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To relieve the rotation, we use the keywords DDL_MAIT=’DNOR’ and DDL_ESCL=’DNOR’ in LIAISON_MAIL, this means: we allow- ing relative displacement, but the normal distance to the two surfaces re- mains constant.
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Concerning contact, U2.04.04 is the first introductory document to be read.
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as we want to allow friction in-between the two bodies FORMULATION=’CONTINUE’, FROTTEMENT=’COULOMB’ has to be used; • although we use two contact ZONE they must share these same pa- rameters; • we set the frictional coefficient, ’COULOMB’, at 0.1, which is rather a low -slippery- value for steel on steel contact.
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#Gastroenterology #Liver #diseases
The liver is the body’s largest internal organ (1.2–1.5 kg)  
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Flashcard 3213359451404

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#Gastroenterology #Liver #diseases
Question
The liver is the body’s [...] internal organ (1.2–1.5 kg)  
Answer
largest

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The liver is the body’s largest internal organ (1.2–1.5 kg)

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#Gatroenterology #Liver #diseases
A functional division into the larger right lobe (containing caudate and quadrate lobes) and the left lobe is made by the middle hepatic vein.
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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
The hepatic blood  supply constitutes 25% of the resting  cardiac output and is delivered via two main vessels, entering  via the liver hilum (porta hepatis
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Flashcard 3213595643148

Tags
#Gatroenterology #Liver #diseases
Question
A functional division into the larger right lobe (containing caudate and quadrate lobes) and the left lobe is made by the [...]
Answer
middle hepatic vein.

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A functional division into the larger right lobe (containing caudate and quadrate lobes) and the left lobe is made by the middle hepatic vein.

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Flashcard 3213598002444

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
The hepatic blood  supply constitutes [...] of the resting  cardiac output and is delivered via two main vessels, entering  via the liver hilum (porta hepatis
Answer
25%

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The hepatic blood supply constitutes 25% of the resting cardiac output and is delivered via two main vessels, entering via the liver hilum (porta hepatis

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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
The hepatic artery, a branch of the coeliac axis, supplies 25% of the hepatic blood flow. The hepatic artery autoregulates flow ensuring constant total blood flow.
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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
The normal portal pressure is 5–8 mmHg; flow increases  after meals.
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Flashcard 3213832883468

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Why is caudate lobe known as an autonomous segment?
Answer
as it receives an independent blood supply from the portal vein and hepatic artery, and its hepatic vein drains directly into the inferior vena cava.

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Flashcard 3213833932044

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
What is "the acinus"?
Answer
is  the  functional  hepatic  unit.  This  consists  of  parenchyma supplied  by the smallest  portal  tracts  containing  portal  vein  radicles,  hepatic  arterioles  and  bile  ductules

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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
The sinusoids lack a basement membrane and are loosely surrounded by specialist fenestrated endothelial cells and Kupffer cells (phagocytic cells).
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Flashcard 3213837339916

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
The hepatic artery, a branch of the [...], supplies 25% of the hepatic blood flow. The hepatic artery autoregulates flow ensuring constant total blood flow.
Answer
coeliac axis

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The hepatic artery, a branch of the coeliac axis, supplies 25% of the hepatic blood flow. The hepatic artery autoregulates flow ensuring constant total blood flow.

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Flashcard 3213838912780

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
The hepatic artery, a branch of the coeliac axis, supplies 25% of the hepatic blood flow. The hepatic artery [...] flow ensuring constant total blood flow.
Answer
autoregulates

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The hepatic artery, a branch of the coeliac axis, supplies 25% of the hepatic blood flow. The hepatic artery autoregulates flow ensuring constant total blood flow.

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Flashcard 3213841272076

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
The normal portal pressure is[...]; flow increases  after meals.
Answer
 5–8 mmHg

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The normal portal pressure is 5–8 mmHg; flow increases after meals.

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Flashcard 3213846252812

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
The sinusoids lack a [...] and are loosely surrounded by specialist fenestrated endothelial cells and Kupffer cells (phagocytic cells).
Answer
basement membrane

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The sinusoids lack a basement membrane and are loosely surrounded by specialist fenestrated endothelial cells and Kupffer cells (phagocytic cells).

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Flashcard 3213847825676

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
The sinusoids lack a basement membrane and are loosely surrounded by specialist fenestrated endothelial cells and [...]
Answer
Kupffer cells (phagocytic cells).

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The sinusoids lack a basement membrane and are loosely surrounded by specialist fenestrated endothelial cells and Kupffer cells (phagocytic cells).

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Flashcard 3213849398540

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
The subendothelial space between the sinusoids and hepatocytes is the?
Answer
Space of Disse, which contains a matrix of basement membrane constituents and stellate cells.

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Stellate cells store retinoids in their resting state and contain the intermediate filament, Desmin.
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Endothelin and nitric oxide play a major role in modulating stellate cell contractility
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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
The hepatic ducts join at the porta hepatis to form the common hepatic duct.
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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
The common bileduct is formed at the junction of the cystic and common hepatic duct and is 8mm in diameter or less,passing through the head of the pancreas,narrowing its lower end to pass into the duodenum.
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Flashcard 3213858311436

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Stellate cells store retinoids in their resting state and contain the intermediate filament, [...]
Answer
Desmin.

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Stellate cells store retinoids in their resting state and contain the intermediate filament, Desmin.

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Flashcard 3213860146444

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Endothelin and nitric oxide play a major role in modulating [...]
Answer
stellate cell contractility

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Endothelin and nitric oxide play a major role in modulating stellate cell contractility

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Flashcard 3213862505740

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
The hepatic ducts join at the [...] to form the common hepatic duct.
Answer
porta hepatis

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The hepatic ducts join at the porta hepatis to form the common hepatic duct.

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Flashcard 3213864865036

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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
The common bileduct is formed at the junction of the [...] and is 8mm in diameter or less,passing through the head of the pancreas,narrowing its lower end to pass into the duodenum.
Answer
cystic and common hepatic duct

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The common bileduct is formed at the junction of the cystic and common hepatic duct and is 8mm in diameter or less,passing through the head of the pancreas,narrowing its lower end to pass into the duodenum.

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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
The  liver  is  the  principal  site  of  synthesis  of  all  circulating  proteins  apart  from  γ-globulins  (produced  in  the  reticulo- endothelial  system)
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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Plasma contains 60–80 g/L of protein, mainly albumin, globulin and fibrinogen.
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Flashcard 3213869583628

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
What are the main functions of Albumin?
Answer
Its main functions are to
  • Maintain the intra- vascular oncotic (colloid osmotic) pressure,
  • To transport water-insoluble substances such as bilirubin, hormones, fatty acids and drugs

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Flashcard 3213870632204

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
The liver also synthesizes all factors involved in coagulation, apart from?
Answer
apart from one-third of factor VIII

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Flashcard 3213871680780

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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Liver maintians glucose homeostasis, by storing...
Answer
stores approximately 80g of glycogen

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Flashcard 3213873515788

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
The  liver  is  the  principal  site  of  synthesis  of  all  circulating  proteins  apart  from  [...]
Answer
γ-globulins  (produced  in  the  reticulo- endothelial  system)

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The liver is the principal site of synthesis of all circulating proteins apart from γ-globulins (produced in the reticulo- endothelial system)

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Flashcard 3213875875084

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Plasma contains 60–80 g/L of protein, mainly [...]
Answer
albumin, globulin and fibrinogen.

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Plasma contains 60–80 g/L of protein, mainly albumin, globulin and fibrinogen.

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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
In the immediate fasting state, blood glucose is maintained either by glucose release from breaking down glycogen (glycogenolysis) or by synthesizing new glucose (gluconeogenesis)
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Flashcard 3213882952972

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
The  liver  has  a  major  role  in  metabolizing  of  lipoproteins
Answer
It  synthesizes  very-low-density  lipoproteins  (VLDLs)  and  high-density lipoproteins (HDLs).

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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
HDLs are the substrate for  lecithin-cholesterol  acyltransferase  (LCAT),  which  catalyses  the  conversion  of  free  cholesterol  to  cholesterol  ester
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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
 Hepatic lipase removes triglyceride from intermediate- density  lipoproteins  (IDLs)  to  produce  low-density  lipopro- teins (LDLs) which are degraded by the liver after uptake by  specific cell-surface receptors 
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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Cholesterol may be of dietary origin but most is synthesized from acetyl-CoA mainly in the liver, intestine, adrenal glands and skin.
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Flashcard 3213888720140

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Thi senzyme is reduced in severe liver disease, increasing the ratio of free cholesterol to ester, which alters membrane structures.
One result of this is the red cell abnormalities (e.g.target cells) seen in chronic liver disease.
Answer
Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT)

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Flashcard 3213892652300

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Cholesterol may be of dietary origin but most is synthesized from [...] mainly in the liver, intestine, adrenal glands and skin.
Answer
acetyl-CoA

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Cholesterol may be of dietary origin but most is synthesized from acetyl-CoA mainly in the liver, intestine, adrenal glands and skin.

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Flashcard 3213894225164

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Cholesterol may be of dietary origin but most is synthesized from acetyl-CoA mainly in the [...]
Answer
liver, intestine, adrenal glands and skin.

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Cholesterol may be of dietary origin but most is synthesized from acetyl-CoA mainly in the liver, intestine, adrenal glands and skin.

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Flashcard 3213896584460

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
In the immediate fasting state, blood glucose is maintained either by glucose release from breaking down [...] or by synthesizing new glucose (gluconeogenesis)
Answer
glycogen (glycogenolysis)

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In the immediate fasting state, blood glucose is maintained either by glucose release from breaking down glycogen (glycogenolysis) or by synthesizing new glucose (gluconeogenesis)

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Flashcard 3213901827340

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
HDLs are the substrate for  [...],  which  catalyses  the  conversion  of  free  cholesterol  to  cholesterol  ester
Answer
lecithin-cholesterol  acyltransferase  (LCAT)

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HDLs are the substrate for lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), which catalyses the conversion of free cholesterol to cholesterol ester

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Flashcard 3213904186636

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
 Hepatic lipase removes triglyceride from intermediate- density  lipoproteins  (IDLs)  to  produce  [...]) which are degraded by the liver after uptake by  specific cell-surface receptors 
Answer
low-density  lipopro- teins (LDLs

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Hepatic lipase removes triglyceride from intermediate- density lipoproteins (IDLs) to produce low-density lipopro- teins (LDLs) which are degraded by the liver after uptake by specific cell-surface receptors

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Flashcard 3213907856652

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Bile consists of.. 
Answer
  • water 
  • electrolytes 
  • bile acids  
  • cholesterol 
  • phospholipids
  • conjugated bilirubin.

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Flashcard 3213908905228

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Two  processes  are  involved  in  bile  secretion  across  the  canalicular  membrane  of  the  hepatocyte. What are they?
Answer
  • bile salt-dependent  and  bile salt- independent  processes 
  • each  contributing  about 230 mL/ day. 
  • Another 150 mL daily is produced by epithelial cells of  the bile ductules

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Flashcard 3213909953804

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Bile formation requires uptake of bile acids and other organic and inorganic ions across the basolateral (sinusoidal) membranes by multiple transport proteins. What are they?
Answer
Sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) and Sodium independent organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 (OATP2), 
This process is driven by Na + /K + -ATPase in the basolateral membranes.

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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Bile acids are also synthesized in hepatocytes from choesterol, the rate-limiting step being those catalysed mainly  by  cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase  and  the  P450  enzymes  (CYP7A1 and CYP8B1)
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Flashcard 3213914672396

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Bile acids are also synthesized in hepatocytes from choesterol, the rate-limiting step being those catalysed mainly  by  [...]  and  the  P450  enzymes  (CYP7A1 and CYP8B1)
Answer
cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase

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Bile acids are also synthesized in hepatocytes from choesterol, the rate-limiting step being those catalysed mainly by cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and the P450 enzymes (CYP7A1 and CYP8B1)

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Flashcard 3213920439564

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases #has-images
Question
Steps involved in Cholesterol synthesis and its conversion to primary and secondary bile acids
[unknown IMAGE 3213919128844]

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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Bile acids act as detergents; their main function is lipid solubilization
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Flashcard 3213923847436

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Bilirubin  is  produced  mainly  from  the  breakdown  of...
Answer
  • mature  red cells by Kupffer cells in the liver and reticuloendothelial  system; 
  • 15% of bilirubin is formed from catabolism of other  haem-containing proteins, such as myoglobin, cytochromes  and catalases

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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Biliverdin is formed from haem and then reduced to form bilirubin.
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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
The bilirubin produced is unconjugated and water-insoluble, due to internal hydrogen bonding,  and is transported to the liver attached to albumin.
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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
  • Bilirubin is conjugated with glucuronic  acid and excreted into bile. 
  • The microsomal enzyme, uridine  diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase, catalyses the formation  of  bilirubin  monoglucuronide  and  then  diglucuronide. 
  • This  conjugated bilirubin is water-soluble and is actively secreted  into  biliary  canaliculi  and  excreted  into  the  intestine  within  bile. 
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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
In the terminal ileum, bacterial enzymes hydrolyse the molecule, 
Releasing free bilirubin which is then reduced to urobilinogen, some of which is excreted in the stools as steracobilinogen
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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
  • The liver acts as a ‘sieve’ for bacterial and other  antigens carried to it by the portal  vein from the gastrointestinal tract
  • These  antigens are phagocytosed and  degraded  by  the  Kupffer  cells,  which  have  specific  membrane  receptors  for  ligands  and  are  activated  by  several  factors, such as infection.
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Flashcard 3213933546764

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Bile acids act as detergents; their main function is [...]
Answer
lipid solubilization

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Bile acids act as detergents; their main function is lipid solubilization

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Flashcard 3213937216780

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
[...] is formed from haem and then reduced to form bilirubin.
Answer
Biliverdin

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Biliverdin is formed from haem and then reduced to form bilirubin.

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Flashcard 3213939576076

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
The bilirubin produced is [...], due to internal hydrogen bonding,  and is transported to the liver attached to albumin.
Answer
unconjugated and water-insoluble

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The bilirubin produced is unconjugated and water-insoluble, due to internal hydrogen bonding, and is transported to the liver attached to albumin.

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Flashcard 3213941935372

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Bilirubin is conjugated with [...] and excreted into bile. 
The microsomal enzyme, uridine  diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase, catalyses the formation  of  bilirubin  monoglucuronide  and  then  diglucuronide. 
This  conjugated bilirubin is water-soluble and is actively secreted  into  biliary  canaliculi  and  excreted  into  the  intestine  within  bile. 
Answer
glucuronic  acid

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Bilirubin is conjugated with glucuronic acid and excreted into bile. The microsomal enzyme, uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase, catalyses the formation of bilirubin monoglucuronide and then diglucuronide. This conjugated bi

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Flashcard 3213944294668

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
  • Bilirubin is conjugated with glucuronic  acid and excreted into bile. 
  • The microsomal enzyme, [...], catalyses the formation  of  bilirubin  monoglucuronide  and  then  diglucuronide. 
  • This  conjugated bilirubin is water-soluble and is actively secreted  into  biliary  canaliculi  and  excreted  into  the  intestine  within  bile. 
Answer
uridine  diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase

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Bilirubin is conjugated with glucuronic acid and excreted into bile. The microsomal enzyme, uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase, catalyses the formation of bilirubin monoglucuronide and then diglucuronide. This conjugated bilirubin is water-soluble and is actively secreted into biliary canaliculi and excreted in

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Flashcard 3213946653964

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
In the terminal ileum, bacterial enzymes hydrolyse the molecule, 
Releasing free bilirubin which is then reduced to [...]
Answer
urobilinogen, some of which is excreted in the stools as steracobilinogen

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In the terminal ileum, bacterial enzymes hydrolyse the molecule, Releasing free bilirubin which is then reduced to urobilinogen, some of which is excreted in the stools as steracobilinogen

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Flashcard 3213949013260

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
  • The liver acts as a ‘sieve’ for bacterial and other  antigens carried to it by the portal  vein from the gastrointestinal tract
  • These  antigens are phagocytosed and  degraded  by  [...],  which  have  specific  membrane  receptors  for  ligands  and  are  activated  by  several  factors, such as infection.
Answer
the  Kupffer  cells

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The liver acts as a ‘sieve’ for bacterial and other antigens carried to it by the portal vein from the gastrointestinal tract These antigens are phagocytosed and degraded by the Kupffer cells, which have specific membrane receptors for ligands and are activated by several factors, such as infection.

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Flashcard 3221939424524

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Serum albumin in liver diseases..
Answer
  • This is a marker of synthetic function and is useful to gauge  the severity of chronic liver disease: 
  • a falling serum albumin  is a bad prognostic sign. 
  • In acute liver disease initial albumin  levels may be normal.

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Flashcard 3221943094540

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Prothrombin time (PT) in liver diseases..
Answer
  • This is also a marker of synthetic function. 
  • Because of its short half-life, it is a sensitive indicator of both acute and chronic liver disease. 
  • Vitamin K deficiency should be excluded as the cause of a prolonged PT by giving an intravenous bolus (10mg) of vitamin K

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Flashcard 3221946764556

Question
[default - edit me]
Answer
ome reject the very idea of the “morality of war”.[1] Of those, some deny that morality applies at all once the guns strike up; for others, no plausible moral theory could license the exceptional horrors of war. The first group are sometimes called realists. The second group are pacifists. The task of just war theory is to seek a middle path between them: to justify at least some wars, but also to limit them (Ramsey 1961).

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Author and Citation Info Back to Top War First published Tue May 3, 2016 [Editor's Note: The following new entry by Seth Lazar replaces the former entry on this topic by the previous author.] S<span>ome reject the very idea of the “morality of war”.[1 ] Of those, some deny that morality applies at all once the guns strike up; for others, no plausible moral theory could license the exceptional horrors of war. The first group are sometimes called realists. The second group are pacifists. The task of just war theory is to seek a middle path between them: to justify at least some wars, but also to limit them (Ramsey 1961). Although realism undoubtedly has its adherents, few philosophers find it compelling.[2 ] The real challenge to just war theory comes from pacifism. And we should remember, from the outs







For friction to take place it is necessary to tighten the bolt, we do this below. We specify this tightening to be done from INST -5 to 0, which is before the vertical load is applied 1 . It stricto sensu is a pre-load. We apply this load using FORCE_FACE applying a distributed load on the face of a 3D volume, the unit is force/area.
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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Differentiation between conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin is only necessary in congenital disorders of bilirubin metabolism or to exclude haemolysis.
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Chronic hepatitis  is defined as any hepatitis lasting for 6  months or longer 
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The leukaemias, the lymphomas and multiple myeloma are an interrelated spectrum of malignancies of the myeloid and lymphoid systems
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Flashcard 3226616073484

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
Differentiation between conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin is only necessary in [...]
Answer
congenital disorders of bilirubin metabolism or to exclude haemolysis.

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Differentiation between conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin is only necessary in congenital disorders of bilirubin metabolism or to exclude haemolysis.

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#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is primarily a  mitochondrial enzyme (80%; 20% in cytoplasm) and is  also present in heart, muscle, kidney and brain. 
  • High  levels are seen in hepatic necrosis, myocardial  infarction, muscle injury and congestive cardiac failure.
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Flashcard 3226620005644

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is primarily a  mitochondrial enzyme (80%; 20% in cytoplasm) and is  also present in [...]. 
  • High  levels are seen in hepatic necrosis, myocardial  infarction, muscle injury and congestive cardiac failure.
Answer
heart, muscle, kidney and brain

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Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is primarily a mitochondrial enzyme (80%; 20% in cytoplasm) and is also present in heart, muscle, kidney and brain. High levels are seen in hepatic necrosis, myocardial infarction, muscle injury and congestive cardiac failure.

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Flashcard 3226621578508

Tags
#Gastroenterology #Liver_diseases
Question
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is primarily a  mitochondrial enzyme (80%; 20% in cytoplasm) and is  also present in heart, muscle, kidney and brain. 
  • High  levels are seen in [...]
Answer
  • hepatic necrosis, myocardial  infarction, muscle injury and congestive cardiac failure.

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Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is primarily a mitochondrial enzyme (80%; 20% in cytoplasm) and is also present in heart, muscle, kidney and brain. High levels are seen in hepatic necrosis, myocardial infarction, muscle injury and congestive cardiac failure.

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