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Importers will have to do their due diligence from Monday to ensure that imported goods meet the prescribed ‘rules of origin’ provisions for availing concessional rate of customs duty under free trade agreements (FTAs), the Finance Ministry said.

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value addition must; norms to bar Chinese goods gaining from ASEAN FTA. Share Article 1 PRINT A A A From Monday, proof of value addition must; norms to bar Chinese goods gaining from ASEAN FTA. <span>Importers will have to do their due diligence from Monday to ensure that imported goods meet the prescribed ‘rules of origin’ provisions for availing concessional rate of customs duty under free trade agreements (FTAs), the Finance Ministry said. The Customs (Administration of Rules of Origin under Trade Agreements) Rules, 2020 (CAROTAR, 2020), notified on August 21, shall come into force from September 21, the Ministry said in




Ministry sources said the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) FTA allows imports of most items at nil or concessional basic customs duty from the 10-nation bloc. Major imports to India come from five ASEAN countries — Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Vietnam.

The benefit of concessional customs duty rate applies only if an ASEAN member country is the country of origin of goods.

This means that goods originating from China and routed through these countries will not be eligible for customs duty concessions under the ASEAN FTA.

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along with general guidance. “Also, an importer would now have to enter certain origin related information in the Bill of Entry, as available in the Certificate of Origin,” the Ministry added. <span>Ministry sources said the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) FTA allows imports of most items at nil or concessional basic customs duty from the 10-nation bloc. Major imports to India come from five ASEAN countries — Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Vietnam. The benefit of concessional customs duty rate applies only if an ASEAN member country is the country of origin of goods. This means that goods originating from China and routed through these countries will not be eligible for customs duty concessions under the ASEAN FTA. The new rules will support the importer to correctly ascertain the country of origin, properly claim the concessional duty and assist customs authorities in smooth clearance of legitima




CAROTAR 2020 supplements the existing operational certification procedures prescribed under different trade agreements.

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, the Ministry said. ‘Protect local industry’ In her Budget speech, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman had mentioned the need to protect domestic industry from misuse of free trade agreements. <span>CAROTAR 2020 supplements the existing operational certification procedures prescribed under different trade agreements. India has inked FTAs with several countries, including Japan, South Korea and ASEAN members. Under such agreements, two trading partners significantly reduce or eliminate import/customs




The entry of private service providers brought with it the inevitable need for independent regulation. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was, thus, established with effect from 20th February 1997 by an Act of Parliament, called the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997, to regulate telecom services, including fixation/revision of tariffs for telecom services which were earlier vested in the Central Government.

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History | Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
of Advertisements on TV Channels Portals & Apps TRAI Portals TRAI Apps Careers TRAI Vacancies TRAI Internships Notifications Press Release Tenders Publications Home About Us History History <span>The entry of private service providers brought with it the inevitable need for independent regulation. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was, thus, established with effect from 20th February 1997 by an Act of Parliament, called the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997, to regulate telecom services, including fixation/revision of tariffs for telecom services which were earlier vested in the Central Government. TRAI's mission is to create and nurture conditions for growth of telecommunications in the country in a manner and at a pace which will enable India to play a leading role in emerging g




The TRAI Act was amended by an ordinance, effective from 24 January 2000, establishing a Telecommunications Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) to take over the adjudicatory and disputes functions from TRAI. TDSAT was set up to adjudicate any dispute between a licensor and a licensee, between two or more service providers, between a service provider and a group of consumers, and to hear and dispose of appeals against any direction, decision or order of TRAI.

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History | Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
competitive market. The directions, orders and regulations issued cover a wide range of subjects including tariff, interconnection and quality of service as well as governance of the Authority. <span>The TRAI Act was amended by an ordinance, effective from 24 January 2000, establishing a Telecommunications Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) to take over the adjudicatory and disputes functions from TRAI. TDSAT was set up to adjudicate any dispute between a licensor and a licensee, between two or more service providers, between a service provider and a group of consumers, and to hear and dispose of appeals against any direction, decision or order of TRAI. 20 years achievement of Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Download (1.91 MB) 10 years achievement of Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Download (3.2 MB) Swipe to view Previous N




Telecom regulator TRAI on Friday issued a fresh set of rules for publication and advertisement of tariff plans by telcos, in a bid to boost transparency in mobile offers and to help subscribers make informed decisions.

The consumer-oriented move assumes significance as telecom subscribers often grapple with issues such as lack of information, unclear or hard to find plan details — a situation that affects subscribers’ ability to make proper choices.

Tightening the rules for telcos, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) on Friday issued directions on tariff publication and tariff advertisements

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ion, unclear or hard to find plan details. | Photo Credit: M.A. Sriram Tightening the rules for companies, the regulatory body issued directions on tariff publication and tariff advertisements. <span>Telecom regulator TRAI on Friday issued a fresh set of rules for publication and advertisement of tariff plans by telcos, in a bid to boost transparency in mobile offers and to help subscribers make informed decisions. The consumer-oriented move assumes significance as telecom subscribers often grapple with issues such as lack of information, unclear or hard to find plan details — a situation that affects subscribers’ ability to make proper choices. Tightening the rules for telcos, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) on Friday issued directions on tariff publication and tariff advertisements. ”...it has been observed that existing measures adopted by telecom service providers are not transparent as they should be and that some of the telecom service providers are not promin




State-owned Airports Authority of India (AAI), which runs more than 100 airports and has been a cash-rich entity that pays a dividend to the government, will likely be in the red at the end of the current fiscal, the government told Parliament.

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eptember 17, 2020 22:47 IST Airports operator has sought a ₹1,500-crore loan, says Hardeep Puri. Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Airports operator has sought a ₹1,500-crore loan, says Hardeep Puri. <span>State-owned Airports Authority of India (AAI), which runs more than 100 airports and has been a cash-rich entity that pays a dividend to the government, will likely be in the red at the end of the current fiscal, the government told Parliament. To run various airports at a time of depressed demand and revenue, the AAI has sought a loan of ₹1,500 crore from the State Bank of India, Minister for Civil Aviation Hardeep Puri told




The government had ordered AAI to pay its entire profit after tax (PAT) as dividend to it from FY18, raising it from 30% of PAT it used to pay earlier. This was despite AAI’s own financial requirement for maintenance and expansion of airports. According to its last annual report, it paid ₹1,780 crore to the government in FY18.

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ed deferrals in annual payments to be made to it by the four biggest airports in the country — Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru and Hyderabad — with which it has a public private partnership agreement. <span>The government had ordered AAI to pay its entire profit after tax (PAT) as dividend to it from FY18, raising it from 30% of PAT it used to pay earlier. This was despite AAI’s own financial requirement for maintenance and expansion of airports. According to its last annual report, it paid ₹1,780 crore to the government in FY18. National carrier Air India has also taken a hit and seen its revenue drop to ₹1,531 crore from ₹7,066 crore despite operating 2,600 international flights since May for the repatriation




UAE has announced the operations of Barakah nuclear power plant. It is the UAE’s first nuclear reactor that has achieved criticality. The plant is located in the Al Dhafra region of Abu Dhabi. It was built by a consortium led by the Korea Electric Power Corporation.

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s Watch | All about Russia’s Sputnik V vaccine Watch | How to breath in and out Watch | Why are the agriculture bills being opposed? Close X A video on Barakah, Arab world's first nuclear plant <span>UAE has announced the operations of Barakah nuclear power plant. It is the UAE’s first nuclear reactor that has achieved criticality. The plant is located in the Al Dhafra region of Abu Dhabi. It was built by a consortium led by the Korea Electric Power Corporation. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, ou




Favipiravir is the only oral anti-viral treatment approved in India for the potential treatment of patients with mild to moderate Covid-19 disease.

Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd has announced the introduction of FluGuard (Favipiravir 200 mg) at a price of ₹35 per tablet, for the treatment of mild to moderate cases of Covid-19 in India.

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patients with mild to moderate Covid-19 disease. Share Article 0 PRINT A A A The stocks of the medicine will be available in the market from this week, the company said. | Photo Credit: REUTERS <span>Favipiravir is the only oral anti-viral treatment approved in India for the potential treatment of patients with mild to moderate Covid-19 disease. Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd has announced the introduction of FluGuard (Favipiravir 200 mg) at a price of ₹35 per tablet, for the treatment of mild to moderate cases of Covid-19 in India. Glenmark’s FabiFlu is available at ₹75 a tablet as the company recently brought down the price from ₹103 a tablet during the time of introduction. Favipiravir is the only oral anti-vira




There’s a widespread impression that the new Consumer Protection Act will only regulate the operations of the legacy e-commerce players Amazon and Flipkart. However, that’s a misconception as the new law brings the entire B2C online sector strictly within its ambit, said a top official at the Ministry of Consumer Affairs.

“The Consumer Protection Act has already kicked in, but many online service providers still want to believe they are outside its scope,” said the official on condition of anonymity. “All kinds of B2C online services, irrespective of their size and reach, all mobile app-based services and all businesses running on social media platforms, will come within the bill’s purview.

Simply put, e-pharmacies, e-tutoring, e-groceries, e-taxis, e-bikes, e-food chains, online air, rail, bus ticketing services, online hotel or tour booking platforms, e-payment services, e-deliveries, e-buying and selling platforms, OTT services, app stores, websites of FMCG companies and also ventures that run on Facebook, WhatApp, Twitter, LinkedIn etc. will come within the ambit of the new legislation. rule.

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o with two: The regulation will protect both consumer rights andd the dignity of brands, an official says. | Photo Credit: K.V Srinivasan Legislation aims to clean up the segment, says official <span>There’s a widespread impression that the new Consumer Protection Act will only regulate the operations of the legacy e-commerce players Amazon and Flipkart. However, that’s a misconception as the new law brings the entire B2C online sector strictly within its ambit, said a top official at the Ministry of Consumer Affairs. “The Consumer Protection Act has already kicked in, but many online service providers still want to believe they are outside its scope,” said the official on condition of anonymity. “All kinds of B2C online services, irrespective of their size and reach, all mobile app-based services and all businesses running on social media platforms, will come within the bill’s purview. Simply put, e-pharmacies, e-tutoring, e-groceries, e-taxis, e-bikes, e-food chains, online air, rail, bus ticketing services, online hotel or tour booking platforms, e-payment services, e-deliveries, e-buying and selling platforms, OTT services, app stores, websites of FMCG companies and also ventures that run on Facebook, WhatApp, Twitter, LinkedIn etc. will come within the ambit of the new legislation. rule. “There’s no need to resist or ignore a law that aims to clean up the online B2C sector in the country. Only unscrupulous players who exercise unfair trade practices or indulge in counte




As per RBI’s extant Basel III guidelines, if a bank holds a debt instrument directly, it would have to allocate lower capital as compared to holding the same debt instrument through a mutual fund (MF)/exchange traded fund (ETF).

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a view to expanding the bond market, the RBI on Thursday permitted banks to invest in debt instruments through mutual funds (MFs) or exchange traded funds without allocating additional charges. <span>As per RBI’s extant Basel III guidelines, if a bank holds a debt instrument directly, it would have to allocate lower capital as compared to holding the same debt instrument through a mutual fund (MF)/exchange traded fund (ETF). “It has been decided to harmonise the differential treatment existing currently. This will result in substantial capital savings for banks and is expected to give a boost to the corpora




State-owned Indian Overseas Bank (IOB) on Friday said it has slashed its base rate by 0.10% to 9.35%.

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T Updated: August 07, 2020 15:17 IST Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Green shoots: During the quarter, IOB recovered ₹3,389 crore against ₹2,784 crore a year earlier. | Photo Credit: L. Balachandar <span>State-owned Indian Overseas Bank (IOB) on Friday said it has slashed its base rate by 0.10% to 9.35%. “The asset liability management committee of our bank decided to reduce the base rate to 9.35% from the existing 9.45%, effective from August 10, 2020,” IOB said in a regulatory filing.




The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on Friday set up an expert committee under veteran banker K.V. Kamath to suggest financial parameters for resolution of coronavirus-related stressed assets.

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ve Bank of India (RBI) Governor Shaktikanta Das | Photo Credit: AP The Committee will submit its recommendations to the RBI, which will notify them along with modifications, if any, in 30 days. <span>The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on Friday set up an expert committee under veteran banker K.V. Kamath to suggest financial parameters for resolution of coronavirus-related stressed assets. The Committee will submit its recommendations to the RBI, which will notify them along with modifications, if any, in 30 days. As part of the Statement on Developmental and Regulatory P




The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on Friday constituted the proposed expert committee under the chairmanship of veteran banker K.V. Kamath to make recommendations on norms for the resolution of COVID-19 related stressed loans.

The other members of the committee include Diwakar Gupta (effective September 1, 2020, after completion of his term as vice-president, ADB), T.N. Manoharan (effective August 14, 2020, after the completion of his term as chairman, Canara Bank), Ashvin Parekh, strategy advisor, and Sunil Mehta, CEO of Indian Banks’ Association, as the member-secretary. The committee will submit its recommendations on the financial parameters to the RBI, which in turn, will notify the same along with modifications, if any, in 30 days.

The Indian Banks’ Association (IBA) will function as the secretariat to the committee and the committee will be fully empowered to consult or invite any person it deems fit.

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07, 2020 22:41 IST Updated: August 07, 2020 23:43 IST Names members including ADB’s Gupta, IBA’s Mehta Share Article 0 PRINT A A A K. V. Kamath Names members including ADB’s Gupta, IBA’s Mehta <span>The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on Friday constituted the proposed expert committee under the chairmanship of veteran banker K.V. Kamath to make recommendations on norms for the resolution of COVID-19 related stressed loans. The other members of the committee include Diwakar Gupta (effective September 1, 2020, after completion of his term as vice-president, ADB), T.N. Manoharan (effective August 14, 2020, after the completion of his term as chairman, Canara Bank), Ashvin Parekh, strategy advisor, and Sunil Mehta, CEO of Indian Banks’ Association, as the member-secretary. The committee will submit its recommendations on the financial parameters to the RBI, which in turn, will notify the same along with modifications, if any, in 30 days. The Indian Banks’ Association (IBA) will function as the secretariat to the committee and the committee will be fully empowered to consult or invite any person it deems fit. The committee may devise its own procedures for its internal functioning, the RBI said in a circular. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with info




Sun spots are relatively cooler spots on the Sun’s surface. Their number waxes and wanes in cycles that last 11 years approximately. We are currently at the minimum of one such cycle. Amidst claims that the Sun would “go silent” and not give out sunspots for an extended period, a group from IISER Kolkata has shown that the next sunspot cycle has begun and the Sun has indeed spoken. Their results were published in Research Notes of the American Astronomical Society.

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coronal mass ejections spew material from the solar surface into outer space | Photo Credit: SOHO The sunspots identified by researchers from IISER Kolkata herald the start of a new solar cycle <span>Sun spots are relatively cooler spots on the Sun’s surface. Their number waxes and wanes in cycles that last 11 years approximately. We are currently at the minimum of one such cycle. Amidst claims that the Sun would “go silent” and not give out sunspots for an extended period, a group from IISER Kolkata has shown that the next sunspot cycle has begun and the Sun has indeed spoken. Their results were published in Research Notes of the American Astronomical Society. From our safe distance of about 148 million km, the Sun appears to be sedate and constant. However, huge solar flares and coronal mass ejections spew material from its surface into oute




Sunspots occur in pairs, with a leader and a follower. They originate deep within the Sun and become visible when they pop out. Their number is not constant but shows a minimum and then rises up to a maximum and then falls again in what is called the solar cycle. So far, astronomers have documented 24 such cycles, the last one ended in 2019.

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r flares and coronal mass ejections spew material from its surface into outer space. They originate from sunspots, an important phenomenon that people have been following for hundreds of years. <span>Sunspots occur in pairs, with a leader and a follower. They originate deep within the Sun and become visible when they pop out. Their number is not constant but shows a minimum and then rises up to a maximum and then falls again in what is called the solar cycle. So far, astronomers have documented 24 such cycles, the last one ended in 2019. Start of cycle 25 Following a weakening trend in activity over the last few cycles, there were predictions that the Sun would go silent into a grand minimum in activity, with the disapp




Maunder minimum

Why is this so important to us on earth? After all the sunspots look small and are hardly even visible to us. Contrary to this, sunspot activity may be correlated with climate on earth. In the period between 1645 and 1715, sun spot activity had come to a halt on the Sun – a phenomenon referred to as the Maunder minimum.

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r findings indicate that sunspot cycle 25 fields have already started appearing, implying that we are going to have a solar cycle. Speculation and predictions of a grand minimum are unfounded.” <span>Maunder minimum Why is this so important to us on earth? After all the sunspots look small and are hardly even visible to us. Contrary to this, sunspot activity may be correlated with climate on earth. In the period between 1645 and 1715, sun spot activity had come to a halt on the Sun – a phenomenon referred to as the Maunder minimum. This coincided with extremely cold weather globally. So sunspots may have a relevance to climate on earth. Such links are tenuous, but definitely solar activity affects space weather, w




Created with polyurethane and silicon dioxide nanoparticles, the coating can be easily spin-coated on steel

Fascinated by the beauty of water rolling off a lotus leaf, a team of chemical engineers has now created a similar superhydrophobic coating that can be used to save steel from rusting.

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anoparticles, the coating can be easily spin-coated on steel Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Repels water: In the case of a coated sample, water droplets roll away leaving the surface free of dust. <span>Created with polyurethane and silicon dioxide nanoparticles, the coating can be easily spin-coated on steel Fascinated by the beauty of water rolling off a lotus leaf, a team of chemical engineers has now created a similar superhydrophobic coating that can be used to save steel from rusting. The team from the Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad, and Ohio State University used polyurethane and silicon dioxide nanoparticles to create the coating w




The team from the Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad, and Ohio State University used polyurethane and silicon dioxide nanoparticles to create the coating which can be easily spin-coated on steel.

“Not just steel, the coating can be done on other metallic surfaces, such as aluminum, copper, brass. We have also successfully developed superhydrophobic coatings for glass, cloth, paper and wood,”

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on steel Fascinated by the beauty of water rolling off a lotus leaf, a team of chemical engineers has now created a similar superhydrophobic coating that can be used to save steel from rusting. <span>The team from the Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad, and Ohio State University used polyurethane and silicon dioxide nanoparticles to create the coating which can be easily spin-coated on steel. “Not just steel, the coating can be done on other metallic surfaces, such as aluminum, copper, brass. We have also successfully developed superhydrophobic coatings for glass, cloth, paper and wood,” explains Aditya Kumar from IIT (ISM) Dhanbad and one of the corresponding authors of the work published in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. Treated surface




The time is right for OneHealth science

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ence Share On 1 Sci-Tech Science Technology Health Agriculture Environment Gadgets Internet Watch | A 'Climate Clock' that counts down to an irreversible climate crisis Sci-Tech Science Science <span>The time is right for OneHealth science Abi T. Vanak Mridula Mary Paul March 14, 2020 19:44 IST Updated: March 14, 2020 20:06 IST Abi T. Vanak Mridula Mary Paul March 14, 2020 19:44 IST Updated: March 14, 2020 20:06 IST Emerg




A small trial (Nix-TB) undertaken at three sites in South Africa to test the safety and efficacy of three oral drugs — bedaquiline, pretomanid and linezolid — in 109 patients (57 males and 56 females were HIV positive) with extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) showed encouraging results — treatment success rate was 90%. The favourable results held true regardless of the HIV status of the patients.

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nts is at par with the success rate seen while treating drug-sensitive TB. | Photo Credit: pittawut The small trial using three oral drugs in 109 patients showed a treatment success rate of 90% <span>A small trial (Nix-TB) undertaken at three sites in South Africa to test the safety and efficacy of three oral drugs — bedaquiline, pretomanid and linezolid — in 109 patients (57 males and 56 females were HIV positive) with extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) showed encouraging results — treatment success rate was 90%. The favourable results held true regardless of the HIV status of the patients. The treatment using the three oral drugs lasted for 26 weeks and was followed-up for six months after the end of the treatment. Patients received the treatment daily for 26 weeks. The t




“This study shows that XDR tuberculosis and complicated MDR tuberculosis can be treated with a regimen consisting of three oral agents for 26 weeks,” the authors write. The results of the study were published in The New England Journal of Medicine.

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71) for XDR-TB and 92% (35 of 38). The MDR-TB patients included in the trial were either not responsive to standard treatment or had discontinued treatment due to side effects. Adverse effects <span>“This study shows that XDR tuberculosis and complicated MDR tuberculosis can be treated with a regimen consisting of three oral agents for 26 weeks,” the authors write. The results of the study were published in The New England Journal of Medicine. Of the three drugs used in the trial, a “high-percentage” of patients experienced adverse effects related to linezolid drug. Of the 109 patients treated, 88 patients (81%) had periphera




TIFR study reveals role of glucose in regulating liver functions, ageing

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eing Share On 2 Sci-Tech Science Technology Health Agriculture Environment Gadgets Internet Watch | A 'Climate Clock' that counts down to an irreversible climate crisis Sci-Tech Science Science <span>TIFR study reveals role of glucose in regulating liver functions, ageing Shubashree Desikan March 14, 2020 19:55 IST Updated: March 14, 2020 20:42 IST Shubashree Desikan March 14, 2020 19:55 IST Updated: March 14, 2020 20:42 IST Study shows both over-activat




Now, working on a different angle, the group has discovered that glucose controls the functions of a protein SIRT1 which in turn maintains everyday feed-fast cycles and is also associated with longevity. “In normal healthy individuals, SIRT1 protein levels are known to increase during fasting and decrease during feed, which is essential to maintain a balance between glucose and fat metabolism,” says Prof Kolthur-Seetharam.

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f Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam from the Department of Biological Sciences at TIFR, found the mechanism that triggers the liver to go from one stage to another in the feed-fast cycle. Role of glucose <span>Now, working on a different angle, the group has discovered that glucose controls the functions of a protein SIRT1 which in turn maintains everyday feed-fast cycles and is also associated with longevity. “In normal healthy individuals, SIRT1 protein levels are known to increase during fasting and decrease during feed, which is essential to maintain a balance between glucose and fat metabolism,” says Prof Kolthur-Seetharam. “Despite decades of work on the beneficial roles of SIRT1, metabolic factors that decrease its functions both during normal feed-fast cycles and in nutrient excess states (like obesity)




In recent times, there has been a lot of interest among primatologists in studying object handling and tool-use in non-human primates such as apes and chimpanzees. A study from IISER Mohali has looked into how long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis umbrosus) in Greater Nicobar Island handle objects and use tools to simplify their efforts.

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to process the food before consuming it. | Photo Credit: Jayashree Mazumder Tool use and object manipulation were observed in six behavioural contexts involving eight different types of objects <span>In recent times, there has been a lot of interest among primatologists in studying object handling and tool-use in non-human primates such as apes and chimpanzees. A study from IISER Mohali has looked into how long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis umbrosus) in Greater Nicobar Island handle objects and use tools to simplify their efforts. The researchers observed interesting behaviour related to object manipulation and tool use in six behavioural contexts involving eight different types of objects. They also saw that mal




Fish fossil show how fins evolved into human hands

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ands Share On 1 Sci-Tech Science Technology Health Agriculture Environment Gadgets Internet Watch | A 'Climate Clock' that counts down to an irreversible climate crisis Sci-Tech Science Science <span>Fish fossil show how fins evolved into human hands PTI Melbourne, March 23, 2020 06:04 IST Updated: March 23, 2020 06:04 IST PTI Melbourne, March 23, 2020 06:04 IST Updated: March 23, 2020 06:04 IST Their evolution into four-legged vert




Palaeontologists, including those from Flinders University in Australia, said the fish specimen has yielded the missing evolutionary link in the transition from fish to four legged animals.

They said this happened during the Late Devonian period, millions of years ago, as fish began to foray in habitats such as shallow water and land.

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most significant events, says study Researchers have revealed new insights into how the human hand evolved from fish fins based on their analysis of an ancient fossil found in Miguasha, Canada. <span>Palaeontologists, including those from Flinders University in Australia, said the fish specimen has yielded the missing evolutionary link in the transition from fish to four legged animals. They said this happened during the Late Devonian period, millions of years ago, as fish began to foray in habitats such as shallow water and land. The study, published in the journal Nature, noted that the 1.57 m long fossil shows the complete arm — pectoral fin — skeleton for the first time in any elpistostegalian fish. Using hig




A tool to detect diabetic retinopathy has been developed by Google and an international team of researchers

From diagnostics to drug development, artificial intelligence (AI) today has become a valuable extension of the medical field. A new addition to its long list of uses is a hi-tech screening tool developed by Google and an international team of researchers for detecting diabetic retinopathy a diabetic complication in the eye.

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le and an international team of researchers Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Specialised camera: A montage of images of the retina taken using fundus photography. | Photo Credit: Special arrangement <span>A tool to detect diabetic retinopathy has been developed by Google and an international team of researchers From diagnostics to drug development, artificial intelligence (AI) today has become a valuable extension of the medical field. A new addition to its long list of uses is a hi-tech screening tool developed by Google and an international team of researchers for detecting diabetic retinopathy a diabetic complication in the eye. A study conducted at two eye care centres in India — Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai and Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai — which screened over 3,000 patients with diabetes, has shown that the




“Beyond diabetic retinopathy we are also working on a number of other research projects using AI to tackle healthcare problems. Earlier this year, we showed in a research paper that AI models can help detect breast cancer in mammography images more accurately than doctors. Our research is still in the early stages, but it shows that AI can be a path forward to improve screenings for breast cancer and boost the chances of survival.”

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nistic screenings at offices, railway stations or other public places,” adds Dr. Ramasamy. Detecting breast cancer The corresponding author of the paper Lily Peng adds in an email to The Hindu: <span>“Beyond diabetic retinopathy we are also working on a number of other research projects using AI to tackle healthcare problems. Earlier this year, we showed in a research paper that AI models can help detect breast cancer in mammography images more accurately than doctors. Our research is still in the early stages, but it shows that AI can be a path forward to improve screenings for breast cancer and boost the chances of survival.” Ms Peng is a Product Manager at Google Health, California A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the




Lettuce grown in space as nutritious as ones on Earth: NASA

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NASA Share On 0 Sci-Tech Science Technology Health Agriculture Environment Gadgets Internet Watch | A 'Climate Clock' that counts down to an irreversible climate crisis Sci-Tech Science Science <span>Lettuce grown in space as nutritious as ones on Earth: NASA PTI New York, March 08, 2020 11:22 IST Updated: March 08, 2020 12:23 IST PTI New York, March 08, 2020 11:22 IST Updated: March 08, 2020 12:23 IST Apart from a welcome diet change, the f




Ability to repair

A paper recently published in Development shows that a protein named PLETHORA (PLT), which encodes stem cell promoting factors, helps in the regeneration of the vascular system at the site of injury. This protein binds to and activates the expression of another gene (CUC2). These two together increase the production of a plant growth hormone called auxin at the wound site. The combination of these proteins and hormones gives the plant the ability to repair wounds.

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Decrease Volume↓ Seek Forward→ Seek Backward← Captions On/Offc Fullscreen/Exit Fullscreenf Mute/Unmutem Seek %0-9 0.5x 1x 1.25x 1.5x 2x Auto406p 1080p 720p 406p 270p 180p Live 00:00 02:38 02:38 <span>Ability to repair A paper recently published in Development shows that a protein named PLETHORA (PLT), which encodes stem cell promoting factors, helps in the regeneration of the vascular system at the site of injury. This protein binds to and activates the expression of another gene (CUC2). These two together increase the production of a plant growth hormone called auxin at the wound site. The combination of these proteins and hormones gives the plant the ability to repair wounds. The corresponding author of the paper Kalika Prasad explains that the work spanned nearly a decade to create the right set of injuries mimicking those that plants encounter throughout t




“Though it was known that plants communicate within their different parts and with other plants during injury, not much was known about how they handle the injury. Though we carried out the initial studies on the roadside mustard plant, we noticed similar results when tested the using rice PLT protein too,” he adds.

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hunt for the plant proteins that help in this essential quick fix. He is from the School of Biology at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research at Thiruvananthapuram (IISER-Tvm). <span>“Though it was known that plants communicate within their different parts and with other plants during injury, not much was known about how they handle the injury. Though we carried out the initial studies on the roadside mustard plant, we noticed similar results when tested the using rice PLT protein too,” he adds. Regenerating veins It was seen that the injury healed not just at the surface but the veins regenerated too. “There was proliferation of the epithelial cells to seal the wounds and also




It was seen that the injury healed not just at the surface but the veins regenerated too. “There was proliferation of the epithelial cells to seal the wounds and also functional restoration of tissue cells. The vein regeneration is very essential as transport of food, hormone, water, happens through it and any disruption may further hinder the plant growth,” explains Dhanya Radhakrishnan, PhD scholar and first author of the paper from IISER-Tvm.

Another interesting find was that these two proteins did not play any role in the general development of vascular system but stepped into action only during its injury.

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y handle the injury. Though we carried out the initial studies on the roadside mustard plant, we noticed similar results when tested the using rice PLT protein too,” he adds. Regenerating veins <span>It was seen that the injury healed not just at the surface but the veins regenerated too. “There was proliferation of the epithelial cells to seal the wounds and also functional restoration of tissue cells. The vein regeneration is very essential as transport of food, hormone, water, happens through it and any disruption may further hinder the plant growth,” explains Dhanya Radhakrishnan, PhD scholar and first author of the paper from IISER-Tvm. Another interesting find was that these two proteins did not play any role in the general development of vascular system but stepped into action only during its injury. “We were able to set up a mathematical model that gave us guidance that as the size of the wound changes the nature of the repair changes. The numerical simulations showed that after a




With over 4,00,000 deaths in 2018, according to the WHO, malaria still remains one of the biggest killer infections globally, concentrated mainly in Africa and India. The disease is caused by the parasite Plasmodium and transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito.

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ferate Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Potent transfer: The parasite is injected into humans through mosquito bite. | Photo Credit: Reuters Two large protein complexes help the parasite proliferate <span>With over 4,00,000 deaths in 2018, according to the WHO, malaria still remains one of the biggest killer infections globally, concentrated mainly in Africa and India. The disease is caused by the parasite Plasmodium and transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito. To understand in detail how this parasite multiplies within a mosquito, an international team of researchers spent years studying different proteins in the parasite. Their study publish




The team found that two large protein complexes (condensins) called SMC2 and SMC4 played essential roles in the parasite proliferation.

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parasite. Their study published in Cell Reports has found two important proteins essential for proliferation. These finding can help develop new drugs and thus pave way for malaria eradication. <span>The team found that two large protein complexes (condensins) called SMC2 and SMC4 played essential roles in the parasite proliferation. One of the co-authors Prof. Rita Tewari in an email to The Hindu says: “It means that these molecules are required for every stage of parasite multiplication, and even in the cyst-like




Prof. Tewari adds in a release: “This malaria parasite is very adaptable. Even if you kill it in the human bloodstream, some of these sex cells taken in by the mosquito during a bite can develop and multiply further in the mosquito. Over time, it [the parasite] has adapted to survive and multiply using different modes, which is why it is difficult to control the disease.”

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owed that when genes behind these proteins were deleted, the number of oocysts in the mosquito gut significantly reduced and were smaller in size compared to the normal ones. Adaptable parasite <span>Prof. Tewari adds in a release: “This malaria parasite is very adaptable. Even if you kill it in the human bloodstream, some of these sex cells taken in by the mosquito during a bite can develop and multiply further in the mosquito. Over time, it [the parasite] has adapted to survive and multiply using different modes, which is why it is difficult to control the disease.” The malaria parasite has different models of multiplication in different stages of its life cycle, and it is essential to track down all the important proteins behind it for developing




    • Established under UNIDO in 1983, the ICGEB is a unique, autonomous, Intergovernmental Organisation, with biotech labs in Italy, India, and South Africa.

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    ICGEB International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
    ICGEB International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Help us make a difference donate MENUMENU About us About us Established under UNIDO in 1983, the ICGEB is a unique, autonomous, Intergovernmental Organisation, with biotech labs in Italy, India, and South Africa. Who we are What we do Annual Report Scientific Faculty Work with us Procurement Portal Our Partners Our Reports provide a complete overview of the Organisation, from its mission, histor




    Researchers from National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bengaluru, and SASTRA University, Thanjavur, have discovered how small molecules called microRNAs are made in plants. This finding makes it much easier for studying processes in plants. MicroRNAs are small molecules, about 21 nucleotides long, and help in controlling the levels of proteins in the cell. The research was published in the journal Nucleic Acids Research.

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    plants are regulated at various levels in the cell. | Photo Credit: Ashoke Chakrabarty All growth and development in plants are regulated at various levels in the cell, and mediated by proteins <span>Researchers from National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bengaluru, and SASTRA University, Thanjavur, have discovered how small molecules called microRNAs are made in plants. This finding makes it much easier for studying processes in plants. MicroRNAs are small molecules, about 21 nucleotides long, and help in controlling the levels of proteins in the cell. The research was published in the journal Nucleic Acids Research. All aspects of growth and development of plants, whether it is initiation of flowering or control and distribution of hormones in response to external stress, are regulated at various l




    In order to decrease the level of a particular protein in specific cells, the microRNAs destroy the messenger RNA molecules that help with the production of that specific protein in the cell. The microRNA molecules do this by cutting down that particular messenger RNA thereby destroying it. This process is called the silencing of the messenger RNA. The microRNA that achieve this silencing are evolutionarily conserved – that is, they are found in all flowering plants, whether they are mosses or roses.

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    oteins – the work horses of the cells. At one level, regulation of the processes is about controlling the amount of specific proteins being made in the cells. This is achieved by the microRNAs. <span>In order to decrease the level of a particular protein in specific cells, the microRNAs destroy the messenger RNA molecules that help with the production of that specific protein in the cell. The microRNA molecules do this by cutting down that particular messenger RNA thereby destroying it. This process is called the silencing of the messenger RNA. The microRNA that achieve this silencing are evolutionarily conserved – that is, they are found in all flowering plants, whether they are mosses or roses. Similarly, the best way to study the effect of a gene in the DNA is to silence or “knockout” the gene. Knocking out a gene does not mean removing the entire gene. In knocking out proces




    On February 11, the WHO announced COVID-19 as the name for the disease caused by the novel coronavirus. The “CO” in COVID stands corona, while “VI” is for virus and “D” for disease. The number 19 stands for the year 2019 when the outbreak was first identified.

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    novel coronavirus got an official name, the World Health Organization has clearly indicated that it will not use the official name in all its public communication while referring to the virus. <span>On February 11, the WHO announced COVID-19 as the name for the disease caused by the novel coronavirus. The “CO” in COVID stands corona, while “VI” is for virus and “D” for disease. The number 19 stands for the year 2019 when the outbreak was first identified. The same day, in a preprint posted in the bioRxiv repository, the Coronavirus Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses announced the official name for the virus




    The WHO and the Study Group use two very different criteria and approaches while deciding the names. The WHO arrives at the name of a new disease by following the May 2015 guidelines. According to the guidelines, the disease name should not include geographic locations and people’s names as this can be stigmatising. Also, names of animals such as swine flu should be avoided as this leads to confusion. The guidelines also say that it should avoid “terms that incite undue fear” while choosing a name.

    The Study Group adopts a “scientific approach” while naming a new coronavirus. Based on whole genome sequence shared by China and other countries, scientists have confirmed that the novel virus belongs to the same species as the one that caused the SARS epidemic, which is called SARS-related coronavirus.

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    quences in terms of creating unnecessary fear for some populations, especially in Asia, which was worst affected by the SARS outbreak in 2003”, the spokesperson told Science. Different criteria <span>The WHO and the Study Group use two very different criteria and approaches while deciding the names. The WHO arrives at the name of a new disease by following the May 2015 guidelines. According to the guidelines, the disease name should not include geographic locations and people’s names as this can be stigmatising. Also, names of animals such as swine flu should be avoided as this leads to confusion. The guidelines also say that it should avoid “terms that incite undue fear” while choosing a name. The Study Group adopts a “scientific approach” while naming a new coronavirus. Based on whole genome sequence shared by China and other countries, scientists have confirmed that the novel virus belongs to the same species as the one that caused the SARS epidemic, which is called SARS-related coronavirus. “The virus may be novel to the rest of the world, but it isn’t really to taxonomists. So it’s not getting its own name. Instead, the committee appended a ‘2’ for viruses isolated from p




    Jupiter was likely the first planet to form, and it contains most of the gas and dust that wasn’t incorporated into the Sun, finds scientists

    Water makes up about 0.25% of the molecules in Jupiter’s atmosphere along its equator — almost three times that of the Sun, according to a study based on data from NASA’s Juno mission launched in 2011. The study, published in the journal Nature Astronomy on Tuesday, provided the first findings on the gas giant’s abundance of water since the space agency’s 1995 Galileo mission.

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    upiter's southern equatorial region on Sept. 1, 2017. The image is oriented so Jupiter's poles (not visible) run left-to-right of frame. | Photo Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Kevin M. Gill <span>Jupiter was likely the first planet to form, and it contains most of the gas and dust that wasn’t incorporated into the Sun, finds scientists Water makes up about 0.25% of the molecules in Jupiter’s atmosphere along its equator — almost three times that of the Sun, according to a study based on data from NASA’s Juno mission launched in 2011. The study, published in the journal Nature Astronomy on Tuesday, provided the first findings on the gas giant’s abundance of water since the space agency’s 1995 Galileo mission. According to the researchers, including those from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the U.S., Jupiter may be extremely dry compared to the Sun — a comparison based not on liquid wate




    As The Hindu reported on February 17, SUTRA-PIC or ‘Scientific Utilisation Through Research Augmentation-Prime Products from Indigenous Cows’, has five themes: “Uniqueness of Indigenous Cows, Prime-products from Indigenous Cows for Medicine and Health, Prime-products from Indigenous Cows for Agricultural Applications, Prime-products from Indigenous Cows for Food and Nutrition, Prime-products from Indigenous Cows-based Utility Items”, according to a concept note on the DST website.

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    scientifically from start to finish’ At least 400 scientists have petitioned the Department of Science & Technology (DST) to withdraw a proposal that solicits research into indigenous cows. <span>As The Hindu reported on February 17, SUTRA-PIC or ‘Scientific Utilisation Through Research Augmentation-Prime Products from Indigenous Cows’, has five themes: “Uniqueness of Indigenous Cows, Prime-products from Indigenous Cows for Medicine and Health, Prime-products from Indigenous Cows for Agricultural Applications, Prime-products from Indigenous Cows for Food and Nutrition, Prime-products from Indigenous Cows-based Utility Items”, according to a concept note on the DST website. ‘Extremely perturbed’ In an online petition to Ashutosh Sharma, Secretary, DST, and K. VijayRaghavan, Principal Scientific Advisor to the government, the scientists write that as “.. co




    Scientists with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) created a machine learning computer model looking for chemical features that make molecules effective at killing E. coli.

    US researchers used an artificial intelligence algorithm to identify a powerful new antibiotic compound, which could kill many of the world’s most problematic disease-causing bacteria in lab tests.

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    00 molecules, including about 1,700 FDA-approved drugs and a set of 800 natural products with diverse structures and a wide range of bioactivities. Photo used for representational purpose only. <span>Scientists with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) created a machine learning computer model looking for chemical features that make molecules effective at killing E. coli. US researchers used an artificial intelligence algorithm to identify a powerful new antibiotic compound, which could kill many of the world’s most problematic disease-causing bacteria in lab tests. The study published on Thursday in the journal Cell showed that it could kill some strains that are resistant to all known antibiotics and also clear infections in two different mouse m




    Himalayan wolves, also called as Tibetan wolves, which live at more than 4,000 metres altitudes are genetically distinct from grey wolves, according to a study published in the Journal of Biogeography

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    eparate species R. Prasad February 22, 2020 18:17 IST Updated: February 22, 2020 19:18 IST R. Prasad February 22, 2020 18:17 IST Updated: February 22, 2020 19:18 IST Share Article 0 PRINT A A A <span>Himalayan wolves, also called as Tibetan wolves, which live at more than 4,000 metres altitudes are genetically distinct from grey wolves, according to a study published in the Journal of Biogeography. The divergence of Himalayan wolves relates to past uplift of the region, the authors of the paper note. Living at such high altitudes, these wolves have genetically adapted themselves




    Interestingly, unlike the grey wolves that inhabit the lower elevations the Himalayan wolves showed clear hypoxia adaptation. The admixed wolves had a mixture of genes belonging to Himalayan wolves and grey wolves but always carried the Himalayan wolf hypoxia adaptation.

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    he grey wolves. The nuclear genome markers analysed also suggests differences between Himalayan wolves and grey wolves. But other studies suggest a recent ancestry for all extant wolf lineages. <span>Interestingly, unlike the grey wolves that inhabit the lower elevations the Himalayan wolves showed clear hypoxia adaptation. The admixed wolves had a mixture of genes belonging to Himalayan wolves and grey wolves but always carried the Himalayan wolf hypoxia adaptation. The specialised genes for hypoxia adaptation allowed the animals to overcome the lack of oxygen at such high altitudes. Such adaptations are seen in dogs and humans to mitigate the dele




    In the past five years, the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), India’s first interplanetary endeavour, helped India’s space agency prepare a Martian Atlas based on the images provided by the orbiter.

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    ptured by the Mars Colour Camera onboard India's Mars Orbiter spacecraft The Mangalyaan mission, which was meant to last six months, completed five years of orbiting Mars on September 24, 2019. <span>In the past five years, the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), India’s first interplanetary endeavour, helped India’s space agency prepare a Martian Atlas based on the images provided by the orbiter. The launch vehicle, spacecraft and ground segment was built at a cost ₹450 crore. But the mission is likely to continue its mission for some more time. In the past years, the Mars orbit




    Looking at the mounds at the Harappan site of Rakhigarhi, where locals dry cow dung cakes and dump garbage, there is little to show the thousands of years of history beneath. But the Centre is moving ahead with its plan to develop the site as a tourist hub and set up a museum, and this has got residents in two villages in Haryana’s Hisar district — Rakhi Khas and Rakhi Shahpur — known as Rakhigarhi worried.

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    RINT A A A A look into the past: Local residents near a mound at the Harappan site of Rakhigarhi in Haryana. Villagers fear loss of land, as Centre moves to turn Harappan site into tourist hub. <span>Looking at the mounds at the Harappan site of Rakhigarhi, where locals dry cow dung cakes and dump garbage, there is little to show the thousands of years of history beneath. But the Centre is moving ahead with its plan to develop the site as a tourist hub and set up a museum, and this has got residents in two villages in Haryana’s Hisar district — Rakhi Khas and Rakhi Shahpur — known as Rakhigarhi worried. After Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced the government’s plan to fund five on-site museums, including the under-construction museum initiated by the Haryana government at Ra




    He said that all five archaeological sites mentioned in the Budget – Rakhigarhi, Hastinapur in Uttar Pradesh, Shivsagar in Assam, Dholavira in Gujarat and Adichanallur in Tamil Nadu – would be developed into “iconic sites” simultaneously.

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    a farmer and resident. Mr. Patel ended his meeting with the villagers with the assurance that the government would not make public its “action plan” for the site without telling the panchayat. <span>He said that all five archaeological sites mentioned in the Budget – Rakhigarhi, Hastinapur in Uttar Pradesh, Shivsagar in Assam, Dholavira in Gujarat and Adichanallur in Tamil Nadu – would be developed into “iconic sites” simultaneously. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, ou




    The astronomer said it was a “big deal” as “this is just the second asteroid known to orbit Earth [after 2006 RH120, which was also discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey].”

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    zona on the night of February 15. “BIG NEWS. Earth has a new temporarily captured object/Possible mini-moon called 2020 CD3,” likely to be a C-type asteroid, Mr. Wierzchos tweeted on Wednesday. <span>The astronomer said it was a “big deal” as “this is just the second asteroid known to orbit Earth [after 2006 RH120, which was also discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey].” Its route suggests it entered Earth's orbit three years ago, he said. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Minor Planet Center, which collects data on minor planets and asteroids




    Earth has acquired a second “mini-moon” about the size of a car, according to astronomers who spotted the object circling our planet.

    The mass — roughly 1.9-3.5 metres (6-11 feet) in diameter —

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    y to be around for very long Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Representational image. File Earth's new neighbour is not in a stable orbit around the planet and is unlikely to be around for very long <span>Earth has acquired a second “mini-moon” about the size of a car, according to astronomers who spotted the object circling our planet. The mass — roughly 1.9-3.5 metres (6-11 feet) in diameter — was observed by researchers Kacper Wierzchos and Teddy Pruyne at the NASA-funded Catalina Sky Survey in Arizona on the night of February 15. “BIG NEWS. Earth has a new temporarily captu




    Only 15% R&D workforce are women: President Kovind

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    vind Share On 0 Sci-Tech Science Technology Health Agriculture Environment Gadgets Internet Watch | A 'Climate Clock' that counts down to an irreversible climate crisis Sci-Tech Science Science <span>Only 15% R&D workforce are women: President Kovind PTI New Delhi, February 28, 2020 13:18 IST Updated: February 28, 2020 13:32 IST PTI New Delhi, February 28, 2020 13:18 IST Updated: February 28, 2020 13:32 IST The President was address




    Black holes don’t just draw matter in. They also blast out jets of material and energy.

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    bservatory and ground telescopes. They believe the explosion came from the heart of the Ophiuchus cluster of thousands of galaxies — a large galaxy at the center contains a colossal black hole. <span>Black holes don’t just draw matter in. They also blast out jets of material and energy. The first hint of this giant explosion actually came in 2016. Chandra images of the Ophiuchus galaxy cluster revealed an unusual curved edge, but scientists ruled out an eruption given




    Astronomers used NASA’s Chandra X-Ray Observatory to make the discovery, along with a European space observatory and ground telescopes. They believe the explosion came from the heart of the Ophiuchus cluster of thousands of galaxies — a large galaxy at the center contains a colossal black hole.

    Black holes don’t just draw matter in. They also blast out jets of material and energy.

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    crater in the hot gas that could hold 15 Milky Ways, said lead author Simona Giacintucci of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington. It’s five times bigger than the previous record-holder. <span>Astronomers used NASA’s Chandra X-Ray Observatory to make the discovery, along with a European space observatory and ground telescopes. They believe the explosion came from the heart of the Ophiuchus cluster of thousands of galaxies — a large galaxy at the center contains a colossal black hole. Black holes don’t just draw matter in. They also blast out jets of material and energy. The first hint of this giant explosion actually came in 2016. Chandra images of the Ophiuchus galaxy cluster revealed an unusual curved edge, but scientists ruled out an eruption given




    Scientists reported on Thursday that the blast came from a black hole in a cluster of galaxies 390 million light-years away.

    The explosion was so large it carved out a crater in the hot gas that could hold 15 Milky Ways, said lead author Simona Giacintucci of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington.

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    d out a crater in the hot gas that could hold 15 Milky Ways, says scientist. Astronomers have discovered the biggest explosion seen in the universe, originating from a super-massive black hole. <span>Scientists reported on Thursday that the blast came from a black hole in a cluster of galaxies 390 million light-years away. The explosion was so large it carved out a crater in the hot gas that could hold 15 Milky Ways, said lead author Simona Giacintucci of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington. It’s five times bigger than the previous record-holder. Astronomers used NASA’s Chandra X-Ray Observatory to make the discovery, along with a European space observatory and ground teles




    Incineration is a way to treat waste through controlled burning. Waste is shredded and heated to over 1025 degree Celsius in a furnace Incineration has several benefits.

    The process has mainly three by-products:

    1) Pavers bricks

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    Charan on S.P. Balasubrahmanyam's health Watch | Dulquer Salmaan on his production ventures and the OTT market Close X A video on the pros and cons of treating waste through controlled burning <span>Incineration is a way to treat waste through controlled burning. Waste is shredded and heated to over 1025 degree Celsius in a furnace Incineration has several benefits. The process has mainly three by-products: 1) Pavers bricks One tonne of incinerated waste will yield 20-30 kg of ash which can be converted into paved bricks. One tonne of waste will yield 60 kg of bricks 2) Fly ash with carbon Fly ash with O.1




    #has-images

    Incineration is a way to treat waste through controlled burning. Waste is shredded and heated to over 1025 degree Celsius in a furnace Incineration has several benefits.

    The process has mainly three by-products:

    1) Pavers bricks

    One tonne of incinerated waste will yield 20-30 kg of ash which can be converted into paved bricks. One tonne of waste will yield 60 kg of bricks

    2) Fly ash with carbon

    Fly ash with O.1% to 0.2% carbon content and weighing 2 kg will be produced by a tonne of waste. The fly ash can be used in agriculture.

    3) Activated carbon

    Approximately one kg of activated carbon will be produced in the plant. This can be used in sewage treatment, metal extraction, gold purification and medicine.

    The incineration process doesn't use external fuel. The passage of exhaust is through a pollution control unit which releases only water vapour into the atmosphere. It reduces level of groundwater pollution in residential areas near dump yards.

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    Charan on S.P. Balasubrahmanyam's health Watch | Dulquer Salmaan on his production ventures and the OTT market Close X A video on the pros and cons of treating waste through controlled burning <span>Incineration is a way to treat waste through controlled burning. Waste is shredded and heated to over 1025 degree Celsius in a furnace Incineration has several benefits. The process has mainly three by-products: 1) Pavers bricks One tonne of incinerated waste will yield 20-30 kg of ash which can be converted into paved bricks. One tonne of waste will yield 60 kg of bricks 2) Fly ash with carbon Fly ash with O.1% to 0.2% carbon content and weighing 2 kg will be produced by a tonne of waste. The fly ash can be used in agriculture. 3) Activated carbon Approximately one kg of activated carbon will be produced in the plant. This can be used in sewage treatment, metal extraction, gold purification and medicine. The incineration process doesn't use external fuel. The passage of exhaust is through a pollution control unit which releases only water vapour into the atmosphere. It reduces level of groundwater pollution in residential areas near dump yards. But the process has its negatives too. Many of the waste items incinerated, especially plastic, contain toxins which produce carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide when burned. Such pollutant




    We have shown that there is a lot of plasticity within the spinal cord. We now know that even after the brain has issued the command for a movement, changing the properties of motor neurons can alter the final behavioural outcome,” says Prof. Thirumalai.

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    resting to see if dopamine affects the properties of other neurons in the spinal cord too. Another follow up study can be to investigate what exact information dopamine is encoding,” she adds. “<span>We have shown that there is a lot of plasticity within the spinal cord. We now know that even after the brain has issued the command for a movement, changing the properties of motor neurons can alter the final behavioural outcome,” says Prof. Thirumalai. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, ou




    reflexive behaviour called optomotor response in freely swimming zebrafish larvae. They were able to pinpoint how speed was controlled during this behaviour at the level of single nerve cells.

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    ological Sciences (NCBS), Bengaluru. Also Read | IISER Mohali find that zebrafish use landmarks for navigation Speed control The team, consisting of Urvashi Jha and Vatsala Thirumalai studied a <span>reflexive behaviour called optomotor response in freely swimming zebrafish larvae. They were able to pinpoint how speed was controlled during this behaviour at the level of single nerve cells. The team evoked the optomotor response in the laboratory by moving black and white bars on a little screen placed under the fish. When fish were placed in normal water, they swam to kee




    Such alternative definitions of arrow of time are needed, for example, in cosmology to explain cosmological models like the oscillating universe. According to this model, the universe, which we know to be expanding, will reach a maximum size and then start contracting once again due to gravity. In such a contracting phase, entropy may actually decrease. If this happens, it will mean the arrow of time defined using entropy will reverse, and that sounds physically impossible

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    arge blobs to smaller blobs and then to still smaller blobs. In the same way, energy gets transferred from a large scale to the small scale, there by defining a direction for the arrow of time. <span>Such alternative definitions of arrow of time are needed, for example, in cosmology to explain cosmological models like the oscillating universe. According to this model, the universe, which we know to be expanding, will reach a maximum size and then start contracting once again due to gravity. In such a contracting phase, entropy may actually decrease. If this happens, it will mean the arrow of time defined using entropy will reverse, and that sounds physically impossible. Oscillating universe “The second law of thermodynamics encounters difficulties in explaining cosmological arrow of time for oscillating universe. However, energy transfers can predict




    Oscillating universe

    “The second law of thermodynamics encounters difficulties in explaining cosmological arrow of time for oscillating universe. However, energy transfers can predict the arrow of time for the collapsing universe,” says Prof. Verma.

    In a gravitating system, such as the collapsing universe, cluster or star formation is somewhat similar to the formation of cyclones or hurricanes. “[In contrast to the example of coffee] here the energy flows from small scales to large scales. For such systems, the clustering or structure formation is in the forward direction of time,” he adds in explanation.

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    o gravity. In such a contracting phase, entropy may actually decrease. If this happens, it will mean the arrow of time defined using entropy will reverse, and that sounds physically impossible. <span>Oscillating universe “The second law of thermodynamics encounters difficulties in explaining cosmological arrow of time for oscillating universe. However, energy transfers can predict the arrow of time for the collapsing universe,” says Prof. Verma. In a gravitating system, such as the collapsing universe, cluster or star formation is somewhat similar to the formation of cyclones or hurricanes. “[In contrast to the example of coffee] here the energy flows from small scales to large scales. For such systems, the clustering or structure formation is in the forward direction of time,” he adds in explanation. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, ou




    #science
    According to the scientists, including those from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the US, a seawater current called the Beaufort Gyre keeps the polar environment in balance by storing fresh water near the surface of the Arctic ocean.

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    n balance by storing fresh water near the surface of the Arctic ocean. Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Heating up: A file photo of melt ponds on the Arctic sea ice. | Photo Credit: STEFAN HENDRICKS <span>According to the scientists, including those from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the US, a seawater current called the Beaufort Gyre keeps the polar environment in balance by storing fresh water near the surface of the Arctic ocean. Researchers have unravelled how an ocean water current, which plays a key role in keeping Western Europe warm, could be altered by an influx of unprecedented amounts of cold, fresh wate




    #science
    According to the scientists, including those from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the US, a seawater current called the Beaufort Gyre keeps the polar environment in balance by storing fresh water near the surface of the Arctic ocean.

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    n balance by storing fresh water near the surface of the Arctic ocean. Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Heating up: A file photo of melt ponds on the Arctic sea ice. | Photo Credit: STEFAN HENDRICKS <span>According to the scientists, including those from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the US, a seawater current called the Beaufort Gyre keeps the polar environment in balance by storing fresh water near the surface of the Arctic ocean. Researchers have unravelled how an ocean water current, which plays a key role in keeping Western Europe warm, could be altered by an influx of unprecedented amounts of cold, fresh wate




    The Sun's surface, imagined to be like a sprouting volcano, is indeed entirely “turbulent ‘boiling’ plasma”. This discovery was announced yesterday by researchers who captured photographs of the Sun’s surface with unprecedented detail using the Daniel K. Inouye Solar (DKIS) Telescope in Maui, Hawaii.

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    Sun’s surface, revealing a gold-coloured cell-like pattern. Share Article 1 PRINT A A A The set of images show a close-up view of the Sun’s surface, revealing a gold-coloured cell-like pattern. <span>The Sun's surface, imagined to be like a sprouting volcano, is indeed entirely “turbulent ‘boiling’ plasma”. This discovery was announced yesterday by researchers who captured photographs of the Sun’s surface with unprecedented detail using the Daniel K. Inouye Solar (DKIS) Telescope in Maui, Hawaii. The set of images show a close-up view of the Sun’s surface, revealing a gold-coloured cell-like pattern. The cell-like structures that appear to be ‘boiling’ indicate motions that tran




    While the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) prescribes a maximum residual level (MRL) for some of the organophosphate pesticides used, it does not prescribe it for some other pesticides used in the cultivation of fruit and vegetables.

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    the produce might be harbouring high levels of pesticide, beyond what is considered advisable. This was mainly true of potato and carrot. The study was published in the journal Food Chemistry. <span>While the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) prescribes a maximum residual level (MRL) for some of the organophosphate pesticides used, it does not prescribe it for some other pesticides used in the cultivation of fruit and vegetables. Hence, the team of researchers took the maximum residual levels from European standards. Sensitive method Using liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry, the team develope




    #PDM #ann #open-hole #surrogate-model
    Progressive damage modelling (PDM) methods, which in general employ failure criteria for predicting damage initiation, and evolution laws for damage propagation, have been developed and widely used by the research community to predict failure in composite materials [1–3].

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