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Flashcard 1428920601868

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4 #summary
Question
Sometimes, [...] interfere with the free working of markets. Examples include price ceilings, price floors, and specific taxes.
Answer
government policies

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Sometimes, government policies interfere with the free working of markets. Examples include price ceilings, price floors, and specific taxes. Whenever the imposition of such a policy alters the free market equilibriu

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SUMMARY
ducer surplus is the difference between the total revenue received by sellers from selling a given amount and the total variable cost of production of that amount. When equilibrium price is reached, total surplus is maximized. <span>Sometimes, government policies interfere with the free working of markets. Examples include price ceilings, price floors, and specific taxes. Whenever the imposition of such a policy alters the free market equilibrium quantity (the quantity that maximizes total surplus), there is a redistribution of surplus between buyers and sellers; but there is also a reduction of total surplus, called deadweight loss. Other influences can result in an imbalance between demand and supply. Search costs are impediments in the ability of willing buyers and willing sellers to meet in a transaction. Brokers can add value if they reduce search costs and match buyers and sellers. In general, anything that improves information about the willingness of buyers and sellers to engage will reduce search costs and add value. Economists use a quantitative measure of sensitivity called elasticity. In general, elasticity is the ratio of the percentage change in the dependent variable to the per







Flashcard 1615496088844

Tags
#excel
Question
Como hago una funcion SI anidada?
Answer
=SI(prueba logica, Valor si verdadero, =SI(prueba logica, valor si verdadero, valor si falso))

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Flashcard 1615949860108

Question
The [...] discloses operating cash inflows by source and operating cash outflows by use in the operating activities section of the cash flow statement.
Answer
direct method

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Subject 2. Preparing the Cash Flow Statement
perating activities. There are two methods of converting the income statement from an accrual basis to a cash basis. Companies can use either the direct or the indirect method for reporting their operating cash flow. <span>The direct method discloses operating cash inflows by source (e.g., cash received from customers, cash received from investment income) and operating cash outflows by use (e.g., cash paid to suppliers, cash paid for interest) in the operating activities section of the cash flow statement. It adjusts each item in the income statement to its cash equivalent. It shows operating cash receipts and payments. More cash flow information can be obtained and it is mor







Flashcard 1619926846732

Tags
#percentage-of-completion-method-steps
Question
Step 1 percentage of completion
Answer
Current Cost= El costo acumulado en ese año lo divides entre el costo estimado total y lo multiplicas por 100. Ese porcentaje lo multiplicas por el costo estimado

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Percentage of completion steps to report
Step 1: Current Cost= Divides el costo acumulado en ese año y lo divides entre el costo estimado total y lo multiplicas por 100. Ese porcentaje lo multiplicas por el costo estimado Step 2: Current Revenue: divides el costo acumulado en ese año, lo divides entre el costo estimado total y lo multiplicas por el precio del contrato. Step 3:Prof







Flashcard 1621301267724

Tags
#reading-6-time-value-of-money
Question
[...] is the rate used to discount future cash flows to allow for the time value of money
Answer
Discount rate

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Subject 1 Time Value of Money and Interest Rates
ts the relationship between time, cash flow, and interest rate. There are three ways to interpret interest rates: Required rate of return is the return required by investors or lenders to postpone their current consumption. <span>Discount rate is the rate used to discount future cash flows to allow for the time value of money (that is, to bring a future value equivalent to present value). Opportunity cost is the most valuable alternative investors give up when they choose what to do with money. In a ce







Flashcard 1626663423244

Tags
#reading-7-discounted-cashflows-applications
Question
In HPR for common stock, cash distribution is [...] ; for bonds, cash distribution is [...]
Answer
the dividend

the coupon payment.

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Subject 2. Holding Period Return
e end of time period t P (t-1) = price per share at the end of time period t-1, the time period immediately preceding time period t P t - P t-1 = price appreciation of the investment D t = cash distributions received during time period t: <span>for common stock, cash distribution is the dividend; for bonds, cash distribution is the coupon payment. It has two important characteristics: It has an element of time attached to it: monthly, quarterly or annual returns. HPR can be computed for any time period. It has n







Flashcard 1633769622796

Question
A zero-coupon bond is also known as an [...]
Answer
"accrual bond,"

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A zero-coupon bond, also known as an "accrual bond," is a debt security that doesn't pay interest (a coupon) but is traded at a deep discount, rendering profit at maturity when the bond is redeemed for its full face value.</

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Zero-Coupon Bond
What is a 'Zero-Coupon Bond' <span>A zero-coupon bond, also known as an "accrual bond," is a debt security that doesn't pay interest (a coupon) but is traded at a deep discount, rendering profit at maturity when the bond is redeemed for its full face value. Some zero-coupon bonds are issued as such, while others are bonds that have been stripped of their coupons by a financial institution and then repackaged as zero-coupon bonds. Because t







Flashcard 1645241568524

Tags
#edx-probability
Question
A [...] is a model of a random phenomenon or a random experiment
Answer
probabilistic Model

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Lesson 1. Sample space
Putting together a probabilistic Model that is, a model of a random phenomenon or a random experiment involves two steps. First step, we describe the possible outcomes of the phenomenon or experiment of interest. Second step, we describe our beliefs about the







Flashcard 1654673509644

Tags
#reading-10-common-probability-distributions
Question
A distribution that specifies the probabilities of a random variable’s possible outcomes.
Answer
Probability distribution

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#1 #airway #ccmc #jrs

Epiglottis

Like a lid that prevents solids and liquids from entering the trachea while swallowing
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#1 #airway #ccmc #jrs
AIRWAY ASSESSMENT Dentition overbite, missing teeth, protruding incisors Ability to Visualize Uvula Mallampati TMJ Mobility mouth opening at least 5-6 cm
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#1 #airway #ccmc #jrs
AIRWAY ASSESSMENT Cervical Spine Mobility Assess pt’s ROM Size of tongue Size in relation to mouth Respiratory difficulties/ difficult airway History of difficult intubation Sleep Apnea Snoring Presence of short thick neck
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When it comes to testing a theory we don't instinctively try to find evidence we're wrong. It's much easier and more mentally satisfying to find information that proves our intuition. This is known as the confirmation bias.
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Falsification: How to Destroy Incorrect Ideas
that the nature of scientific thought is that we could never be sure of anything. The only way to test the validity of any theory was to prove it wrong, a process he labeled falsification. And it turns out we're quite bad at falsification. <span>When it comes to testing a theory we don't instinctively try to find evidence we're wrong. It's much easier and more mentally satisfying to find information that proves our intuition. This is known as the confirmation bias. In Paul Tough's book, How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character, he tells the story of an English psychologist Peter Cathcart Wason , who came up with




Subjects were told that they would be given a series of three numbers that followed a certain rule known only to the experimenter. Their assignment was to figure out what the rule was, which they could do by offering the experimenter other strings of three numbers and asking him whether or not these new strings met the rule.

The string of numbers the subjects were given was quite simple:

2-4-6

Try it: What’s your first instinct about the rule governing these numbers? And what’s another string you might test with the experimenter in order to find out if your guess is right? If you’re like most people, your first instinct is that the rule is “ascending even numbers” or “numbers increasing by two.” And so you guess something like:

8-10-12

And the experimenter says, “Yes! That string of numbers also meets the rule.” And your confidence rises. To confirm your brilliance, you test one more possibility, just as due diligence, something like:

20-22-24

“Yes!” says the experimenter. Another surge of dopamine. And you proudly make your guess: “The rule is: even numbers, ascending in twos.” “No!” says the experimenter. It turns out that the rule is “any ascending numbers.” So 8-10-12 does fit the rule, it’s true, but so does 1-2-3. Or 4-23-512. The only way to win the game is to guess strings of numbers that would prove your beloved hypothesis wrong—and that is something each of us is constitutionally driven to avoid.

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Falsification: How to Destroy Incorrect Ideas
uriosity, and the Hidden Power of Character, he tells the story of an English psychologist Peter Cathcart Wason , who came up with an “ingenious experiment to demonstrate our natural tendency to confirm rather than disprove our own ideas.” <span>Subjects were told that they would be given a series of three numbers that followed a certain rule known only to the experimenter. Their assignment was to figure out what the rule was, which they could do by offering the experimenter other strings of three numbers and asking him whether or not these new strings met the rule. The string of numbers the subjects were given was quite simple: 2-4-6 Try it: What’s your first instinct about the rule governing these numbers? And what’s another string you might test with the experimenter in order to find out if your guess is right? If you’re like most people, your first instinct is that the rule is “ascending even numbers” or “numbers increasing by two.” And so you guess something like: 8-10-12 And the experimenter says, “Yes! That string of numbers also meets the rule.” And your confidence rises. To confirm your brilliance, you test one more possibility, just as due diligence, something like: 20-22-24 “Yes!” says the experimenter. Another surge of dopamine. And you proudly make your guess: “The rule is: even numbers, ascending in twos.” “No!” says the experimenter. It turns out that the rule is “any ascending numbers.” So 8-10-12 does fit the rule, it’s true, but so does 1-2-3. Or 4-23-512. The only way to win the game is to guess strings of numbers that would prove your beloved hypothesis wrong—and that is something each of us is constitutionally driven to avoid. In the study, only 1 in five people was able to guess the correct rule . And the reason we’re all so bad at games like this is the tendency toward confirmation bias: It feels much




Sir Karl Popper wrote that the nature of scientific thought is that we could never be sure of anything. The only way to test the validity of any theory was to prove it wrong, a process he labeled falsification. And it turns out we're quite bad at falsification
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Falsification: How to Destroy Incorrect Ideas
t Ideas February 24, 2014 | Reading Time: 2 minutes “The human mind is a lot like the human egg, and the human egg has a shut-off device. When one sperm gets in, it shuts down so the next one can’t get in.” — Charlie Munger *** <span>Sir Karl Popper wrote that the nature of scientific thought is that we could never be sure of anything. The only way to test the validity of any theory was to prove it wrong, a process he labeled falsification. And it turns out we're quite bad at falsification. When it comes to testing a theory we don't instinctively try to find evidence we're wrong. It's much easier and more mentally satisfying to find information that proves our intuition




Circle of Competence is simple: Each of us, through experience or study, has built up useful knowledge on certain areas of the world. Some areas are understood by most of us, while some areas require a lot more specialty to evaluate.
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Understanding your Circle of Competence: How Warren Buffett Avoids Problems
o be an expert on every company, or even many. You only have to be able to evaluate companies within your circle of competence. The size of that circle is not very important; knowing its boundaries, however, is vital. Circle Of Competence <span>Circle of Competence is simple: Each of us, through experience or study, has built up useful knowledge on certain areas of the world. Some areas are understood by most of us, while some areas require a lot more specialty to evaluate. For example, most of us have a basic understanding of the economics of a restaurant: You rent or buy space, spend money to outfit the place and then hire employees to seat, serve, coo




That basic knowledge, along with some understanding of accounting and a little bit of study, would enable one to evaluate and invest in any number of restaurants and restaurant chains; public or private. It’s not all that complicated.

However, can most of us say we understand the workings of a microchip company or a biotech drug company at the same level? Perhaps not.

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Understanding your Circle of Competence: How Warren Buffett Avoids Problems
e prices to generate a profit on the food and drinks you serve—after all of your operating expenses have been paid. Though the cuisine, atmosphere, and price points will vary by restaurant, they all have to follow the same economic formula. <span>That basic knowledge, along with some understanding of accounting and a little bit of study, would enable one to evaluate and invest in any number of restaurants and restaurant chains; public or private. It’s not all that complicated. However, can most of us say we understand the workings of a microchip company or a biotech drug company at the same level? Perhaps not. But as Buffett so eloquently put it, we do not necessarily need to understand these more esoteric areas to invest capital. Far more important is to honestly define what we do know and




But as Buffett so eloquently put it, we do not necessarily need to understand these more esoteric areas to invest capital. Far more important is to honestly define what we do know and stick to those areas. Our circle of competence can be widened, but only slowly and over time. Mistakes are most often made when straying from this discipline.
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Understanding your Circle of Competence: How Warren Buffett Avoids Problems
in any number of restaurants and restaurant chains; public or private. It’s not all that complicated. However, can most of us say we understand the workings of a microchip company or a biotech drug company at the same level? Perhaps not. <span>But as Buffett so eloquently put it, we do not necessarily need to understand these more esoteric areas to invest capital. Far more important is to honestly define what we do know and stick to those areas. Our circle of competence can be widened, but only slowly and over time. Mistakes are most often made when straying from this discipline. * * * Circle of Competence applies outside of investing. Buffett describes the circle of competence of one of his business managers, a Russian immigrant with poor English who buil




You have to figure out what your own aptitudes are. If you play games where other people have the aptitudes and you don't, you're going to lose. And that's as close to certain as any prediction that you can make. You have to figure out where you've got an edge. And you've got to play within your own circle of competence.
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Understanding your Circle of Competence: How Warren Buffett Avoids Problems
concept outside of business altogether and into the realm of life in general. The essential question he sought to answer: Where should we devote our limited time in life, in order to achieve the most success? Charlie’s simple prescription: <span>You have to figure out what your own aptitudes are. If you play games where other people have the aptitudes and you don't, you're going to lose. And that's as close to certain as any prediction that you can make. You have to figure out where you've got an edge. And you've got to play within your own circle of competence. If you want to be the best tennis player in the world, you may start out trying and soon find out that it's hopeless—that other people blow right by you. However, if you want to becom




So, the simple takeaway here is clear. If you want to improve your odds of success in life and business then define the perimeter of your circle of competence, and operate inside. Over time, work to expand that circle but never fool yourself about where it stands today, and never be afraid to say “I don’t know.”
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Understanding your Circle of Competence: How Warren Buffett Avoids Problems
nt or stand in center court in a respectable tennis tournament can rise quite high in life by slowly developing a circle of competence—which results partly from what they were born with and partly from what they slowly develop through work. <span>So, the simple takeaway here is clear. If you want to improve your odds of success in life and business then define the perimeter of your circle of competence, and operate inside. Over time, work to expand that circle but never fool yourself about where it stands today, and never be afraid to say “I don’t know.” * * * Circle of Competence is part of the Farnam Street latticework of mental models. Tagged: Charlie Munger, Circle of Competence, Mental Model, Warren Buffett




Compression and stress shielding of the deep fibres of the gluteal tendons in hip adduction are likely to be central to the development of tendon degeneration.
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The evidence for the best management is poor, and the underlying mechanisms of the condition are only beginning to be understood. Compression and stress shielding of the deep fibres of the gluteal tendons in hip adduction are likely to be central to the development of tendon degen- eration.

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Flashcard 1689952062732

Question
[...] and stress shielding of the deep fibres of the gluteal tendons in hip adduction are likely to be central to the development of tendon degeneration.
Answer
Compression

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Compression and stress shielding of the deep fibres of the gluteal tendons in hip adduction are likely to be central to the development of tendon degeneration.

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Flashcard 1689953635596

Question
Compression and stress shielding of the [...] in hip adduction are likely to be central to the development of tendon degeneration.
Answer
deep fibres of the gluteal tendons

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Compression and stress shielding of the deep fibres of the gluteal tendons in hip adduction are likely to be central to the development of tendon degeneration.

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Flashcard 1689954684172

Question
Compression and stress shielding of the deep fibres of the gluteal tendons in [...] are likely to be central to the development of tendon degeneration.
Answer
hip adduction

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Compression and stress shielding of the deep fibres of the gluteal tendons in hip adduction are likely to be central to the development of tendon degeneration.

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#documento-electronico #eni #normativa
El Esquema Nacional de Interoperabilidad (en adelante, ENI) se establece en el artículo 156 de la Ley 40/2015, de 1 de octubre, de Régimen Jurídico del Sector Público
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#documento-electronico #eni #normativa
Su finalidad es la creación de las condiciones necesarias para garantizar el adecuado nivel de interoperabilidad técnica, semántica y organizativa de los sistemas y aplicaciones empleados por las Administraciones públicas, que permitan el ejercicio de derechos y el cumplimiento de deberes a través del acceso electrónico a los servicios públicos, a la vez que redunda en beneficio de la eficacia y la eficiencia, en el marco, entre otras normas, de la Ley 39/2015 de Procedimiento Administrativo Común de las Administraciones Públicas
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#documento-electronico #eni #normativa
la NTI no hace previsiones con respecto a la forma de implementación a nivel interno de los metadatos que forman parte de un documento electrónico (incrustación, vinculación, etc.)
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#gestion-it
Algunas características de las redes sociales: Las redes sociales conectan personas. Permiten maximizar la difusión y promoción de lo que se hace y que se valoren los resultados acudiendo donde ya existe el tráfico. Facilitan que los usuarios generen contenidos y creen comunidad en torno a una marca o temática. Aportan información directa del impacto de las acciones realizadas. En las redes sociales es frecuente que se produzcan comportamientos virales, es decir, que determinados mensajes o vídeos se reenvíen entre sus usuarios de forma exponencial, alcanzando en ocasiones a millones de personas. Este tipo de fenómenos virales se pueden dar de forma casual (sin una intención previa por parte del autor) o de forma intencionada para dar a conocer una determinada idea o conseguir un aumento de clientes (en este caso se habla de marketing viral, una técnica cada vez más usada por muchas marcas).
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#gestion-it
Resistencia al cambio. La mera presencia no es suficiente, es necesario dinamizar para implicar y analizar para conocer lo que ocurre y actuar en consecuencia. La participación no debe ser unidireccional, se debe responder al diálogo. Existe una gran diversidad de redes y están en permanente evolución
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#gestion-it
Tener presencia en redes sociales es sencillo: Escoger una temática adecuada. Diseñar una estrategia y un plan de promoción. Definir una imagen gráfica. Desarrollar. Llevarla a cabo. … y construir una red social también. Marcar unos objetivos concretos. Definir una imagen gráfica. Elegir una herramienta con las funcionalidades deseadas. Implantarlo. Lo difícil es construir comunidad y generar participación
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Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Abbas ibn Jurayj (Arabic: أبو الحسن علي بن العباس بن جريج ‎‎), also known as Ibn al-Rumi (born Baghdad in 836; died 896), was the son of a Persian mother. By the age of twenty he earned a living from his poetry, which would culminate in his masterpiece Diwan. (Do NOT confuse with Rumi, 13C Persian poet)
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Ibn al-Rumi - Wikipedia
rn 21 June 836 [1] Baghdad, Abbasid Caliphate (now in Iraq) Died 13 July 896 (aged 60) [2] Baghdad, Abbasid Caliphate, now Iraq Era Medieval era (Islamic Golden Age) Region Iraq, Arab world, Muslim world Main interests Arabic poetry <span>Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Abbas ibn Jurayj (Arabic: أبو الحسن علي بن العباس بن جريج‎‎), also known as Ibn al-Rumi (born Baghdad in 836; died 896), was the son of a Persian mother. By the age of twenty he earned a living from his poetry, which would culminate in his masterpiece Diwan. His many political patrons included the Tahirid ruler Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir, Abbasid Caliph Al-Mu'tamid's minister the Persian Isma'il ibn Bulbul, and the politically influe




#redes #tcp-ip
El protocolo RARP, como su propio nombre indica, pretende solucionar el problema inverso al del protocolo ARP. Mientras que ARP obtenía direcciones físicas, a partir de la dirección Internet, RARP se ha diseñado para obtener la dirección Internet, a partir de la dirección física de la tarjeta hardware de la estación.
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#redes #tcp-ip
TELNET. TELNET se basa en un protocolo que permite a un usuario conectado físicamente a un nodo, iniciar una sesión de trabajo en otro ordenador diferente (remoto). Los datos introducidos por el teclado del terminal se transfieren al nodo remoto utilizando una conexión TCP. Inversamente, TELNET recibe la información procedente del ordenador remoto, y la presenta en el terminal. TELNET ofrece un servicio transparente, en el sentido de que el usuario tiene la sensación completa de estar físicamente conectado al ordenador remoto.
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#redes #tcp-ip
NVT: Network Virtual Terminal: Consiste en una sencilla interfaz estándar para sistemas remotos. Existen en el mercado infinidad de terminales cada uno de los cuales, tiene un comportamiento distinto. Para homogeneizar estas diferencias, NVT define el formato de envío de los datos y las secuencias de caracteres de control, de tal manera que, independientemente del terminal utilizado, el formato usado es el mismo. Para que el terminal y el ordenador puedan comunicarse adecuadamente, es obvio que se necesita una capa de software que realice las conversiones entre los diferentes formatos y el formato NVT. Este software reside tanto en el cliente como en el servidor
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#redes #tcp-ip
Comunicación simétrica. La comunicación TELNET es simétrica, es decir, no necesariamente el cliente ha de atender un terminal. Esta característica permite a TELNET comunicar un terminal con otro, aplicaciones entre sí, etc. Esto también significa que cualquiera de los dos nodos puede negociar las opciones anteriores. Cuatro de los comandos específicos vistos previamente (WILL, WONT, DO y DONT) son especialmente importantes a la hora de negociar las opciones. Cuando un nodo pregunta por una petición de aceptación de opción ¿WILL X?, ¿estás de acuerdo en utilizar la opción X), recibe una de dos contestaciones posibles (DO X ó DONT X) acordando o no el uso de la opción. Al mismo tiempo estas respuestas pueden ser peticiones (DO X, DONT X: usa, no uses la opción X) y pueden ser, a su vez, aceptadas o no (WILL X, WONT X: usaré, no usaré la opción X).
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#redes #tcp-ip
FTP. File Transfer Protocol. Otra de las aplicaciones más ampliamente utilizadas en una red, junto con TELNET, es la transferencia de ficheros. El protocolo FTP implementa dicho servicio sobre una conexión TCP.
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#redes #tcp-ip
Modelo FTP. Como muestra la figura anterior, en la arquitectura FTP, se utilizan dos conexiones TCP, una para la transmisión de los datos y otra para control. Puede haber incluso dos o más conexiones cuando existen varias transferencias de ficheros simultáneas. En casos así, existiría una conexión de control y múltiples conexiones de datos, una por cada fichero en proceso de transmisión.
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#moviles #redes
Señalización Además del uso para llamadas del espectro, reservando para ello los canales precisos mientras se estén usando, el estándar prevé que el terminal envíe y reciba datos para una serie de usos de señalización, como por ejemplo el registro inicial en la red al encender el terminal, la salida de la red al apagarlo, el canal en que va a establecerse la comunicación si entra o sale una llamada, la información del número de la llamada entrante... Y prevé además que cada cierto tiempo el terminal avise a la red de que se encuentra encendido para optimizar el uso del espectro y no reservar capacidad para terminales apagados o fuera de cobertura. Este uso del transmisor, conocido como ráfagas de señalización, ocupa muy poca capacidad de red y se utiliza también para enviar y recibir los mensajes cortos SMS sin necesidad de asignar un canal de radio. Es sencillo escuchar una ráfaga de señalización si el teléfono se encuentra cerca de un aparato susceptible de captar interferencias, como un aparato de radio o televisión
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#moviles #redes
3G (o 3-G) es la abreviación de tercera-generación de transmisión de voz y datos a través de telefonía móvil. La definición técnicamente correcta es UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service. Servicio Universal de Telecomunicaciones Móviles)
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#moviles #redes
Los servicios asociados con la tercera generación proporcionan la posibilidad de transferir tanto voz y datos (una llamada telefónica o una videollamada) y datos no-voz (como la descarga de programas, intercambio de email, y mensajería instantánea). Aunque esta tecnología estaba orientada a la telefonía móvil, desde hace unos años las operadoras de telefonía móvil ofrecen servicios exclusivos de conexión a Internet mediante módem usb, sin necesidad de adquirir un teléfono móvil, por lo que cualquier ordenador puede disponer de acceso a Internet. Existen otros dispositivos como algunos ultrapórtátiles (netbooks) que incorporan el módem integrado en el propio equipo, pero requieren de una tarjeta SIM (la que llevan los teléfonos móviles) para su uso, por lo que en este caso sí es necesario estar dado de alta con un número de teléfono.
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#moviles #redes
De 2G a 2.5G (GPRS) El primer gran paso en la evolución al 2G ocurrió con la entrada del Servicio General de Paquetes vía Radio (GPRS - General Packet Radio Service). Los servicios de los móviles relacionados con el GPRS se conviertieron en 2.5G
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Whatever its truth, it is in any case unlikely that early collections of hija) consisted exclusively of poetry. In order to function properly, a hlj'a)- poem ought to be known together with the story of which it forms part.
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Flashcard 1690037521676

Question
Early collections of invective lampoon poetry are usually not called kitab al-hijāʾ but, for instance...
Answer
kitab al-mathalib ("occasions for blame")

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Flashcard 1690039880972

Question
Name for verbal contests (not naqa'id)?
Answer
munafarat

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poetical contests (munāfarāt, munāqarāt, mushāghabāt, munāqalāt, musājalāt, mushāgharāt, mukhāyalāt, mufākharāt and tahājiz are some of the terms employed)
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Abu ʿUbayda is generally accused of anti-Arab sympathies.
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By the Abbasid era, poetry fell into lighter and ceremonial genres. Light poetry included epigrams, wine, love, licentious and descriptive poetry; ceremonial poetry, praise, boast, lament, and satire. The ceremonial genres, longer and more complex, were the domain of professional poets. Literary circles (majalis s. majlis al-uns) became the audience for the performance of both kinds, though ceremonial poetry may have been presented in larger official settings as well.
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