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Flashcard 1432878189836

Tags
#i-q #types-of-inteligence
Question
[...] has sometimes been referred to as ‘the eighth intelligence’.
Answer
Creativity

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creativity, which has sometimes been referred to as ‘the eighth intelligence’.

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Flashcard 1433020271884

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Recall that the supply curve represents the lowest price that sellers would be willing to accept for each additional unit of a good. In general, that amount is the cost of producing that next unit, called [...]
Answer

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ittle more complicated to understand. Recall that the supply curve represents the lowest price that sellers would be willing to accept for each additional unit of a good. In general, that amount is the cost of producing that next unit, called <span>marginal cost<span><body><html>

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3.10. Producer Surplus—Revenue minus Variable Cost
the total variable cost of producing that amount, on the other hand. Variable costs are those costs that change when the level of output changes. Total revenue is simply the total quantity sold multiplied by the price per unit. <span>The total variable cost (variable cost per unit times units produced) is measured by the area beneath the supply curve, and it is a little more complicated to understand. Recall that the supply curve represents the lowest price that sellers would be willing to accept for each additional unit of a good. In general, that amount is the cost of producing that next unit, called marginal cost . Clearly, a seller would never intend to sell a unit of a good for a price lower than its marginal cost, because she would lose money on that unit. Alternatively, a producer should be







Flashcard 1438288579852

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
Important capital budgeting concepts (first 2):

  • Sunk costs.

  • [...] cash​ [...]
Answer
Incremental cash flow

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ways be losing money. In the previous year, the bookstore spent $5,000 to hire a consultant to perform an analysis. This $5,000 consulting fee is a sunk cost; whether the coffee shop is opened or not, the $5,000 is spent. <span>Incremental cash flow is the net cash flow attributable to an investment project. It represents the change in the firm's total cash flow that occurs as a direct result of accepting the project.

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Subject 2. Basic Principles of Capital Budgeting
d in the estimated cash flows since the effects of debt financing are reflected in the cost of capital used to discount the cash flows. The existence of a project depends on business factors, not financing. <span>Important capital budgeting concepts: A sunk cost is a cash outlay that has already been incurred and which cannot be recovered regardless of whether a project is accepted or rejected. Since sunk costs are not increment costs, they should not be included in the capital budgeting analysis. For example, a small bookstore is considering opening a coffee shop within its store, which will generate an annual net cash outflow of $10,000 from selling coffee. That is, the coffee shop will always be losing money. In the previous year, the bookstore spent $5,000 to hire a consultant to perform an analysis. This $5,000 consulting fee is a sunk cost; whether the coffee shop is opened or not, the $5,000 is spent. Incremental cash flow is the net cash flow attributable to an investment project. It represents the change in the firm's total cash flow that occurs as a direct result of accepting the project. Forget sunk costs. Subtract opportunity costs. Consider side effects on other parts of the firm: externalities and cannibalization. Recognize the investment and recovery of net working capital. Opportunity cost is the return on the best alternative use of an asset or the highest return that will not be earned if funds are invested in a particular project. For example, to continue with the bookstore example, the space to be occupied by the coffee shop is an opportunity cost - it could be used to sell books and generate a $5,000 annual net cash inflow. Externalities are the effects of a project on cash flows in other parts of a firm. Although they are difficult to quantify, they should be considered. Externalities can be either positive or negative: Positive externalities create benefits for other parts of the firm. For example, the coffee shop may generate some additional customers for the bookstore (who otherwise may not buy books there). Future cash flows generated by positive externalities occur with the project and do not occur without the project, so they are incremental. Negative externalities create costs for other parts of the firm. For example, if the bookstore is considering opening a branch two blocks away, some customers who buy books at the old store will switch to the new branch. The customers lost by the old store are a negative externality. The primary type of negative externality is cannibalization, which occurs when the introduction of a new product causes sales of existing products to decline. Future cash flows represented by negative externalities occur regardless of the project, so they are non-incremental. Such cash flows represent a transfer from existing projects to new projects, and thus should be subtracted from the new projects' cash flows. Conventional versus non-conventional cash flows. A conventional cash flow pattern is one with an initial outflow followed by a series of inflows. In a non-conventional cash flow pattern, the initial outflow can be followed by inflows and/or outflows. Some project interactions: Indepe







Flashcard 1442988821772

Tags
#estructura-interna-de-las-palabras #formantes-morfológicos #gramatica-española #la #morfología #tulio
Question
Los formantes que pueden aparecer como palabras independientes son formas [...].
Answer
libres

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Los formantes que pueden aparecer como palabras independientes son formas libres. Los otros, los que necesariamente van adosados a otros morfemas, son formas ligadas.

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La estructura interna de la palabra
1. Los formantes morfológicos Una palabra tiene estructura interna cuando contiene más de un formante morfológico. Un formante morfológico o morfema es una unidad mínima que consta de una forma fonética y de un significado. Comparemos las siguientes palabras: gota, gotas, gotita, gotera, cuentagotas. Gota es la única de estas palabras que consta de un solo formante. Carece, entonces, de estructura interna. Es una palabra simple. Todas las otras palabras tienen estructura interna. [31] Los formantes que pueden aparecer como palabras independientes son formas libres. Los otros, los que necesariamente van adosados a otros morfe- mas, son formas ligadas. Cuentagotas contiene dos formantes que pueden aparecer cada uno como palabra independiente. Es una palabra compuesta. Gotas, gotita y gotera también contienen dos formantes, pero uno de ellos (-s, -ita, -era) nunca puede ser una palabra independiente. Son formas ligadas que se denominan afijos. Algunos afijos van pospuestos a la base (gota), como los de nuestros ejemplos: son los s u f i j o s . Otros afijos la preceden: in-útil, des-contento, a-político: Son los prefijos. Las palabras que contienen un afijo se denominan palabras complejas. Del inventario de formantes reconocidos, reconoceremos dos clases: a. Algunos son formantes léxicos: tienen un significado léxico, que se define en el diccionario: gota, cuenta. Se agrupan en clases abiertas. Pertenecen a una clase particular de palabras: sustantivos (gota), adjetivos (útil), adverbios (ayer), verbos (cuenta). Pueden ser: - palabras simples (gota, útil, ayer); - base a la que se adosan los afijos en palabras complejas (got-, politic-); - parte de una palabra, compuesta (cuenta, gotas). b. Otros son formantes gramaticales: tienen significado gramatical, no léxico. Se agrupan en clases cerradas. Pueden ser: - palabras independientes: preposiciones (a, de, por), conjunciones (que, si); - afijos en palabras derivadas (-s, -ero, in-, des-); - menos frecuentemente, formantes de compuestos (aun-que, por-que, si-no). Entre las palabras no simples consideradas hasta aquí, cada una contenía sólo dos formantes. En otras un mismo tipo de formantes se repite: - sufijos: region-al-izar, util-iza-ble; - prefijos: des-com-poner. ex-pro-soviético, o también formantes de diferentes tipos pueden combinarse entre sí: - prefijo y sufijo: des-leal-tad, em-pobr-ecer; - palabra compuesta y sufijo: rionegr-ino, narcotrafic-ante. En la combinación de prefijación y sufijación, se distinguen dos casos, ilustrados en nuestros ejemplos. En deslealtad, la aplicación de cada uno de los afijos da como resultado una palabra bien formada: si aplicamos sólo el prefijo se obtiene el adjetivo desleal; si aplicamos sólo el sufijo el resultado será el sustantivo lealtad. En cambio, en empobrecer, si se aplica sólo un afijo [32] el resultado no será una palabra existente: *empobre, *pobrecer. Prefijo y sufijo se aplican simultáneamente, constituyendo un único formante morfológico – discontinuo– que se añade a ambos lados de la base léxica. Este segundo caso se denomina parasíntesis. Para establecer la estructura interna de las palabras, la morfología se ocupa de: a. identificar los formantes morfológicos; b. determinar las posibles variaciones que éstos presenten; c. describir los procesos involucrados; d. reconocer la organización de las palabras. 2. Identificación de los formantes morfológicos Comparemos ahora las siguientes palabras: sol, sol-ar; sol-azo, quita- sol, gira-sol, solter-o, solaz. En las







Flashcard 1442991181068

Tags
#estructura-interna-de-las-palabras #formantes-morfológicos #gramatica-española #la #morfología #tulio
Question
Los formantes que necesariamente van adosados a otros morfemas, son formas [...]
Answer
ligadas.

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Los formantes que pueden aparecer como palabras independientes son formas libres. Los otros, los que necesariamente van adosados a otros morfemas, son formas ligadas.

Original toplevel document

La estructura interna de la palabra
1. Los formantes morfológicos Una palabra tiene estructura interna cuando contiene más de un formante morfológico. Un formante morfológico o morfema es una unidad mínima que consta de una forma fonética y de un significado. Comparemos las siguientes palabras: gota, gotas, gotita, gotera, cuentagotas. Gota es la única de estas palabras que consta de un solo formante. Carece, entonces, de estructura interna. Es una palabra simple. Todas las otras palabras tienen estructura interna. [31] Los formantes que pueden aparecer como palabras independientes son formas libres. Los otros, los que necesariamente van adosados a otros morfe- mas, son formas ligadas. Cuentagotas contiene dos formantes que pueden aparecer cada uno como palabra independiente. Es una palabra compuesta. Gotas, gotita y gotera también contienen dos formantes, pero uno de ellos (-s, -ita, -era) nunca puede ser una palabra independiente. Son formas ligadas que se denominan afijos. Algunos afijos van pospuestos a la base (gota), como los de nuestros ejemplos: son los s u f i j o s . Otros afijos la preceden: in-útil, des-contento, a-político: Son los prefijos. Las palabras que contienen un afijo se denominan palabras complejas. Del inventario de formantes reconocidos, reconoceremos dos clases: a. Algunos son formantes léxicos: tienen un significado léxico, que se define en el diccionario: gota, cuenta. Se agrupan en clases abiertas. Pertenecen a una clase particular de palabras: sustantivos (gota), adjetivos (útil), adverbios (ayer), verbos (cuenta). Pueden ser: - palabras simples (gota, útil, ayer); - base a la que se adosan los afijos en palabras complejas (got-, politic-); - parte de una palabra, compuesta (cuenta, gotas). b. Otros son formantes gramaticales: tienen significado gramatical, no léxico. Se agrupan en clases cerradas. Pueden ser: - palabras independientes: preposiciones (a, de, por), conjunciones (que, si); - afijos en palabras derivadas (-s, -ero, in-, des-); - menos frecuentemente, formantes de compuestos (aun-que, por-que, si-no). Entre las palabras no simples consideradas hasta aquí, cada una contenía sólo dos formantes. En otras un mismo tipo de formantes se repite: - sufijos: region-al-izar, util-iza-ble; - prefijos: des-com-poner. ex-pro-soviético, o también formantes de diferentes tipos pueden combinarse entre sí: - prefijo y sufijo: des-leal-tad, em-pobr-ecer; - palabra compuesta y sufijo: rionegr-ino, narcotrafic-ante. En la combinación de prefijación y sufijación, se distinguen dos casos, ilustrados en nuestros ejemplos. En deslealtad, la aplicación de cada uno de los afijos da como resultado una palabra bien formada: si aplicamos sólo el prefijo se obtiene el adjetivo desleal; si aplicamos sólo el sufijo el resultado será el sustantivo lealtad. En cambio, en empobrecer, si se aplica sólo un afijo [32] el resultado no será una palabra existente: *empobre, *pobrecer. Prefijo y sufijo se aplican simultáneamente, constituyendo un único formante morfológico – discontinuo– que se añade a ambos lados de la base léxica. Este segundo caso se denomina parasíntesis. Para establecer la estructura interna de las palabras, la morfología se ocupa de: a. identificar los formantes morfológicos; b. determinar las posibles variaciones que éstos presenten; c. describir los procesos involucrados; d. reconocer la organización de las palabras. 2. Identificación de los formantes morfológicos Comparemos ahora las siguientes palabras: sol, sol-ar; sol-azo, quita- sol, gira-sol, solter-o, solaz. En las







Flashcard 1446882708748

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
Factors of Production

A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade.

  1. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations?

Answer

Where to locate the manufacturing facility in terms of an accessible site (land) and building (physical capital),

what to use in the construction of the containers (materials), and what labor input to use.


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Factors of Production A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations? What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors? Solution to 1: The entrepreneurs must decide

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3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
l per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. Point A is where TP is maximized. Exhibit 9. A Firm’s Production Function EXAMPLE 3 <span>Factors of Production A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations? What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors? Solution to 1: The entrepreneurs must decide where to locate the manufacturing facility in terms of an accessible site (land) and building (physical capital), what to use in the construction of the containers (materials), and what labor input to use. Solution to 2: Overall, any decision involving the input factors should focus on how that decision affects costs, profitability, and risk—such that shareholders’ wealth is maximized. 3.1.3. Total, Average, Marginal, Fixed, and Variable Costs Exhibit 10 shows the graphical relationships among total costs, to







Flashcard 1446893194508

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4


Question
This image illustrates the shape of a typical input–output relationship using [...] as the only variable input (all other input factors are held constant).
Answer
labor (L)

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This image illustrates the shape of a typical input–output relationship using labor (L) as the only variable input (all other input factors are held constant). The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in







Flashcard 1447278546188

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language employs four important kinds of symbols to represent reality: two to symbolize [...], two to symbolize the [...] which is common to all the individual members of a class.
Answer
the individual

essence

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Language employs four important kinds of symbols to represent reality: two to symbolize the individual, two to symbolize the essence which is common to all the individual members of a class.

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Flashcard 1447284051212

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Species is a class made up of [...]
Answer
individuals that have in common the same specific essence.

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Species is a class made up of individuals that have in common the same specific essence.

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Flashcard 1447293488396

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
man is a species and includes all men and women of [...]
Answer
every place and time

—past, present, and future.

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man is a species and includes all men and women of every place and time—past, present, and future.

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Flashcard 1447298206988

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
species is abstract, for one cannot photograph the species horse or dog; one can photograph only [...]
Answer
an individual

since every horse or dog that exists is an individual.

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species is abstract, for one cannot photograph the species horse or dog; one can photograph only an individual horse or dog since every horse or dog that exists is an individual.

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Flashcard 1447341722892

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A concept is [...] although the word is.
Answer
not arbitrary

Truth has an objective norm in the real.

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d><head>A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence which exist s in the individual and makes it the kind of thing it is. Therefore, a concept is not arbitrary although the word is. Truth has an objective norm in the real.<html>

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Flashcard 1447355092236

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A [...] is universal because it is the knowledge of the essence present equally in every member of the class, regardless of time, place, or individual differences.
Answer
general concept

​For example, the concept “chair” is the knowledge of the essence “chair,” which must be in every chair at all times and in all places, regardless of size, weight, color, material, and other individual differences.

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A general concept is universal because it is the knowledge of the essence present equally in every member of the class, regardless of time, place, or individual differences. For example, the c

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Flashcard 1447549078796

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A construct is also a...
Answer
composite

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ence of its form (chair). The essence of the form is expressed in the definition (of chair). Frequently, a common name symbolizes a concept that is not simple nor equivalent to the essence of the natural species, like human being, but is <span>a composite, like lawyer or athlete, including in its definition certain accidents which determine not natural species but classes that differ only accidentally. A composit e concept ma

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
You can think of parameters as control knobs on mathematical devices that simulate data generation.
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Flashcard 1447735201036

Tags
#logic-and-psychologic-dimensions-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
If house is represented as a b, then home may be represented as a [...]
Answer
b x.

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If house is represented as a b, then home may be represented as a b x.

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Flashcard 1448334724364

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The knowledge of the difference of substance, [...], nature, form, species, is the concept, which is expressed fully in the definition and symbolized by the common name.
Answer
essence

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The knowledge of the difference of substance, essence, nature, form, species, is the concept, which is expressed fully in the definition and symbolized by the common name.

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Flashcard 1448582188300

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #fra-introduction #reading-22-financial-statement-analysis-intro #study-session-7
Question
In addition to the four financial statements there are other sources of financial information, such as management [...] , [...] reports etc.

Answer
discussion and analysis

auditor's

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The four financial statements are augmented by footnotes and supplementary data, are interrelated. In addition, there are other sources of financial information, such as management discussion and analysis, auditor's reports, etc.

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Subject 2. Major Financial Statements
tatements are: Income statement (statement of earnings) Balance sheet (statement of financial position) Cash flow statement Statement of changes in owners' or stockholders' equity <span>These four financial statements, augmented by footnotes and supplementary data, are interrelated. In addition, there are other sources of financial information, such as management discussion and analysis, auditor's reports, etc. Income Statement The income statement summarizes revenues earned and expenses incurred, and thus measures the success of business operations for







Flashcard 1448609189132

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #fra-introduction #reading-22-financial-statement-analysis-intro #study-session-7
Question
Assets - Liabilities = [...]
Answer
Stockholders' Equity

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Assets - Liabilities = Stockholders' Equity =

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Subject 2. Major Financial Statements
ing operations is deemed not to be persistent, then recurring (pre-tax) income from continuing operations should be adjusted. The net income figure is used to prepare the statement of retained earnings. <span>Balance Sheet A balance sheet provides a "snapshot" of a company's financial condition. Think of the balance sheet as a photo of the business at a specific point in time. It reports major classes and amounts of assets, liabilities, stockholders' equity, and their interrelationships as of a specific date. Assets = Liabilities + Stockholders' Equity Assets are the economic resources controlled by the company. Liabilities are the financial obligations that the company must fulfill in the future. Liabilities are typically fulfilled by payment of cash. They represent the source of financing provided to the company by the creditors. Equity ownership is the owner's investments and the total earnings retained from the commencement of the company. Equity represents the source of financing provided to the company by the owners. Cash Flow Statement The primary purpose of the cash flow statement is to provide information about a company's cash receipts and







Flashcard 1448744193292

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#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4


Question
This displays the cost curve relationships for [...] in the short run.



Answer
ATC, AVC, and MC

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d MC in the short run. The marginal cost curve intersects both the ATC and AVC at their respective minimum points. This occurs at points S and T, which correspond to Q AVC and Q ATC , respectively. Mathematically, when <span>marginal cost is less than average variable cost, AVC will be decreasing . The opposite occurs when MC is greater than AVC. The same relationship holds true for MC and ATC . ATC declines when MC is less than ATC. ATC increases as MC exceeds ATC







Flashcard 1448747863308

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4


Question
ATC declines when [...] is less than [...].
Answer
MC is less than ATC

ATC
increases as MC exceeds ATC.

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d MC in the short run. The marginal cost curve intersects both the ATC and AVC at their respective minimum points. This occurs at points S and T, which correspond to Q AVC and Q ATC , respectively. Mathematically, when <span>marginal cost is less than average variable cost, AVC will be decreasing . The opposite occurs when MC is greater than AVC. The same relationship holds true for MC and ATC . ATC declines when MC is less than ATC. ATC increases as MC exceeds ATC







Flashcard 1450255453452

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm
Question
How are Quasi-fixed costs categorized?
Answer
As fixed costs fam

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The latter is referred to as a quasi-fixed cost , although it remains categorized as part of TFC. Examples of fixed costs are debt service, real estate lease agreements, and rental contracts. Quasi-fixed cost examples would be certain utilities and administrative salaries that coul

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Costs
rate of change in total variable cost. In Exhibit 13, TC at 5 units is 400—of which 300 is variable cost and 100 is fixed cost. At 10 units, total costs are 1,650, which is the sum of 1,550 in variable cost and 100 in fixed cost. <span>Total fixed cost (TFC) is the summation of all expenses that do not change when production varies. It can be a sunk or unavoidable cost that a firm has to cover whether it produces anything or not, or it can be a cost that stays the same over a range of production but can change to another constant level when production moves outside of that range. The latter is referred to as a quasi-fixed cost , although it remains categorized as part of TFC. Examples of fixed costs are debt service, real estate lease agreements, and rental contracts. Quasi-fixed cost examples would be certain utilities and administrative salaries that could be avoided or be lower when output is zero but would assume higher constant values over different production ranges. Normal profit is considered to be a fixed cost because it is a return required by investors on their equity capital regardless of output level. At zero output, total costs are always equal to the amount of total fixed cost that is incurred at this production point. In Exhibit 13, total fixed cost remains at 100 throughout the entire production range. Other fixed costs evolve primarily from investments in such fixed assets as real estate, production facilities, and equipment. As a firm grows in size, fixed asset expansion occurs along with a related increase in fixed cost. However, fixed cost cannot be arbitrarily cut when production declines. Regardless of the volume of output, an investment in a given level of fixed assets locks the firm into a certain amount of fixed cost that is used to finance the physical capital base, technology, and other capital assets. When a firm downsizes, the last expense to be cut is usually fixed cost. Total variable cost (TVC), which is the summation of all variable expenses, has a direct relationship with quantity. When quantity increases, total variable cost increases







Flashcard 1450294775052

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm
Question
At zero production, total variable cost is [...]
Answer
always zero.

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ody>Total variable cost (TVC), which is the summation of all variable expenses, has a direct relationship with quantity. When quantity increases, total variable cost increases; total variable cost declines when quantity decreases. At zero production, total variable cost is always zero. Variable cost examples are payments for labor, raw materials, and supplies. As indicated above, total costs mirror total variable cost, with the difference being a constant fixed cost.

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Costs
of fixed assets locks the firm into a certain amount of fixed cost that is used to finance the physical capital base, technology, and other capital assets. When a firm downsizes, the last expense to be cut is usually fixed cost. <span>Total variable cost (TVC), which is the summation of all variable expenses, has a direct relationship with quantity. When quantity increases, total variable cost increases; total variable cost declines when quantity decreases. At zero production, total variable cost is always zero. Variable cost examples are payments for labor, raw materials, and supplies. As indicated above, total costs mirror total variable cost, with the difference being a constant fixed cost. The change in total variable cost (which defines marginal cost) declines up to a certain output point and then increases as production approaches capacity limits. In Exhibit 13, total variable cost increases with an increase in quantity. However, the change from 1 to 2 units is 25, calculated as (75 – 50); the change from 9 to 10 units is 350, calculated as (1,550 – 1,200). Another approach to calculating total variable cost is to determine the variable cost per unit of output and multiply this cost figure by the number of production units. Per unit variable cost is the cost of producing each unit exclusive of any fixed cost allocation to production units. One can assign variable cost individually to units or derive an average variable cost per unit. Whenever a firm initiates a downsizing, retrenchment, or defensive strategy, variable cost is the first to be considered for reduction given its variability with output. However, variable cost is reducible only so far because all firms have to maintain a minimum amount of labor and other variable resources to function effectively. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1450799402252

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
La planeación identifica las distintas rutas a seguir y la forma de alcanzar los objetivos, a través de decisiones y acciones, cuya base de está fundamentada en la [...].
Answer
estrategia de negocios

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La planeación identifica las distintas rutas a seguir y la forma de alcanzar los objetivos, a través de decisiones y acciones, cuya base de está fundamentada en la estrategia de negocios.

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Flashcard 1450802810124

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
La planeación enfoca [...] en la estrategia y dirigie los esfuerzos hacia un fin conjunto, conocido y aceptado por todas las areas.
Answer
a toda la organización

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La planeación enfoca a toda la organización en la estrategia y dirigie los esfuerzos hacia un fin conjunto, conocido y aceptado por todas las areas.

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Flashcard 1450866248972

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
En Administración financiera se entiende por optimizar, la [...] y el incremento del rendimiento de la empresa, en todos los ámbitos de la misma.

Answer
reducción de costos

(financieros, administrativos, de producción, etc.)

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Administración financiera se refiere al manejo eficiente y productivo de todos los activos de la empresa, optimizando su utilización. Se entiende por optimizar, la reducción de costos (financieros, administrativos, de producción, etc.) y el incremento del rendimiento de la empresa, en todos los ámbitos de la misma. Todo se concentra en el objetivo de la ad

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Flashcard 1450879618316

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Para dirigir la operación de la empresa conforme al tamaño adecuado que deba tener y para enfocarla hacia una actitud de servicio al cliente, se debe hacer un [...] de la organización.
Answer
redimensionamiento

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y>Redimensionamiento de la empresa. Con el objetivo de dirigir la operación de la empresa conforme al tamaño adecuado que deba tener, así como para enfocarla hacia una actitud de servicio al cliente, se debe hacer un redimensionamiento de la organización, con el objetivo de que las funciones, puestos, inversiones, costos y gastos incurridos en la operación se minimicen, y como consecuencia optimi

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Flashcard 1450906881292

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Conocer, manejar y controlar la [...] significa tener la suficiente capacidad para iniciar la Reestructura Corporativa en sus tres grandes dimensiones:

Answer
función financiera

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Conocer, manejar y controlar la función financiera significa tener la suficiente capacidad para iniciar la Reestructura Corporativa en sus tres grandes dimensiones: 1. Reestructuración Organizacional 2. Reestruc

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Flashcard 1450928114956

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Antes de hacer una reestructuración financiera, es necesario realizar una [...]
Answer
reestructuración operativa

el problema financiero es resultado casi siempre de un problema de estructura operativa.

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Antes de hacer una reestructuración financiera, es necesario realizar una reestructuración operativa: el problema financiero es resultado, en la gran mayoría de las situaciones, de un problema de estructura operativa.

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Flashcard 1450951970060

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Objetivos de una reestructuración financiera


•Reducir el nivel de [...]
Answer
nivel de endeudamiento.

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Objetivos de una reestructuración financiera •Disminuir los costos financieros. •Reducir el nivel de endeudamiento. •Elevar la productividad. •Mejorar la mezcla entre recursos internos y externos. •Mejorar la posición de flujos.

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Flashcard 1450959047948

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Objetivos de una reestructuración financiera

•Mejorar la posición [...]
Answer
la posición de flujos.

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eestructuración financiera •Disminuir los costos financieros. •Reducir el nivel de endeudamiento. •Elevar la productividad. •Mejorar la mezcla entre recursos internos y externos. •Mejorar <span>la posición de flujos.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1450980019468

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question

Cuarta fase: Análisis derivado de la reestructura financiera
Deben considerarse los impactos de corto, mediano y largo plazo en diferentes renglones, como:

v Costos financieros.

v [...].

Answer
Utilidades


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>Cuarta fase: Análisis derivado de la reestructura financiera Deben considerarse los impactos de corto, mediano y largo plazo en diferentes renglones, como: v Costos financieros. v Utilidades. v Flujos de efectivo. v Estructura de activos y pasivos. v Niveles de apalancamiento financiero y operativo. v Tasas de productivida

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Flashcard 1451379264780

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question

A business has revenue of $2 million

Total costs of $2.5 million, which are:

Total fixed cost of $1 million

Total variable cost of $1.5 million.

The net loss on the firm’s income statement is reported as $500,000 (ignoring tax implications).

  1. What decision should the firm make regarding operations over the short term?

Answer

In the short run, the firm is able to cover all of its total variable cost but only half of its $1 million in total fixed cost.

If the business ceases to operate, its loss is $1 million, the amount of total fixed cost, whereas the net loss by operating is minimized at $500,000.


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Shutdown Analysis
For the most recent financial reporting period, a business domiciled in Ecuador (which recognizes the US dollar as an official currency) has revenue of $2 million and total costs of $2.5 million, which are or can be broken down into total fixed cost of $1 million and total variable cost of $1.5 million. The net loss on the firm’s income statement is reported as $500,000 (ignoring tax implications). In prior periods, the firm had reported profits on its operations. What decision should the firm make regarding operations over the short term? What decision should the firm make regarding operations over the long term? Assume the same business scenario except that revenue is now $1.3 million, wh







Flashcard 1451385556236

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question

A business has revenue of $2 million and total costs of $2.5 million, which are or can be broken down into total fixed cost of $1 million and total variable cost of $1.5 million.

The net loss on the firm’s income statement is reported as $500,000 (ignoring tax implications).

  1. Assume the same business scenario except that revenue is now $1.3 million, which creates a net loss of $1.2 million. What decision should the firm make regarding operations in this case?

Answer
The firm would minimize loss at $1 million of total fixed cost by shutting down compared with continuing to do business where the loss is $1.2 million.

Shareholders will save $200,000 in equity value by pursuing this option. Unquestionably, the business will have a rather short life expectancy if this loss situation were to continue.

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Shutdown Analysis
For the most recent financial reporting period, a business domiciled in Ecuador (which recognizes the US dollar as an official currency) has revenue of $2 million and total costs of $2.5 million, which are or can be broken down into total fixed cost of $1 million and total variable cost of $1.5 million. The net loss on the firm’s income statement is reported as $500,000 (ignoring tax implications). In prior periods, the firm had reported profits on its operations. What decision should the firm make regarding operations over the short term? What decision should the firm make regarding operations over the long term? Assume the same business scenario except that revenue is now $1.3 million, which creates a net loss of $1.2 million. What decision should the firm make regarding operations in this case? Solution to 1: In the short run, the firm is able to cover all of its total variable cost but only half of its $1 million in total fixed cost. I







Flashcard 1451401547020

Tags
#italian #tre-porcellini
Question
C’era una volta una scrofa con tre porcellini. Li amava moltissimo, ma non c’era abbastanza cibo per tutti, [...] lì mandò per il mondo a cercar fortuna.

Answer
quindi

Once upon a time there was a mama pig who had three little pigs. She loved them very much, but there was not enough food for all of them, so she sent them out into the world to seek their fortune.

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C’era una volta una scrofa con tre porcellini. Li amava moltissimo, ma non c’era abbastanza cibo per tutti, quindi lì mandò per il mondo a cercar fortuna. Once upon a time there was a mama pig who had three little pigs. She loved them very much, but there was not enough food for all







Flashcard 1451577183500

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
If something in a conversation evokes a strong reaction in any way, it’s going to be a [...]
Answer
high point.

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High points examples
#conversation-tactics #high-points
High point examples:

You can share a big laugh.

You can both get emotional and cry.

You share a strong perspective on an issue that no one else does.

You witness something either horrifying or hilarious together.

You finish each other’s sentences. You create an inside joke with them.

You both struggle to not laugh when you observe something.
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Flashcard 1451591077132

Tags
#back-to-high-point #conversation-tactics
Question
Now that you've identified the emotional high point that was reached in the conversation don't [...]
Answer
let it go to waste.

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Now that you've identified the emotional high point that was reached in the conversation don't let it go to waste. Take note of it and put it in your pocket for use in the very near future. Don’t let it go old like some month-old milk that you’re afraid to throw away because of the smell. You are go

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#conversation-tactics
Prior high point: a shared hatred of limited parking.

Current topic of conversation: the weather.

Callback: Yeah, the rain will definitely be welcome when we can’t find parking spots within ten blocks of our apartment.
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Flashcard 1451610213644

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
What is your objective?
Answer
prevent the conversation from dying out.

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#conversation-tactics #interrupting
These are all things that precede bonding inside jokes from shared experiences, which leads to the impression of "you and me against the world". We’re not just talking about friendship here. We're talking about a deep and profound level of loyalty.
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Flashcard 1451738664204

Tags
#charisma #myth
Question
What should you do after you've expressed your vision? (wrt to its execution)
Answer
Once you have expressed your vision, be bold and decisive.

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Once you have expressed your vision, be bold and decisive.

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Flashcard 1451783490828

Tags
#charisma #myth
Question
How should you close a number, example, statistic or story?
Answer
Close with either a clear point or a transition to the action step you want your audience to take.
Remember to make this as simple as possible

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Whether you use a story, example, number, or statistic, make sure that you close with either a clear point or a transition to the action step you want your audience to take. Remember to make this so simple that even a multitasking, partially listening audience member would get it

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Article 1452061625612



Nghệ thuật tinh tế của việc "Đếch quan tâm" Tôi đã từng quan tâm rất nhiều người và rất nhiều việc trong đời. Đồng thời tôi cũng đếch quan tâm đến rất nhiều người và nhiều việc khác. Và tất cả những thứ đếch nằm trong phạm vi quan tâm ấy của tôi đã tạo nên sự khác biệt. Người ta thường nói bí quyết của tự tin và thành công đơn giản là “đếch quan tâm”. Thực chất, chúng ta thường liên hệ tới những thanh niên “cứng” khiến người khác phải trầm trồ mà mình biết theo những thứ đếch nằm trong phạm vi quan tâm của họ. Kiểu như “Uầy nhìn chị Na lại làm việc cuối tuần nữa kìa, bả đếch thèm quan tâm gì luôn.” Hoặc là “Mày nghe chuyện thằng Tèo gọi ông chủ tịch tập đoàn là thằng khốn mà vẫn được thăng chức chưa? Vãi chưởng, thằng đó đúng là đếch sợ gì”. Hay “Thẳng Tũn vừa ngủ dậy thì chia tay luôn con bồ sau 20 phút. Nó bảo nó đếch thèm nghe mấy chuyện nhảm cứt của bồ nó nữa. Mẹ, thằng này đếch quan tâm gì nhỉ.” Nhiều khả năng là bạn đã gặp ai đó một hay nhiều lần đếch quan tâm và cuối cùng lại câu được nh



Tôi đã từng quan tâm rất nhiều người và rất nhiều việc trong đời. Đồng thời tôi cũng đếch quan tâm đến rất nhiều người và nhiều việc khác. Và tất cả những thứ đếch nằm trong phạm vi quan tâm ấy của tôi đã tạo nên sự khác biệt.
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Nghệ thuật tinh tế của việc "Đếch quan tâm" Tôi đã từng quan tâm rất nhiều người và rất nhiều việc trong đời. Đồng thời tôi cũng đếch quan tâm đến rất nhiều người và nhiều việc khác. Và tất cả những thứ đếch nằm trong phạm vi quan tâm ấy của tôi đã tạo nên sự khác biệt. Người ta thường nói bí quyết của tự tin và thành công đơn giản là “đếch quan tâm”. Thực chất, chúng ta thường liên hệ tới những thanh niên “cứng” khiến người khác phải trầm




MẸO SỐ 1: ĐẾCH QUAN TÂM KHÔNG CÓ NGHĨA LÀ THỜ Ơ, ĐÓ LÀ VIỆC CẢM THẤY THOẢI MÁI KHI TRỞ NÊN KHÁC BIỆT.
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giống như Maria Ozawa trong lúc làm tình vậy. Vậy nên đời ngắn lắm bạn ạ. Đừng quan tâm mọi lúc mọi nơi nữa. Hãy dành tâm sức để quan tâm đến vài thứ thật sự quan trọng thôi. và đây, cho phép tôi giới thiệu với bạn. <span>MẸO SỐ 1: ĐẾCH QUAN TÂM KHÔNG CÓ NGHĨA LÀ THỜ Ơ, ĐÓ LÀ VIỆC CẢM THẤY THOẢI MÁI KHI TRỞ NÊN KHÁC BIỆT. Khi hình dung về việc đếch quan tâm, hầu hết mọi người nghĩ tới sự dửng dưng hoàn toàn trước mọi thứ, là sự bình thản vượt qua mọi cơn bão. Lộn hàng rồi các má




Flashcard 1452069489932

Question
ĐẾCH QUAN TÂM KHÔNG CÓ NGHĨA LÀ THỜ Ơ, ĐÓ LÀ VIỆC CẢM THẤY THOẢI MÁI KHI TRỞ NÊN KHÁC BIỆT.
Answer
[default - edit me]

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Maria Ozawa trong lúc làm tình vậy. Vậy nên đời ngắn lắm bạn ạ. Đừng quan tâm mọi lúc mọi nơi nữa. Hãy dành tâm sức để quan tâm đến vài thứ thật sự quan trọng thôi. và đây, cho phép tôi giới thiệu với bạn. MẸO SỐ 1: <span>ĐẾCH QUAN TÂM KHÔNG CÓ NGHĨA LÀ THỜ Ơ, ĐÓ LÀ VIỆC CẢM THẤY THOẢI MÁI KHI TRỞ NÊN KHÁC BIỆT. Khi hình dung về việc đếch quan tâm, hầu hết mọi người nghĩ tới sự dửng dưng hoàn toàn trước mọi thứ, là sự bình thản vượt qua mọi cơn bão. Lộn hàng rồi các má







Limbic brain
#every-word-has-power
The middle brain links mainly with our emotions: fear, anger, love, affection, and communication. It’s called the family, or limbic brain. This is the group brain system that started to evolve as we began to socialize. Its goals are short-term and focus primarily on good/bad, right/wrong, and yours/mine. It’s habitual, hierarchical, and simplistic. It does not have a capacity to visualize or grow because it thinks in terms of polarities
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Flashcard 1452120083724

Tags
#every-word-has-power
Question
In which part of the brain did language began?
Answer
Neo-cortex, broth

The last one to develop.

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Limbic brain
The middle brain links mainly with our emotions: fear, anger, love, affection, and communication. It’s called the family, or limbic brain. This is the group brain system that started to evolve as we began to socialize. Its goals are sho







Flashcard 1452123229452

Tags
#every-word-has-power
Question
Essential to language is the ability to understand and take on the [...]
Answer
mental perspective of others.

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Limbic brain
The middle brain links mainly with our emotions: fear, anger, love, affection, and communication. It’s called the family, or limbic brain. This is the group brain system that started to evolve as we began to socialize. Its goals are sho







#every-word-has-power
“Mirror” neurons are active when a mon- key or human is watching someone’s actions: quite possibly the neural beginnings of establishing “rapport,”
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#every-word-has-power
Neocortical inputs are mainly from the frontal lobe, which modulates initiative, imagination, and social awareness. This higher brain function is where your magic formula for happiness begins as you connect with the higher consciousness.
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Flashcard 1452256660748

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#every-word-has-power
Question
[...] is a method of testing the muscle response stimulus in the body,
Answer
Kinesiology

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Limbic brain
The middle brain links mainly with our emotions: fear, anger, love, affection, and communication. It’s called the family, or limbic brain. This is the group brain system that started to evolve as we began to socialize. Its goals are sho







Flashcard 1452291001612

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#every-word-has-power
Question
Decision-making using One-to-Ten is a form of applied [...]
Answer
Kinesiology

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The middle brain links mainly with our emotions: fear, anger, love, affection, and communication. It’s called the family, or limbic brain. This is the group brain system that started to evolve as we began to socialize. Its goals are sho







#every-word-has-power
Dr. John Diamond studied and demonstrated the fact that muscles respond to both physical and mental stimuli. Your mind/body connection has such a powerful survival mechanism that your muscles react instantly to truths and non-truths, to what is good for you and what is not good for you.
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1-10 decision making
#every-word-has-power
“Alright, Yvonne. Give me a number between one and ten (one being low and ten being high): which would do me more good, shopping or swimming?” The answer: “Swim- ming—seven; shopping—four. Okay, swimming it is!”

If the number you come up with is five or below, the answer is NO.
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Flashcard 1452379081996

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] es lo contrario que acción.
Answer
Pasión.

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Flashcard 1452414209292

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th e β sheet is formed through interac- tions between [...] amino acids in the polypeptide chain
Answer
noncontiguous

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Th e β sheet is formed through interac- tions between noncontiguous amino acids in the polypeptide chain

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Flashcard 1452415782156

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#biochem
Question
β strands are usually from [...] residues long
Answer
fi ve to 10

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β strands are usually from fi ve to 10 residues long

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Flashcard 1452417355020

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
After the analysis, we can examine whether the data are well described by the most credible possibilities in the considered set. If the data seem not to be well described, then we can consider expanding the set of possibilities. This process is called a [...]
Answer
posterior predictive check

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nalysis, we can examine whether the data are well described by the most credible possibilities in the considered set. If the data seem not to be well described, then we can consider expanding the set of possibilities. This process is called a <span>posterior predictive check<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1452419452172

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
In general, data analysis begins with a family of candidate descriptions for the data. The descriptions are mathematical formulas that characterize the trends and spreads in the data. The formulas themselves have numbers, called [...], that determine the exact shape of mathematical forms.
Answer
parameter values

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y>In general, data analysis begins with a family of candidate descriptions for the data. The descriptions are mathematical formulas that characterize the trends and spreads in the data. The formulas themselves have numbers, called parameter values, that determine the exact shape of mathematical forms.<body><html>

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The normal distribution has two parameters, called the mean and standard deviation
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The normal distribution has two parameters, called the mean and standard deviation. The mean is a control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls the location of the distribution’s central tendency. The mean is sometimes called a loc

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The mean is a control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls the location of the distribution’s central tendency. The mean is sometimes called a location parameter.
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The normal distribution has two parameters, called the mean and standard deviation. The mean is a control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls the location of the distribution’s central tendency. The mean is sometimes called a location parameter. The standard deviation is another control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls the width or dispersion of the distribution. The standard deviation

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The standard deviation is another control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls the width or dispersion of the distribution. The standard deviation is sometimes called a scale parameter.
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, called the mean and standard deviation. The mean is a control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls the location of the distribution’s central tendency. The mean is sometimes called a location parameter. <span>The standard deviation is another control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls the width or dispersion of the distribution. The standard deviation is sometimes called a scale parameter.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1452426267916

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are [...]
Answer
abstractions.

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the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions.

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1.4 Designing Functions
mall, and serve as our primary medium to express computational processes in a programming language. So far, we have discussed the formal properties of functions and how they are applied. We now turn to the topic of what makes a good function. <span>Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers. These guidelines improve the readability of code, reduce the number of errors, and often minimize the total amount of code written. Decomposing a complex task into concise functions i







Flashcard 1452427840780

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
Each function should have [...]
Answer
exactly one job identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text.

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Each function should have exactly one job identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text.

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1.4 Designing Functions
mall, and serve as our primary medium to express computational processes in a programming language. So far, we have discussed the formal properties of functions and how they are applied. We now turn to the topic of what makes a good function. <span>Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers. These guidelines improve the readability of code, reduce the number of errors, and often minimize the total amount of code written. Decomposing a complex task into concise functions i







Flashcard 1452429675788

Tags
#biochem
Question
Glycine (Gly, G), with just a [...] as its sidechain
Answer
hydrogen atom

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Glycine (Gly, G), with just a hydrogen atom as its sidechain

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Flashcard 1452431248652

Tags
#biochem
Question
special properties. Th ese arise from the [...], which allows glycine to adopt three- dimensional conformations that are energetically unfavorable for other amino acids, so that segments of protein chains that contain glycine can be much more fl exible than those that do not.
Answer
absence of a bulky sidechain

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special properties. Th ese arise from the absence of a bulky sidechain, which allows glycine to adopt three- dimensional conformations that are energetically unfavorable for other amino acids, so that segments of protein chains that contain glycine can be

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Flashcard 1452432821516

Tags
#biochem
Question
special properties. Th ese arise from the absence of a bulky sidechain, which allows glycine to adopt three- dimensional conformations that are energetically unfavorable for other amino acids, so that segments of protein chains that contain glycine can be much more [...] than those that do not.
Answer
fl exible

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ese arise from the absence of a bulky sidechain, which allows glycine to adopt three- dimensional conformations that are energetically unfavorable for other amino acids, so that segments of protein chains that contain glycine can be much more <span>fl exible than those that do not.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1452434394380

Tags
#biochem
Question
To satisfy their [...] capacity, they (Beta strands) form sheets in which β strands are aligned adjacent to each other
Answer
hydrogen-bonding

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To satisfy their hydrogen-bonding capacity, they (Beta strands) form sheets in which β strands are aligned adjacent to each other

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Flashcard 1452435967244

Tags
#programming #r #statistics
Question
The first idea is that Bayesian inference is [...]
Answer
reallocation of credibility across possibilities.

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The first idea is that Bayesian inference is reallocation of credibility across possibilities.

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Flashcard 1452437540108

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The second foundational idea is that [...]
Answer
the possibilities, over which we allocate credibility, are parameter values in meaningful mathematical models.

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The second foundational idea is that the possibilities, over which we allocate credibility, are parameter values in meaningful mathematical models.

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Flashcard 1452439112972

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
Why does the population of possiblities always sum to one?
Answer
Because we assume that the candidate causes are mutually exclusive and exhaust all possible causes, the total credibility across causes sums to one.

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Because we assume that the candidate causes are mutually exclusive and exhaust all possible causes, the total credibility across causes sums to one.

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Flashcard 1452443045132

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The distribution of credibility initially reflects [...], which can be quite vague. Then new data are observed, and the credibility is re-allocated. Possibilities that are consistent with the data garner more credibility, while possibilities that are not consistent with the data lose credibility.
Answer
prior knowledge about the possibilities

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The distribution of credibility initially reflects prior knowledge about the possibilities, which can be quite vague. Then new data are observed, and the credibility is re-allocated. Possibilities that are consistent with the data garner more credibility, while possibilities

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Flashcard 1452445404428

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
You can think of parameters as [...] on mathematical devices that simulate data generation.
Answer
control knobs

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You can think of parameters as control knobs on mathematical devices that simulate data generation.

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Flashcard 1452446977292

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
You can think of parameters as control knobs on [...].
Answer
mathematical devices that simulate data generation

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You can think of parameters as control knobs on mathematical devices that simulate data generation.

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Flashcard 1452448550156

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The mathematical formula for the normal distribution converts the parameter values to a particular [...] shape for the probabilities of data values
Answer
bell-like

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The mathematical formula for the normal distribution converts the parameter values to a particular bell-like shape for the probabilities of data values

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Flashcard 1452450123020

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The second desideratum for a mathematical description is that it should be [...], which means, loosely, that the mathematical form should “look like” the data.
Answer
descrip- tively adequate

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The second desideratum for a mathematical description is that it should be descrip- tively adequate, which means, loosely, that the mathematical form should “look like” the data.

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Flashcard 1452451695884

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The second desideratum for a mathematical description is that it should be descrip- tively adequate, which means, loosely, that the mathematical form should [...] the data.
Answer
“look like”

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The second desideratum for a mathematical description is that it should be descrip- tively adequate, which means, loosely, that the mathematical form should “look like” the data.

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Flashcard 1452453268748

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
Bayesian analysis is very useful for assessing the [...] of different candidate descriptions of data
Answer
relative credibility

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Bayesian analysis is very useful for assessing the relative credibility of different candidate descriptions of data

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Flashcard 1452454841612

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What is the first step in doing bayesian analysis, what questions should be asked?
Answer
Identify the data relevant to the research questions.
What are the measurement scales of the data?
Which data variables are to be predicted
Which data variables are supposed to act as predictors?

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In general, Bayesian analysis of data follows these steps: 1. Identify the data relevant to the research questions. What are the measurement scales of the data? Which data variables are to be predicted, and which data variables are supposed to act as predictors? 2. Define a descriptive model for the relevant data. The mathematical form and its parameters should be meaningful and appropriate to the theoretical purposes of the analysis. 3. Specif

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Flashcard 1452457200908

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
In bayesian analysis once the data is determined what comes next?
Answer
Define a descriptive model for the relevant data. The mathematical form and its parameters should be meaningful and appropriate to the theoretical purposes of the analysis.

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alysis of data follows these steps: 1. Identify the data relevant to the research questions. What are the measurement scales of the data? Which data variables are to be predicted, and which data variables are supposed to act as predictors? 2. <span>Define a descriptive model for the relevant data. The mathematical form and its parameters should be meaningful and appropriate to the theoretical purposes of the analysis. 3. Specify a prior distribution on the parameters. The prior must pass muster with the audience of the analysis, such as skeptical scientists. 4. Use Bayesian inference to re-allocate c

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Flashcard 1452459560204

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
Once a mathematical model is chosen for bayesian analysis what comes next wrt to the parameters of this model?
Answer
Specify a prior distribution on the parameters. The prior must pass muster with the audience of the analysis, such as skeptical scientists.

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ed, and which data variables are supposed to act as predictors? 2. Define a descriptive model for the relevant data. The mathematical form and its parameters should be meaningful and appropriate to the theoretical purposes of the analysis. 3. <span>Specify a prior distribution on the parameters. The prior must pass muster with the audience of the analysis, such as skeptical scientists. 4. Use Bayesian inference to re-allocate credibility across parameter values. Interpret the posterior distribution with respect to theoretically meaningful issues (assuming that the mod

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Flashcard 1452461919500

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
Once a prior distribution for the parameters is determined what comes next?
Answer
Use Bayesian inference to re-allocate credibility across parameter values. Interpret the posterior distribution with respect to theoretically meaningful issues (assuming that the model is a reasonable description of the data; see next step).

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its parameters should be meaningful and appropriate to the theoretical purposes of the analysis. 3. Specify a prior distribution on the parameters. The prior must pass muster with the audience of the analysis, such as skeptical scientists. 4. <span>Use Bayesian inference to re-allocate credibility across parameter values. Interpret the posterior distribution with respect to theoretically meaningful issues (assuming that the model is a reasonable description of the data; see next step). 5. Check that the posterior predictions mimic the data with reasonable accuracy (i.e., conduct a “posterior predictive check”). If not, then consider a different descriptive model

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Flashcard 1452464278796

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What happens if the posterior predictions do not mimic the given data?
Answer
Check that the posterior predictions mimic the data with reasonable accuracy (i.e., conduct a “posterior predictive check”). If not, then consider a different descriptive model

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e Bayesian inference to re-allocate credibility across parameter values. Interpret the posterior distribution with respect to theoretically meaningful issues (assuming that the model is a reasonable description of the data; see next step). 5. <span>Check that the posterior predictions mimic the data with reasonable accuracy (i.e., conduct a “posterior predictive check”). If not, then consider a different descriptive model<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1452466638092

Tags
#biochem
Question
Does the shape of DNA depend on its sequence? Why or why not?
Answer
Because each of the Watson-Crick base pairs has the same shape, the three- dimensional structure of DNA does not depend on its primary sequence.

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Because each of the Watson-Crick base pairs has the same shape, the three- dimensional structure of DNA does not depend on its primary sequence.

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Flashcard 1452470308108

Tags
#biochem
Question
What is the net stablization of DNA from hydrogen bonds? What is its magnitude (qualitatively)?
Answer
Th e net stabilization aff orded by the hydrogen bonds between bases is the diff erence in stability between the hydrogen bonds that the bases form with water (for example, in single-stranded DNA) and the hydrogen bonds between bases in duplex DNA. Th is diff erence is small, so the net contribution that hydro- gen bonds make to the stabilization of the DNA is also small

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Th e net stabilization aff orded by the hydrogen bonds between bases is the diff erence in stability between the hydrogen bonds that the bases form with water (for example, in single-stranded DNA) and the hydrogen bonds between bases in duplex DNA. Th is diff erence is small, so the net contribution that hydro- gen bonds make to the stabilization of the DNA is also small

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Flashcard 1452472929548

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
One way to summarize the uncertainty is by marking the span of values that are most credible and cover 95% of the distribution. This is called the [...] and is marked by the black bar on the floor of the distribution in Figure 2.5.
Answer
highest density inter val (HDI)

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One way to summarize the uncertainty is by marking the span of values that are most credible and cover 95% of the distribution. This is called the highest density inter val (HDI) and is marked by the black bar on the floor of the distribution in Figure 2.5.

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Flashcard 1452474764556

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th e glycosidic bond is a [...], and so rotations about it are possible.
Answer
sin- gle bond

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Th e glycosidic bond is a sin- gle bond, and so rotations about it are possible.

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Flashcard 1452478172428

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#biochem
Question
When the out-of-plane atom is located on the [...], the conformation is referred to as endo (“inside”). When it is located on the side opposite C5ʹ, the conformation is referred to as exo (“outside”)
Answer
same side of the plane as C5ʹ

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When the out-of-plane atom is located on the same side of the plane as C5ʹ, the conformation is referred to as endo (“inside”). When it is located on the side opposite C5ʹ, the conformation is referred to as exo (“outside”)

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Flashcard 1452481318156

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#biochem
Question
When the out-of-plane atom is located on the same side of the plane as C5ʹ, the conformation is referred to as endo (“inside”). When it is located on the side [...], the conformation is referred to as exo (“outside”)
Answer
opposite C5ʹ

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When the out-of-plane atom is located on the same side of the plane as C5ʹ, the conformation is referred to as endo (“inside”). When it is located on the side opposite C5ʹ, the conformation is referred to as exo (“outside”)

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Flashcard 1452483153164

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#biochem
Question
When the out-of-plane atom is located on the same side of the plane as C5ʹ, the conformation is referred to as endo (“inside”). When it is located on the side opposite C5ʹ, the conformation is referred to as [...]
Answer
exo (“outside”)

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l>When the out-of-plane atom is located on the same side of the plane as C5ʹ, the conformation is referred to as endo (“inside”). When it is located on the side opposite C5ʹ, the conformation is referred to as exo (“outside”)<html>

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Flashcard 1452484726028

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Question
the double-helical structure of RNA impedes access to the major groove, so access to sequence-specifi c information in RNA is usually through its [...] regions
Answer
nonpaired

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the double-helical structure of RNA impedes access to the major groove, so access to sequence-specifi c information in RNA is usually through its nonpaired regions

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Flashcard 1452486298892

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#biochem
Question
Z-form DNA or Z-DNA, discov- ered by [...]
Answer
Alexander Rich.

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Z-form DNA or Z-DNA, discov- ered by Alexander Rich.

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Flashcard 1452504124684

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#reestructuracion-financiera
Question

Cuarta fase: Análisis derivado de la reestructura financiera
Deben considerarse los impactos de corto, mediano y largo plazo en diferentes renglones, como:

v Flujos de efectivo.

v Estructura [...]

Answer

Estructura de activos y pasivos.


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>Cuarta fase: Análisis derivado de la reestructura financiera Deben considerarse los impactos de corto, mediano y largo plazo en diferentes renglones, como: v Costos financieros. v Utilidades. v Flujos de efectivo. v Estructura de activos y pasivos. v Niveles de apalancamiento financiero y operativo. v Tasas de productivida

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Flashcard 1452505959692

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#reestructuracion-financiera
Question

Cuarta fase: Análisis derivado de la reestructura financiera
Deben considerarse los impactos de corto, mediano y largo plazo en diferentes renglones, como:

v Niveles de apalancamiento financiero y operativo.

v Tasas de [...]

Answer

Tasas de productividad y rentabilidad.

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>Cuarta fase: Análisis derivado de la reestructura financiera Deben considerarse los impactos de corto, mediano y largo plazo en diferentes renglones, como: v Costos financieros. v Utilidades. v Flujos de efectivo. v Estructura de activos y pasivos. v Niveles de apalancamiento financiero y operativo. v Tasas de productivida

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Flashcard 1452507794700

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#reestructuracion-financiera
Question

Cuarta fase: Análisis derivado de la reestructura financiera
Deben considerarse los impactos de corto, mediano y largo plazo en diferentes renglones, como:

v Grado de riesgos financieros.

v Valor [...]

Answer
Valor corporativo antes y después de la reestructuración.

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>Cuarta fase: Análisis derivado de la reestructura financiera Deben considerarse los impactos de corto, mediano y largo plazo en diferentes renglones, como: v Costos financieros. v Utilidades. v Flujos de efectivo. v Estructura de activos y pasivos. v Niveles de apalancamiento financiero y operativo. v Tasas de productivida

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Flashcard 1452531649804

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#conversation-tactics #high-points
Question
High point examples:

You can share [...]
Answer
a big laugh.

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High point examples: You can share a big laugh. You can both get emotional and cry. You share a strong perspective on an issue that no one else does. You witness something either horrifying or hilario

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Flashcard 1452536368396

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#conversation-tactics
Question
You can usually tell when people are getting worked up, and when people get worked up, they make [...].
Answer
big proclamations.

They even use hyperbole

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ad>It’s not difficult to actually predict what people are saying so that you can interrupt to agree, or finish their sentences. You can usually tell when they are getting worked up, and when people get worked up, they make big proclamations. They even use hyperbole.<html>

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Flashcard 1452541873420

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#conversation-tactics
Question
To use someone’s [...] can make a huge difference in how they perceive you.
Answer
vocabulary

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To use someone’s vocabulary can make a huge difference in how they perceive you.

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Flashcard 1452543446284

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A [...] style is psychologically displeasing.
Answer
pedantic or pompous

Think of the meme

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A pedantic or pompous style is psychologically displeasing. Compare these sentence pairs, identical in logical meaning. Behold! The inhabitants have all ret ired to their domiciles. Look! The

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Flashcard 1452545805580

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#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question
The cost-minimizing behavior of the firm would dictate operating at the minimum point on its [...].
Answer
ATC curve

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The cost-minimizing behavior of the firm would dictate operating at the minimum point on its ATC curve.

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cost. However, the minimum point on the AVC does not correspond to the least-cost quantity for average total cost. In Exhibit 13, average variable cost is minimized at 2 units, whereas average total cost is the lowest at 3 units. <span>Average total cost (ATC) is calculated by dividing total costs by quantity or by summing average fixed cost and average variable cost. For instance, in Exhibit 13, at 8 units ATC is 125 [calculated as (1,000 ÷ 8) or (AFC + AVC = 12.5 + 112.5)]. Average total cost is often referenced as per-unit cost and is frequently called average cost. The minimum point on the average total cost curve defines the output level that has the least cost. The cost-minimizing behavior of the firm would dictate operating at the minimum point on its ATC curve. However, the quantity that maximizes profit (such as Q 3 in Exhibit 17) may not correspond to the ATC-minimum point. The minimum point on the ATC curve is consistent with maximizing profit per-unit, but it is not necessarily consistent with maximizing total profit. In Exhibit 13, the least-cost point of production is 3 units; ATC is 75, derived as [(225 ÷ 3) or (33.3 + 41.7)]. Any other production level results in a higher ATC. Marginal cost (MC) is the change in total cost divided by the change in quantity. Marginal cost also can be calculated by taking the change in total variable cost and divi







Flashcard 1452547640588

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#conversation-tactics
Question
interrupt to complete that person’s sentence, and interrupt to show that you are [...] with them.
Answer
emotionally present

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interrupt to complete that person’s sentence, and interrupt to show that you are emotionally present with them.

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Flashcard 1452549475596

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#conversation-tactics
Question
The more they feel you are in the same [...] as them, the more they will like you
Answer
emotional place

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The more they feel you are in the same emotional place as them, the more they will like you

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Flashcard 1452551048460

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Question
If you know they feel strongly about something, [...]
Answer
interject there!

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If you know they feel strongly about something, interject there!

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Flashcard 1452552621324

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#conversation-tactics
Question
Let's face it, modern life can occasionally be [...]
Answer
alienating and isolating

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Let's face it, modern life can occasionally be alienating and isolating

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Flashcard 1452554194188

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#conversation-tactics
Question
When you speak in [...] with somebody, this creates emotional [...]
Answer
unison

You both get emotionally engaged and these "aha" moments can't help but draw you closer to each other.

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When you speak in unison with somebody, this creates emotional unison. You both get emotionally engaged and these "aha" moments can't help but draw you closer to each other.

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Flashcard 1452556553484

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#conversation-tactics
Question
The singular key to a successful conversation is [...].
Answer
comfort

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The singular key to a successful conversation is comfort.

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Flashcard 1452558126348

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Question
What is one of the best and easiest ways you can make someone feel comfortable? [...]
Answer
Speak their language.

Use their terms. Take yourself into their verbal comfort zone and let them feel like they’re on home turf.

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What is one of the best and easiest ways you can make someone feel comfortable? Speak their language. Use their terms. Take yourself into their verbal comfort zone and let them feel like they’re on home turf.

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Flashcard 1452560747788

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Question
With just a tiny bit of [...], you can discover people’s contexts and comfort zones before you even talk to them.
Answer
background research

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With just a tiny bit of background research, you can discover people’s contexts and comfort zones before you even talk to them.

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Flashcard 1452562582796

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#conversation-tactics
Question
[...] allows you to penetrate their comfort zone faster than most other techniques.
Answer
Speaking someone’s language

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Speaking someone’s language allows you to penetrate their comfort zone faster than most other techniques.

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Flashcard 1452564679948

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#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4


Question
At [...], AFC may be so low that it is a small proportion of average total cost.
Answer
high production volumes

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At high production volumes, AFC may be so low that it is a small proportion of average total cost.

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>Dividing total fixed cost by quantity yields average fixed cost (AFC), which decreases throughout the production span. A declining average fixed cost reflects spreading a constant cost over more and more production units. At high production volumes, AFC may be so low that it is a small proportion of average total cost. In Exhibit 13, AFC declines from 100 at 1 unit, to 20 at 5 units, and then to 10 at an output level of 10 units. <html>







Flashcard 1452566252812

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#back-to-high-point #conversation-tactics
Question
when you refer to that point later in the conversation, it sends a message that you [...].
Answer
paid attention

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when you refer to that point later in the conversation, it sends a message that you paid attention.

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Flashcard 1452567825676

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Question
In the same way an [...] point but through different arrangements and different approaches, you should keep referring to this conversation high point.
Answer
orchestra conductor can hit the same high musical

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In the same way an orchestra conductor can hit the same high musical point but through different arrangements and different approaches, you should keep referring to this conversation high point.

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Flashcard 1452569922828

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Question
At some level, most people feel that [...]. Whether or not this is true, it’s a mindset that motivates us every day.
Answer
few people truly get who they are

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At some level, most people feel that few people truly get who they are. Whether or not this is true, it’s a mindset that motivates us every day.

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Flashcard 1452573330700

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#conversation-tactics
Question
The first step is to observe the [...] someone uses.
Answer
vocabulary and vernacular

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The first step is to observe the vocabulary and vernacular someone uses.

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#conversation-tactics
All human beings have a need to be respected, even if they objectively don't deserve it
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no human being likes to feel disrespected and like they don’t matter. It’s a negative feeling that can ruin someone’s day. It’s also largely avoidable
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when it comes to getting along with people, it doesn’t really matter if you think someone hasn’t earned your respect or doesn’t deserve respect any at all. You have to project the illusion of respect regardless of how you feel internally sometimes
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If you don’t allow people to feel a baseline of respect, some might even go through great lengths to pay you back in a similar manner.
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Let’s begin with what’s disrespectful: telling and ordering people around
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Choosing whether to ask a question or make a statement impacts respect in a big way
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Asking a question is more respectful than telling a statement. Indeed, when you make a statement or a comment to somebody, this can be perceived as an imposition or an order. It’s a lack of consideration for what they are doing, and creating a dominant tone for them to submit to
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#conversation-tactics
avoid statements in favor of questions whenever possible.
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#conversation-tactics
Stick to the rule: Ask, don't tell
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An additional step to create an even greater illusion of respect is justification.

Hey, can you please take the trash out for me, I can’t because I’m on the stove right now.
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To defuse situations and maximize the illusion of respect, you need to tell people why you are asking or explain why you are telling. Giving someone a justification for your ask turns an order into a reasonable and rational request for assistance.
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The magic word is "because." According to research studies, simply including the word "because" in a request completely defuses a lot of defensiveness and reluctance on the part of the person being requested to do something
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Keep in mind that people can easily feel quite touchy and defensive when there is no pre-existing hierarchy or pecking order between you and that person.
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#conversation-tactics
Observe the two-second rule.
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In the sphere of conversation advice, it’s commonly held that people like to talk about themselves. This is undeniably true. But I’ll add an addendum in the context of this chapter – people aren’t so much interested in talking about themselves as feeling heard and like they matter.
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Most people aren’t by nature inclined to brag about themselves, they talk about themselves so they can feel validated by others.
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So when people have the spotlight, their goal is usually to feel heard and gain validation from others.
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The worst thing you can do to someone who has the spotlight is to seize it from them, and we do this in various ways without even realizing it
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the phrase “stealing someone’s thunder” comes from, where you literally seize their spotlight by continually changing the topic of discussion back to yourself.
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the biggest way that we seize the spotlight is by not appearing to listen to what they are saying
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Even if you are listening intently, it’s still easy for others to feel like you are not. Namely, when you jump in immediately after they have finished speaking.
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Even if you are listening intently, it’s still easy for others to feel like you are not. Namely, when you jump in immediately after they have finished speaking.

Why is this negative?

The other person who just stopped speaking will likely come to the conclusion that you did not really listen to him or her. You appeared to be so eager to talk that you give that other speaker the impression that whatever they said wasn't that important to you
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Note that this is an entirely different phenomenon from interrupting artfully and gracefully. With positive interruptions, you are interrupting because you agree with them so much, here you are just waiting for them to finish so you can say your
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The two-second rule is simple. After someone speaks, especially longer, more thoughtful, and more personal statements, you pause for two seconds before saying anything
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During those two seconds, be mindful that your facial expression reflects thought and isn’t just a blank stare.
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#conversation-tactics
When somebody stops talking, they usually look at your face. What they're looking for is some sort of cue that you paid attention to them and what they said sank in.
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#conversation-tactics
One common solution that people use in place of a two-second pause is to say That’s really interesting… However, this can get annoying if you habitually do this. It's very easy for this statement to be taken as some throwaway phrase that you are making to cloak the fact that you just want to talk immediately after they stop talking
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#conversation-tactics
The best way to use this phrase (That's really interesting) or similar phrases is to do the two-second pause and then say it.
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Flashcard 1452657478924

Tags
#biochem
Question
Unlike the A- and B-forms, Z-DNA is a [...] helix ( Figure 2.20). Th e Z-form is adopted preferentially by segments of DNA that have strictly alternating C and G nucleotides.
Answer
left-handed

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Unlike the A- and B-forms, Z-DNA is a left-handed helix ( Figure 2.20). Th e Z-form is adopted preferentially by segments of DNA that have strictly alternating C and G nucleotides.

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Flashcard 1452659051788

Tags
#biochem
Question
Unlike the A- and B-forms, Z-DNA is a left-handed helix ( Figure 2.20). Th e Z-form is adopted preferentially by segments of DNA that have [...]
Answer
strictly alternating C and G nucleotides.

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Unlike the A- and B-forms, Z-DNA is a left-handed helix ( Figure 2.20). Th e Z-form is adopted preferentially by segments of DNA that have strictly alternating C and G nucleotides.

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Flashcard 1452660624652

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
In R, how would you do a sequence from -2 to +2 in 0.1 increments?
Answer
x = seq( from = -2, to = 2, by = 0.1 ) .

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Let’s arbitrarily select x values from −2to+2, separated by intervals of 0.1. We have R set up the list of x values by using the built-in sequence function: x = seq( from = -2, to = 2, by = 0.1 ) .

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Flashcard 1452662983948

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
The [...] principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic; logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction.
Answer
DRY

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The DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic; logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself co

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1.4 Designing Functions
mall, and serve as our primary medium to express computational processes in a programming language. So far, we have discussed the formal properties of functions and how they are applied. We now turn to the topic of what makes a good function. <span>Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers. These guidelines improve the readability of code, reduce the number of errors, and often minimize the total amount of code written. Decomposing a complex task into concise functions i







Flashcard 1452664556812

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
The DRY principle states that [...]; logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction.
Answer
multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic

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The DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic; logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functio

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1.4 Designing Functions
mall, and serve as our primary medium to express computational processes in a programming language. So far, we have discussed the formal properties of functions and how they are applied. We now turn to the topic of what makes a good function. <span>Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers. These guidelines improve the readability of code, reduce the number of errors, and often minimize the total amount of code written. Decomposing a complex task into concise functions i







Flashcard 1452666129676

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
In recurision the body begins with a [...], a conditional statement that defines the behavior of the function for the inputs that are simplest to process
Answer
base case

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The body begins with a base case, a conditional statement that defines the behavior of the function for the inputs that are simplest to process

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1.7 Recursive Functions
til eventually a single-digit input is reached. This example also illustrates how functions with simple bodies can evolve complex computational processes by using recursion. 1.7.1 The Anatomy of Recursive Functions Video: Show Hide <span>A common pattern can be found in the body of many recursive functions. The body begins with a base case, a conditional statement that defines the behavior of the function for the inputs that are simplest to process. In the case of sum_digits , the base case is any single-digit argument, and we simply return that argument. Some recursive functions will have multiple base cases. The base cases are then followed by one or more recursive calls. Recursive calls always have a certain character: they simplify the original problem. Recursive functions express computation by simplifying problems incrementally. For example, summing the digits of 7 is simpler than summing the digits of 73, which in turn is simpler than summing the digits of 738. For each subsequent call, there is less work lef







Flashcard 1452669275404

Tags
#biochem
Question
the eff ective contribution of hydrogen bonds to the stability of DNA is less than the intrinsic strength of the hydrogen bonds because of [...]
Answer
competition with water.

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the eff ective contribution of hydrogen bonds to the stability of DNA is less than the intrinsic strength of the hydrogen bonds because of competition with water.

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Flashcard 1452670848268

Tags
#biochem
Question
Another important conformational parameter for DNA and RNA is known as the [...], which refers to the diff erent out-of-plane distortions in the deox- yribose or ribose rings of nucleosides
Answer
sugar pucker

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Another important conformational parameter for DNA and RNA is known as the sugar pucker, which refers to the diff erent out-of-plane distortions in the deox- yribose or ribose rings of nucleosides

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Flashcard 1452672421132

Tags
#biochem
Question
Another important conformational parameter for DNA and RNA is known as the sugar pucker, which refers to the diff erent [...]
Answer
out-of-plane distortions in the deox- yribose or ribose rings of nucleosides

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Another important conformational parameter for DNA and RNA is known as the sugar pucker, which refers to the diff erent out-of-plane distortions in the deox- yribose or ribose rings of nucleosides

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Flashcard 1452673993996

Tags
#biochem
Question
RNA cannot adopt the standard Watson-Crick double- helical structure because of [...]
Answer
constraints on its sugar pucker

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RNA cannot adopt the standard Watson-Crick double- helical structure because of constraints on its sugar pucker

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Flashcard 1452675566860

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th e B-form helix rises [...] per helical turn and there are 10–11 base pairs per turn, so the rise per base pair is ~3.1–3.4 Å.
Answer
~34 Å

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Th e B-form helix rises ~34 Å per helical turn and there are 10–11 base pairs per turn, so the rise per base pair is ~3.1–3.4 Å.

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Flashcard 1452677139724

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th e B-form helix rises ~34 Å per helical turn and there are [...] base pairs per turn, so the rise per base pair is ~3.1–3.4 Å.
Answer
10–11

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Th e B-form helix rises ~34 Å per helical turn and there are 10–11 base pairs per turn, so the rise per base pair is ~3.1–3.4 Å.

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Flashcard 1452678712588

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th e B-form helix rises ~34 Å per helical turn and there are 10–11 base pairs per turn, so the rise per base pair is ~[...] Å.
Answer
3.1–3.4

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Th e B-form helix rises ~34 Å per helical turn and there are 10–11 base pairs per turn, so the rise per base pair is ~3.1–3.4 Å.

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Flashcard 1452680285452

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
ordered list of numerical values is called a [...] in R
Answer
“vector”

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ordered list of numerical values is called a “vector” in R

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Flashcard 1452681858316

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
[...] is called a “vector” in R
Answer
ordered list of numerical values

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ordered list of numerical values is called a “vector” in R

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Flashcard 1452683431180

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
A comment in R begins with the [...]
Answer
“ #”symbol, called a number sign or a pound sign.

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A comment in R begins with the “ #”symbol, called a number sign or a pound sign.

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Flashcard 1452685004044

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
R defaults to component-by-component vector operations. In particular, if x and y are two vectors of the same length, then x*y is [...]
Answer
the vector consisting of the products of corresponding components.

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R defaults to component-by-component vector operations. In particular, if x and y are two vectors of the same length, then x*y is the vector consisting of the products of corresponding components.

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Flashcard 1452686576908

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What does Bayesian analysis do wrt credibility, parameter values and the space of possibilities?
Answer
Bayesian analysis re- allocates credibility among parameter values within a meaningful space of possibilities defined by the chosen model.

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Bayesian analysis re- allocates credibility among parameter values within a meaningful space of possibilities defined by the chosen model.

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Flashcard 1452688936204

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th e structure of double-helical DNA, as originally described by Watson and Crick on the basis of Franklin and Wilkinsʹ x-ray diff raction data, is known as [...]
Answer
B-form DNA or B-DNA

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Th e structure of double-helical DNA, as originally described by Watson and Crick on the basis of Franklin and Wilkinsʹ x-ray diff raction data, is known as B-form DNA or B-DNA

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Flashcard 1452690509068

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
In R, running a script is called [...], because you are redirecting the source of commands from the command line to the script.
Answer
source-ing the script

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In R, running a script is called source-ing the script, because you are redirecting the source of commands from the command line to the script.

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Flashcard 1452692081932

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
How does R handle scalar operations?
Answer
R automatically applies a scalar operation to all elements of a vector. For example: > 2 * c(1,2,3) [1]246 > 2 + c(1,2,3) [1]345

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R automatically applies a scalar operation to all elements of a vector. For example: > 2 * c(1,2,3) [1]246 > 2 + c(1,2,3) [1]345

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Flashcard 1452694441228

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
In R, what does the colon do?
Answer
The colon operator, :, makes sequences of integers. For example, 4:7 creates the vector 4, 5, 6, 7 .

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The colon operator, :, makes sequences of integers. For example, 4:7 creates the vector 4, 5, 6, 7 .

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Flashcard 1452696800524

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
In R what is the seq function used for and how is it used?
Answer
The sequence function, seq, is very handy for creating vectors that consist of regular sequences of numbers.
In its basic form, the user specifies the starting value of the sequence, the ending value, and the increment between successive values, like this: > seq( from=0 , to=3 , by=0.5 ) # length not specified [1] 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

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The sequence function, seq, is very handy for creating vectors that consist of regular sequences of numbers. In its basic form, the user specifies the starting value of the sequence, the ending value, and the increment between successive values, like this: > seq( from=0 , to=3 , by=0.5 ) # length not specified [1] 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
There are three ways to reference elements: by numerical position, by logical inclusion, and by name.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
We can get the elements of the vector by referring to the rank positions inside square brackets after the vector name. Thus, x[c(2,4)] returns the second and fourth elements, as the vector
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Another way to get at elements is by telling R which position not to include, by using a negative sign. For example, if you want all the elements except the first and third, you can type x[c(-1,-3)].
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Another way to access elements of a vector is by a sequence of logical true and false values that specify whether or not to return the corresponding element. For example, x[c(FALSE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE)] also returns the vector 3.14, 47405
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The elements of a vector can also, optionally, have names.Forexample,wecan name the elements of the vector x with the command, names(x)=c( "e" , "pi" , "sqrt2" , "zipcode" ) . Notice that the names are in quotes. Then we get at the components of the vector by specifying their names in square brackets. For example, x[c("pi","zipcode")] returns the vector 3.14, 47405 along with the names of those components
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Factors are a type of vector in R for which the elements are categorical values that could also be ordered. The values are stored internally as integers with labeled levels.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The factor function read the contents of vector x and kept track of all the distinct elements, calling them the levels of the factor. By default, it ordered the levels alphabetically. It then recoded the contents of the vector in terms of the integer indices of the alphabetized levels.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
To see the integer indices of the levels explicitly, we can ask R to show us the factor as a numeric vector: > as.numeric(xf) [1]13213
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
If we want to specify a particular order for the levels, we can do so with additional arguments in the factor function, like this: > xfo = factor( x , levels=c("low","medium","high") , ordered=TRUE ) > xfo [1] high medium low high medium Levels: low < medium < high
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
To reorder, just use the factor function again, explicitly indicating the desired levels and order.
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#matlab #programming
There are two straightforward ways of getting output from MATLAB: Entering a variable name, assignment, or expression on the command line, without a semicolon Using the disp statement (e.g., disp( x ))
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#matlab #programming
we convert the number x to its string representation with the function num2str; read this as “number to string.”
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