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La necesidad del estudio geodésico surge por el hecho de que la Tierra no es plana, y cuando el territorio que pretendemos estudiar es lo suficientemente extenso, la curvatura de la Tierra no puede ser ignorada. Este es el caso que vamos a encontrar cuando trabajemos con un SIG, y es por ello que los SIG implementan los elementos necesarios para poder efectuar un manejo de la información geográfica riguroso y acorde con los conceptos de la geodesia.
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Flashcard 4370290576652

Question
Hidroacanthoma simplex: this is an eccrine poroma with [..phenomenon.], and sweat ducts are present
Answer
Borst–Jadassohn phenomenon

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Hidroacanthoma simplex: this is an eccrine poroma with Borst–Jadassohn phenomenon, and sweat ducts are present

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Flashcard 4370298965260

Question
context
Answer
a shared object, which can contains states, across all processors of strategy pipeline

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Unknown title
late Strategy 1.1 Terminologies If you are not familiar with strategy pipeline, please take a look at this video https://broadcast.amazon.com/videos/46919 (from 0:00 till 15:00). Terminologies: <span>context a shared object, which can contains states, across all processors of strategy pipeline sources anything that is retrieved by calling dependency services and is used for generating and/o







Flashcard 4370302373132

Question
sources
Answer
anything that is retrieved by calling dependency services and is used for generating and/or post processing/filter candidates (recommendations)

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Unknown title
ook at this video https://broadcast.amazon.com/videos/46919 (from 0:00 till 15:00). Terminologies: context a shared object, which can contains states, across all processors of strategy pipeline <span>sources anything that is retrieved by calling dependency services and is used for generating and/or post processing/filter candidates (recommendations) candidates recommendations that are retur







Flashcard 4370305781004

Question
candidates
Answer
recommendations that are returned to client

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cross all processors of strategy pipeline sources anything that is retrieved by calling dependency services and is used for generating and/or post processing/filter candidates (recommendations) <span>candidates recommendations that are returned to client. widgets a container for list of recommendations and additional metadata (title, reftag, etc.) A brief description of the stages in the pipel







Flashcard 4370308664588

Question
widgets
Answer
a container for list of recommendations and additional metadata (title, reftag, etc.)

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ng that is retrieved by calling dependency services and is used for generating and/or post processing/filter candidates (recommendations) candidates recommendations that are returned to client. <span>widgets a container for list of recommendations and additional metadata (title, reftag, etc.) A brief description of the stages in the pipeline (in the order of being executed) contextProcessor







If you are using initrd preseeding, you only have to make sure a file named preseed.cfg is included in the root directory of the initrd. The installer will automatically check if this file is present and load it.
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B.2. Using preseeding
your own preconfiguration file is available from ../example-preseed.txt . This file is based on the configuration fragments included in this appendix. B.2.1. Loading the preconfiguration file <span>If you are using initrd preseeding, you only have to make sure a file named preseed.cfg is included in the root directory of the initrd. The installer will automatically check if this file is present and load it. For the other preseeding methods you need to tell the installer what file to use when you boot it. This is normally done by passing the kernel a boot parameter, either manually at boot




For syslinux this means setting the timeout to 1 in syslinux.cfg.
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B.2. Using preseeding
otloader configuration file If you do specify the preconfiguration file in the bootloader configuration, you might change the configuration so you don't need to hit enter to boot the installer. <span>For syslinux this means setting the timeout to 1 in syslinux.cfg. To make sure the installer gets the right preconfiguration file, you can optionally specify a checksum for the file. Currently this needs to be a md5sum, and if specified it must match




The easiest way to create a preconfiguration file is to use the example file linked in Section B.4, “Contents of the preconfiguration file (for bionic)” as basis and work from there.
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B.3. Creating a preconfiguration file
there are some questions (for example in partman) where the translated values need to be used. Some questions take a code as value instead of the English text that is shown during installation. <span>The easiest way to create a preconfiguration file is to use the example file linked in Section B.4, “Contents of the preconfiguration file (for bionic)” as basis and work from there. An alternative method is to do a manual installation and then, after rebooting, use the debconf-get-selections from the debconf-utils package to dump both the debconf database and the i




An alternative method is to do a manual installation and then, after rebooting, use the debconf-get-selections from the debconf-utils package to dump both the debconf database and the installer's cdebconf database to a single file:

$ debconf-get-selections --installer > file
$ debconf-get-selections >> file
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B.3. Creating a preconfiguration file
tion. The easiest way to create a preconfiguration file is to use the example file linked in Section B.4, “Contents of the preconfiguration file (for bionic)” as basis and work from there. <span>An alternative method is to do a manual installation and then, after rebooting, use the debconf-get-selections from the debconf-utils package to dump both the debconf database and the installer's cdebconf database to a single file: $ debconf-get-selections --installer > file $ debconf-get-selections >> file However, a file generated in this manner will have some items that should not be preseeded, and the example file is a better starting place for most users. Note This method relies on th




To check if the format of your preconfiguration file is valid before performing an install, you can use the command debconf-set-selections -c preseed.cfg .
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B.3. Creating a preconfiguration file
the files in /var/lib/cdebconf while an installation is in progress. View templates.dat for the raw templates and questions.dat for the current values and for the values assigned to variables. <span>To check if the format of your preconfiguration file is valid before performing an install, you can use the command debconf-set-selections -c preseed.cfg. [imagelink]  [imagelink]  [imagelink] B.2. Using preseeding [imagelink]  B.4. Contents of the preconfiguration file (for bionic) <span>




View templates.dat for the raw templates and questions.dat for the current values and for the values assigned to variables.
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B.3. Creating a preconfiguration file
our system if you purge the package installation-report. To check possible values for questions, you can use nano to examine the files in /var/lib/cdebconf while an installation is in progress. <span>View templates.dat for the raw templates and questions.dat for the current values and for the values assigned to variables. To check if the format of your preconfiguration file is valid before performing an install, you can use the command debconf-set-selections -c preseed.cfg. [imagelink] Â [imagelink] Â [i




Recommended password hashing algorithms are SHA-256 and SHA512.
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B.4. Contents of the preconfiguration file (for bionic)
ration file will have the knowledge of these passwords. Storing hashed passwords is considered secure unless a weak hashing algorithm like DES or MD5 is used which allow for bruteforce attacks. <span>Recommended password hashing algorithms are SHA-256 and SHA512. # Skip creation of a root account (normal user account will be able to # use sudo). The default is false; preseed this to true if you want to set # a root password. #d-i passwd/root-log




The following command (available from the whois package) can be used to generate a SHA-512 based crypt(3) hash for a password:

mkpasswd -m sha-512
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B.4. Contents of the preconfiguration file (for bionic)
convenient for the root account, provided of course that an alternative method is set up to allow administrative activities or root login (for instance by using SSH key authentication or sudo). <span>The following command (available from the whois package) can be used to generate a SHA-512 based crypt(3) hash for a password: mkpasswd -m sha-512 B.4.6. Clock and time zone setup # Controls whether or not the hardware clock is set to UTC. d-i clock-setup/utc boolean true # You may set this to any valid setting for $TZ; see the c




For detailed information see the files partman-auto-recipe.txt and partman-auto-raid-recipe.txt included in the debian-installer package. Both files are also available from the debian-installer source repository. Note that the supported functionality may change between releases.
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B.4. Contents of the preconfiguration file (for bionic)
nd encryption is supported, but not with the full flexibility possible when partitioning during a non-preseeded install. The examples below only provide basic information on the use of recipes. <span>For detailed information see the files partman-auto-recipe.txt and partman-auto-raid-recipe.txt included in the debian-installer package. Both files are also available from the debian-installer source repository . Note that the supported functionality may change between releases. Warning The identification of disks is dependent on the order in which their drivers are loaded. If there are multiple disks in the system, make very sure the correct one will be select




create file systems on the partitions
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D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
p. You need around 506MB of space available for a console only install, or about 1536MB if you plan to install X (more if you intend to install desktop environments such as GNOME or KDE). Next, <span>create file systems on the partitions. For example, to create an ext3 file system on partition /dev/sda6 (that's our example root partition): # mke2fs -j /dev/sda6 To create an ext2 file system instead, omit -j. Initialize




Initialize and activate swap
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D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
s on the partitions. For example, to create an ext3 file system on partition /dev/sda6 (that's our example root partition): # mke2fs -j /dev/sda6 To create an ext2 file system instead, omit -j. <span>Initialize and activate swap (substitute the partition number for your intended Ubuntu swap partition): # mkswap /dev/sda5 # sync # swapon /dev/sda5 Note Instead of using a dedicated swap partition, you may omit th




Mount one partition as /mnt/ubuntu (the installation point, to be the root (/) filesystem on your new system).
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D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
wap partition): # mkswap /dev/sda5 # sync # swapon /dev/sda5 Note Instead of using a dedicated swap partition, you may omit the swap partition setup here and later just use a swap file instead. <span>Mount one partition as /mnt/ubuntu (the installation point, to be the root (/) filesystem on your new system). The mount point name is strictly arbitrary, it is referenced later below. # mkdir /mnt/ubuntu # mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/ubuntu Note If you want to have parts of the filesystem (e.g. /usr)




official way to install an Ubuntu base system, is debootstrap . It uses wget and ar , but otherwise depends only on /bin/sh and basic Unix/Linux tools[24]. Install wget and ar if they aren't already on your current system, then download and install debootstrap .
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D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
s, you will need to create and mount these directories manually before proceding with the next stage. D.4.2. Install debootstrap The utility used by the Ubuntu installer, and recognized as the <span>official way to install an Ubuntu base system, is debootstrap. It uses wget and ar, but otherwise depends only on /bin/sh and basic Unix/Linux tools[24]. Install wget and ar if they aren't already on your current system, then download and install debootstrap. If these steps are executed under Ubuntu you can simply do this by apt install debootstrap. If you have an RPM (Red Hat Package Manager) based system, you can use alien, which is availa




Make a work folder for extracting the .deb into
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D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
based system, you can use alien, which is available in the Debian repositories, to convert the .deb file to a useable .rpm file. Or, you can use the following procedure to install it manually. <span>Make a work folder for extracting the .deb into: # mkdir work # cd work The debootstrap binary is located in the Ubuntu archive (be sure to select the proper file for your architecture). Download the debootstrap .deb from the pool ,




Download the debootstrap .deb from the pool, copy the package to the work folder, and extract the files from it.
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D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
ually. Make a work folder for extracting the .deb into: # mkdir work # cd work The debootstrap binary is located in the Ubuntu archive (be sure to select the proper file for your architecture). <span>Download the debootstrap .deb from the pool , copy the package to the work folder, and extract the files from it. You will need to have root privileges to install the files. # ar -x debootstrap_0.X.X_all.deb # cd / # zcat /full-path-to-work/work/data.tar.gz | tar xv D.4.3. Run debootstrap debootst




debootstrap can download the needed files directly from the archive when you run it. You can substitute any Ubuntu archive mirror for archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu in the command example below, preferably a mirror close to you network-wise. Mirrors are listed at http://wiki.ubuntu.com/Archive.
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D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
e files from it. You will need to have root privileges to install the files. # ar -x debootstrap_0.X.X_all.deb # cd / # zcat /full-path-to-work/work/data.tar.gz | tar xv D.4.3. Run debootstrap <span>debootstrap can download the needed files directly from the archive when you run it. You can substitute any Ubuntu archive mirror for archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu in the command example below, preferably a mirror close to you network-wise. Mirrors are listed at http://wiki.ubuntu.com/Archive . If you have an Ubuntu bionic CD mounted at /cdrom, you could substitute a file URL instead of the http URL: file:/cdrom/ubuntu/ Substitute one of the following for ARCH in the debootstr




If you have an Ubuntu bionic CD mounted at /cdrom, you could substitute a file URL instead of the http URL: file:/cdrom/ubuntu/
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D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
itute any Ubuntu archive mirror for archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu in the command example below, preferably a mirror close to you network-wise. Mirrors are listed at http://wiki.ubuntu.com/Archive . <span>If you have an Ubuntu bionic CD mounted at /cdrom, you could substitute a file URL instead of the http URL: file:/cdrom/ubuntu/ Substitute one of the following for ARCH in the debootstrap command: amd64, arm64, armhf, i386, powerpc, ppc64el, or s390x. # /usr/sbin/debootstrap --arch ARCH bionic /mnt/ubuntu D.4.4.




Substitute one of the following for ARCH in the debootstrap command: amd64, arm64, armhf, i386, powerpc, ppc64el, or s390x.

# /usr/sbin/debootstrap --arch ARCH bionic /mnt/ubuntu
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D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
work-wise. Mirrors are listed at http://wiki.ubuntu.com/Archive . If you have an Ubuntu bionic CD mounted at /cdrom, you could substitute a file URL instead of the http URL: file:/cdrom/ubuntu/ <span>Substitute one of the following for ARCH in the debootstrap command: amd64, arm64, armhf, i386, powerpc, ppc64el, or s390x. # /usr/sbin/debootstrap --arch ARCH bionic /mnt/ubuntu D.4.4. Configure The Base System Now you've got a real Ubuntu system, though rather lean, on disk. chroot into it: # LANG=C.UTF-8 chroot /mnt/ubuntu /bin/bash After chrooting you may n




Now you've got a real Ubuntu system, though rather lean, on disk. chroot into it:

# LANG=C.UTF-8 chroot /mnt/ubuntu /bin/bash
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D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
he following for ARCH in the debootstrap command: amd64, arm64, armhf, i386, powerpc, ppc64el, or s390x. # /usr/sbin/debootstrap --arch ARCH bionic /mnt/ubuntu D.4.4. Configure The Base System <span>Now you've got a real Ubuntu system, though rather lean, on disk. chroot into it: # LANG=C.UTF-8 chroot /mnt/ubuntu /bin/bash After chrooting you may need to set the terminal definition to be compatible with the Ubuntu base system, for example: # export TERM=xterm-color Depending on the value of TERM, you may




terminal definition to be compatible with the Ubuntu base system
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D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
 Configure The Base System Now you've got a real Ubuntu system, though rather lean, on disk. chroot into it: # LANG=C.UTF-8 chroot /mnt/ubuntu /bin/bash After chrooting you may need to set the <span>terminal definition to be compatible with the Ubuntu base system, for example: # export TERM=xterm-color Depending on the value of TERM, you may have to install the ncurses-term package to get support for it. Note If warnings occur like: bash: warnin




Debootstrap will have created a very basic /etc/apt/sources.list
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D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
required localization files need to be generated: # sudo locale-gen en_US.UTF-8 Generating locales (this might take a while)... en_US.UTF-8... done Generation complete. D.4.4.1. Configure Apt <span>Debootstrap will have created a very basic /etc/apt/sources.list that will allow installing additional packages. However, it is suggested that you add some additional sources, for example for source packages and security updates: deb-src http://archi




install some additionally required packages, like makedev (needed for the next section): apt install makedev
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D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
rc http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security main Make sure to run apt update after you have made changes to the sources list. D.4.4.2. Install additional packages Now it's required to <span>install some additionally required packages, like makedev (needed for the next section): apt install makedev D.4.4.3. Create device files At this point /dev/ only contains very basic device files. For the next steps of the installation additional device files may be needed. There are differen




create a default set of static device files
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D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
, on whether you intend to use a modular kernel or not, and on whether you intend to use dynamic (e.g. using udev) or static device files for the new system. A few of the available options are: <span>create a default set of static device files using (after chrooting) # mount none /proc -t proc # cd /dev # MAKEDEV generic or depending on your specific architecture: # MAKEDEV std # cd .. manually create only specific device fil




Paget’s disease: pale cells with adenocarcinoma staining features.

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), EMA, CK-7, CK-8, usually positive.

Mucin in cytoplasm is often positive with mucicarmine, Alcian blue, colloidal iron, and PAS with and without diastase.

Basal cells are often compressed and uninvolved. No dyskeratosis

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Paget’s disease: pale cells with adenocarcinoma staining features. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), EMA, CK-7, CK-8, usually positive. Mucin in cytoplasm is often positive with mucicarmine, Alcian blue, colloidal iron, and PAS with and without diastase. Basal cells are often compressed and uninvolved. No dyskeratosis Bowen’s disease (squamous cell carcinoma in situ, 18.10): pale keratinocytes may be present which contain glycogen (PAS positive, diastase labile) with frequent dyskeratosis (1.27). Ful

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To place a Kickstart file on a CD, you would need to remaster the ISO image to include your Kickstart file, and add ks=cdrom:/path/to/ks.cfg to the kernel boot parameters. See the manual page for mkisofs for details.
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4.6. Automatic Installation
ameters. The method supported by Anaconda of adding a plain "ks" boot parameter to work out the location of the Kickstart file from a DHCP response is not yet supported by the Ubuntu installer. <span>To place a Kickstart file on a CD, you would need to remaster the ISO image to include your Kickstart file, and add ks=cdrom:/path/to/ks.cfg to the kernel boot parameters. See the manual page for mkisofs for details. 4.6.2.1. Additions The Ubuntu installer supports a few extensions to Kickstart that were needed to support automatic installations of Ubuntu: The rootpw command now takes the --disable




Bowen’s disease (squamous cell carcinoma in situ, 18.10): pale keratinocytes may be present which contain glycogen (PAS positive, diastase labile) with frequent dyskeratosis (1.27). Full-thickness atypia often involves basal cells also. High molecular weight keratin positive. Mucin stains, CEA, EMA, CK-7, CK-8 and low molecular weight keratin negative. However, cases have been published with exceptions, such as positive staining for CK-7 and EMA. Usually no pagetoid cells in the stratum corneum, which sometimes occurs with Paget’s disease and melanoma
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positive. Mucin in cytoplasm is often positive with mucicarmine, Alcian blue, colloidal iron, and PAS with and without diastase. Basal cells are often compressed and uninvolved. No dyskeratosis <span>Bowen’s disease (squamous cell carcinoma in situ, 18.10): pale keratinocytes may be present which contain glycogen (PAS positive, diastase labile) with frequent dyskeratosis (1.27). Full-thickness atypia often involves basal cells also. High molecular weight keratin positive. Mucin stains, CEA, EMA, CK-7, CK-8 and low molecular weight keratin negative. However, cases have been published with exceptions, such as positive staining for CK-7 and EMA. Usually no pagetoid cells in the stratum corneum, which sometimes occurs with Paget’s disease and melanoma Borst–Jadassohn phenomenon: discrete clones of basaloid, squamatized, or pale keratinocytes in the epidermis that appear different than their neighbors. This can be benign or malignant.

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A new preseed command has been added to provide a convenient way to preseed additional items in the debconf database that are not directly accessible using the ordinary Kickstart syntax:

preseed --owner gdm shared/default-x-display-manager select gdm

Note that if the value contains any special characters, then the value must be quoted, as follows:

preseed preseed/late_command string "sed -i 's/foo/bar/g' /target/etc/hosts"
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4.6. Automatic Installation
ser's password, by default in the clear (in which case make sure your Kickstart file is kept confidential!); the --iscrypted option may be used to state that the password is already MD5-hashed. <span>A new preseed command has been added to provide a convenient way to preseed additional items in the debconf database that are not directly accessible using the ordinary Kickstart syntax: preseed --owner gdm shared/default-x-display-manager select gdm Note that if the value contains any special characters, then the value must be quoted, as follows: preseed preseed/late_command string "sed -i 's/foo/bar/g' /target/etc/hosts" The --owner option sets the name of the package that owns the question; if omitted, it defaults to d-i, which is generally appropriate for items affecting the first stage of the install




Borst–Jadassohn phenomenon: discrete clones of basaloid, squamatized, or pale keratinocytes in the epidermis that appear different than their neighbors. This can be benign or malignant. It is mainly seen with irritated seborrheic keratosis (18.2) or Bowen’s disease (18.10), and rarely with hidroacanthoma simplex (a form of eccrine poroma limited to the epidermis, 23.10).
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cases have been published with exceptions, such as positive staining for CK-7 and EMA. Usually no pagetoid cells in the stratum corneum, which sometimes occurs with Paget’s disease and melanoma <span>Borst–Jadassohn phenomenon: discrete clones of basaloid, squamatized, or pale keratinocytes in the epidermis that appear different than their neighbors. This can be benign or malignant. It is mainly seen with irritated seborrheic keratosis (18.2) or Bowen’s disease (18.10), and rarely with hidroacanthoma simplex (a form of eccrine poroma limited to the epidermis, 23.10). Melanoma (20.11): S-100 (very sensitive, but not specific), HMB-45 and MART-1 (both very specific, but not sensitive) stains positive. Fontana melanin stain is also positive, but is les

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To generate a Kickstart file, install the system-config-kickstart package and run system-config-kickstart.
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4.6. Automatic Installation
edge of how the installer works. This section documents only the basics, and differences between Anaconda and the Ubuntu installer. Refer to the Red Hat documentation for detailed instructions. <span>To generate a Kickstart file, install the system-config-kickstart package and run system-config-kickstart. This offers you a graphical user interface to the various options available. Once you have a Kickstart file, you can edit it if necessary, and place it on a web, FTP, or NFS server, or




Melanoma (20.11): S-100 (very sensitive, but not specific), HMB-45 and MART-1 (both very specific, but not sensitive) stains positive. Fontana melanin stain is also positive, but is less useful because keratinocytes may contain melanin transferred from melanocytes. Melanosomes by electron microscopy
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nant. It is mainly seen with irritated seborrheic keratosis (18.2) or Bowen’s disease (18.10), and rarely with hidroacanthoma simplex (a form of eccrine poroma limited to the epidermis, 23.10). <span>Melanoma (20.11): S-100 (very sensitive, but not specific), HMB-45 and MART-1 (both very specific, but not sensitive) stains positive. Fontana melanin stain is also positive, but is less useful because keratinocytes may contain melanin transferred from melanocytes. Melanosomes by electron microscopy Mycosis fungoides (24.1): malignant T-lymphocytes (sometimes cerebriform) in spaces called Pautrier microabscesses. Stains such as CD45 (leukocyte common antigen, used for screening), C

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Mycosis fungoides (24.1): malignant T-lymphocytes (sometimes cerebriform) in spaces called Pautrier microabscesses. Stains such as CD45 (leukocyte common antigen, used for screening), CD4 (T-helper cells), and CD3 (pan-T cells) usually positive
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sensitive) stains positive. Fontana melanin stain is also positive, but is less useful because keratinocytes may contain melanin transferred from melanocytes. Melanosomes by electron microscopy <span>Mycosis fungoides (24.1): malignant T-lymphocytes (sometimes cerebriform) in spaces called Pautrier microabscesses. Stains such as CD45 (leukocyte common antigen, used for screening), CD4 (T-helper cells), and CD3 (pan-T cells) usually positive Lymphomatoid papulosis (24.5): CD30 positive large atypical lymphocytes, and most smaller ones in the epidermis stain with T-cell markers Langerhans cell histiocytosis (24.18): malignan

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Lymphomatoid papulosis (24.5): CD30 positive large atypical lymphocytes, and most smaller ones in the epidermis stain with T-cell markers
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sometimes cerebriform) in spaces called Pautrier microabscesses. Stains such as CD45 (leukocyte common antigen, used for screening), CD4 (T-helper cells), and CD3 (pan-T cells) usually positive <span>Lymphomatoid papulosis (24.5): CD30 positive large atypical lymphocytes, and most smaller ones in the epidermis stain with T-cell markers Langerhans cell histiocytosis (24.18): malignant Langerhans cells, often kidney-shaped nuclei, CDla or S-100 positive <span>

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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (24.18): malignant Langerhans cells, often kidney-shaped nuclei, CDla or S-100 positive
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T-helper cells), and CD3 (pan-T cells) usually positive Lymphomatoid papulosis (24.5): CD30 positive large atypical lymphocytes, and most smaller ones in the epidermis stain with T-cell markers <span>Langerhans cell histiocytosis (24.18): malignant Langerhans cells, often kidney-shaped nuclei, CDla or S-100 positive <span>

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#anki #learning #spaced_repitition
Build rich hierarchies of interconnections and integrative questions. Don't put in orphan questions.
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Augmenting Long-term Memory
d basic facts. Indeed, many of the observations I've made (and will make, below) about how to use Anki are really about what it means to understand something. Break things up into atomic facts. <span>Build rich hierarchies of interconnections and integrative questions. Don't put in orphan questions. Patterns for how to engage with reading material. Patterns (and anti-patterns) for question types. Patterns for the kinds of things you'd like to memorize. Anki skills concretely instan




#anki #learning #spaced_repitition
I make it a rule to never put in one question. Rather, I try to put at least two questions in, preferably three or more.
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orphans: single questions that are largely disconnected from everything else. Suppose, for instance, I'm reading an article on a new subject, and I learn an idea that seems particularly useful. <span>I make it a rule to never put in one question. Rather, I try to put at least two questions in, preferably three or more. That's usually enough that it's at least the nucleus of a bit of useful knowledge. If it's a lonely orphan, inevitably I get the question wrong all the time, and it's a waste to have en




#anki #learning #spaced_repitition
One simple example strategy is to use multiple variants of the “same” question.
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Augmenting Long-term Memory
ot yet found good ways of using shared decks. Cultivate strategies for elaborative encoding / forming rich associations: This is really a meta-strategy, i.e., a strategy for forming strategies. <span>One simple example strategy is to use multiple variants of the “same” question. For instance, I mentioned earlier my two questions: “What does Jones 2011 claim is the average age at which physics Nobelists made their prizewinning discovery, over 1980-2011?” And: “W




#incremental #memory #reading
What is incremental learning?

This article describes the fastest avenue towards rock-solid lifetime knowledge: Incremental Learning.

Incremental learning is the fastest and the most comprehensive way of learning available to students at the moment of writing (2013).

Incremental learning is a consolidation of computer-based techniques that accelerate and optimize the process of learning from all conceivable material available in electronic form, and not only.

Currently, SuperMemo is the only software that implements incremental learning. In SuperMemo, the student feeds the program with all forms of learning material and/or data (texts, pictures, videos, sounds, etc.). Those learning materials are then gradually converted into durable knowledge that can last a lifetime.

Incremental learning helps the student convert all forms of learning material into durable and lasting memories.

In incremental learning, the student usually remembers 95% of his or her top priority material. That knowledge is relatively stable and lasts in student's memory as long as the process continues, and well beyond.

Incremental learning easily ensures 95% recall of top-priority learning material for lifetime (as long as the student ensures a regular review along the prescription provided by the program).

The cost of high knowledge retention is very small when compared with various traditional learning methods. For example, in learning a language, the vocabulary of an educated native speaker can be retained in SuperMemo at the cost of 20 minutes per day in the first years of the process, and mere minutes in later years (assuming the original set is acquired in portions spread over 4 years in 30-50 min. sessions).

Incremental learning ensures high recall at a fraction of the cost in time (as compared to textbook learning).

The incremental learning derives its name from the incremental nature of the learning process. In incremental learning, all facets of knowledge receive a regular treatment, and there is a regular inflow of new knowledge that builds upon the past knowledge. In incremental learning, the student sits in the driving seat and determines which knowledge should be mastered. He or she determines when this happens, with what degree of detail, at what priority, and at what desired degree of recall/retention. For example, in a single session, the student may learn a few facts of geography, discover a few rules of healthy lifestyle, figure out a few statistical formulas, read a couple of paragraphs from a friend's blog, process a few minutes of his home video collection, annotate a few family pictures, watch a few pieces from his YouTube video collection, and read a few articles in subjects related to a forthcoming exam. In other words, all areas of knowledge keep growing in parallel in proportion to interests and importance.

Typical learning at school puts an emphasis on a few areas of knowledge and neglects all the remaining areas. A medical student may spend a few months mastering anatomy, while gradually forgetting his biochemistry material in the meantime (or the other way round). At the same time, he or she will not find time to study important issues of the day that will always depend on a given person in a given context. With blinkers imposed by the heavy load of school material, the student may never find time, for example, to figure out what incremental learning is. Narrow horizons and narrow perspectives only make it harder to further rationalize the selection of the learning material.

Incremental learning is the opposite of the irrational school system learning in which a heavy focus is put on just a

...
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SuperMemo: Incremental learning
y some of them and slowly grow the rest. Why don't more people keep on learning more and better learning skills? Because it's not rewarded right away, its payoff has a long delay. Marvin Minsky <span>What is incremental learning? This article describes the fastest avenue towards rock-solid lifetime knowledge: Incremental Learning. Incremental learning is the fastest and the most comprehensive way of learning available to students at the moment of writing (2013). Incremental learning is a consolidation of computer-based techniques that accelerate and optimize the process of learning from all conceivable material available in electronic form, and not only. Currently, SuperMemo is the only software that implements incremental learning. In SuperMemo, the student feeds the program with all forms of learning material and/or data (texts, pictures, videos, sounds, etc.). Those learning materials are then gradually converted into durable knowledge that can last a lifetime. Incremental learning helps the student convert all forms of learning material into durable and lasting memories. In incremental learning, the student usually remembers 95% of his or her top priority material. That knowledge is relatively stable and lasts in student's memory as long as the process continues, and well beyond. Incremental learning easily ensures 95% recall of top-priority learning material for lifetime (as long as the student ensures a regular review along the prescription provided by the program). The cost of high knowledge retention is very small when compared with various traditional learning methods. For example, in learning a language, the vocabulary of an educated native speaker can be retained in SuperMemo at the cost of 20 minutes per day in the first years of the process, and mere minutes in later years (assuming the original set is acquired in portions spread over 4 years in 30-50 min. sessions). Incremental learning ensures high recall at a fraction of the cost in time (as compared to textbook learning). The incremental learning derives its name from the incremental nature of the learning process. In incremental learning, all facets of knowledge receive a regular treatment, and there is a regular inflow of new knowledge that builds upon the past knowledge. In incremental learning, the student sits in the driving seat and determines which knowledge should be mastered. He or she determines when this happens, with what degree of detail, at what priority , and at what desired degree of recall/retention . For example, in a single session, the student may learn a few facts of geography, discover a few rules of healthy lifestyle, figure out a few statistical formulas, read a couple of paragraphs from a friend's blog, process a few minutes of his home video collection, annotate a few family pictures, watch a few pieces from his YouTube video collection, and read a few articles in subjects related to a forthcoming exam. In other words, all areas of knowledge keep growing in parallel in proportion to interests and importance. Typical learning at school puts an emphasis on a few areas of knowledge and neglects all the remaining areas. A medical student may spend a few months mastering anatomy, while gradually forgetting his biochemistry material in the meantime (or the other way round). At the same time, he or she will not find time to study important issues of the day that will always depend on a given person in a given context. With blinkers imposed by the heavy load of school material, the student may never find time, for example, to figure out what incremental learning is. Narrow horizons and narrow perspectives only make it harder to further rationalize the selection of the learning material. Incremental learning is the opposite of the irrational school system learning in which a heavy focus is put on just a few areas of knowledge in a semester (at the cost of other, equally important, areas of learning). General outline of incremental learning In incremental learning, you acquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps: importing knowledge from various electronic and non-electr




1.1 Prognosis and Prediction in Medicine Prognosis is central to medicine. All diagnostic and therapeutic actions aim to improve prognosis: • Screening : If we screen for early signs of disease, we may, for example, find cancers early in their course of disease, and treat them better than when they were detected later. But whether screening is useful depends on the improve- ment in prognosis that is achieved compared to a no screening strategy. Some cancers may not have caused any impact on life expectancy, while side-effects of treatment may be substantial. • Diagnosis : If we do a diagnostic test, we may detect an underlying disease. But some diseases are not treatable, or the natural course might be very similar to what is achieved with treatment. • Therapy : New treatments become available nearly every day, but their impact on prognosis is often rather limited, despite high hopes at early stages. “Magic bul- lets” are rare. Treatment effects are often small relative to the effects of determi- nants of the natural history of a disease, such as the patient’s age. The individual benefits need to exceed any side effects, harms and economic costs.
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Statistical modelling to make predictions encounters various challenges, including deal- ing with model uncertainty and limited sample size. Model uncertainty arises from the fact that we usually do not fully pre-specify a model before we fit it to a data set. 69, 101 An iterative process is often followed with model checking and model modification. On the other hand, standard statistical methods assume that a model was pre-specified. In that case, parameter estimates such as regression coefficients, their corresponding standard errors, 95% confidence intervals, and p -values are largely unbiased. When the structure of a model was at least partly based on findings in the data, bias may occur, and we underestimate the uncertainty of conclusions drawn from the model.
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Fortunately, some statistical tools have become available which help to study model uncertainty. Especially, a statistical re-sampling procedure named “boot- strapping” is helpful for many aspects of model development and validation. 108 The bootstrap hence is an important tool in prediction research
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For example, when we study complications of a procedure that occur with an inci- dence of 0.1%, a study with 10,000 patients will contain only 10 events. The number 10 determines the effective sample size in such a study. In small samples, model uncertainty may be large, and we may not be able to derive reliable predic- tions from a model.
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In practice, we often have relatively small sam- ples available. For example, a review of 31 prognostic models in traumatic brain injury showed that 22 were based on samples with less than 500 patients. 307 The main challenges are hence with the development of a good prediction model with a relatively small study sample.
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Third, with small sample size we have to be prepared to make stronger model- ling assumptions. For example, Altman illustrates the use of a parametric test (ANOVA) to compare 3 groups with 8, 9, and 5 patients in his seminal text “Practical statistics for medical research”. 8 With larger samples, we would more readily switch to a non-parametric test such as a Kruskal–Wallis test. With small sample size, we may have to assume linearity of a continuous predictor (Chap. 9) and no interaction between predictors (Chap. 13). We will subsequently have lim- ited power to test deviations from these model assumptions. It hence becomes more important what our starting point of the analysis is. From a Bayesian viewpoint, we could say that our prior information becomes more important, since the information contributed by our study is limited
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Fourth, we have to match our ambitions in research questions with the effective sample size that is available. When the sample size is very small, we should only ask relatively simple questions, while more complex questions can be addressed with larger sample sizes. A question such as: “What are the most important predic- tors in this prediction problem” is actually more complex than a question such as “What are the predictions of the outcome given this set of predictors” (Chap. 11). Table 1.1 lists questions on predictors (known or determined from the data?), func- tional form (known or determined from the data?), and regression coefficients (known or determined from the data?) and the consequence for the required sample size in a study
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Fomentar los modos de transporte no motorizados, dándoles relevancia en la movilidad urbana e incrementando las oportunidades para el peatón y la bicicleta como modos de transporte alternativo con consecuencias muy positivas sobre la salud pública, la economía doméstica y el medio ambiente.
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EEMS: Tráfico de mercancías
Se propone la definición de itinerarios preferentes para mercancías en los principales ejes de transporte terrestre.
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Por criterios económicos y ambientales se impone la necesidad de aprovechar las infraestructuras existentes y sobre éstas implantar una nueva gestión con criterios de sostenibilidad. Por lo tanto, adquieren gran relevancia, entre otras, medidas como la conversión de carriles convencionales a carriles bus y/o carriles bici, fomento de las líneas de ferrocarril para el transporte de mercancías.
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6.1.6 RED FERROVIARIA DE ALTAS PRESTACIONES Modernizar y extender la red ferroviaria que sirve de soporte a los servicios de viajeros de media y larga distancia, para promover el uso del ferrocarril como medio de transporte eficiente y sostenible
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EEMS: Transporte rural
#transporte_rural
6.1.10 AJUSTAR LOS SISTEMAS DE TRANSPORTE A LAS NECESIDADES Y DEMANDAS DE ZONAS RURALES PERIFÉRICAS , CON BAJA DENSIDAD DE POBLACIÓN O TERRITORIOS INSULARES Garantizar la vertebración territorial de las zonas rurales periféricas, con baja densidad de población ., o territorios insulares. En algunos casos se pueden implantar sistemas de transporte a la demanda.
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omentar actuaciones en medio urbano, para lograr una movilidad alternativa al vehículo privado, mediante infraestructuras reservadas, específicamente dedicadas al transporte colectivo de viajeros como los carriles Bus y BUS/VAO, con el fin de aumentar la capacidad del tráfico general en las principales vías de acceso a las ciudades de mayor tamaño.
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EEMS: BUS-VAO metropolitano
Implantar progresivamente carriles de alta ocupación en los principales corredores metropolitanos de la red viaria de titularidad Estatal -en coordinación con las instituciones afectadas en función de las competencias de las distintas Administraciones-, atendiendo a las circunstancias particulares de cada situación concreta y preferentemente a los siguientes factores: volumen de tráfico y problemas de congestión; demanda de viajes en autobús; existencia o previsión de realización de intercambiadores de transporte; y viabilidad física y disponibilidad de espacio para la inserción de la plataforma.
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La EEMS contempla:

Planes de movilidad urbana sostenible en todas aquellas ciudades que tengan transporte público (sin perjuicio de que lo hagan pequeñas ciudades)

Planes de movilidad para empresas y polígonos industriales

Planes de movilidad en centros educativos, comerciales y de ocio.

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Apoyar y colaborar en la definición y desarrollo a nivel supranacional de una arquitectura global multimodal de sistemas inteligentes de transporte, cuyos elementos claves serían: (i) las redes de comunicación; (ii) los sensores de posicionamiento; (iii) las bases de datos y de información geográfica y ambientalesy (v) los servicios de información integral para el usuario de los sistemas de transporte.
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ADECUACIÓN DE LA VELOCIDAD EN LAS VÍAS DE ACCESO A LAS GRANDES CIUDADES Gestión dinámica de la velocidad, reduciendo el límite de velocidad en las vías de acceso y circunvalaciones de las grandes ciudades para gestionar el tráfico en función de parámetros de congestión, medioambientales y conducción eficiente”
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EEMS: lucha contra cambio climático
La primera medida que la EEMS nombra en el apartado de Cambio Climático y reducción de la dependencia energética es priorizar el transporte público. (EEMS pg. 27)
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otras herramientas de gestión como la regulación semafórica favorable al transporte publico
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Medidas de la EEMS para la calidad del aire y el ruido -> ÁREAS CON LIMITACIÓN DE VELOCIDAD PARA VEHÍCULOS Potenciar las denominadas zonas 30 que permiten reducir la intensidad y velocidad de los vehículos, para una clara mejora de la salud y bienestar, preferentemente en áreas residenciales
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MEJORA DE LA ACCESIBILIDAD PARA LAS PERSONAS CON MOVILIDAD REDUCIDA Para ello se han de acometer actuaciones 9 de adecuación de barreras arquitectónicas, pasarelas, pasos peatonales, accesibilidad al transporte público, etc. para grupos sociales con movilidad reducida. Realizar actuaciones en las paradas y vehículos de transporte público de forma que se disponga de una flota e infraestructuras de transporte público que permitan la accesibilidad de grupos sociales con movilidad reducida.
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5 DIRECTRICES GENERALES
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Flashcard 4372747652364

Tags
#custom #iso #preseed
Question
How to copy ISO image to a directory on your hard drive ?
Answer

Copy the CD to your hard drive

Copy the entire installation CD to a directory on your hard drive. This guide will assume your CD image is in /opt/cd-image/, but you can put it wherever you like. It will take around 1GB of hard drive space.

If you have an ISO file, you can mount it and copy files out of it without burning it to CD:

 mount -o loop /path/to/iso /some/mountpoint

Use "Gmount-iso" program for a GUI method of mounting iso files. You can also try "ISO Master" to access the iso file directly without mounting.

You can use rsync to copy the CD:

 rsync -av /cdrom/ /opt/cd-image

or just

 mkdir -p /opt/cd-image cp -rT /cdrom /opt/cd-image

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill
InstallCDCustomization - Community Help Wiki
64 amd64 As time goes by, some will vanish or be replaced. But releases.ubuntu.com will hopefully continue to show a list of available release directories with some *server*.iso images in them. <span>Copy the CD to your hard drive Copy the entire installation CD to a directory on your hard drive. This guide will assume your CD image is in /opt/cd-image/, but you can put it wherever you like. It will take around 1GB of hard drive space. If you have an ISO file, you can mount it and copy files out of it without burning it to CD: mount -o loop /path/to/iso /some/mountpoint Use "Gmount-iso" program for a GUI method of mounting iso files. You can also try "ISO Master" to access the iso file directly without mounting. You can use rsync to copy the CD: rsync -av /cdrom/ /opt/cd-image or just mkdir -p /opt/cd-image cp -rT /cdrom /opt/cd-image Note: the -p option for mkdir creates the leadin directories if they don't already exist. In this example, /opt is created if it doesn't already exist. Be sure to catch the folder .disk







IMPALA: Scalable Distributed Deep-RL with Importance Weighted Actor-Learner Architectures
#to-read
In this work we aim to solve a large collection of tasks using a single reinforcement learning agent with a single set of parameters. A key challenge is to handle the increased amount of data and extended training time. We have developed a new distributed agent IMPALA (Importance Weighted Actor-Learner Architecture) that not only uses resources more efficiently in single-machine training but also scales to thousands of machines without sacrificing data efficiency or resource utilisation. We achieve stable learning at high throughput by combining decoupled acting and learning with a novel off-policy correction method called V-trace. We demonstrate the effectiveness of IMPALA for multi-task reinforcement learning on DMLab-30 (a set of 30 tasks from the DeepMind Lab environment (Beattie et al., 2016)) and Atari-57 (all available Atari games in Arcade Learning Environment (Bellemare et al., 2013a)). Our results show that IMPALA is able to achieve better performance than previous agents with less data, and crucially exhibits positive transfer between tasks as a result of its multi-task approach.
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[1802.01561] IMPALA: Scalable Distributed Deep-RL with Importance Weighted Actor-Learner Architectures
Volodymir Mnih, Tom Ward, Yotam Doron, Vlad Firoiu, Tim Harley, Iain Dunning, Shane Legg, Koray Kavukcuoglu (Submitted on 5 Feb 2018 (v1), last revised 28 Jun 2018 (this version, v3)) Abstract: <span>In this work we aim to solve a large collection of tasks using a single reinforcement learning agent with a single set of parameters. A key challenge is to handle the increased amount of data and extended training time. We have developed a new distributed agent IMPALA (Importance Weighted Actor-Learner Architecture) that not only uses resources more efficiently in single-machine training but also scales to thousands of machines without sacrificing data efficiency or resource utilisation. We achieve stable learning at high throughput by combining decoupled acting and learning with a novel off-policy correction method called V-trace. We demonstrate the effectiveness of IMPALA for multi-task reinforcement learning on DMLab-30 (a set of 30 tasks from the DeepMind Lab environment (Beattie et al., 2016)) and Atari-57 (all available Atari games in Arcade Learning Environment (Bellemare et al., 2013a)). Our results show that IMPALA is able to achieve better performance than previous agents with less data, and crucially exhibits positive transfer between tasks as a result of its multi-task approach. Subjects: Machine Learning (cs.LG); Artificial Intelligence (cs.AI) Cite as: arXiv:1802.01561 [cs.LG] (or arXiv:1802.01561v3 [cs.LG] for this version) Bibliographic data Select data pro




grep -r "mydomain.com" /etc/apache2/
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How to use grep to search for strings in files on the shell
d to do a recursive search. This will perform a recursive search operation trough files for the string "197.167.2.9" (as shown below) in the directory /etc/apache2/ and all its sub-directories: <span>grep -r "mydomain.com" /etc/apache2/ Alternatively, the following command may be used: grep -R "mydomain.com" /etc/apache2/ Given below are the Sample outputs for a similar search on a Nginx server: grep -r "mydomain.com"




When the sample size is very small, we should only ask relatively simple questions, while more complex questions can be addressed with larger sample sizes.
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Fourth, we have to match our ambitions in research questions with the effective sample size that is available. When the sample size is very small, we should only ask relatively simple questions, while more complex questions can be addressed with larger sample sizes. A question such as: “What are the most important predic- tors in this prediction problem” is actually more complex than a question such as “What are the predictions of the outcome given

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Flashcard 4372764953868

Question
When the sample size is very small, we should only ask relatively [...] questions, while more complex questions can be addressed with larger sample sizes.
Answer
simple

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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When the sample size is very small, we should only ask relatively simple questions, while more complex questions can be addressed with larger sample sizes.

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Flashcard 4372766526732

Question
When the sample size is very [...], we should only ask relatively simple questions, while more complex questions can be addressed with larger sample sizes.
Answer
small

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When the sample size is very small, we should only ask relatively simple questions, while more complex questions can be addressed with larger sample sizes.

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Flashcard 4372769934604

Question
When the sample size is very small, we should only ask relatively simple questions, while more [...] questions can be addressed with larger sample sizes.
Answer
complex

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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When the sample size is very small, we should only ask relatively simple questions, while more complex questions can be addressed with larger sample sizes.

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Flashcard 4372771507468

Question
When the sample size is very small, we should only ask relatively simple questions, while more complex questions can be addressed with [...] sample sizes.
Answer
larger

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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When the sample size is very small, we should only ask relatively simple questions, while more complex questions can be addressed with larger sample sizes.

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Flashcard 4372773080332

Question
Melanoma (20.11): S-100 (very sensitive, but not specific), HMB-45 and MART-1 (both very specific, but not sensitive) stains positive. Fontana melanin stain is also positive, but is less useful because [...] may contain melanin transferred from melanocytes. Melanosomes by electron microscopy
Answer
keratinocytes

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(20.11): S-100 (very sensitive, but not specific), HMB-45 and MART-1 (both very specific, but not sensitive) stains positive. Fontana melanin stain is also positive, but is less useful because <span>keratinocytes may contain melanin transferred from melanocytes. Melanosomes by electron microscopy <span>

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Flashcard 4372774653196

Question
Melanoma (20.11): S-100 (very sensitive, but not specific), HMB-45 and MART-1 (both very specific, but not sensitive) stains positive. Fontana melanin stain is also positive, but is less useful because keratinocytes may contain melanin transferred from [...]. Melanosomes by electron microscopy
Answer
melanocytes

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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HMB-45 and MART-1 (both very specific, but not sensitive) stains positive. Fontana melanin stain is also positive, but is less useful because keratinocytes may contain melanin transferred from <span>melanocytes. Melanosomes by electron microscopy <span>

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