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large- scale exhibitions were being mounted throughout Western Europe, following the French model of public exhibitions sponsored by the monarchy. In France, these exhibitions were known as Salons

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Flashcard 3616656723212

Question
large- scale exhibitions were being mounted throughout [...], following the French model of public exhibitions sponsored by the monarchy. In France, these exhibitions were known as Salons
Answer
Western Europe


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large- scale exhibitions were being mounted throughout Western Europe, following the French model of public exhibitions sponsored by the monarchy. In France, these exhibitions were known as Salons

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Flashcard 3616658296076

Question
large- scale exhibitions were being mounted throughout Western Europe, following the [...] model of public exhibitions sponsored by the monarchy. In France, these exhibitions were known as Salons
Answer
French


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large- scale exhibitions were being mounted throughout Western Europe, following the French model of public exhibitions sponsored by the monarchy. In France, these exhibitions were known as Salons

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Flashcard 3616659868940

Question
large- scale exhibitions were being mounted throughout Western Europe, following the French model of public exhibitions sponsored by the monarchy. In France, these exhibitions were known as [...]
Answer
Salons


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an> large- scale exhibitions were being mounted throughout Western Europe, following the French model of public exhibitions sponsored by the monarchy. In France, these exhibitions were known as <span>Salons <span>

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The Paris Salon took place regularly, usually every two years, and would feature hundreds of artworks

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In the early years of the Salon, the unprecedented access to artworks brought viewers face to face with an often con- fusing variety of subjects, styles, and media. To help guide visitors through the exhibitions, self-appointed arbiters of aesthetic quality began to write reviews

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There were five main genres: history (depicting biblical, mytho- logical, or historical subjects), landscape, portrait, still life, and (slightly confusingly) “genre painting” (scenes of everyday life)

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The French Royal Academy, at the time of its foundation in 1648, held that history painting was the greatest achievement for a painter because historical sub- jects demanded erudition as well as the highest degree of technical skill

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most history paintings were expected to present one or more heroic figures, often depicted nude, so anatomy and life drawing were an essen- tial part of a history painter’s education. Finally, history paintings are often set in real or imagined towns, on battle- fields, or in other landscapes, and thus required the ability to execute works in that genre as well.

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Flashcard 3616670878988

Question
most history paintings were expected to present one or more [...], often depicted nude, so anatomy and life drawing were an essen- tial part of a history painter’s education. Finally, history paintings are often set in real or imagined towns, on battle- fields, or in other landscapes, and thus required the ability to execute works in that genre as well.
Answer
heroic figures


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most history paintings were expected to present one or more heroic figures, often depicted nude, so anatomy and life drawing were an essen- tial part of a history painter’s education. Finally, history paintings are often set in real or imagined towns, on battl

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Flashcard 3616673500428

Question
most history paintings were expected to present one or more heroic figures, often depicted nude, so anatomy and life drawing were an essen- tial part of a history painter’s education. Finally, history paintings are often set in real or imagined towns, on battle- fields, or in other [...], and thus required the ability to execute works in that genre as well.
Answer
landscapes


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d nude, so anatomy and life drawing were an essen- tial part of a history painter’s education. Finally, history paintings are often set in real or imagined towns, on battle- fields, or in other <span>landscapes, and thus required the ability to execute works in that genre as well. <span>

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Flashcard 3616675597580

Question
most history paintings were expected to present one or more heroic figures, often depicted nude, so [...] were an essen- tial part of a history painter’s education. Finally, history paintings are often set in real or imagined towns, on battle- fields, or in other landscapes, and thus required the ability to execute works in that genre as well.
Answer
anatomy and life drawing


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most history paintings were expected to present one or more heroic figures, often depicted nude, so anatomy and life drawing were an essen- tial part of a history painter’s education. Finally, history paintings are often set in real or imagined towns, on battle- fields, or in other landscapes, and thus requir

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Flashcard 3616677170444

Question
In the early years of the Salon, the unprecedented access to artworks brought viewers face to face with an often [...] variety of subjects, styles, and media. To help guide visitors through the exhibitions, self-appointed arbiters of aesthetic quality began to write reviews
Answer
con- fusing


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In the early years of the Salon, the unprecedented access to artworks brought viewers face to face with an often con- fusing variety of subjects, styles, and media. To help guide visitors through the exhibitions, self-appointed arbiters of aesthetic quality began to write reviews

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Flashcard 3616678743308

Question
In the early years of the Salon, the unprecedented access to artworks brought viewers face to face with an often con- fusing variety of subjects, styles, and media. To help guide visitors through the exhibitions, self-appointed arbiters of aesthetic quality began to [...]
Answer
write reviews


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ught viewers face to face with an often con- fusing variety of subjects, styles, and media. To help guide visitors through the exhibitions, self-appointed arbiters of aesthetic quality began to <span>write reviews <span>

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Flashcard 3616680316172

Question
The Paris Salon took place regularly, usually every [...], and would feature hundreds of artworks
Answer
two years


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The Paris Salon took place regularly, usually every two years, and would feature hundreds of artworks

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Flashcard 3616681889036

Question
There were five main genres: [...] (depicting biblical, mytho- logical, or historical subjects), landscape, portrait, still life, and (slightly confusingly) “genre painting” (scenes of everyday life)
Answer
history


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There were five main genres: history (depicting biblical, mytho- logical, or historical subjects), landscape, portrait, still life, and (slightly confusingly) “genre painting” (scenes of everyday life)

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Flashcard 3616683461900

Question
There were five main genres: history (depicting biblical, mytho- logical, or historical subjects), [...], portrait, still life, and (slightly confusingly) “genre painting” (scenes of everyday life)
Answer
landscape


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There were five main genres: history (depicting biblical, mytho- logical, or historical subjects), landscape, portrait, still life, and (slightly confusingly) “genre painting” (scenes of everyday life)

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Flashcard 3616685034764

Question
There were five main genres: history (depicting biblical, mytho- logical, or historical subjects), landscape, [...], still life, and (slightly confusingly) “genre painting” (scenes of everyday life)
Answer
portrait


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There were five main genres: history (depicting biblical, mytho- logical, or historical subjects), landscape, portrait, still life, and (slightly confusingly) “genre painting” (scenes of everyday life)

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Flashcard 3616686607628

Question
There were five main genres: history (depicting biblical, mytho- logical, or historical subjects), landscape, portrait, [...], and (slightly confusingly) “genre painting” (scenes of everyday life)
Answer
still life


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There were five main genres: history (depicting biblical, mytho- logical, or historical subjects), landscape, portrait, still life, and (slightly confusingly) “genre painting” (scenes of everyday life)

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Flashcard 3616688180492

Question
There were five main genres: history (depicting biblical, mytho- logical, or historical subjects), landscape, portrait, still life, and (slightly confusingly) [...]
Answer
“genre painting” (scenes of everyday life)


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There were five main genres: history (depicting biblical, mytho- logical, or historical subjects), landscape, portrait, still life, and (slightly confusingly) “genre painting” (scenes of everyday life)

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Flashcard 3616689753356

Question
The French Royal Academy, at the time of its foundation in 1648, held that [...] was the greatest achievement for a painter because historical sub- jects demanded erudition as well as the highest degree of technical skill
Answer
history painting


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The French Royal Academy, at the time of its foundation in 1648, held that history painting was the greatest achievement for a painter because historical sub- jects demanded erudition as well as the highest degree of technical skill

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Flashcard 3616690801932

Question
The [...], at the time of its foundation in 1648, held that history painting was the greatest achievement for a painter because historical sub- jects demanded erudition as well as the highest degree of technical skill
Answer
French Royal Academy


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The French Royal Academy, at the time of its foundation in 1648, held that history painting was the greatest achievement for a painter because historical sub- jects demanded erudition as well as the highest deg

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Flashcard 3616692899084

Question
The French Royal Academy, at the time of its foundation in 1648, held that history painting was the greatest achievement for a painter because historical sub- jects demanded [...]
Answer
erudition as well as the highest degree of technical skill


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The French Royal Academy, at the time of its foundation in 1648, held that history painting was the greatest achievement for a painter because historical sub- jects demanded erudition as well as the highest degree of technical skill

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many of the earliest public exhibitions of artwork were organized by dealers and auctioneers

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bourgeoisie, a class of citizens with newly acquired economic strength and a taste for the fashions and habits of the nobility

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Collectors from the middle as well as upper registers of soci- ety now sought to fill their homes with beautiful things. Thus, during the eigh- teenth century, a market force was introduced into the art world, leading to a proliferation in the nineteenth century of smaller works with themes suited to a bourgeois domestic interior.

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one of modernism’s central tenets: that art is first and foremost the manifestation of an individual’s emotional and intellectual will

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modernity: cities grew as dwindling agricultural jobs prompted workers to seek employment in manufacturing.

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One of the signal markers of the rise of modernism in the West was the advent of the de- partment store and the idea of shopping as a leisure activity

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Modern art, like all forms of modernism, is a response to the diverse po- litical, economic, and cultural pressures of modernity

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Young artists would learn to create by first copying works acknowledged as superior examples of their genre, style, or medium. Only after a student fully understood the work of earlier artists and was able to reproduce such examples faithfully could he or she go on to create new forms.

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The Oath of the Horatii (fig. 1.2). The subject is taken from classical sources and had been treated earlier by other painters. For his version, David (1748–1825) emulates the crisp linearity, rich colors, and sculptural treatment of figures by earlier painters such as Nicolas Poussin, relying on him for the clear, geometrical arrangement: the bold pentagon holding old Horatio and his sons, the oval grouping of despondent women on the right. David has radically compressed the clear, stage-like architectural setting in emulation of ancient relief sculpture.

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To express genius, then, the Romantic artist had to resist academic emulation and instead turn inward, toward making pure imagination visible.

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the two dominant art styles of the late eighteenth century: Neoclassicism and Romanticism

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in Neoclassical art a fundamental Renaissance visual tradition was seriously opposed for the first time—the use of perspective to govern the organization of pictorial space

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Linear perspective suggests the recession of space through the use of real or implied lines, called “orthogonals,” which seem to converge at a point in the distance.

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Atmospheric perspective imitates the tendency of distant objects to appear less distinct to give the illusion of depth

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Flashcard 3616721472780

Question
many of the earliest public exhibitions of artwork were organized by [...]
Answer
dealers and auctioneers


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many of the earliest public exhibitions of artwork were organized by dealers and auctioneers

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Flashcard 3616723045644

Question
bourgeoisie, a class of citizens with newly acquired [...] and a taste for the fashions and habits of the nobility
Answer
economic strength


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bourgeoisie, a class of citizens with newly acquired economic strength and a taste for the fashions and habits of the nobility

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Flashcard 3616724618508

Question
bourgeoisie, a class of citizens with newly acquired economic strength and a taste for the fashions and habits of [...]
Answer
the nobility


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bourgeoisie, a class of citizens with newly acquired economic strength and a taste for the fashions and habits of the nobility

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Flashcard 3616726191372

Question
Collectors from the middle as well as upper registers of soci- ety now sought to fill their homes with beautiful things. Thus, during the eigh- teenth century, a market force was introduced into the art world, leading to a proliferation in the nineteenth century of [...] with themes suited to a bourgeois domestic interior.
Answer
smaller works


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ought to fill their homes with beautiful things. Thus, during the eigh- teenth century, a market force was introduced into the art world, leading to a proliferation in the nineteenth century of <span>smaller works with themes suited to a bourgeois domestic interior. <span>

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Flashcard 3616727764236

Question
Collectors from the middle as well as upper registers of soci- ety now sought to fill their homes with beautiful things. Thus, during the eigh- teenth century, a market force was introduced into the art world, leading to a proliferation in the nineteenth century of smaller works with themes suited to a [...]
Answer
bourgeois domestic interior.


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ul things. Thus, during the eigh- teenth century, a market force was introduced into the art world, leading to a proliferation in the nineteenth century of smaller works with themes suited to a <span>bourgeois domestic interior. <span>

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Flashcard 3616729337100

Question
one of modernism’s central tenets: that art is first and foremost [...]
Answer
the manifestation of an individual’s emotional and intellectual will


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one of modernism’s central tenets: that art is first and foremost the manifestation of an individual’s emotional and intellectual will

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Flashcard 3616730909964

Question
modernity: [...] grew as dwindling agricultural jobs prompted workers to seek employment in manufacturing.
Answer
cities


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modernity: cities grew as dwindling agricultural jobs prompted workers to seek employment in manufacturing.

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Flashcard 3616732482828

Question
modernity: cities grew as dwindling [...] prompted workers to seek employment in manufacturing.
Answer
agricultural jobs


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modernity: cities grew as dwindling agricultural jobs prompted workers to seek employment in manufacturing.

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Flashcard 3616734055692

Question
modernity: cities grew as dwindling agricultural jobs prompted workers to seek employment in [...].
Answer
manufacturing


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modernity: cities grew as dwindling agricultural jobs prompted workers to seek employment in manufacturing.

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Flashcard 3616735628556

Question
One of the signal markers of the rise of modernism in the West was the advent of [...]
Answer
the de- partment store and the idea of shopping as a leisure activity


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One of the signal markers of the rise of modernism in the West was the advent of the de- partment store and the idea of shopping as a leisure activity

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Flashcard 3616737201420

Question
Modern art, like all forms of modernism, is a response to the diverse po- litical, economic, and cultural [...] of modernity
Answer
pressures


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Modern art, like all forms of modernism, is a response to the diverse po- litical, economic, and cultural pressures of modernity

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Flashcard 3616738774284

Question
Young artists would learn to create by first [...] acknowledged as superior examples of their genre, style, or medium. Only after a student fully understood the work of earlier artists and was able to reproduce such examples faithfully could he or she go on to create new forms.
Answer
copying works


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Young artists would learn to create by first copying works acknowledged as superior examples of their genre, style, or medium. Only after a student fully understood the work of earlier artists and was able to reproduce such examples faithfully

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 3616740347148

Question
Young artists would learn to create by first copying works acknowledged as superior examples of their genre, style, or medium. Only after a student fully understood the work of earlier artists and was able to reproduce such examples faithfully could he or she go on to [...]
Answer
create new forms.


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superior examples of their genre, style, or medium. Only after a student fully understood the work of earlier artists and was able to reproduce such examples faithfully could he or she go on to <span>create new forms. <span>

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Flashcard 3616741920012

Question
The Oath of the Horatii (fig. 1.2). The subject is taken from classical sources and had been treated earlier by other painters. For his version, [...] (1748–1825) emulates the crisp linearity, rich colors, and sculptural treatment of figures by earlier painters such as Nicolas Poussin, relying on him for the clear, geometrical arrangement: the bold pentagon holding old Horatio and his sons, the oval grouping of despondent women on the right. David has radically compressed the clear, stage-like architectural setting in emulation of ancient relief sculpture.
Answer
David


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The Oath of the Horatii (fig. 1.2). The subject is taken from classical sources and had been treated earlier by other painters. For his version, David (1748–1825) emulates the crisp linearity, rich colors, and sculptural treatment of figures by earlier painters such as Nicolas Poussin, relying on him for the clear, geometrical arrange

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Flashcard 3616743492876

Question
The Oath of the Horatii (fig. 1.2). The subject is taken from classical sources and had been treated earlier by other painters. For his version, David (1748–1825) emulates the crisp linearity, rich colors, and sculptural treatment of figures by earlier painters such as [...], relying on him for the clear, geometrical arrangement: the bold pentagon holding old Horatio and his sons, the oval grouping of despondent women on the right. David has radically compressed the clear, stage-like architectural setting in emulation of ancient relief sculpture.
Answer
Nicolas Poussin


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ces and had been treated earlier by other painters. For his version, David (1748–1825) emulates the crisp linearity, rich colors, and sculptural treatment of figures by earlier painters such as <span>Nicolas Poussin, relying on him for the clear, geometrical arrangement: the bold pentagon holding old Horatio and his sons, the oval grouping of despondent women on the right. David has radically compr

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Flashcard 3616745065740

Question
The Oath of the Horatii (fig. 1.2). The subject is taken from classical sources and had been treated earlier by other painters. For his version, David (1748–1825) emulates the crisp linearity, rich colors, and sculptural treatment of figures by earlier painters such as Nicolas Poussin, relying on him for the clear, [...] arrangement: the bold pentagon holding old Horatio and his sons, the oval grouping of despondent women on the right. David has radically compressed the clear, stage-like architectural setting in emulation of ancient relief sculpture.
Answer
geometrical


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ers. For his version, David (1748–1825) emulates the crisp linearity, rich colors, and sculptural treatment of figures by earlier painters such as Nicolas Poussin, relying on him for the clear, <span>geometrical arrangement: the bold pentagon holding old Horatio and his sons, the oval grouping of despondent women on the right. David has radically compressed the clear, stage-like architectural s

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Flashcard 3616746638604

Question
The Oath of the Horatii (fig. 1.2). The subject is taken from classical sources and had been treated earlier by other painters. For his version, David (1748–1825) emulates the crisp linearity, rich colors, and sculptural treatment of figures by earlier painters such as Nicolas Poussin, relying on him for the clear, geometrical arrangement: the bold pentagon holding old Horatio and his sons, the oval grouping of despondent women on the right. David has radically compressed the clear, stage-like architectural setting in emulation of [...].
Answer
ancient relief sculpture


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he bold pentagon holding old Horatio and his sons, the oval grouping of despondent women on the right. David has radically compressed the clear, stage-like architectural setting in emulation of <span>ancient relief sculpture. <span>

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Flashcard 3616748211468

Question
To express genius, then, the Romantic artist had to resist [...] and instead turn inward, toward making pure imagination visible.
Answer
academic emulation


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To express genius, then, the Romantic artist had to resist academic emulation and instead turn inward, toward making pure imagination visible.

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Flashcard 3616749784332

Question
To express genius, then, the Romantic artist had to resist academic emulation and instead turn inward, toward making [...] visible.
Answer
pure imagination


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To express genius, then, the Romantic artist had to resist academic emulation and instead turn inward, toward making pure imagination visible.

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Flashcard 3616751357196

Question
the two dominant art styles of the late eighteenth century: [...] and Romanticism
Answer
Neoclassicism


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the two dominant art styles of the late eighteenth century: Neoclassicism and Romanticism

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Flashcard 3616752930060

Question
the two dominant art styles of the late eighteenth century: Neoclassicism and [...]
Answer
Romanticism


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the two dominant art styles of the late eighteenth century: Neoclassicism and Romanticism

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Flashcard 3616754502924

Question
the two dominant art styles of the late [...]: Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Answer
eighteenth century


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the two dominant art styles of the late eighteenth century: Neoclassicism and Romanticism

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Flashcard 3616756075788

Question
in [...] a fundamental Renaissance visual tradition was seriously opposed for the first time—the use of perspective to govern the organization of pictorial space
Answer
Neoclassical art


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in Neoclassical art a fundamental Renaissance visual tradition was seriously opposed for the first time—the use of perspective to govern the organization of pictorial space

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Flashcard 3616757648652

Question
in Neoclassical art a fundamental Renaissance visual tradition was seriously opposed for the first time—the use of [...] to govern the organization of pictorial space
Answer
perspective


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in Neoclassical art a fundamental Renaissance visual tradition was seriously opposed for the first time—the use of perspective to govern the organization of pictorial space

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Flashcard 3616759221516

Question
[...] suggests the recession of space through the use of real or implied lines, called “orthogonals,” which seem to converge at a point in the distance.
Answer
Linear perspective


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Linear perspective suggests the recession of space through the use of real or implied lines, called “orthogonals,” which seem to converge at a point in the distance.

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Flashcard 3616760794380

Question
Linear perspective suggests the [...] through the use of real or implied lines, called “orthogonals,” which seem to converge at a point in the distance.
Answer
recession of space


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Linear perspective suggests the recession of space through the use of real or implied lines, called “orthogonals,” which seem to converge at a point in the distance.

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Flashcard 3616762367244

Question
Linear perspective suggests the recession of space through the use of real or implied lines, called “[...],” which seem to converge at a point in the distance.
Answer
orthogonals


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Linear perspective suggests the recession of space through the use of real or implied lines, called “orthogonals,” which seem to converge at a point in the distance.

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Flashcard 3616763940108

Question
[...] imitates the tendency of distant objects to appear less distinct to give the illusion of depth
Answer
Atmospheric perspective


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Atmospheric perspective imitates the tendency of distant objects to appear less distinct to give the illusion of depth

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Flashcard 3616765512972

Question
Atmospheric perspective imitates the tendency of [...] to give the illusion of depth
Answer
distant objects to appear less distinct


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Atmospheric perspective imitates the tendency of distant objects to appear less distinct to give the illusion of depth

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[David & Neoclassicists] arranged their figures as a frieze across the pic- ture plane and accentuated that plane by closing off picto- rial depth through the use of such devices as a solid wall, a back area of neutral color, or an impenetrable shadow. The result, as seen in The Oath of the Horatii, is an effect of fig- ures composed along a narrow stage behind a proscenium, figures that exist in space more by the illusion of sculptural modeling than by their location within a pictorial space that has been constructed according to principles of perspective.

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Flashcard 3616775212300

Question
[...] arranged their figures as a frieze across the pic- ture plane and accentuated that plane by closing off picto- rial depth through the use of such devices as a solid wall, a back area of neutral color, or an impenetrable shadow. The result, as seen in The Oath of the Horatii, is an effect of fig- ures composed along a narrow stage behind a proscenium, figures that exist in space more by the illusion of sculptural modeling than by their location within a pictorial space that has been constructed according to principles of perspective.
Answer
[David & Neoclassicists]


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[David & Neoclassicists] arranged their figures as a frieze across the pic- ture plane and accentuated that plane by closing off picto- rial depth through the use of such devices as a solid wall, a back area of

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Flashcard 3616776785164

Question
[David & Neoclassicists] arranged their figures as a [...] across the pic- ture plane and accentuated that plane by closing off picto- rial depth through the use of such devices as a solid wall, a back area of neutral color, or an impenetrable shadow. The result, as seen in The Oath of the Horatii, is an effect of fig- ures composed along a narrow stage behind a proscenium, figures that exist in space more by the illusion of sculptural modeling than by their location within a pictorial space that has been constructed according to principles of perspective.
Answer
frieze


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[David & Neoclassicists] arranged their figures as a frieze across the pic- ture plane and accentuated that plane by closing off picto- rial depth through the use of such devices as a solid wall, a back area of neutral color, or an impenetrable

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Flashcard 3616778358028

Question
[David & Neoclassicists] arranged their figures as a frieze across the pic- ture plane and accentuated that plane by [...] through the use of such devices as a solid wall, a back area of neutral color, or an impenetrable shadow. The result, as seen in The Oath of the Horatii, is an effect of fig- ures composed along a narrow stage behind a proscenium, figures that exist in space more by the illusion of sculptural modeling than by their location within a pictorial space that has been constructed according to principles of perspective.
Answer
closing off picto- rial depth


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[David & Neoclassicists] arranged their figures as a frieze across the pic- ture plane and accentuated that plane by closing off picto- rial depth through the use of such devices as a solid wall, a back area of neutral color, or an impenetrable shadow. The result, as seen in The Oath of the Horatii, is an effect of fig- ures compo

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Flashcard 3616779930892

Question
[David & Neoclassicists] arranged their figures as a frieze across the pic- ture plane and accentuated that plane by closing off picto- rial depth through the use of such devices as a solid wall, a back area of neutral color, or an impenetrable shadow. The result, as seen in The Oath of the Horatii, is an effect of fig- ures composed along [...], figures that exist in space more by the illusion of sculptural modeling than by their location within a pictorial space that has been constructed according to principles of perspective.
Answer
a narrow stage behind a proscenium


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hrough the use of such devices as a solid wall, a back area of neutral color, or an impenetrable shadow. The result, as seen in The Oath of the Horatii, is an effect of fig- ures composed along <span>a narrow stage behind a proscenium, figures that exist in space more by the illusion of sculptural modeling than by their location within a pictorial space that has been constructed according to principles of perspective

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The Neoclassicists continued the Renaissance tradition of glaze painting to attain a uni- form surface unmarred by the evidence of active brushwork, whereas the Romantics were more experimental, sometimes reviving the richly impastoed surfaces of Baroque and Rococo paintings.

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Romantic artists sought techniques that would endow prints with the spontaneity of drawings (see Printmaking Techniques, below). Blake created experimental relief etch- ings to pursue this interest. Romantic artists also quickly embraced the new process of lithography in order to achieve their goals.

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David and his followers tended toward history painting, especially moralistic subject matter related to the philo- sophic ideals of the French Revolution and based on the presumed stoic and republican virtues of early Rome

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Neoclassical painters were hampered in their pursuit of a truly classical art by the lack of adequate prototypes in ancient painting. There was, however, a profusion of ancient sculpture. Thus, it is not surprising that Neoclassical paintings such as The Oath of the Horatii (see fig. 1.2) should emulate sculptured figures in high relief within a restricted stage

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Ingres’s preoccupation with tonal relationships and formal counterpoints led him to push his idealization of the female body to the limits of naturalism, offering abstractions of the models from which he worked

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Goya carried his art through many stages, from pen- etrating portraits of the Spanish royal family to a particular concern in his middle and late periods with the human pro- pensity for barbarity

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During his lifetime Goya was not very well known outside Spain, despite his final years in vol- untary exile in the French city of Bordeaux. Once his work had been rediscovered by Édouard Manet in the mid-nine- teenth century it made a strong impact on the mainstream of modern painting

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[Delacroix's] greatest originality, however, may lie less in the freedom and breadth of his touch than in the way he juxta- posed colors in blocks of mutually intensifying complemen- taries, such as vermilion and blue-green or violet and gold, arranged in large sonorous chords or, sometimes, in small, independent, “divided” strokes. These techniques and their effects had a profound influence on the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists

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For some painters, the landscape offered a mani- festation of the sublime, the rational workings of a deity; for others, a symbol of humanity’s helplessness in the face of an irrational fate.

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The principal French Romantic landscape movement was the Barbizon School, a loose group named for a village in the heart of the forest of Fontainebleau, southeast of Paris.

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Works by Bonington and Constable rather than Turner, however, had the greatest influence on the Barbizon painters. Thus, the emphasis continued to be on unified, tonal painting rather than on free and direct color.

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Jean-François Millet (1814–75) peopled his landscapes with laborers, often treat- ing them with a grandeur customarily reserved for biblical or classical heroes

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modernism might be best understood as a struggle between the forces of objective rationality and subjective expression

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Flashcard 3616806669580

Question
The [...] continued the Renaissance tradition of glaze painting to attain a uni- form surface unmarred by the evidence of active brushwork, whereas the Romantics were more experimental, sometimes reviving the richly impastoed surfaces of Baroque and Rococo paintings.
Answer
Neoclassicists


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The Neoclassicists continued the Renaissance tradition of glaze painting to attain a uni- form surface unmarred by the evidence of active brushwork, whereas the Romantics were more experimental, sometimes

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Flashcard 3616808242444

Question
The Neoclassicists continued the Renaissance tradition of glaze painting to attain a [...] unmarred by the evidence of active brushwork, whereas the Romantics were more experimental, sometimes reviving the richly impastoed surfaces of Baroque and Rococo paintings.
Answer
uni- form surface


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The Neoclassicists continued the Renaissance tradition of glaze painting to attain a uni- form surface unmarred by the evidence of active brushwork, whereas the Romantics were more experimental, sometimes reviving the richly impastoed surfaces of Baroque and Rococo paintings. </sp

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Flashcard 3616809815308

Question
The Neoclassicists continued the Renaissance tradition of glaze painting to attain a uni- form surface unmarred by the evidence of active brushwork, whereas the [...] were more experimental, sometimes reviving the richly impastoed surfaces of Baroque and Rococo paintings.
Answer
Romantics


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The Neoclassicists continued the Renaissance tradition of glaze painting to attain a uni- form surface unmarred by the evidence of active brushwork, whereas the Romantics were more experimental, sometimes reviving the richly impastoed surfaces of Baroque and Rococo paintings.

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Flashcard 3616811388172

Question
The Neoclassicists continued the Renaissance tradition of glaze painting to attain a uni- form surface unmarred by the evidence of active brushwork, whereas the Romantics were more experimental, sometimes reviving the richly [...] of Baroque and Rococo paintings.
Answer
impastoed surfaces


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e Renaissance tradition of glaze painting to attain a uni- form surface unmarred by the evidence of active brushwork, whereas the Romantics were more experimental, sometimes reviving the richly <span>impastoed surfaces of Baroque and Rococo paintings. <span>

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Flashcard 3616812961036

Question
Romantic artists sought techniques that would endow [...] with the spontaneity of drawings (see Printmaking Techniques, below). Blake created experimental relief etch- ings to pursue this interest. Romantic artists also quickly embraced the new process of lithography in order to achieve their goals.
Answer
prints


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Romantic artists sought techniques that would endow prints with the spontaneity of drawings (see Printmaking Techniques, below). Blake created experimental relief etch- ings to pursue this interest. Romantic artists also quickly embraced the ne

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Flashcard 3616814533900

Question
Romantic artists sought techniques that would endow prints with the spontaneity of drawings (see Printmaking Techniques, below). Blake created experimental relief [...] to pursue this interest. Romantic artists also quickly embraced the new process of lithography in order to achieve their goals.
Answer
etch- ings


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Romantic artists sought techniques that would endow prints with the spontaneity of drawings (see Printmaking Techniques, below). Blake created experimental relief etch- ings to pursue this interest. Romantic artists also quickly embraced the new process of lithography in order to achieve their goals.

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Flashcard 3616816106764

Question
Romantic artists sought techniques that would endow prints with the spontaneity of drawings (see Printmaking Techniques, below). Blake created experimental relief etch- ings to pursue this interest. Romantic artists also quickly embraced the new process of [...] in order to achieve their goals.
Answer
lithography


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the spontaneity of drawings (see Printmaking Techniques, below). Blake created experimental relief etch- ings to pursue this interest. Romantic artists also quickly embraced the new process of <span>lithography in order to achieve their goals. <span>

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Flashcard 3616817679628

Question
[...] and his followers tended toward history painting, especially moralistic subject matter related to the philo- sophic ideals of the French Revolution and based on the presumed stoic and republican virtues of early Rome
Answer
David


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David and his followers tended toward history painting, especially moralistic subject matter related to the philo- sophic ideals of the French Revolution and based on the presumed stoic and r

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Flashcard 3616819252492

Question
David and his followers tended toward [...], especially moralistic subject matter related to the philo- sophic ideals of the French Revolution and based on the presumed stoic and republican virtues of early Rome
Answer
history painting


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David and his followers tended toward history painting, especially moralistic subject matter related to the philo- sophic ideals of the French Revolution and based on the presumed stoic and republican virtues of early Rome

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Flashcard 3616820825356

Question
David and his followers tended toward history painting, especially [...] subject matter related to the philo- sophic ideals of the French Revolution and based on the presumed stoic and republican virtues of early Rome
Answer
moralistic


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David and his followers tended toward history painting, especially moralistic subject matter related to the philo- sophic ideals of the French Revolution and based on the presumed stoic and republican virtues of early Rome

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Flashcard 3616822398220

Question
David and his followers tended toward history painting, especially moralistic subject matter related to the philo- sophic ideals of the [...] and based on the presumed stoic and republican virtues of early Rome
Answer
French Revolution


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David and his followers tended toward history painting, especially moralistic subject matter related to the philo- sophic ideals of the French Revolution and based on the presumed stoic and republican virtues of early Rome

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Flashcard 3616823971084

Question
David and his followers tended toward history painting, especially moralistic subject matter related to the philo- sophic ideals of the French Revolution and based on the presumed stoic and republican virtues of [...]
Answer
early Rome


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owers tended toward history painting, especially moralistic subject matter related to the philo- sophic ideals of the French Revolution and based on the presumed stoic and republican virtues of <span>early Rome <span>

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Flashcard 3616826330380

Question
[...] painters were hampered in their pursuit of a truly classical art by the lack of adequate prototypes in ancient painting. There was, however, a profusion of ancient sculpture. Thus, it is not surprising that Neoclassical paintings such as The Oath of the Horatii (see fig. 1.2) should emulate sculptured figures in high relief within a restricted stage
Answer
Neoclassical


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Neoclassical painters were hampered in their pursuit of a truly classical art by the lack of adequate prototypes in ancient painting. There was, however, a profusion of ancient sculpture. Thus, it i

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Flashcard 3616827903244

Question
Neoclassical painters were hampered in their pursuit of a truly classical art by the lack of adequate [...] in ancient painting. There was, however, a profusion of ancient sculpture. Thus, it is not surprising that Neoclassical paintings such as The Oath of the Horatii (see fig. 1.2) should emulate sculptured figures in high relief within a restricted stage
Answer
prototypes


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Neoclassical painters were hampered in their pursuit of a truly classical art by the lack of adequate prototypes in ancient painting. There was, however, a profusion of ancient sculpture. Thus, it is not surprising that Neoclassical paintings such as The Oath of the Horatii (see fig. 1.2) should e

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Flashcard 3616829476108

Question
Neoclassical painters were hampered in their pursuit of a truly classical art by the lack of adequate prototypes in ancient painting. There was, however, a profusion of [...]. Thus, it is not surprising that Neoclassical paintings such as The Oath of the Horatii (see fig. 1.2) should emulate sculptured figures in high relief within a restricted stage
Answer
ancient sculpture


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Neoclassical painters were hampered in their pursuit of a truly classical art by the lack of adequate prototypes in ancient painting. There was, however, a profusion of ancient sculpture. Thus, it is not surprising that Neoclassical paintings such as The Oath of the Horatii (see fig. 1.2) should emulate sculptured figures in high relief within a restricted stage

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Flashcard 3616831048972

Question
[...] preoccupation with tonal relationships and formal counterpoints led him to push his idealization of the female body to the limits of naturalism, offering abstractions of the models from which he worked
Answer
Ingres’s


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Ingres’s preoccupation with tonal relationships and formal counterpoints led him to push his idealization of the female body to the limits of naturalism, offering abstractions of the models from

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Flashcard 3616832621836

Question
Ingres’s preoccupation with tonal relationships and formal counterpoints led him to push his idealization of the female body to the limits of [...], offering abstractions of the models from which he worked
Answer
naturalism


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Ingres’s preoccupation with tonal relationships and formal counterpoints led him to push his idealization of the female body to the limits of naturalism, offering abstractions of the models from which he worked

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Flashcard 3616834194700

Question
Ingres’s preoccupation with tonal relationships and formal counterpoints led him to push his idealization of the female body to the limits of naturalism, offering [...] of the models from which he worked
Answer
abstractions


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Ingres’s preoccupation with tonal relationships and formal counterpoints led him to push his idealization of the female body to the limits of naturalism, offering abstractions of the models from which he worked

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Flashcard 3616835767564

Question
[...] carried his art through many stages, from pen- etrating portraits of the Spanish royal family to a particular concern in his middle and late periods with the human pro- pensity for barbarity
Answer
Goya


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Goya carried his art through many stages, from pen- etrating portraits of the Spanish royal family to a particular concern in his middle and late periods with the human pro- pensity for barb

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Flashcard 3616837340428

Question
Goya carried his art through many stages, from pen- etrating portraits of [...] to a particular concern in his middle and late periods with the human pro- pensity for barbarity
Answer
the Spanish royal family


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Goya carried his art through many stages, from pen- etrating portraits of the Spanish royal family to a particular concern in his middle and late periods with the human pro- pensity for barbarity

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Flashcard 3616838913292

Question
Goya carried his art through many stages, from pen- etrating portraits of the Spanish royal family to a particular concern in his middle and late periods with [...]
Answer
the human pro- pensity for barbarity


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Goya carried his art through many stages, from pen- etrating portraits of the Spanish royal family to a particular concern in his middle and late periods with the human pro- pensity for barbarity

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Flashcard 3616840486156

Question
During his lifetime Goya was not very well known outside [...], despite his final years in vol- untary exile in the French city of Bordeaux. Once his work had been rediscovered by Édouard Manet in the mid-nine- teenth century it made a strong impact on the mainstream of modern painting
Answer
Spain


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During his lifetime Goya was not very well known outside Spain, despite his final years in vol- untary exile in the French city of Bordeaux. Once his work had been rediscovered by Édouard Manet in the mid-nine- teenth century it made a strong impac

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Flashcard 3616842059020

Question
During his lifetime Goya was not very well known outside Spain, despite his final years in vol- untary exile in the French city of Bordeaux. Once his work had been rediscovered by [...] in the mid-nine- teenth century it made a strong impact on the mainstream of modern painting
Answer
Édouard Manet


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During his lifetime Goya was not very well known outside Spain, despite his final years in vol- untary exile in the French city of Bordeaux. Once his work had been rediscovered by Édouard Manet in the mid-nine- teenth century it made a strong impact on the mainstream of modern painting

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Flashcard 3616843631884

Question
[[...]] greatest originality, however, may lie less in the freedom and breadth of his touch than in the way he juxta- posed colors in blocks of mutually intensifying complemen- taries, such as vermilion and blue-green or violet and gold, arranged in large sonorous chords or, sometimes, in small, independent, “divided” strokes. These techniques and their effects had a profound influence on the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists
Answer
Delacroix's


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[Delacroix's] greatest originality, however, may lie less in the freedom and breadth of his touch than in the way he juxta- posed colors in blocks of mutually intensifying complemen- taries, such as

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Flashcard 3616845204748

Question
[Delacroix's] greatest originality, however, may lie less in the freedom and breadth of his touch than in the way he [...] in blocks of mutually intensifying complemen- taries, such as vermilion and blue-green or violet and gold, arranged in large sonorous chords or, sometimes, in small, independent, “divided” strokes. These techniques and their effects had a profound influence on the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists
Answer
juxta- posed colors


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[Delacroix's] greatest originality, however, may lie less in the freedom and breadth of his touch than in the way he juxta- posed colors in blocks of mutually intensifying complemen- taries, such as vermilion and blue-green or violet and gold, arranged in large sonorous chords or, sometimes, in small, independent, “divid

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Flashcard 3616846777612

Question
[Delacroix's] greatest originality, however, may lie less in the freedom and breadth of his touch than in the way he juxta- posed colors in blocks of mutually intensifying complemen- taries, such as vermilion and blue-green or violet and gold, arranged in large sonorous chords or, sometimes, in small, independent, “divided” strokes. These techniques and their effects had a profound influence on the [...]
Answer
Impressionists and Post-Impressionists


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and blue-green or violet and gold, arranged in large sonorous chords or, sometimes, in small, independent, “divided” strokes. These techniques and their effects had a profound influence on the <span>Impressionists and Post-Impressionists <span>

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Flashcard 3616848350476

Question
For some painters, the [...] offered a mani- festation of the sublime, the rational workings of a deity; for others, a symbol of humanity’s helplessness in the face of an irrational fate.
Answer
landscape


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For some painters, the landscape offered a mani- festation of the sublime, the rational workings of a deity; for others, a symbol of humanity’s helplessness in the face of an irrational fate.

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Flashcard 3616849923340

Question
For some painters, the landscape offered a [...], the rational workings of a deity; for others, a symbol of humanity’s helplessness in the face of an irrational fate.
Answer
mani- festation of the sublime


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For some painters, the landscape offered a mani- festation of the sublime, the rational workings of a deity; for others, a symbol of humanity’s helplessness in the face of an irrational fate.

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Flashcard 3616851496204

Question
For some painters, the landscape offered a mani- festation of the sublime, the rational workings of a deity; for others, a symbol of [...] in the face of an irrational fate.
Answer
humanity’s helplessness


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For some painters, the landscape offered a mani- festation of the sublime, the rational workings of a deity; for others, a symbol of humanity’s helplessness in the face of an irrational fate.

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Flashcard 3616853331212

Question
The principal [...] movement was the Barbizon School, a loose group named for a village in the heart of the forest of Fontainebleau, southeast of Paris.
Answer
French Romantic landscape


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The principal French Romantic landscape movement was the Barbizon School, a loose group named for a village in the heart of the forest of Fontainebleau, southeast of Paris.

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Flashcard 3616854904076

Question
The principal French Romantic landscape movement was the [...], a loose group named for a village in the heart of the forest of Fontainebleau, southeast of Paris.
Answer
Barbizon School


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The principal French Romantic landscape movement was the Barbizon School, a loose group named for a village in the heart of the forest of Fontainebleau, southeast of Paris.

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Flashcard 3616856476940

Question
Works by Bonington and Constable rather than Turner, however, had the greatest influence on the Barbizon painters. Thus, the emphasis continued to be on [...] rather than on free and direct color.
Answer
unified, tonal painting


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Works by Bonington and Constable rather than Turner, however, had the greatest influence on the Barbizon painters. Thus, the emphasis continued to be on unified, tonal painting rather than on free and direct color.

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Flashcard 3616858049804

Question
Works by Bonington and Constable rather than Turner, however, had the greatest influence on the Barbizon painters. Thus, the emphasis continued to be on unified, tonal painting rather than on [...].
Answer
free and direct color


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> Works by Bonington and Constable rather than Turner, however, had the greatest influence on the Barbizon painters. Thus, the emphasis continued to be on unified, tonal painting rather than on <span>free and direct color. <span>

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Flashcard 3616859622668

Question
[...] (1814–75) peopled his landscapes with laborers, often treat- ing them with a grandeur customarily reserved for biblical or classical heroes
Answer
Jean-François Millet


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Jean-François Millet (1814–75) peopled his landscapes with laborers, often treat- ing them with a grandeur customarily reserved for biblical or classical heroes

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Flashcard 3616861195532

Question
Jean-François Millet (1814–75) peopled his landscapes with [...], often treat- ing them with a grandeur customarily reserved for biblical or classical heroes
Answer
laborers


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Jean-François Millet (1814–75) peopled his landscapes with laborers, often treat- ing them with a grandeur customarily reserved for biblical or classical heroes

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Flashcard 3616862768396

Question
Jean-François Millet (1814–75) peopled his landscapes with laborers, often treat- ing them with a grandeur customarily reserved for [...]
Answer
biblical or classical heroes


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Jean-François Millet (1814–75) peopled his landscapes with laborers, often treat- ing them with a grandeur customarily reserved for biblical or classical heroes

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Flashcard 3616864341260

Question
modernism might be best understood as a struggle between the forces of [...] and subjective expression
Answer
objective rationality


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modernism might be best understood as a struggle between the forces of objective rationality and subjective expression

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Flashcard 3616865914124

Question
modernism might be best understood as a struggle between the forces of objective rationality and [...]
Answer
subjective expression


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modernism might be best understood as a struggle between the forces of objective rationality and subjective expression

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