comprising an index.

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      Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
      mber of observations and assign each observation to its class. Count the number of observations in each class. This is called the class frequency. Data can be divided into two types: discrete and continuous. <span>Discrete: The values in the data set can be counted. There are distinct spaces between the values, such as the number of children in a family or the number of shares comprising an index. Continuous: The values in the data set can be measured. There are normally lots of decimal places involved and (theoretically, at least) there are no gaps between permissible values (i.




      #reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
      Continuous: The values in the data set can be measured. There are normally lots of decimal places involved and (theoretically, at least) there are no gaps between permissible values (i.e., all values can be included in the data set). Examples would include the height of a person and the time to complete an assignment. These values can be measured using sufficiently accurate tools to numerous decimal places.

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      Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
      ed into two types: discrete and continuous. Discrete: The values in the data set can be counted. There are distinct spaces between the values, such as the number of children in a family or the number of shares comprising an index. <span>Continuous: The values in the data set can be measured. There are normally lots of decimal places involved and (theoretically, at least) there are no gaps between permissible values (i.e., all values can be included in the data set). Examples would include the height of a person and the time to complete an assignment. These values can be measured using sufficiently accurate tools to numerous decimal places. There are two methods that graphically represent continuous data: histograms and frequency polygons. 1. A histogram is a bar chart that displays a frequency distributi