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Flashcard 1433040194828

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar #noun-patterns
Question
The gender and number determine the ending of the noun. These patterns of endings are called [...].
Answer
inflexions


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The gender and number determine the ending of the noun. These patterns of endings are called inflexions.

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Flashcard 1434982419724

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
An [...], whether noun or pronoun, is one that is indirectly affected by the action or event.
Answer
indirect object


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An indirect object, whether noun or pronoun, is one that is indirectly affected by the action or event. An indirect object can be found with a transitive verb, which already has one direct object: ho mand

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Flashcard 1434989497612

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
Number is the distinction between [...].
Answer
singular and plural


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Number is the distinction between singular and plural. Verb forms alter according to the number of the subject: il ragazzo nuota ‘the boy swims’; i ragazzi nuotano ‘the boys swim’.

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Flashcard 1439275552012

Tags
#eximbank #key-features-of-loan-guarantees #octopus #usa
Question
There are no U.S. vessel shipping requirements for amounts less than [...]
Answer
$20 million.


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There are no U.S. vessel shipping requirements for amounts less than $20 million.

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Government-Assisted Foreign Buyer Financing (Eximbank USA)
g may not be available in certain countries and certain terms for U.S. government policy reasons (for more information, see the Country Limitation Schedule posted on the Bank’s Web site, www.exim.gov, under the “Apply” section). <span>Key Features of Ex-Im Bank Loan Guarantees Loans are made by commercial banks and repayment of these loans is guaranteed by Ex-Im Bank. Guaranteed loans cover 100 percent of the principal and interest for 85 percent of the U.S. contract price. Interest rates are negotiable, and are usually floating and lower than fixed rates. Guaranteed loans are fully transferable, can be securitized and are available in certain foreign currencies. Guaranteed loans have a faster documentation process with the assistance of commercial banks. There are no U.S. vessel shipping requirements for amounts less than $20 million. Key Features of Ex-Im Bank Direct Loans Fixed-rate loans are provided directly to creditworthy foreign buyers. Direct loans supp







Flashcard 1439568891148

Tags
#aspectos-generales #beneficiarios #immex #mexico #octopus
Question

Las personas morales a las que se les autorice el decreto IMMEX deberán ser [...]


Answer
residentes en territorio nacional


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La Secretaría de Economía (SE) podrá autorizar el decreto IMMEX a personas morales Las personas morales a las que se les autorice el decreto IMMEX deberán ser residentes en territorio nacional a que se refiere la fracción II del artículo 9 del Código Fiscal de la Federación, Las personas morales a las que se les autorice el decreto IMMEX deberán tributar de c

Original toplevel document

Decreto IMMEX
iladora de Exportación (Maquila) y el que Establece Programas de Importación Temporal para Producir Artículos de Exportación (PITEX), cuyas empresas representan en su conjunto el 85% de las exportaciones manufactureras de México. <span>ASPECTOS GENERALES Definición: El Programa IMMEX es un instrumento mediante el cual se permite importar temporalmente los bienes necesarios para ser utilizados en un proceso industrial o de servicio destinado a la elaboración, transformación o reparación de mercancías de procedencia extranjera importadas temporalmente para su exportación o a la prestación de servicios de exportación, sin cubrir el pago del impuesto general de importación, del impuesto al valor agregado y, en su caso, de las cuotas compensatorias Beneficiarios: La Secretaría de Economía (SE) podrá autorizar a las personas morales residentes en territorio nacional a que se refiere la fracción II del artículo 9 del Código Fiscal de la Federación, que tributen de conformidad con el Título II de la Ley del Impuesto sobre la Renta, un solo Programa IMMEX, que puede incluir las modalidades de controladora de empresas, industrial, servicios, albergue y terciarización, siempre que cumplan con los requisitos previstos en el Decreto para el Fomento de la Industria Manufacturera, Maquiladora y de Servicios de Exportación (Decreto IMMEX), publicado en el Diario Oficial e la Federación el 1 de noviembre de 2006. Beneficios: El Programa IMMEX brinda a sus titulares la posibilidad de importar temporalmente libre de impuestos a la importación y del IVA, los bienes necesarios para ser utilizados en un proceso industrial o de servicio destinado a la elaboración, transformación o reparación de mercancías de procedencia extranjera importadas temporalmente para su exportación o a la prestación de servicios de exportación. Estos bienes están agrupados bajo las siguientes categorías: Materias primas, partes y componentes que se vayan a destinar totalmente a integrar mercancías de exportación; combustibles, lubricantes y otros materiales que se vayan a consumir durante el proceso productivo de la mercancía de exportación; envases y empaques; etiquetas y folletos. Contenedores y cajas de trailers. Maquinaria, equipo, herramientas, instrumentos, moldes y refacciones destinadas al proceso productivo; equipos y aparatos para el control de la contaminación; para la investigación o capacitación, de seguridad industrial, de telecomunicación y cómputo, de laboratorio, de medición, de prueba de productos y control de calidad; así como aquéllos que intervengan en el manejo de materiales relacionados directamente con los bienes de exportación y otros vinculados con el proceso productivo; equipo para el desarrollo administrativo. Modalidades: Programa IMMEX Controladora de empresas, cuando en un mismo programa se integren las operaciones de manufactura de una empresa certificada denominada controladora y una o más sociedades controladas; Programa IMMEX Industrial, cuando se realice un proceso industrial de elaboración o transformación de mercancías destinadas a la exportación; Programa IMMEX Servicios, cuando se realicen servicios a mercancías de exportación o se presten servicios de exportación, únicamente para el desarrollo de las actividades que la Secretaría determine, previa opinión de la Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público; Programa IMMEX Albergue, cuando una o varias empresas extranjeras le faciliten la tecnología y el material productivo, sin que estas últimas operen directamente el Programa, y Programa IMMEX Terciarización, cuando una empresa certificada que no cuente con instalaciones para realizar procesos productivos, realice las operaciones de manufactura a través de terceros que registre en su Programa. La SE podrá aprobar de manera simultánea un Programa de Promoción Sectorial, de acuerdo con el tipo de productos que fabrica o a los servicios de exportación que realice, debiendo cumplir con la normatividad aplicable a los mismos. Tratándose de una empresa bajo la modalidad de servicios, únicamente podrá importar al amparo del Programa de Promoción Sectorial las mercancías a que se refiere el artículo 4, fracción III del presente Decreto, siempre que corresponda al sector en que sea registrada. Vigencia: La vigencia de los Programas IMMEX estará sujeta mientras el titular de los mismos continúe cumpliendo con los requisitos previstos para su otorgamiento y con las obligaciones establecidas en el Decreto. Plazos de permanencia: Los bienes importados temporalmente al amparo de un Programa IMMEX, podrán permanecer en territorio nacional por los plazos establecidos en el artículo 108 de la Ley Aduanera. Para las mercancías comprendidas en los Anexos II y III del Decreto IMMEX, cuando se importen como materia prima, el plazo de permanencia será hasta por doce meses. Tratándose de las mercancías que se encuentran comprendidas en el Anexo III del Decreto IMMEX, cuando se importen como materia prima, únicamente cuando se destinen a actividades bajo la modalidad de servicios, el plazo de permanencia será de hasta seis meses. No podrán ser importadas al amparo del Programa las mercancías señaladas en el Anexo I del Decreto IMMEX. Compromisos: Para gozar de los beneficios de un Programa IMMEX se deberá dar cumplimiento a los términos establecidos en el Decreto en la materia. La autorización del Programa se otorgará bajo el compromiso de realizar anualmente ventas al exterior por un valor superior a 500,000 dólares de los Estados Unidos de América, o su equivalente en moneda nacional, o bien, facturar exportaciones, cuando menos por el 10% de su facturación total. Reportes: El titular de un Programa IMMEX deberá presentar un reporte anual de forma electrónica, respecto del total de las ventas y de las exportaciones, correspondientes al ejercicio fiscal inmediato anterior, a más tardar el último día hábil del mes de mayo, conforme al formato que mediante Reglas y Criterios de Carácter General en Materia de Comercio Exterior dé a conocer la Secretaría de Economía. Adicionalmente, la empresa con Programa IMMEX deberá presentar la información que, para efectos estadísticos, se determine, en los términos que establezca la SE mediante Reglas y Criterios de Carácter General en Materia de Comercio Exterior. Para mayor información sobre este programa comunicarse al 01 800 410 2000 disponible para todo el país ó al buzón de la Secretaría de Economía en www.economia.gob.mx; o al teléfono 52-29-61-00, ext. 34347, Lic. Sergio Manríquez Fernández, Subdirector de Devolución de Impuestos. TRÁMITES Operación: Los trámites relativos al Programa IMMEX son gratuitos y pueden ser realizados en las ventanillas de atención al público de las Repre







Flashcard 1439581474060

Tags
#aspectos-generales #beneficios #immex #mexico #octopus
Question

Los bienes están agrupados bajo las siguientes 3 categorías:

2. [...].
Answer
Contenedores y cajas de trailers


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n a destinar totalmente a integrar mercancías de exportación; combustibles, lubricantes y otros materiales que se vayan a consumir durante el proceso productivo de la mercancía de exportación; envases y empaques; etiquetas y folletos. <span>Contenedores y cajas de trailers. Maquinaria, equipo, herramientas, instrumentos, moldes y refacciones destinadas al proceso productivo; equipos y aparatos para el control de la contaminación; para la investiga

Original toplevel document

Decreto IMMEX
iladora de Exportación (Maquila) y el que Establece Programas de Importación Temporal para Producir Artículos de Exportación (PITEX), cuyas empresas representan en su conjunto el 85% de las exportaciones manufactureras de México. <span>ASPECTOS GENERALES Definición: El Programa IMMEX es un instrumento mediante el cual se permite importar temporalmente los bienes necesarios para ser utilizados en un proceso industrial o de servicio destinado a la elaboración, transformación o reparación de mercancías de procedencia extranjera importadas temporalmente para su exportación o a la prestación de servicios de exportación, sin cubrir el pago del impuesto general de importación, del impuesto al valor agregado y, en su caso, de las cuotas compensatorias Beneficiarios: La Secretaría de Economía (SE) podrá autorizar a las personas morales residentes en territorio nacional a que se refiere la fracción II del artículo 9 del Código Fiscal de la Federación, que tributen de conformidad con el Título II de la Ley del Impuesto sobre la Renta, un solo Programa IMMEX, que puede incluir las modalidades de controladora de empresas, industrial, servicios, albergue y terciarización, siempre que cumplan con los requisitos previstos en el Decreto para el Fomento de la Industria Manufacturera, Maquiladora y de Servicios de Exportación (Decreto IMMEX), publicado en el Diario Oficial e la Federación el 1 de noviembre de 2006. Beneficios: El Programa IMMEX brinda a sus titulares la posibilidad de importar temporalmente libre de impuestos a la importación y del IVA, los bienes necesarios para ser utilizados en un proceso industrial o de servicio destinado a la elaboración, transformación o reparación de mercancías de procedencia extranjera importadas temporalmente para su exportación o a la prestación de servicios de exportación. Estos bienes están agrupados bajo las siguientes categorías: Materias primas, partes y componentes que se vayan a destinar totalmente a integrar mercancías de exportación; combustibles, lubricantes y otros materiales que se vayan a consumir durante el proceso productivo de la mercancía de exportación; envases y empaques; etiquetas y folletos. Contenedores y cajas de trailers. Maquinaria, equipo, herramientas, instrumentos, moldes y refacciones destinadas al proceso productivo; equipos y aparatos para el control de la contaminación; para la investigación o capacitación, de seguridad industrial, de telecomunicación y cómputo, de laboratorio, de medición, de prueba de productos y control de calidad; así como aquéllos que intervengan en el manejo de materiales relacionados directamente con los bienes de exportación y otros vinculados con el proceso productivo; equipo para el desarrollo administrativo. Modalidades: Programa IMMEX Controladora de empresas, cuando en un mismo programa se integren las operaciones de manufactura de una empresa certificada denominada controladora y una o más sociedades controladas; Programa IMMEX Industrial, cuando se realice un proceso industrial de elaboración o transformación de mercancías destinadas a la exportación; Programa IMMEX Servicios, cuando se realicen servicios a mercancías de exportación o se presten servicios de exportación, únicamente para el desarrollo de las actividades que la Secretaría determine, previa opinión de la Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público; Programa IMMEX Albergue, cuando una o varias empresas extranjeras le faciliten la tecnología y el material productivo, sin que estas últimas operen directamente el Programa, y Programa IMMEX Terciarización, cuando una empresa certificada que no cuente con instalaciones para realizar procesos productivos, realice las operaciones de manufactura a través de terceros que registre en su Programa. La SE podrá aprobar de manera simultánea un Programa de Promoción Sectorial, de acuerdo con el tipo de productos que fabrica o a los servicios de exportación que realice, debiendo cumplir con la normatividad aplicable a los mismos. Tratándose de una empresa bajo la modalidad de servicios, únicamente podrá importar al amparo del Programa de Promoción Sectorial las mercancías a que se refiere el artículo 4, fracción III del presente Decreto, siempre que corresponda al sector en que sea registrada. Vigencia: La vigencia de los Programas IMMEX estará sujeta mientras el titular de los mismos continúe cumpliendo con los requisitos previstos para su otorgamiento y con las obligaciones establecidas en el Decreto. Plazos de permanencia: Los bienes importados temporalmente al amparo de un Programa IMMEX, podrán permanecer en territorio nacional por los plazos establecidos en el artículo 108 de la Ley Aduanera. Para las mercancías comprendidas en los Anexos II y III del Decreto IMMEX, cuando se importen como materia prima, el plazo de permanencia será hasta por doce meses. Tratándose de las mercancías que se encuentran comprendidas en el Anexo III del Decreto IMMEX, cuando se importen como materia prima, únicamente cuando se destinen a actividades bajo la modalidad de servicios, el plazo de permanencia será de hasta seis meses. No podrán ser importadas al amparo del Programa las mercancías señaladas en el Anexo I del Decreto IMMEX. Compromisos: Para gozar de los beneficios de un Programa IMMEX se deberá dar cumplimiento a los términos establecidos en el Decreto en la materia. La autorización del Programa se otorgará bajo el compromiso de realizar anualmente ventas al exterior por un valor superior a 500,000 dólares de los Estados Unidos de América, o su equivalente en moneda nacional, o bien, facturar exportaciones, cuando menos por el 10% de su facturación total. Reportes: El titular de un Programa IMMEX deberá presentar un reporte anual de forma electrónica, respecto del total de las ventas y de las exportaciones, correspondientes al ejercicio fiscal inmediato anterior, a más tardar el último día hábil del mes de mayo, conforme al formato que mediante Reglas y Criterios de Carácter General en Materia de Comercio Exterior dé a conocer la Secretaría de Economía. Adicionalmente, la empresa con Programa IMMEX deberá presentar la información que, para efectos estadísticos, se determine, en los términos que establezca la SE mediante Reglas y Criterios de Carácter General en Materia de Comercio Exterior. Para mayor información sobre este programa comunicarse al 01 800 410 2000 disponible para todo el país ó al buzón de la Secretaría de Economía en www.economia.gob.mx; o al teléfono 52-29-61-00, ext. 34347, Lic. Sergio Manríquez Fernández, Subdirector de Devolución de Impuestos. TRÁMITES Operación: Los trámites relativos al Programa IMMEX son gratuitos y pueden ser realizados en las ventanillas de atención al público de las Repre







#conversation-tactics
To defuse situations and maximize the illusion of respect, you need to tell people why you are asking or explain why you are telling. Giving someone a justification for your ask turns an order into a reasonable and rational request for assistance.

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#48-laws-of-power
If you can master the arts of indirection, learning to seduce, charm, deceive, and subtly outmaneuver your opponents, you will attain the heights of power.

If you can master the arts of indirection, you will be able to make people bend to your will without their realizing what you have done. And if they do not realize what you have done, they will neither resent nor resist you.

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Notice that the array is three-dimensional, with a datum in every one of the 24 cells. We would like to rearrange the data so that there is one datum per row, with each row also specifying the levels of the array from which the datum came. This is done by the melt command

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
In R’s basic command window, set the working directory by selecting menu items File → Change dir. In RStudio, set the working directory by selecting menu items Session → Set Working Directory.

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
In general, a function in R in defined by code of the form: functionName = function( arguments ) { commands } The commands inside the curly braces can extend over many lines of code.

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
You invoke the function by commanding R thus: functionName( arguments=argumentValues )

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Notice the arrangement of curly braces across lines in the if-else structure above. In particular, the line containing “else” begins with a closing curly brace, which tells R that the “else” clause is continuing the preceding “if.” A line that begins with “else” causes an error

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
A simple way to measure processing time is with the proc.time function, which returns the current computer-system time. To measure the duration of a process, use proc.time at the beginning and end of the process, and compute the difference between the times

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
In general, for loops are slow relative to vectorized operations

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Uncertainty is measured in terms of probability

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Whenever we ask about how likely an outcome is, we always ask with a set of possible outcomes in mind. This set exhausts all possible outcomes, and the outcomes are all mutually exclusive. This set is called the sample space

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The sample space is determined by the measurement operation we use to make an observation of the world.

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Many coins minted by governments have the picture of an important person’s head on one side. This side is called “heads” or, technically, the “obverse.”

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The degree of belief about a parameter can be denoted p(θ )

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Both “probability” of head or tail outcome and “degree of belief ” in biases refer to sample spaces.

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
When we flip a given coin, we are sampling from the space of head or tail. When we grab a coin at random from a sack of coins, in which each coin may have a different bias, we are sampling from the space of possible biases

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#matlab #programming
If you want values displayed in scientific notation (floating-point form) whatever their size, enter the command format short e

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#matlab #programming
Use format bank for financial calculations; you get fixed point with two dec- imal digits (for cents)

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#matlab #programming
Use format hex to get hexadecimal display.

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#matlab #programming
Use format rat to display a number as a rational approximation (ratio of two integers)

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#matlab #programming
he number of times the loop is executed may be calculated from the fol- lowing equation: floor last −first increment +1 where the MATLAB function floor(x) rounds x down toward −∞. This value is called the iteration or trip count.

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#matlab #programming
A more general form of for is for index = v where v is any vector. The index moves through each element of the vector in turn, providing a neat way of processing each item in a list.

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#matlab #programming
The MATLAB function clock returns a six-element vector with the current date and time in the format year, month, day, hour, minute, seconds. Thus, t0 records when the calculation starts.

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#matlab #programming
The function etime returns the time in seconds elapsed between its two ar- guments, which must be vectors as returned by clock.

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#matlab #programming
here is a neater way of monitoring the time taken to interpret MATLAB state- ments: the tic and toc function.

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#matlab #programming
The MATLAB function rand generates a random number in the range 0–1

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#matlab #programming
The simplest form of if in a single line is if condition; statements; end

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#matlab #programming
In general, the elseif clause is used: if condition1 statementsA elseif condition2 statementsB

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#matlab #programming
switch executes certain statements based on the value of a variable or expres- sion.

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#matlab #programming
The symbol i may be used to assign complex values, for example, z=2+3*

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#matlab #programming
If z is a complex number, real(z), imag(z), conj(z), and abs(z) all have the obvious meanings

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#matlab #programming
A complex number may be represented in polar coordinates: z =re iθ angle(z) returns θ between −π and π ; that is, atan2(imag(z), real(z)). abs(z) returns the magnitude r

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#matlab #programming
If y is complex, the statement plot(y) is equivalent to plot(real(y), imag(y)) The statement axis(’equal’) is necessary to make circles look round; it changes what is known as the aspect ratio of the monitor. axis(’normal’) gives the default aspect ratio.

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#matlab #programming
For complex matrices, the operations ’ and .’ behave differently. The ’ op- erator is the complex conjugate transpose, meaning rows and columns are inter- changed and signs of imaginary parts are changed. The .’ operator, on the other hand, does a pure transpose without taking the complex conjugate.

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#electromagnetism #physics
In the simplest case of a uniform vector field ~ A and a surface S per- pendicular to the direction of the field, the flux U is defined as the product of the field magnitude and the area of the surface

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#electromagnetism #physics
If the vector field is uniform but is not perpendicular to the surface, as in Figure 1.6(b), the flux may be determined simply by finding the component of ~ A perpendicular to the surface and then multiplying that value by the surface area

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
A vector is the mathematical representation of a physical entity that may be characterized by size (or “magnitude”) and direction

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
The word “vector” comes from the Latin vehere meaning “to carry;” it was first used by eighteenth-century astronomers investigating the mechanism by which a planet is “carried” around the Sun

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
In text, the vector nature of an object is often indicated by placing a small arrow over the variable representing the object (such as F), or by using a bold font (such as F), or by underlining (such as F or F ∼ ).

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
In other words, if you were to move the vector shown in Figure 1.1(a) to a different location without varying its length or its pointing direction, would it still be the same vector? In some applications, the answer is “yes,” and those vectors are called free vectors.

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
You can move a free vector anywhere you’d like as long as you don’t change its length or direction, and it remains the same vector. But in many physics and engineering problems, you’ll be dealing with vectors that apply at a given location; such vectors are called “bound” or “anchored” vectors,

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
You may see the term “sliding” vectors used for vectors that are free to move along their length but are not free to change length or direction; such vectors are useful for problems involving torque and angular motion

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
You can understand the usefulness of bound vectors if you think about an application such as representing the velocity of the wind at various points in the atmosphere. To do that, you could choose to draw a bound vector at each point of interest, and each of those vectors would show the speed and direction of the wind at that location (most people draw the vector with its tail – the end without the arrow – at the point to which the vector is bound). A collection of such vectors is called a vector field

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
If you think about the ways in which you might represent a bound vector, you may realize that the vector can be defined simply by specifying the start and end points of the arrow. So in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, you only need to know the values of x, y, and z for each end of the vector

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Now consider the special case in which the vector is anchored to the origin of the coordinate system (that is, the end without the arrowhead is at the point of intersection of the coordinate axes, as shown in Figure 1.2(b). 3 Such vectors may be completely specified simply by listing the three numbers that represent the x-, y-, and z-coordinates of the vector’s end point.

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
In this representation, the values that represent the vector are called the “components” of the vector, and the number of components it takes to define a vector is equal to the number of dimensions in the space in which the vector exists

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
A scalar is the mathematical representation of a physical entity that may be characterized by magnitude only

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
you might suspect that there are other entities involving magnitude and directions that are more complex than vectors (that is, requiring more numbers than the number of spatial dimensions). Indeed there are, and such entities are called “tensors.”

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
A tensor is the mathematical representation of a physical entity that may be characterized by magnitude and multiple directions

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
An example of a tensor is the inertia that relates the angular velocity of a rotating object to its angular momentum. Since the angular velocity vector has a direction and the angular momentum vector has a (potentially different) direction, the inertia tensor involves multiple directions

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
So in 3-dimensional space, a second-rank tensor is represented by 3 2 = 9 numbers. In N-dimensional space, scalars still require only one number, vectors require N numbers, and tensors require N R numbers

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
a tensor may be represented by an array of 3 R numbers in 3-dimensional space. In this expression, “R” represents the rank of the tensor.

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Recognizing scalars, vectors, and tensors is easy once you realize that a scalar can be represented by a single number, a vector by an ordered set of numbers, and a tensor by an array of numbers.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Do not fool yourself into thinking that life has changed much since the days of Louis XIV and the Medicis. Those who attain high standing in life are like kings and queens: They want to feel secure in their positions, and superior to those around them in intelligence, wit, and charm.

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expected. You cannot spend your life worrying about the petty feelings of others. With those above you, however, you must take a different approach: When it comes to power, outshining the master is perhaps the worst mistake of all. <span>Do not fool yourself into thinking that life has changed much since the days of Louis XIV and the Medicis. Those who attain high standing in life are like kings and queens: They want to feel secure in their positions, and superior to those around them in intelligence, wit, and charm. It is a deadly but common misperception to believe that by displaying and vaunting your gifts and talents, you are winning the master’s affection. He may feign appreciation, but at his

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
It is a deadly but common misperception to believe that by displaying and vaunting your gifts and talents, you are winning the master’s affection. He may feign appreciation, but at his first opportunity he will replace you with someone less intelligent, less attractive, less threatening, just as Louis XIV replaced the sparkling Fouquet with the bland Colbert. And as with Louis, he will not admit the truth, but will find an excuse to rid himself of your presence.

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fe has changed much since the days of Louis XIV and the Medicis. Those who attain high standing in life are like kings and queens: They want to feel secure in their positions, and superior to those around them in intelligence, wit, and charm. <span>It is a deadly but common misperception to believe that by displaying and vaunting your gifts and talents, you are winning the master’s affection. He may feign appreciation, but at his first opportunity he will replace you with someone less intelligent, less attractive, less threatening, just as Louis XIV replaced the sparkling Fouquet with the bland Colbert. And as with Louis, he will not admit the truth, but will find an excuse to rid himself of your presence. This Law involves two rules that you must realize. First, you can inadvertently outshine a master simply by being yourself. There are masters who are more insecure than other

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
This Law involves two rules that you must realize.

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less intelligent, less attractive, less threatening, just as Louis XIV replaced the sparkling Fouquet with the bland Colbert. And as with Louis, he will not admit the truth, but will find an excuse to rid himself of your presence. <span>This Law involves two rules that you must realize. First, you can inadvertently outshine a master simply by being yourself. There are masters who are more insecure than others, monstrously insecure; you may naturally outshine them by yo

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Flashcard 1455147322636

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
This Law involves [...] rules that you must realize.
Answer
two


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This Law involves two rules that you must realize.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
First rule:

You can inadvertently outshine a master simply by being yourself. There are masters who are more insecure than others, monstrously insecure; you may naturally outshine them by your charm and grace.

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g, just as Louis XIV replaced the sparkling Fouquet with the bland Colbert. And as with Louis, he will not admit the truth, but will find an excuse to rid himself of your presence. This Law involves two rules that you must realize. <span>First, you can inadvertently outshine a master simply by being yourself. There are masters who are more insecure than others, monstrously insecure; you may naturally outshine them by your charm and grace. No one had more natural talents than Astorre Manfredi, prince of Faenza. The most handsome of all the young princes of Italy, he captivated his subjects with his generosity a

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Example of the first rule:
#48-laws-of-power #first-rule #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master


No one had more natural talents than Astorre Manfredi, prince of Faenza. The most handsome of all the young princes of Italy.

In the year 1500, Cesare Borgia invaded Faenza. When the city surrendered, Borgia simply occupied its fortress, executed none of its citizens, and allowed Prince Manfredi, eighteen at the time, to remain with his court.

A few weeks later soldiers hauled Astorre Manfredi away to a Roman prison. A year after they killed him. Borgia justified the horrible deed with some sort of trumped-up charge of treason and conspiracy.

The real problem was that he (Borgia) was notoriously vain and insecure. The young man was outshining him without even trying.

Given Manfredi’s natural talents, the prince’s mere presence made Borgia seem less attractive and charismatic.

The lesson is simple: If you cannot help being charming and superior, you must learn to avoid such monsters of vanity. Either that, or find a way to mute your good qualities when in the company of a Cesare Borgia.

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les that you must realize. First, you can inadvertently outshine a master simply by being yourself. There are masters who are more insecure than others, monstrously insecure; you may naturally outshine them by your charm and grace. <span>No one had more natural talents than Astorre Manfredi, prince of Faenza. The most handsome of all the young princes of Italy, he captivated his subjects with his generosity and open spirit. In the year 1500, Cesare Borgia laid siege to Faenza. When the city surrendered, the citizens expected the worst from the cruel Borgia, who, however, decided to spare the town: He simply occupied its fortress, executed none of its citizens, and allowed Prince Manfredi, eighteen at the time, to remain with his court, in complete freedom. A few weeks later, though, soldiers hauled Astorre Manfredi away to a Roman prison. A year after that, his body was fished out of the River Tiber, a stone tied around his neck. Borgia justified the horrible deed with some sort of trumped-up charge of treason and conspiracy, but the real problem was that he was notoriously vain and insecure. The young man was outshining him without even trying. Given Manfredi’s natural talents, the prince’s mere presence made Borgia seem less attractive and charismatic. The lesson is simple: If you cannot help being charming and superior, you must learn to avoid such monsters of vanity. Either that, or find a way to mute your good qualities when in the company of a Cesare Borgia. Second, never imagine that because the master loves you, you can do anything you want. Entire books could be written about favorites who fell out of favor by taking their sta

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#48-laws-of-power #first-rule #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
If you cannot help being charming and superior, you must learn to avoid such monsters of vanity. Either that, or find a way to mute your good qualities when in the company of a Cesare Borgia.

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problem was that he was notoriously vain and insecure. The young man was outshining him without even trying. Given Manfredi’s natural talents, the prince’s mere presence made Borgia seem less attractive and charismatic. The lesson is simple: <span>If you cannot help being charming and superior, you must learn to avoid such monsters of vanity. Either that, or find a way to mute your good qualities when in the company of a Cesare Borgia.<span><body><html>

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #second-rule
Second Rule:

Never imagine that because the master loves you, you can do anything you want. Entire books could be written about favorites who fell out of favor by taking their status for granted, for daring to outshine.

Second Rule example:

In late-sixteenth-century Japan, the favorite of Emperor Hideyoshi was a man called Sen no Rikyu. The premier artist of the tea ceremony, which had become an obsession with the nobility, he was one of Hideyoshi’s most trusted advisers, had his own apartment in the palace, and was honored throughout Japan. Yet in 1591, Hideyoshi had him arrested and sentenced to death. Rikyu took his own life, instead. The cause for his sudden change of fortune was discovered later: It seems that Rikyu, former peasant and later court favorite, had had a wooden statue made of himself wearing sandals (a sign of nobility) and posing loftily. He had had this statue placed in the most important temple inside the palace gates, in clear sight of the royalty who often would pass by. To Hideyoshi this signified that Rikyu had no sense of limits. Presuming that he had the same rights as those of the highest nobility, he had forgotten that his position depended on the emperor, and had come to believe that he had earned it on his own. This was an unforgivable miscalculation of his own importance and he paid for it with his life. Remember the following: Never take your position for granted and never let any favors you receive go to your head.

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and charismatic. The lesson is simple: If you cannot help being charming and superior, you must learn to avoid such monsters of vanity. Either that, or find a way to mute your good qualities when in the company of a Cesare Borgia. <span>Second, never imagine that because the master loves you, you can do anything you want. Entire books could be written about favorites who fell out of favor by taking their status for granted, for daring to outshine. In late-sixteenth-century Japan, the favorite of Emperor Hideyoshi was a man called Sen no Rikyu. The premier artist of the tea ceremony, which had become an obsession with the nobility, he was one of Hideyoshi’s most trusted advisers, had his own apartment in the palace, and was honored throughout Japan. Yet in 1591, Hideyoshi had him arrested and sentenced to death. Rikyu took his own life, instead. The cause for his sudden change of fortune was discovered later: It seems that Rikyu, former peasant and later court favorite, had had a wooden statue made of himself wearing sandals (a sign of nobility) and posing loftily. He had had this statue placed in the most important temple inside the palace gates, in clear sight of the royalty who often would pass by. To Hideyoshi this signified that Rikyu had no sense of limits. Presuming that he had the same rights as those of the highest nobility, he had forgotten that his position depended on the emperor, and had come to believe that he had earned it on his own. This was an unforgivable miscalculation of his own importance and he paid for it with his life. Remember the following: Never take your position for granted and never let any favors you receive go to your head. Knowing the dangers of outshining your master, you can turn this Law to your advantage. First you must flatter and puff up your master. Overt flattery can be effective but ha

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #second-rule
Second Rule:

Never imagine that because the master loves you, you can do anything you want. Entire books could be written about favorites who fell out of favor by taking their status for granted, for daring to outshine.

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Second Rule : Never imagine that because the master loves you, you can do anything you want. Entire books could be written about favorites who fell out of favor by taking their status for granted, for daring to outshine. Second Rule example: In late-sixteenth-century Japan, the favorite of Emperor Hideyoshi was a man called Sen no Rikyu. The premier artist of the tea ceremony, wh

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Flashcard 1455160954124

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #second-rule
Question
Second Rule:

Never imagine that because [...].
Answer
the master loves you, you can do anything you want

Entire books could be written about favorites who fell out of favor by taking their status for granted, for daring to outshine.


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Second Rule : Never imagine that because the master loves you, you can do anything you want. Entire books could be written about favorites who fell out of favor by taking their status for granted, for daring to outshine.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #second-rule
Second Rule example:

The favorite of Emperor Hideyoshi (Master) was a man called Sen no Rikyu (Disciple).

He was an artist, which had become an obsession with the nobility (became famous), he was one of Hideyoshi’s most trusted advisers.

Yet in 1591, Hideyoshi had him arrested and sentenced to death. The cause was discovered later: It seems that Rikyu, former peasant and later court favorite, had had a wooden statue made of himself wearing sandals (a sign of nobility) and placed it in the most important temple.

To Hideyoshi this signified that Rikyu had no sense of limits.

Presuming that he had the same rights as those of the highest nobility, he had forgotten that his position depended on the emperor, and had come to believe that he had earned it on his own. This was an unforgivable miscalculation of his own importance and he paid for it with his life.

Remember the following: Never take your position for granted and never let any favors you receive go to your head.

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econd Rule : Never imagine that because the master loves you, you can do anything you want. Entire books could be written about favorites who fell out of favor by taking their status for granted, for daring to outshine. <span>Second Rule example: In late-sixteenth-century Japan, the favorite of Emperor Hideyoshi was a man called Sen no Rikyu. The premier artist of the tea ceremony, which had become an obsession with the nobility, he was one of Hideyoshi’s most trusted advisers, had his own apartment in the palace, and was honored throughout Japan. Yet in 1591, Hideyoshi had him arrested and sentenced to death. Rikyu took his own life, instead. The cause for his sudden change of fortune was discovered later: It seems that Rikyu, former peasant and later court favorite, had had a wooden statue made of himself wearing sandals (a sign of nobility) and posing loftily. He had had this statue placed in the most important temple inside the palace gates, in clear sight of the royalty who often would pass by. To Hideyoshi this signified that Rikyu had no sense of limits. Presuming that he had the same rights as those of the highest nobility, he had forgotten that his position depended on the emperor, and had come to believe that he had earned it on his own. This was an unforgivable miscalculation of his own importance and he paid for it with his life. Remember the following: Never take your position for granted and never let any favors you receive go to your head.<span><body><html>

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #second-rule
Never take your position for granted and never let any favors you receive go to your head.

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highest nobility, he had forgotten that his position depended on the emperor, and had come to believe that he had earned it on his own. This was an unforgivable miscalculation of his own importance and he paid for it with his life. <span>Remember the following: Never take your position for granted and never let any favors you receive go to your head.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1455166721292

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #second-rule
Question
Remember the following: Never take [...] and never let any [...].
Answer
your position for granted

favors you receive go to your head


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Remember the following: Never take your position for granted and never let any favors you receive go to your head.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
First you must flatter and puff up your master. Overt flattery can be effective but has its limits; it is too direct and obvious, and looks bad to other courtiers.

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e paid for it with his life. Remember the following: Never take your position for granted and never let any favors you receive go to your head. Knowing the dangers of outshining your master, you can turn this Law to your advantage. <span>First you must flatter and puff up your master. Overt flattery can be effective but has its limits; it is too direct and obvious, and looks bad to other courtiers. Discreet flattery is much more powerful. If you are more intelligent than your master, for example, seem the opposite: Make him appear more intelligent than you. Act naive. Make it seem

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Discreet flattery is much more powerful.

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he dangers of outshining your master, you can turn this Law to your advantage. First you must flatter and puff up your master. Overt flattery can be effective but has its limits; it is too direct and obvious, and looks bad to other courtiers. <span>Discreet flattery is much more powerful. If you are more intelligent than your master, for example, seem the opposite: Make him appear more intelligent than you. Act naive. Make it seem that you need his expertise. Commit harm

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
If you are more intelligent than your master, for example, seem the opposite: Make him appear more intelligent than you.

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can turn this Law to your advantage. First you must flatter and puff up your master. Overt flattery can be effective but has its limits; it is too direct and obvious, and looks bad to other courtiers. Discreet flattery is much more powerful. <span>If you are more intelligent than your master, for example, seem the opposite: Make him appear more intelligent than you. Act naive. Make it seem that you need his expertise. Commit harmless mistakes that will not hurt you in the long run but will give you the chance to ask for his help. Masters adore such

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Commit harmless mistakes that will not hurt you in the long run but will give you the chance to ask for his help. Masters adore such requests.

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has its limits; it is too direct and obvious, and looks bad to other courtiers. Discreet flattery is much more powerful. If you are more intelligent than your master, for example, seem the opposite: Make him appear more intelligent than you. <span>Act naive. Make it seem that you need his expertise. Commit harmless mistakes that will not hurt you in the long run but will give you the chance to ask for his help. Masters adore such requests. A master who cannot bestow on you the gifts of his experience may direct rancor and ill will at you instead. If your ideas are more creative than your master’s, ascribe them to him, in as public a manner as possible. Make it clear that your advice is merely an echo of his advice.&#

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
If your ideas are more creative than your master’s, ascribe them to him, in as public a manner as possible. Make it clear that your advice is merely an echo of his advice.

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kes that will not hurt you in the long run but will give you the chance to ask for his help. Masters adore such requests. A master who cannot bestow on you the gifts of his experience may direct rancor and ill will at you instead. <span>If your ideas are more creative than your master’s, ascribe them to him, in as public a manner as possible. Make it clear that your advice is merely an echo of his advice. If you surpass your master in wit, it is okay to play the role of the court jester, but do not make him appear cold and surly by comparison. Tone down your humor if necessary

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
If you surpass your master in wit, it is okay to play the role of the court jester, but do not make him appear cold and surly by comparison. one down your humor if necessary, and find ways to make him seem the dispenser of amusement and good cheer.

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may direct rancor and ill will at you instead. If your ideas are more creative than your master’s, ascribe them to him, in as public a manner as possible. Make it clear that your advice is merely an echo of his advice. <span>If you surpass your master in wit, it is okay to play the role of the court jester, but do not make him appear cold and surly by comparison. Tone down your humor if necessary, and find ways to make him seem the dispenser of amusement and good cheer. If you are naturally more sociable and generous than your master, be careful

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
If you are naturally more sociable and generous than your master, be careful not to be the cloud that blocks his radiance from others. He must appear as the sun around which everyone revolves, radiating power and brilliance, the center of attention.

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surpass your master in wit, it is okay to play the role of the court jester, but do not make him appear cold and surly by comparison. Tone down your humor if necessary, and find ways to make him seem the dispenser of amusement and good cheer. <span>If you are naturally more sociable and generous than your master, be careful not to be the cloud that blocks his radiance from others. He must appear as the sun around which everyone revolves, radiating power and brilliance, the center of attention. If you are thrust into the position of entertaining him, a display of your limited means may win you his sympathy. Any attempt to impress him with your grace and generosity can prove fa

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
If you are thrust into the position of entertaining him, a display of your limited means may win you his sympathy. Any attempt to impress him with your grace and generosity can prove fatal: Learn from Fouquet or pay the price.

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are naturally more sociable and generous than your master, be careful not to be the cloud that blocks his radiance from others. He must appear as the sun around which everyone revolves, radiating power and brilliance, the center of attention. <span>If you are thrust into the position of entertaining him, a display of your limited means may win you his sympathy. Any attempt to impress him with your grace and generosity can prove fatal: Learn from Fouquet or pay the price. In all of these cases it is not a weakness to disguise your strengths if in the end they lead to power. By letting others outshine you, you remain in control, instead of bein

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
it is not a weakness to disguise your strengths if in the end they lead to power.

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into the position of entertaining him, a display of your limited means may win you his sympathy. Any attempt to impress him with your grace and generosity can prove fatal: Learn from Fouquet or pay the price. In all of these cases <span>it is not a weakness to disguise your strengths if in the end they lead to power. By letting others outshine you, you remain in control, instead of being a victim of their insecurity. This will all come in handy the day you decide to rise above your inferior status.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
By letting others outshine you, you remain in control, instead of being a victim of their insecurity.

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u his sympathy. Any attempt to impress him with your grace and generosity can prove fatal: Learn from Fouquet or pay the price. In all of these cases it is not a weakness to disguise your strengths if in the end they lead to power. <span>By letting others outshine you, you remain in control, instead of being a victim of their insecurity. This will all come in handy the day you decide to rise above your inferior status. If, like Galileo, you can make your master shine even more in the eyes of others, then you are a godse

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
This will all come in handy the day you decide to rise above your inferior status. If, like Galileo, you can make your master shine even more in the eyes of others, then you are a godsend and you will be instantly promoted.

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Fouquet or pay the price. In all of these cases it is not a weakness to disguise your strengths if in the end they lead to power. By letting others outshine you, you remain in control, instead of being a victim of their insecurity. <span>This will all come in handy the day you decide to rise above your inferior status. If, like Galileo, you can make your master shine even more in the eyes of others, then you are a godsend and you will be instantly promoted. Image: The Stars in the Sky. There can be only one sun at a time. Never obscure the sunlight, or rival the sun’s brilliance; rather, fade into t

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
The Stars in the
Sky. There can be only
one sun at a time. Never
obscure the sunlight, or
rival the sun’s brilliance;
rather, fade into the sky and
find ways to heighten
the master star’s
intensity.

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will all come in handy the day you decide to rise above your inferior status. If, like Galileo, you can make your master shine even more in the eyes of others, then you are a godsend and you will be instantly promoted. Image: <span>The Stars in the Sky. There can be only one sun at a time. Never obscure the sunlight, or rival the sun’s brilliance; rather, fade into the sky and find ways to heighten the master star’s intensity. Authority: Avoid outshining the master. All superiority is odious, but the superiority of a subject over his prince is not only stupid, it is fatal. This is a lesson that the

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Avoid outshining the master. This is a lesson that the stars in the sky teach us—they may be related to the sun, and just as brilliant, but they never appear in her company.

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13; Sky. There can be only one sun at a time. Never obscure the sunlight, or rival the sun’s brilliance; rather, fade into the sky and find ways to heighten the master star’s intensity. Authority: <span>Avoid outshining the master. All superiority is odious, but the superiority of a subject over his prince is not only stupid, it is fatal. This is a lesson that the stars in the sky teach us—they may be related to the sun, and just as brilliant, but they never appear in her company. (Baltasar Gracián, 1601-1658)<span><body><html>

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REVERSAL
#48-laws-of-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #reversal
You cannot worry about upsetting every person you come across, but you must be selectively cruel. If your superior is a falling star, there is nothing to fear from outshining him. Do not be merciful—your master had no such scruples in his own cold-blooded climb to the top. Gauge his strength. If he is weak, discreetly hasten his downfall: Outdo, outcharm, outsmart him at key moments. If he is very weak and ready to fall, let nature take its course. Do not risk outshining a feeble superior—it might appear cruel or spiteful. But if your master is firm in his position, yet you know yourself to be the more capable, bide your time and be patient. It is the natural course of things that power eventually fades and weakens. Your master will fall someday, and if you play it right, you will outlive and someday outshine him.

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#48-laws-of-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #reversal
You cannot worry about upsetting every person you come across, but you must be selectively cruel.

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You cannot worry about upsetting every person you come across, but you must be selectively cruel. If your superior is a falling star, there is nothing to fear from outshining him. Do not be merciful—your master had no such scruples in his own cold-blooded climb to the top. Gauge his

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#48-laws-of-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #reversal
If your superior is a falling star, there is nothing to fear from outshining him. Do not be merciful—your master had no such scruples in his own cold-blooded climb to the top.

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You cannot worry about upsetting every person you come across, but you must be selectively cruel. If your superior is a falling star, there is nothing to fear from outshining him. Do not be merciful—your master had no such scruples in his own cold-blooded climb to the top. Gauge his strength. If he is weak, discreetly hasten his downfall: Outdo, outcharm, outsmart him at key moments. If he is very weak and ready to fall, let nature take its course. Do not

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#48-laws-of-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #reversal
Gauge his strength. If he is weak, discreetly hasten his downfall: Outdo, outcharm, outsmart him at key moments.

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g every person you come across, but you must be selectively cruel. If your superior is a falling star, there is nothing to fear from outshining him. Do not be merciful—your master had no such scruples in his own cold-blooded climb to the top. <span>Gauge his strength. If he is weak, discreetly hasten his downfall: Outdo, outcharm, outsmart him at key moments. If he is very weak and ready to fall, let nature take its course. Do not risk outshining a feeble superior—it might appear cruel or spiteful. But if your master is firm in his position,

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#48-laws-of-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #reversal
If your master is very weak and ready to fall, let nature take its course. Do not risk outshining a feeble superior—it might appear cruel or spiteful.

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othing to fear from outshining him. Do not be merciful—your master had no such scruples in his own cold-blooded climb to the top. Gauge his strength. If he is weak, discreetly hasten his downfall: Outdo, outcharm, outsmart him at key moments. <span>If he is very weak and ready to fall, let nature take its course. Do not risk outshining a feeble superior—it might appear cruel or spiteful. But if your master is firm in his position, yet you know yourself to be the more capable, bide your time and be patient. It is the natural course of things that power eventually fades a

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#48-laws-of-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #reversal
It is the natural course of things that power eventually fades and weakens.

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nd ready to fall, let nature take its course. Do not risk outshining a feeble superior—it might appear cruel or spiteful. But if your master is firm in his position, yet you know yourself to be the more capable, bide your time and be patient. <span>It is the natural course of things that power eventually fades and weakens. Your master will fall someday, and if you play it right, you will outlive and someday outshine him.<span><body><html>

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#48-laws-of-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #reversal
If your master is firm in his position, yet you know yourself to be the more capable, bide your time and be patient. Your master will fall someday, and if you play it right, you will outlive and someday outshine him

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rength. If he is weak, discreetly hasten his downfall: Outdo, outcharm, outsmart him at key moments. If he is very weak and ready to fall, let nature take its course. Do not risk outshining a feeble superior—it might appear cruel or spiteful. <span>But if your master is firm in his position, yet you know yourself to be the more capable, bide your time and be patient. It is the natural course of things that power eventually fades and weakens. Your master will fall someday, and if you play it right, you will outlive and someday outshine him.<span><body><html>

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#every-word-has-power
Your mind/body connection has such a powerful survival mechanism that your muscles react instantly to truths and non-truths, to what is good for you and what is not good for you.

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Dr. John Diamond studied and demonstrated the fact that muscles respond to both physical and mental stimuli. Your mind/body connection has such a powerful survival mechanism that your muscles react instantly to truths and non-truths, to what is good for you and what is not good for you.




#bayes #programming #r #statistics
R has a built-in function called plot, which we call by entering plot (x,y,type="l")

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Conveniently, R has a built-in function called plot, which we call by entering plot (x,y,type="l"). The segment of code, type="l" (that’s a letter “ l” not a numeral “1”) tells R to plot connecting lines between the points, with no distinctive symbols marking the points. If

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The segment of code, type="l" (that’s a letter “ l” not a numeral “1”) tells R to plot connecting lines between the points, with no distinctive symbols marking the points.

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Conveniently, R has a built-in function called plot, which we call by entering plot (x,y,type="l"). The segment of code, type="l" (that’s a letter “ l” not a numeral “1”) tells R to plot connecting lines between the points, with no distinctive symbols marking the points. If we omitted that part of the command, then R would plot only points by default, not the connecting lines.

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
R has another function, all.equal, for testing equality up to the degree of precision for the computer being used.

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ed results due to the limited precision of representing numbers in the computer’s memory. For example, in most computers, the value of 0.5 − 0.3 does not equal the value of 0.3 − 0.1, even though mathematically they are equivalent. Therefore, <span>R has another function, all.equal, for testing equality up to the degree of precision for the computer being used.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1455221509388

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
Is a vector a class?
Answer
A vector is not technically a class in R


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A vector is not technically a class in R, but a vector is the fundamental data structure.

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Flashcard 1455223868684

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What is the fundamental data structure in R?
Answer
a vector is the fundamental data structure.


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A vector is not technically a class in R, but a vector is the fundamental data structure.

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Flashcard 1455226227980

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What does the colon operator have predence over? What doesn't it have predence over?
Answer
The colon operator has precedence over basic arithmetical operators, but not over the power operator.


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The colon operator has precedence over basic arithmetical operators, but not over the power operator.

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Flashcard 1455228587276

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What happens if the incrementor in seq() does not divide the distance between start and end points evenly?
Answer
If the increment is not an exact divisor of the distance between the starting and ending values, the sequence will not exceed the ending value.


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If the increment is not an exact divisor of the distance between the starting and ending values, the sequence will not exceed the ending value.

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Flashcard 1455230946572

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
if we want a sequence of a certain length and do not care about the exact end point or the increment, how would we build a sequence?
Answer
Omit the end point, specify the length


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The seq function is clever and will infer whatever value is omitted by the user. This capability can be very useful, for example if we want a sequence of a certain length and do not care about the exact end point or the increment.

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Flashcard 1455233305868

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What does the standard deviation control in the normal distribution?
Answer
It controls the width or dispersion of the distribution.


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The standard deviation is another control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls the width or dispersion of the distribution. The standard deviation is sometimes called a scale parameter.

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The standard deviation is sometimes called a scale parameter.

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The standard deviation is another control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls the width or dispersion of the distribution. The standard deviation is sometimes called a scale parameter.

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Flashcard 1455237238028

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
How do you name the elements of a vector (turning it into a dictionary-like structure?)
Answer
we can name the elements of the vector x with the command, names(x)=c( "e" , "pi" , "sqrt2" , "zipcode" )


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The elements of a vector can also, optionally, have names.Forexample,wecan name the elements of the vector x with the command, names(x)=c( "e" , "pi" , "sqrt2" , "zipcode" ) . Notice that the names are in quotes. Then we get at the components of the vector by specifying their names in square brackets. For example, x[c("pi","zipcode")] re

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Flashcard 1455239597324

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
How can you see the integer indices of a factor?
Answer
ask R to show us the factor as a numeric vector: > as.numeric(xf) [1]13213


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To see the integer indices of the levels explicitly, we can ask R to show us the factor as a numeric vector: > as.numeric(xf) [1]13213

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Flashcard 1455241956620

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
How do we specify the order of levels in a factor?
Answer
If we want to specify a particular order for the levels, we can do so with additional arguments in the factor function, like this: > xfo = factor( x , levels=c("low","medium","high") , ordered=TRUE )


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If we want to specify a particular order for the levels, we can do so with additional arguments in the factor function, like this: > xfo = factor( x , levels=c("low","medium","high") , ordered=TRUE ) > xfo [1] high medium low high medium Levels: low < medium < high

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Flashcard 1455244315916

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
What are the (2) ways of getting output?
Answer
here are two straightforward ways of getting output from MATLAB:
Entering a variable name, assignment, or expression on the command line, without a semicolon
Using the disp statement (e.g., disp( x ))


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There are two straightforward ways of getting output from MATLAB: Entering a variable name, assignment, or expression on the command line, without a semicolon Using the disp statement (e.g., disp( x ))

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Flashcard 1455246675212

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
How do you convert a number into a string?
Answer
we convert the number x to its string representation with the function num2str; read this as “number to string.”


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we convert the number x to its string representation with the function num2str; read this as “number to string.”

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Flashcard 1455249034508

Tags
#biochem
Question
These two factors make the combination of van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between stacked bases particularly strong:
Answer
  1. The bases, both purines and pyrimidines, are flat and planar, so they can stack on top of one another.
  2. The atoms of the aromatic rings are very polarizable, and many of the atoms have a partial charge.


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Th e bases, both purines and pyrimidines, are fl at and planar, so they can stack on top of one another. In addition, the atoms of the aromatic rings are very polariz- able, and many of the atoms have a partial charge. Th ese two factors make the combination of van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between stacked bases particularly strong. Th ese eff ects are known collectively as base-stackin

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Flashcard 1455251393804

Tags
#biochem
Question
What provides the dominant contribution to stabilizing the double-helical conformation of nucleic acids?
Answer
base-stacking interactions


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the atoms have a partial charge. Th ese two factors make the combination of van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between stacked bases particularly strong. Th ese eff ects are known collectively as base-stacking interactions, and <span>they provide the dominant contribution to stabilizing the dou- ble-helical conformation of nucleic acids.<span><body><html>

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
One case of trying to make inferences from data without using a model is a method from NHST called resampling or bootstrapping.

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One case of trying to make inferences from data without using a model is a method from NHST called resampling or bootstrapping. These methods compute p values to make decisions, and p values have fundamental logical problems that will be discussed in Chapter 11. These methods also have very limited ability to ex

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Flashcard 1455255325964

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What is a disadvantage of resampling or bootsrapping?
Answer
These methods also have very limited ability to express degrees of certainty about characteristics of the data, whereas Bayesian methods put expression of uncertainty front and center


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o make inferences from data without using a model is a method from NHST called resampling or bootstrapping. These methods compute p values to make decisions, and p values have fundamental logical problems that will be discussed in Chapter 11. <span>These methods also have very limited ability to express degrees of certainty about characteristics of the data, whereas Bayesian methods put expression of uncertainty front and center<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1455257685260

Tags
#biochem
Question
What kind of helix (single or double) does RNA form and why?
Answer
The kind of helix formation by single-stranded (that is, not base-paired) RNA is driven by the stabilizing energetics of base stacking


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span>Instead of being fl exible, which might be anticipated without the complementary bases present, the RNA chain in this region is helical (without being double-helical), with the bases of the strand pack- ing on top of one another. Th is kind of helix formation by single-stranded (that is, not base-paired) RNA is driven by the stabilizing energetics of base stacking<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1455260044556

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Question
In general, the metal ions around DNA are best described as [...] that hop rapidly among vari- ous sites. More localized salt-bridge-like interactions occur quite often in RNA
Answer
a cluster of highly mobile cations


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In general, the metal ions around DNA are best described as a cluster of highly mobile cations that hop rapidly among vari- ous sites. More localized salt-bridge-like interactions occur quite often in RNA

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Flashcard 1455261617420

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Question
In general, the metal ions around DNA are best described as a cluster of highly mobile cations that [...]. More localized salt-bridge-like interactions occur quite often in RNA
Answer
hop rapidly among vari- ous sites


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In general, the metal ions around DNA are best described as a cluster of highly mobile cations that hop rapidly among vari- ous sites. More localized salt-bridge-like interactions occur quite often in RNA

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Flashcard 1455263190284

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#biochem
Question
In general, the metal ions around DNA are best described as a cluster of highly mobile cations that hop rapidly among vari- ous sites. [...] interactions occur quite often in RNA
Answer
More localized salt-bridge-like


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In general, the metal ions around DNA are best described as a cluster of highly mobile cations that hop rapidly among vari- ous sites. More localized salt-bridge-like interactions occur quite often in RNA

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Flashcard 1455264763148

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Question
nucleosides in DNA and RNA have the base attached cova- lently to the sugar by a single bond from the [...] to the N1 or N9 atom of the pyrimidine or purine base
Answer
C1ʹ atom of the sugar


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nucleosides in DNA and RNA have the base attached cova- lently to the sugar by a single bond from the C1ʹ atom of the sugar to the N1 or N9 atom of the pyrimidine or purine base

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Flashcard 1455266336012

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Question
nucleosides in DNA and RNA have the base attached cova- lently to the sugar by a single bond from the C1ʹ atom of the sugar to the [...]
Answer
N1 or N9 atom of the pyrimidine or purine base


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nucleosides in DNA and RNA have the base attached cova- lently to the sugar by a single bond from the C1ʹ atom of the sugar to the N1 or N9 atom of the pyrimidine or purine base

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Flashcard 1455267908876

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Question
nucleosides in DNA and RNA have the base attached [...] from the C1ʹ atom of the sugar to the N1 or N9 atom of the pyrimidine or purine base
Answer
cova- lently to the sugar by a single bond


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nucleosides in DNA and RNA have the base attached cova- lently to the sugar by a single bond from the C1ʹ atom of the sugar to the N1 or N9 atom of the pyrimidine or purine base

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#biochem
the anti conformation is lower in energy and occurs more frequently

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Although the anti conformation is lower in energy and occurs more frequently, there are situations that can enforce adoption of the syn conformation. For exam- ple, in some structures there is much better stacking of the bases in the syn con- formation, as seen

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there is much better stacking of the bases in the syn con- formation, as seen in a form of DNA known as Z-DNA (see Section 2.12) and in some RNA loop structures.

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Although the anti conformation is lower in energy and occurs more frequently, there are situations that can enforce adoption of the syn conformation. For exam- ple, in some structures there is much better stacking of the bases in the syn con- formation, as seen in a form of DNA known as Z-DNA (see Section 2.12) and in some RNA loop structures. Chemical modifi cations of bases may also aff ect the relative energies of the anti and syn conformations

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#biochem
n the standard Watson-Crick model of DNA, all of the sugar groups have the C2ʹ endo conformation.

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In the standard Watson-Crick model of DNA, all of the sugar groups have the C2ʹ endo conformation. Th is results in close contact between one of the oxygen atoms of the 3ʹ phosphate group and the hydrogen atom at the 2ʹ position of the ribose ring in DNA (Figure 2.8). Th e distan

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#biochem
the C2ʹ endo conformation. Th is results in close contact between one of the oxygen atoms of the 3ʹ phosphate group and the hydrogen atom at the 2ʹ position of the ribose ring in DNA

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In the standard Watson-Crick model of DNA, all of the sugar groups have the C2ʹ endo conformation. Th is results in close contact between one of the oxygen atoms of the 3ʹ phosphate group and the hydrogen atom at the 2ʹ position of the ribose ring in DNA (Figure 2.8). Th e distance between the phos- phate oxygen and the hydrogen atom is 1.9 Å. If the 2ʹ hydrogen were replaced by a hydroxyl group, as in the ribose ring of RNA, the two

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#biochem
h e distance between the phos- phate oxygen and the hydrogen atom is 1.9 Å.

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del of DNA, all of the sugar groups have the C2ʹ endo conformation. Th is results in close contact between one of the oxygen atoms of the 3ʹ phosphate group and the hydrogen atom at the 2ʹ position of the ribose ring in DNA (Figure 2.8). T<span>h e distance between the phos- phate oxygen and the hydrogen atom is 1.9 Å. If the 2ʹ hydrogen were replaced by a hydroxyl group, as in the ribose ring of RNA, the two oxygen atoms would repel each other strongly. Instead, in RNA, the sugar adopts a C3ʹ endo

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#biochem
If the 2ʹ hydrogen were replaced by a hydroxyl group, as in the ribose ring of RNA, the two oxygen atoms would repel each other strongly.

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esults in close contact between one of the oxygen atoms of the 3ʹ phosphate group and the hydrogen atom at the 2ʹ position of the ribose ring in DNA (Figure 2.8). Th e distance between the phos- phate oxygen and the hydrogen atom is 1.9 Å. <span>If the 2ʹ hydrogen were replaced by a hydroxyl group, as in the ribose ring of RNA, the two oxygen atoms would repel each other strongly. Instead, in RNA, the sugar adopts a C3ʹ endo conformation (Figure 2.9), which causes a change in phosphate separation and a general modi- fi cation of the double-helical structure</spa

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#biochem
in RNA, the sugar adopts a C3ʹ endo conformation (Figure 2.9), which causes a change in phosphate separation and a general modi- fi cation of the double-helical structure

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A (Figure 2.8). Th e distance between the phos- phate oxygen and the hydrogen atom is 1.9 Å. If the 2ʹ hydrogen were replaced by a hydroxyl group, as in the ribose ring of RNA, the two oxygen atoms would repel each other strongly. Instead, <span>in RNA, the sugar adopts a C3ʹ endo conformation (Figure 2.9), which causes a change in phosphate separation and a general modi- fi cation of the double-helical structure<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1455280491788

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#biochem
Question
When is A-form DNA favored? (2 times)
Answer
Usually only favored when limited water is available to hydrate the DNA. The A-form helix is also adopted by RNA-DNA hybrids


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DNA can also adopt the A-form helical structure (Figure 2.15), but it is usually only favored when limited water is available to hydrate the DNA. When DNA molecules that are in the B-form are allowed to dry out slowly, they switch spontaneously to A-DNA. Th e A-form helix is also adopted by RNA-DNA hybrids

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Flashcard 1455283637516

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Question
What are similarities between A-form and B-form DNA?
Answer
The two polynucle- otide strands are antiparallel
They form a right-handed spiral with the phosphate groups on the outside and the bases on the inside.
The precise number of base pairs per turn is generally close to the ~10 base pairs per turn of B-DNA


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A-form DNA or RNA is similar to B-DNA in several aspects. Th e two polynucle- otide strands are antiparallel, and form a right-handed spiral with the phosphate groups on the outside and the bases on the inside. Th e precise number of base pairs per turn depends on whether the double helix is DNA-DNA, DNA-RNA, or RNA-RNA, but it is generally close to the ~10 base pairs per turn of B-DNA

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Flashcard 1455285996812

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Question
What is one important difference between A and B-form DNA?
Answer
The position of the base pairs with respect to the helix axis. In B-DNA, they are all parallel to each other and perpendicular to the axis of the helix. In A-form heli- ces, however, the base pairs are tilted away from perpendicular and are moved away from the center of the helix


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One important diff erence between B-form DNA and A-form DNA or RNA is the position of the base pairs with respect to the helix axis. In B-DNA, they are all parallel to each other and perpendicular to the axis of the helix. In A-form heli- ces, however, the base pairs are tilted away from perpendicular and are moved away from the center of the helix

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Flashcard 1455287045388

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#conversation-tactics
Question
The whole point behind the 2 second practice is to [...]
Answer
make you look like a good listener.


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The whole point behind the 2 second practice is to make you look like a good listener.

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Flashcard 1455290191116

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Question
Runners stretch, singers sing scales. What about people engaging in conversation?

To warm up your social and conversation skills, you just need to do something we’ve done almost every day in our lives: [...].
Answer
read out loud


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ead><head>Runners stretch, singers sing scales. What about people engaging in conversation? To warm up your social and conversation skills, you just need to do something we’ve done almost every day in our lives: read out loud.<html>

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
To get a list of all sorts of online documentation, much of it written in readable prose instead of telegraphic lists, type help.start()

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; and you can read all about it. In particular, the information directs you to another command, par, that controls all the plot parameters. To learn about it, type ?"par". In general, it actually is helpful to use R’s built-in help. <span>To get a list of all sorts of online documentation, much of it written in readable prose instead of telegraphic lists, type help.start()<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1455293336844

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What function makes vectors?
Answer
The combine function, c (yes, the single letter “c”),makes vectors


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The combine function, c (yes, the single letter “c”),makesvectors.Actually,thecombine function can combine different types of data structures, but at this point we consider only its ability to create vectors by combining elements. For example, c( 2.71

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Flashcard 1455295696140

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#conversation-tactics
Question
Liars and those with hidden agendas tend to [...]
Answer
speed up at certain points

Also those who are nervous, uneasy, and uncomfortable. Their pacing tends to implicate their intent.


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Have you ever noticed that liars and those with hidden agendas tend to speed up at certain points? Also those who are nervous, uneasy, and uncomfortable. Their pacing tends to implicate their intent.

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Flashcard 1455298055436

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What is a way to access elements of vectors without indexing or naming?
Answer
Another way to access elements of a vector is by a sequence of logical true and false values that specify whether or not to return the corresponding element. For example, x[c(FALSE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE)]


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Another way to access elements of a vector is by a sequence of logical true and false values that specify whether or not to return the corresponding element. For example, x[c(FALSE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE)] also returns the vector 3.14, 47405

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Flashcard 1455299104012

Question
Limbic brain does not have a capacity to visualize or grow because it thinks in terms of [...]
Answer
polarities

goals are short-term and focus primarily on good/bad, right/wrong, and yours/mine.


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head>Limbic brain goals are short-term and focus primarily on good/bad, right/wrong, and yours/mine. It’s habitual, hierarchical, and simplistic. It does not have a capacity to visualize or grow because it thinks in terms of polarities<html>

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Flashcard 1455301987596

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What are factors?
Answer
Factors are a type of vector in R where the elements are discrete and belong to a finite list of categories, the levels of the factors are those categories.


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Factors are a type of vector in R for which the elements are categorical values that could also be ordered. The values are stored internally as integers with labeled levels.

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Flashcard 1455305133324

Question
we unconsciously use body language for [...] percent of all communication.
Answer
55


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we unconsciously use body language for 55 percent of all communication.

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Flashcard 1455306968332

Question

Free cash flow (FCF) is a measure of a company's [...]

Answer
financial performance


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What is 'Free Cash Flow - FCF' Free cash flow (FCF) is a measure of a company's financial performance, calculated as operating cash flow minus capital expenditures. FCF represents the cash that a company is able to generate after spending the money required to maintain or expand its ass

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Free Cash Flow - FCF Definition | Investopedia
<span>What is 'Free Cash Flow - FCF' Free cash flow (FCF) is a measure of a company's financial performance, calculated as operating cash flow minus capital expenditures. FCF represents the cash that a company is able to generate after spending the money required to maintain or expand its asset base. FCF is important because it allows a company to pursue opportunities that enhance shareholder value. BREAKING DOWN 'Free Cash Flow - FCF' FCF is an assessment of the amount of cash a company generates after accounting for all capital expenditures, su







Flashcard 1455309327628

Question

Free cash flow (FCF) is a measure of a company's financial performance, calculated as [...] minus [...].

Answer
operating cash flow

capital expenditures


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What is 'Free Cash Flow - FCF' Free cash flow (FCF) is a measure of a company's financial performance, calculated as operating cash flow minus capital expenditures. FCF represents the cash that a company is able to generate after spending the money required to maintain or expand its asset base. FCF is important because i

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Free Cash Flow - FCF Definition | Investopedia
<span>What is 'Free Cash Flow - FCF' Free cash flow (FCF) is a measure of a company's financial performance, calculated as operating cash flow minus capital expenditures. FCF represents the cash that a company is able to generate after spending the money required to maintain or expand its asset base. FCF is important because it allows a company to pursue opportunities that enhance shareholder value. BREAKING DOWN 'Free Cash Flow - FCF' FCF is an assessment of the amount of cash a company generates after accounting for all capital expenditures, su







Flashcard 1455311686924

Question

FCF represents the cash that a company is able to generate after spending the money required to [...].

Answer
maintain or expand its asset base


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Flow - FCF' Free cash flow (FCF) is a measure of a company's financial performance, calculated as operating cash flow minus capital expenditures. FCF represents the cash that a company is able to generate after spending the money required to <span>maintain or expand its asset base. FCF is important because it allows a company to pursue opportunities that enhance shareholder value.<span><body><html>

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Free Cash Flow - FCF Definition | Investopedia
<span>What is 'Free Cash Flow - FCF' Free cash flow (FCF) is a measure of a company's financial performance, calculated as operating cash flow minus capital expenditures. FCF represents the cash that a company is able to generate after spending the money required to maintain or expand its asset base. FCF is important because it allows a company to pursue opportunities that enhance shareholder value. BREAKING DOWN 'Free Cash Flow - FCF' FCF is an assessment of the amount of cash a company generates after accounting for all capital expenditures, su







Flashcard 1455314046220

Question

FCF is important because it allows a company to [...]

Answer
pursue opportunities that enhance shareholder value.


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, calculated as operating cash flow minus capital expenditures. FCF represents the cash that a company is able to generate after spending the money required to maintain or expand its asset base. FCF is important because it allows a company to <span>pursue opportunities that enhance shareholder value.<span><body><html>

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Free Cash Flow - FCF Definition | Investopedia
<span>What is 'Free Cash Flow - FCF' Free cash flow (FCF) is a measure of a company's financial performance, calculated as operating cash flow minus capital expenditures. FCF represents the cash that a company is able to generate after spending the money required to maintain or expand its asset base. FCF is important because it allows a company to pursue opportunities that enhance shareholder value. BREAKING DOWN 'Free Cash Flow - FCF' FCF is an assessment of the amount of cash a company generates after accounting for all capital expenditures, su







#art-of-memory
If the images are not linked (journey or not), then it is harder to recall them in the right order.

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Images can be linked or not linked. If the images are not linked, then it is harder to recall them in the right order. For example when you made a shopping list that you forgot home, then at store you probably won't be able to recall all the items you want to buy. Linked images are somehow

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How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki
How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki How to Link Mnemonic Images From Memory Techniques Wiki Jump to: navigation, search Images can be linked or not linked. If the images are not linked, then it is harder to recall them in the right order. For example when you made a shopping list that you forgot home, then at store you probably won't be able to recall all the items you want to buy. Linked images are somehow connected. For instance if the first two items of the list were oranges and tooth paste, then in order to link the images of orange and toothpaste you could imagine that you drill a hole in the orange and fill it with toothpaste. Types of image links r30 proposed three 3 basic ways to link images with each other: Transforming one image into another Interaction between two images Chaining multiple images with a story (a.k.a the story method) The images of the chain (Story Method) can be connected using interaction and/or transformation. Then the chain becomes what we like to call a story, be the story logical or not. This method is demonstrated at this page. More information and examples (with pictures) of all three linking techniques can be found at r30's website. See Linking Techniques Comparison discussion for some initial ideas. T




#art-of-memory
Linked images are somehow connected. For instance if the first two items of the list were oranges and tooth paste, then in order to link the images of orange and toothpaste you could imagine that you drill a hole in the orange and fill it with toothpaste.

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If the images are not linked, then it is harder to recall them in the right order. For example when you made a shopping list that you forgot home, then at store you probably won't be able to recall all the items you want to buy. <span>Linked images are somehow connected. For instance if the first two items of the list were oranges and tooth paste, then in order to link the images of orange and toothpaste you could imagine that you drill a hole in the orange and fill it with toothpaste. Types of image links -proposed three 3 basic ways to link images with each other: Transforming one image into another Interaction between two images Chain

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How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki
How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki How to Link Mnemonic Images From Memory Techniques Wiki Jump to: navigation, search Images can be linked or not linked. If the images are not linked, then it is harder to recall them in the right order. For example when you made a shopping list that you forgot home, then at store you probably won't be able to recall all the items you want to buy. Linked images are somehow connected. For instance if the first two items of the list were oranges and tooth paste, then in order to link the images of orange and toothpaste you could imagine that you drill a hole in the orange and fill it with toothpaste. Types of image links r30 proposed three 3 basic ways to link images with each other: Transforming one image into another Interaction between two images Chaining multiple images with a story (a.k.a the story method) The images of the chain (Story Method) can be connected using interaction and/or transformation. Then the chain becomes what we like to call a story, be the story logical or not. This method is demonstrated at this page. More information and examples (with pictures) of all three linking techniques can be found at r30's website. See Linking Techniques Comparison discussion for some initial ideas. T




#art-of-memory
Types of image links

-proposed three 3 basic ways to link images with each other:

  1. Transforming one image into another
  2. Interaction between two images
  3. Chaining multiple images with a story (a.k.a the story method)

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omehow connected. For instance if the first two items of the list were oranges and tooth paste, then in order to link the images of orange and toothpaste you could imagine that you drill a hole in the orange and fill it with toothpaste. <span>Types of image links -proposed three 3 basic ways to link images with each other: Transforming one image into another Interaction between two images Chaining multiple images with a story (a.k.a the story method) The images of the chain (Story Method) can be connected using interaction and/or transformation. Then the chain becomes what we like to call a story, be the story logical o

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How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki
How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki How to Link Mnemonic Images From Memory Techniques Wiki Jump to: navigation, search Images can be linked or not linked. If the images are not linked, then it is harder to recall them in the right order. For example when you made a shopping list that you forgot home, then at store you probably won't be able to recall all the items you want to buy. Linked images are somehow connected. For instance if the first two items of the list were oranges and tooth paste, then in order to link the images of orange and toothpaste you could imagine that you drill a hole in the orange and fill it with toothpaste. Types of image links r30 proposed three 3 basic ways to link images with each other: Transforming one image into another Interaction between two images Chaining multiple images with a story (a.k.a the story method) The images of the chain (Story Method) can be connected using interaction and/or transformation. Then the chain becomes what we like to call a story, be the story logical or not. This method is demonstrated at this page. More information and examples (with pictures) of all three linking techniques can be found at r30's website. See Linking Techniques Comparison discussion for some initial ideas. T




Flashcard 1455322172684

Tags
#art-of-memory
Question
Types of image links
  1. [...] another
  2. Interaction between two images
  3. Chaining multiple images with a story (a.k.a the story method)
Answer
Transforming one image into


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Types of image links -proposed three 3 basic ways to link images with each other: Transforming one image into another Interaction between two images Chaining multiple images with a story (a.k.a the story method)

Original toplevel document

How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki
How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki How to Link Mnemonic Images From Memory Techniques Wiki Jump to: navigation, search Images can be linked or not linked. If the images are not linked, then it is harder to recall them in the right order. For example when you made a shopping list that you forgot home, then at store you probably won't be able to recall all the items you want to buy. Linked images are somehow connected. For instance if the first two items of the list were oranges and tooth paste, then in order to link the images of orange and toothpaste you could imagine that you drill a hole in the orange and fill it with toothpaste. Types of image links r30 proposed three 3 basic ways to link images with each other: Transforming one image into another Interaction between two images Chaining multiple images with a story (a.k.a the story method) The images of the chain (Story Method) can be connected using interaction and/or transformation. Then the chain becomes what we like to call a story, be the story logical or not. This method is demonstrated at this page. More information and examples (with pictures) of all three linking techniques can be found at r30's website. See Linking Techniques Comparison discussion for some initial ideas. T







#art-of-memory
The images of the chain (Story Method) can be connected using interaction and/or transformation. Then the chain becomes what we like to call a story, be the story logical or not

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f image links -proposed three 3 basic ways to link images with each other: Transforming one image into another Interaction between two images Chaining multiple images with a story (a.k.a the story method) <span>The images of the chain (Story Method) can be connected using interaction and/or transformation. Then the chain becomes what we like to call a story, be the story logical or not. <span><body><html>

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How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki
How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki How to Link Mnemonic Images From Memory Techniques Wiki Jump to: navigation, search Images can be linked or not linked. If the images are not linked, then it is harder to recall them in the right order. For example when you made a shopping list that you forgot home, then at store you probably won't be able to recall all the items you want to buy. Linked images are somehow connected. For instance if the first two items of the list were oranges and tooth paste, then in order to link the images of orange and toothpaste you could imagine that you drill a hole in the orange and fill it with toothpaste. Types of image links r30 proposed three 3 basic ways to link images with each other: Transforming one image into another Interaction between two images Chaining multiple images with a story (a.k.a the story method) The images of the chain (Story Method) can be connected using interaction and/or transformation. Then the chain becomes what we like to call a story, be the story logical or not. This method is demonstrated at this page. More information and examples (with pictures) of all three linking techniques can be found at r30's website. See Linking Techniques Comparison discussion for some initial ideas. T




Flashcard 1455326366988

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Napoleon advised: Place [...]
Answer
your iron hand inside a velvet glove.


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Napoleon advised: Place your iron hand inside a velvet glove.

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If you can master the arts of indirection, learning to seduce, charm, deceive, and subtly outmaneuver your opponents, you will attain the heights of power.

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If you can master the arts of indirection, learning to seduce, charm, deceive, and subtly outmaneuver your opponents, you will attain the heights of power. If you can master the arts of indirection, you will be able to make people bend to your will without their realizing what you have done. And if they do not realize what you h

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#48-laws-of-power
If you can master the arts of indirection, you will be able to make people bend to your will without their realizing what you have done. And if they do not realize what you have done, they will neither resent nor resist you.

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If you can master the arts of indirection, learning to seduce, charm, deceive, and subtly outmaneuver your opponents, you will attain the heights of power. If you can master the arts of indirection, you will be able to make people bend to your will without their realizing what you have done. And if they do not realize what you have done, they will neither resent nor resist you.

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Flashcard 1455332134156

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Related to mastering your emotions is the ability to [...] and think objectively about [...]
Answer
distance yourself from the present moment

the past and future.


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Related to mastering your emotions is the ability to distance yourself from the present moment and think objectively about the past and future.

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#48-laws-of-power
You must create for yourself-one face looking continuously to the future and the other to the past.

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You must be able to look in both directions at once, the better to handle danger from wherever it comes. Such is the face you must create for yourself-one face looking continuously to the future and the other to the past.

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Flashcard 1455336852748

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Instead of dreaming of your plan’s happy ending, you must [...] that might emerge in it.
Answer
work on calculating every possible permutation and pitfall


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Instead of spending your time dreaming of your plan’s happy ending, you must work on calculating every possible permutation and pitfall that might emerge in it.

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Flashcard 1455339212044

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
You begin by examining the [...], the ones that have most grievously held you back.
Answer
mistakes you have made in the past


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You begin by examining the mistakes you have made in the past, the ones that have most grievously held you back.

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Flashcard 1455341047052

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
If you can evaluate and observe your past self with the 48 laws, you can learn to [...]—an immensely valuable skill.
Answer
break the patterns of the past


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If you can evaluate and observe your past self with the 48 laws, you can learn to break the patterns of the past—an immensely valuable skill.

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Flashcard 1455342619916

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
[...] is a developed art of civilization and the most potent weapon in the game of power.
Answer
Deception


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Deception is a developed art of civilization and the most potent weapon in the game of power.

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Flashcard 1455344192780

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Like mastering your emotions, [...] is a skill—it does not come naturally.
Answer
patience


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Like mastering your emotions, patience is a skill—it does not come naturally.

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Flashcard 1455345765644

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
[...] only makes you look weak. It is a principal impediment to power.
Answer
Impatience


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Impatience, on the other hand, only makes you look weak. It is a principal impediment to power.

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Flashcard 1455348124940

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Power is essentially amoral and one of the most important skills to acquire is the ability to see [...] rather than [...]
Answer
circumstances

good or evil


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Power is essentially amoral and one of the most important skills to acquire is the ability to see circumstances rather than good or evil

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Flashcard 1455350746380

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Perhaps you will attain your goal, and a worthy goal at that, but [...]? Apply this standard to everything, including whether to collaborate with other people or come to their aid.
Answer
at what price


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Perhaps you will attain your goal, and a worthy goal at that, but at what price? Apply this standard to everything, including whether to collaborate with other people or come to their aid.

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Flashcard 1455352319244

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
An understanding of people’s [...] is the single greatest piece of knowledge you can have in acquiring power.
Answer
hidden motives

It opens up endless possibilities of deception, seduction, and manipulation.


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An understanding of people’s hidden motives is the single greatest piece of knowledge you can have in acquiring power. It opens up endless possibilities of deception, seduction, and manipulation.

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Flashcard 1455354940684

Tags
#conversation-tactics #high-points
Question
High point examples:


You witness [...] together.

Answer
something either horrifying or hilarious


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High point examples: You can share a big laugh. You can both get emotional and cry. You share a strong perspective on an issue that no one else does. You witness something either horrifying or hilarious together. You finish each other’s sentences. You create an inside joke with them. You both struggle to not laugh when you observe something.</

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Flashcard 1455357824268

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
How do factors order levels by default?
Answer
By default, it orders the levels alphabetically.


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The factor function read the contents of vector x and kept track of all the distinct elements, calling them the levels of the factor. By default, it ordered the levels alphabetically. It then recoded the contents of the vector in terms of the integer indices of the alphabetized levels.

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Flashcard 1455360445708

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
How do you reorder a factor?
Answer
To reorder, just use the factor function again, explicitly indicating the desired levels and order.


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To reorder, just use the factor function again, explicitly indicating the desired levels and order.

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Flashcard 1455363067148

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
no human being likes to feel [...].
Answer
disrespected and like they don’t matter

It’s a negative feeling that can ruin someone’s day. It’s also largely avoidable


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no human being likes to feel disrespected and like they don’t matter. It’s a negative feeling that can ruin someone’s day. It’s also largely avoidable

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Flashcard 1455366212876

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
To defuse situations and maximize the illusion of respect, you need to tell people [...].
Answer
why you are asking or explain why you are telling

Giving someone a justification for your ask turns an order into a reasonable and rational request for assistance.


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To defuse situations and maximize the illusion of respect, you need to tell people why you are asking or explain why you are telling. Giving someone a justification for your ask turns an order into a reasonable and rational request for assistance.

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Flashcard 1455367785740

Tags
#biochem
Question
What is the physiological role of Z-form DNA?
Answer
Not known yet, but one possibility is that it triggers the opening of DNA base pairs.


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Th e physiological role of Z-form DNA in the cell is still not completely understood. One possibility is that it triggers the opening of DNA base pairs.

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Flashcard 1455371455756

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
Even if you are listening intently, it’s still easy for others to feel like you are not. Namely, when you [...]
Answer
jump in immediately after they have finished speaking.


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Even if you are listening intently, it’s still easy for others to feel like you are not. Namely, when you jump in immediately after they have finished speaking.

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Flashcard 1455373815052

Tags
#biochem
Question
In the Z-form structure, there are [...] base pairs per turn, the sugars alternate between 2ʹ endo and 3ʹ endo puckers, and the G (or A) residues are in the syn con- formation, while the C (or T) residues are in the normal anti conformation
Answer
12


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In the Z-form structure, there are 12 base pairs per turn, the sugars alternate between 2ʹ endo and 3ʹ endo puckers, and the G (or A) residues are in the syn con- formation, while the C (or T) residues are in the normal an

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Flashcard 1455375387916

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
[...] can either be your friend or undermine what you're trying to say.
Answer
Speed


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Speed can either be your friend or undermine what you're trying to say.

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Flashcard 1455376960780

Tags
#biochem
Question
In the Z-form structure, there are 12 base pairs per turn, the sugars alternate between [...] puckers, and the G (or A) residues are in the syn con- formation, while the C (or T) residues are in the normal anti conformation
Answer
2ʹ endo and 3ʹ endo


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In the Z-form structure, there are 12 base pairs per turn, the sugars alternate between 2ʹ endo and 3ʹ endo puckers, and the G (or A) residues are in the syn con- formation, while the C (or T) residues are in the normal anti conformation

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Flashcard 1455380106508

Tags
#biochem
Question
In the Z-form structure, there are 12 base pairs per turn, the sugars alternate between 2ʹ endo and 3ʹ endo puckers, and the [...residues are in...confromation while the...are in the...conformation]
Answer
G (or A) residues are in the syn con- formation, while the C (or T) residues are in the normal anti conformation


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In the Z-form structure, there are 12 base pairs per turn, the sugars alternate between 2ʹ endo and 3ʹ endo puckers, and the G (or A) residues are in the syn con- formation, while the C (or T) residues are in the normal anti conformation

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Flashcard 1455382465804

Question
The middle brain links mainly with [...], and communication.
Answer
our emotions: fear, anger, love, affection


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The middle brain links mainly with our emotions: fear, anger, love, affection, and communication. It’s called the family, or limbic brain

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Flashcard 1455385349388

Tags
#biochem
Question
Molecules containing [...] (usually with N or O atoms in them) can bind to DNA through intercalation—that is, slipping between base pairs of the DNA and stacking with the bases.
Answer
heterocyclic aromatic rings


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Molecules containing heterocyclic aromatic rings (usually with N or O atoms in them) can bind to DNA through intercalation—that is, slipping between base pairs of the DNA and stacking with the bases.

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Flashcard 1455386922252

Tags
#biochem
Question
Molecules containing heterocyclic aromatic rings (usually with [...or...] atoms in them) can bind to DNA through intercalation—that is, slipping between base pairs of the DNA and stacking with the bases.
Answer
N or O


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Molecules containing heterocyclic aromatic rings (usually with N or O atoms in them) can bind to DNA through intercalation—that is, slipping between base pairs of the DNA and stacking with the bases.

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Flashcard 1455389281548

Tags
#biochem
Question
Molecules containing heterocyclic aromatic rings (usually with N or O atoms in them) can bind to DNA through [...]—that is, slipping between base pairs of the DNA and stacking with the bases.
Answer
intercalation


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Molecules containing heterocyclic aromatic rings (usually with N or O atoms in them) can bind to DNA through intercalation—that is, slipping between base pairs of the DNA and stacking with the bases.

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Flashcard 1455390854412

Tags
#biochem
Question
What is intercalation?
Answer
slipping between base pairs of the DNA and stacking with the bases.


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Molecules containing heterocyclic aromatic rings (usually with N or O atoms in them) can bind to DNA through intercalation—that is, slipping between base pairs of the DNA and stacking with the bases.

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Flashcard 1455394262284

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Half of your mastery of power comes from what you do not let yourself get dragged into.

For this skill you must learn to judge all things by
[...]
Answer
what they cost you.


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Half of your mastery of power comes from what you do not do, what you do not allow yourself to get dragged into. For this skill you must learn to judge all things by what they cost you. As Nietzsche wrote, “The value of a thing sometimes lies not in what one attains with it, but in what one pays for it —what it costs us.”

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Flashcard 1455404485900

Tags
#biochem
Question
In nucleosomes, which compact chromosomal DNA (discussed in Chapter 1), the DNA is bent much more sharply than would be expected from its the persistence length; roughly [...] base pairs of DNA wrap twice around the nucleosome core
Answer
150


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In nucleosomes, which compact chromosomal DNA (discussed in Chapter 1), the DNA is bent much more sharply than would be expected from its the persistence length; roughly 150 base pairs of DNA wrap twice around the nucleosome core

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Flashcard 1455406320908

Tags
#biochem
Question
[...] is a large-scale conformational eff ect in DNA in which the whole double helix winds into a superhelix
Answer
Supercoiling


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Supercoiling is a large-scale conformational eff ect in DNA in which the whole double helix winds into a superhelix

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Flashcard 1455497809164

Tags
#biochem
Question
Supercoiling is a large-scale conformational eff ect in DNA in which [...]
Answer
the whole double helix winds into a superhelix


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Supercoiling is a large-scale conformational eff ect in DNA in which the whole double helix winds into a superhelix

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Flashcard 1455511964940

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
An entire row or column of a matrix can be accessed [...]
Answer
by specifying its entire range or by leaving its range unspecified.


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An entire row or column of a matrix can be accessed by specifying its entire range or by leaving its range unspecified.

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Flashcard 1455522188556

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
CSV files are easily loaded into R’s memory using the [...] function
Answer
read.csv


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CSV files are easily loaded into R’s memory using the read.csv function

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Flashcard 1455539227916

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
How do you save multiple variables into a single Rdata file?
Answer
simply by specifying them as the initial comma- separated arguments in the save command. All the variables are saved along with their names


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If desired, several different variables can all be saved in a single Rdata file, simply by specifying them as the initial comma- separated arguments in the save command. All the variables are saved along with their names

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Flashcard 1455559937292

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
Another way to generate a table of counts is with the [...] function
Answer
table


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Another way to generate a table of counts is with the table function

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Flashcard 1455571209484

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The [...] function is handy for collapsing arrays across specified dimensions, and applying a function to the data within the collapsed dimensions
Answer
apply


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The apply function is handy for collapsing arrays across specified dimensions, and applying a function to the data within the collapsed dimensions

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Flashcard 1455577500940

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The apply function is handy for [...and...]
Answer
collapsing arrays across specified dimensions, and applying a function to the data within the collapsed dimensions


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The apply function is handy for collapsing arrays across specified dimensions, and applying a function to the data within the collapsed dimensions

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Flashcard 1455602142476

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
Use [...] to display a number as a rational approximation (ratio of two integers)
Answer
format rat


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Use format rat to display a number as a rational approximation (ratio of two integers)

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Flashcard 1455623638284

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
What is the iteration or trip count?
Answer
The number of times the loop is executed


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he number of times the loop is executed may be calculated from the fol- lowing equation: floor last −first increment +1 where the MATLAB function floor(x) rounds x down toward −∞. This value is called the iteration or tri

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Flashcard 1455649328396

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
here is a neater way of monitoring the time taken to interpret MATLAB state- ments: the [...] function.
Answer
tic and toc


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here is a neater way of monitoring the time taken to interpret MATLAB state- ments: the tic and toc function.

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Flashcard 1455659552012

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
How do you do a conditional in matlab?
Answer
if condition; statements; end


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The simplest form of if in a single line is if condition; statements; end

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Flashcard 1455679737100

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
If y is complex, the statement plot(y) is equivalent to [...] The statement axis(’equal’) is necessary to make circles look round; it changes what is known as the aspect ratio of the monitor. axis(’normal’) gives the default aspect ratio.
Answer
plot(real(y), imag(y))


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If y is complex, the statement plot(y) is equivalent to plot(real(y), imag(y)) The statement axis(’equal’) is necessary to make circles look round; it changes what is known as the aspect ratio of the monitor. axis(’normal’) gives the default aspect ratio.

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#matlab #programming
The ’ op- erator is the complex conjugate transpose, meaning rows and columns are inter- changed and signs of imaginary parts are changed.

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For complex matrices, the operations ’ and .’ behave differently. The ’ op- erator is the complex conjugate transpose, meaning rows and columns are inter- changed and signs of imaginary parts are changed. The .’ operator, on the other hand, does a pure transpose without taking the complex conjugate.

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#matlab #programming
The .’ operator, on the other hand, does a pure transpose without taking the complex conjugate.

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For complex matrices, the operations ’ and .’ behave differently. The ’ op- erator is the complex conjugate transpose, meaning rows and columns are inter- changed and signs of imaginary parts are changed. The .’ operator, on the other hand, does a pure transpose without taking the complex conjugate.

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Flashcard 1455737670924

Tags
#electromagnetism #physics
Question
In the simplest case of a uniform vector field ~ A and a surface S per- pendicular to the direction of the field, the flux U is defined as [...]
Answer
the product of the field magnitude and the area of the surface


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In the simplest case of a uniform vector field ~ A and a surface S per- pendicular to the direction of the field, the flux U is defined as the product of the field magnitude and the area of the surface

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Flashcard 1455788789004

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
The word “vector” comes from the [...meaning...] it was first used by eighteenth-century astronomers investigating the mechanism by which a planet is “carried” around the Sun
Answer
Latin vehere meaning “to carry;”


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The word “vector” comes from the Latin vehere meaning “to carry;” it was first used by eighteenth-century astronomers investigating the mechanism by which a planet is “carried” around the Sun

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Flashcard 1455806876940

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
The word “vector” comes from the Latin vehere meaning “to carry;” it was first used by [who investigating what?]
Answer
eighteenth-century astronomers investigating the mechanism by which a planet is “carried” around the Sun


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The word “vector” comes from the Latin vehere meaning “to carry;” it was first used by eighteenth-century astronomers investigating the mechanism by which a planet is “carried” around the Sun

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Flashcard 1456123809036

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
So in 3-dimensional space, a second-rank tensor is represented by [...]. In N-dimensional space, scalars still require only one number, vectors require N numbers, and tensors require N R numbers
Answer
32 = 9 numbers


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So in 3-dimensional space, a second-rank tensor is represented by 3 2 = 9 numbers. In N-dimensional space, scalars still require only one number, vectors require N numbers, and tensors require N R numbers

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Flashcard 1456125381900

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
So in 3-dimensional space, a second-rank tensor is represented by 32 = 9 numbers. In N-dimensional space, [how many numbers for scalar, vector and tensor?]
Answer
scalars still require only one number, vectors require N numbers, and tensors require NR numbers


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So in 3-dimensional space, a second-rank tensor is represented by 3 2 = 9 numbers. In N-dimensional space, scalars still require only one number, vectors require N numbers, and tensors require N R numbers

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#biochem
Both monovalent (sodium and potas- sium) and divalent (particularly magnesium) ions have been found to interact with various sites on nucleic acids. Th ese interactions may be through direct metal-ion coordination or they may be mediated by water molecules

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under physiologically relevant conditions, these phosphates will be negatively charged and will tend to repel each other. As will be described further in Section 2.23, these negative charges can be shielded by metal ions. Both monovalent (sodium and potas- sium) and divalent (particularly magnesium) ions have been found to interact with various sites on nucleic acids. Th ese interactions may be through direct metal-ion coordination or they may be mediated by water molecules<html>

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#biochem
these phosphates will be negatively charged and will tend to repel each other. As will be described further in Section 2.23, these negative charges can be shielded by metal ions.

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under physiologically relevant conditions, these phosphates will be negatively charged and will tend to repel each other. As will be described further in Section 2.23, these negative charges can be shielded by metal ions. Both monovalent (sodium and potas- sium) and divalent (particularly magnesium) ions have been found to interact with various sites on nucleic acids. Th ese interactions may be through

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#biochem
Th e backbones (specifi cally the phosphates) need to be separated as far as possible and be exposed to solvent to minimize electrostatic repulsions.

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Th e backbones (specifi cally the phosphates) need to be separated as far as possible and be exposed to solvent to minimize electrostatic repulsions. Th e bases, in turn, need to stack to optimize the van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between them, as well as to form mutually stabilizing hydrogen bonds where possible.<

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#biochem
Th e bases, in turn, need to stack to optimize the van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between them, as well as to form mutually stabilizing hydrogen bonds where possible.

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Th e backbones (specifi cally the phosphates) need to be separated as far as possible and be exposed to solvent to minimize electrostatic repulsions. Th e bases, in turn, need to stack to optimize the van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between them, as well as to form mutually stabilizing hydrogen bonds where possible.

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Flashcard 1456136391948

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th e conformation with the lowest energy, and hence the one most frequently observed, places the [...and the...] (for pyrimidines and purines, respectively) in a trans conformation about the glycosidic bond
Answer
sugar H1ʹ atom and the base C6 or C8 atoms


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Th e conformation with the lowest energy, and hence the one most frequently observed, places the sugar H1ʹ atom and the base C6 or C8 atoms (for pyrimidines and purines, respectively) in a trans conformation about the glycosidic bond

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Flashcard 1456138751244

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th e conformation with the lowest energy, and hence the one most frequently observed, places the sugar H1ʹ atom and the base C6 or C8 atoms (for pyrimidines and purines, respectively) in a [...conformation about the...bond]
Answer
trans conformation about the glycosidic bond


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Th e conformation with the lowest energy, and hence the one most frequently observed, places the sugar H1ʹ atom and the base C6 or C8 atoms (for pyrimidines and purines, respectively) in a trans conformation about the glycosidic bond

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Flashcard 1456141110540

Tags
#biochem
Question
Which pucker is more common in nucleic acids?
Answer
In nucleic acids, endo sugar puckers are more common than exo.


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In nucleic acids, endo sugar puckers are more common than exo. In DNA, the sugar pucker can be either C2 ʹ endo (in B-form DNA) or C3ʹ endo (in A-form DNA). In RNA, however, the C2ʹ endo sugar pucker cannot be adopted because of steric hindrance

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#biochem
In RNA, however, the C2ʹ endo sugar pucker cannot be adopted because of steric hindrance between the OH group on C2 ʹ and the phosphate group on C3ʹ

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In nucleic acids, endo sugar puckers are more common than exo. In DNA, the sugar pucker can be either C2 ʹ endo (in B-form DNA) or C3ʹ endo (in A-form DNA). In RNA, however, the C2ʹ endo sugar pucker cannot be adopted because of steric hindrance between the OH group on C2 ʹ and the phosphate group on C3ʹ

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#biochem
Th e wider and more accessible major groove (Figure 2.11) allows regulatory proteins or other molecules to gain access to nucleotide functional groups on the edges of the groove.

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Th e complementary chains are parallel, but run in opposite directions, and together they twist into a right-handed double helix. Th e helix forms two grooves of unequal size (Figure 2.10). Th e wider and more accessible major groove (Figure 2.11) allows regulatory proteins or other molecules to gain access to nucleotide functional groups on the edges of the groove. Th e narrower, less acces- sible minor groove (Figure 2.12) allows much more limited access to the func- tional groups lying within the groove.

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Flashcard 1456146615564

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th ere is, in addition, a fundamentally dif- ferent way of reading information stored in DNA that neither opens the helix nor copies the sequence, but instead [...], leaving the helix largely intact. Th is process of reading the surface signposts of the base pairs is particularly important in the mechanisms by which DNA replication and transcription are controlled
Answer
reads the base sequence from the “outside” (via the grooves)


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Th ere is, in addition, a fundamentally dif- ferent way of reading information stored in DNA that neither opens the helix nor copies the sequence, but instead reads the base sequence from the “outside” (via the grooves), leaving the helix largely intact. Th is process of reading the surface signposts of the base pairs is particularly important in the mechanisms by which DNA replication and transcrip

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Flashcard 1456148188428

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th ere is, in addition, a fundamentally dif- ferent way of reading information stored in DNA that neither opens the helix nor copies the sequence, but instead reads the base sequence from the “outside” (via the grooves), leaving the helix largely intact. Th is process of reading the surface signposts of the base pairs is particularly important in the mechanisms by which [...and...are controlled]
Answer
DNA replication and transcription are controlled


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he sequence, but instead reads the base sequence from the “outside” (via the grooves), leaving the helix largely intact. Th is process of reading the surface signposts of the base pairs is particularly important in the mechanisms by which <span>DNA replication and transcription are controlled<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1456149761292

Tags
#biochem
Question
How do transcription factors, recognize their target sites on DNA?
Answer
They do so by interacting with the edges of the base pairs in double-helical DNA, which are exposed within the major and minor grooves.


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How do these proteins, known as transcription factors, recognize their target sites on DNA? Th ey do so by interacting with the edges of the base pairs in double-helical DNA, which are exposed within the major and minor grooves. Th ere are four potential types of interact

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Flashcard 1456152120588

Tags
#biochem
Question
There are four potential types of interactions with complementary base pairs, what are they and give an example of each
Answer
  1. DNA, hydrogen-bond donors (for example, the amino group of adenine in Figure 2.13C and D),
  2. hydrogen-bond acceptors (for example, the N7 nitrogen atom of guanine in Figure 2.13A and B),
  3. hydrophobic groups (for example, the methyl group of thymine in Figure 2.13C and D),
  4. nonpolar hydrogen atoms (for example, the ring proton of cytosine in Figure 2.13A and B).


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do so by interacting with the edges of the base pairs in double-helical DNA, which are exposed within the major and minor grooves. Th ere are four potential types of interactions with complementary base pairs, illustrated in Figure 2.13. <span>Th ese involve, on the DNA, hydrogen-bond donors (for example, the amino group of adenine in Figure 2.13C and D), hydrogen-bond acceptors (for example, the N7 nitrogen atom of guanine in Figure 2.13A and B), hydrophobic groups (for exam- ple, the methyl group of thymine in Figure 2.13C and D), and nonpolar hydrogen atoms (for example, the ring proton of cytosine in Figure 2.13A and B).<span><body><html>

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#biochem
Th e patterns of recognition elements in the major groove are unique for each of the four base pairs (G-C, C-G, A-T, and T-A).

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Th e patterns of recognition elements in the major groove are unique for each of the four base pairs (G-C, C-G, A-T, and T-A). In the minor groove, however, the pattern for G-C is indistinguishable from that for C-G, and the pattern for A-T is the same as that for T-A. Th us, the major groove of DNA allows

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#biochem
In the minor groove, however, the pattern for G-C is indistinguishable from that for C-G, and the pattern for A-T is the same as that for T-A

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Th e patterns of recognition elements in the major groove are unique for each of the four base pairs (G-C, C-G, A-T, and T-A). In the minor groove, however, the pattern for G-C is indistinguishable from that for C-G, and the pattern for A-T is the same as that for T-A. Th us, the major groove of DNA allows each of the four kinds of base pairs to be distinguished from each other, whereas the interactions in the minor groove do not.</b

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#biochem
the major groove of DNA allows each of the four kinds of base pairs to be distinguished from each other, whereas the interactions in the minor groove do not.

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in the major groove are unique for each of the four base pairs (G-C, C-G, A-T, and T-A). In the minor groove, however, the pattern for G-C is indistinguishable from that for C-G, and the pattern for A-T is the same as that for T-A. Th us, <span>the major groove of DNA allows each of the four kinds of base pairs to be distinguished from each other, whereas the interactions in the minor groove do not.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1456502607116

Tags
#biochem
Question
RNA cannot adopt the C2ʹ endo sugar pucker characteristic of B-DNA (T/F)
Answer
RNA cannot readily adopt the C2ʹ endo sugar pucker characteristic of B-DNA


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ecall from Section 2.7 that RNA cannot readily adopt the C2ʹ endo sugar pucker characteristic of B-DNA. However, RNA does form a double-helical structure known as the A-form helix, in which the sugar pucker is C3ʹ endo.

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Flashcard 1456504966412

Tags
#biochem
Question
What double helical structure does RNA form and what is its suger pucker? (which carbon?)
Answer
RNA does form a double-helical structure known as the A-form helix, in which the sugar pucker is C3ʹ endo.


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ecall from Section 2.7 that RNA cannot readily adopt the C2ʹ endo sugar pucker characteristic of B-DNA. However, RNA does form a double-helical structure known as the A-form helix, in which the sugar pucker is C3ʹ endo.

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#biochem
the major groove in the A-form is deeper and narrower than it is in B-form DNA, while the minor groove is wider and shallower

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the major groove in the A-form is deeper and narrower than it is in B-form DNA, while the minor groove is wider and shallower (Figure 2.18 and Figure 2.19). Th e narrowing and deepening of the major groove in A-form helices means that it is more diffi cult for proteins to read out the sequence-specifi c in

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#biochem
Th e narrowing and deepening of the major groove in A-form helices means that it is more diffi cult for proteins to read out the sequence-specifi c information at the edges of the bases in A-form helices (that is, α helices cannot readily enter the narrower major groove of the A-form helix).

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the major groove in the A-form is deeper and narrower than it is in B-form DNA, while the minor groove is wider and shallower (Figure 2.18 and Figure 2.19). Th e narrowing and deepening of the major groove in A-form helices means that it is more diffi cult for proteins to read out the sequence-specifi c information at the edges of the bases in A-form helices (that is, α helices cannot readily enter the narrower major groove of the A-form helix).

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Flashcard 1456514141452

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The mean is a control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls [...] The mean is sometimes called a location parameter.
Answer
the location of the distribution’s central tendency.


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The mean is a control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls the location of the distribution’s central tendency. The mean is sometimes called a location parameter.

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Flashcard 1456515714316

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The mean is a control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls the location of the distribution’s central tendency. The mean is sometimes called a [...]
Answer
location parameter.


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The mean is a control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls the location of the distribution’s central tendency. The mean is sometimes called a location parameter.

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Flashcard 1456517287180

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
There are three ways to reference elements: [...]
Answer
by numerical position, by logical inclusion, and by name.


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There are three ways to reference elements: by numerical position, by logical inclusion, and by name.

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Flashcard 1456519122188

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
How do we get the elements of the vector using indexing?
Answer
We can get the elements of the vector by referring to the rank positions inside square brackets after the vector name. Thus, x[c(2,4)] returns the second and fourth elements, as the vector


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We can get the elements of the vector by referring to the rank positions inside square brackets after the vector name. Thus, x[c(2,4)] returns the second and fourth elements, as the vector

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Flashcard 1456523840780

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#biochem
Question
In Z-DNA is alternating C-G pairs absolutely necessary?
Answer
requirement for alternation of C and G is not absolute, there is strain but Z-DNA can still form with some A-T pairs.


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requirement for alternation of C and G is not absolute: substitution of A for G (and correspondingly T for C) destabilizes the Z-form, but with a small number of such substitutions, Z-form conformations can still form.

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Flashcard 1456526200076

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#biochem
Question
Z-DNA in vivo has been diffi cult to study since [...] Intriguingly, a correlation has been found between transcription and Z-DNA formation at some genes.
Answer
it seems to be a transient structure.


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Z-DNA in vivo has been diffi cult to study since it seems to be a transient structure. Intriguingly, a correlation has been found between transcription and Z-DNA formation at some genes.

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Flashcard 1456527772940

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#biochem
Question
Z-DNA in vivo has been diffi cult to study since it seems to be a transient structure. Intriguingly, a correlation has been found between [...] and Z-DNA formation at some genes.
Answer
transcription


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Z-DNA in vivo has been diffi cult to study since it seems to be a transient structure. Intriguingly, a correlation has been found between transcription and Z-DNA formation at some genes.

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Flashcard 1456529345804

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#biochem
Question
DNA adheres strictly to B-form helical structure
Answer
In reality, local regions of DNA deviate considerably from the B-form while still maintaining a double-helical structure that preserves the Watson-Crick base pairing and has average helical parameters that correspond well to those of B-form DNA


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In reality, local regions of DNA deviate considerably from the B-form while still maintaining a double-helical structure that preserves the Watson-Crick base pairing and has average helical parameters that correspond well to those of B-form DNA

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Flashcard 1456531705100

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#biochem
Question
What is distamycin and where does it bind?
Answer
Antibiotic, binds in the minor groove of DNA segments that have specifi c sequences


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the antibiotic distamycin, which binds in the minor groove of DNA segments that have specifi c sequences (Figure 2.22B and C). Up to two molecules of distamycin can bind side by side in a single region of the minor groove, but the minor groove has to expand considerably in order to accom

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Flashcard 1456534064396

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#biochem
Question
How many molecules of distamycin can bind side by side in a single region of the minor groove? How easy is this to accomodate?
Answer
Up to two molecules of distamycin can bind side by side in a single region of the minor groove; minor groove has to expand a lot, but change in groove width is fairly low energy


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the antibiotic distamycin, which binds in the minor groove of DNA segments that have specifi c sequences (Figure 2.22B and C). Up to two molecules of distamycin can bind side by side in a single region of the minor groove, but the minor groove has to expand considerably in order to accommo- date two distamycin molecules. Since both types of complex can form at the same DNA sequence, with similar binding

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#biochem
Th e deformability of double-stranded DNA is critical for its packaging in the cell, for its recognition by other molecules, and for the opening up of base pairs for replication, repair, and transcription.

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Th e deformability of double-stranded DNA is critical for its packaging in the cell, for its recognition by other molecules, and for the opening up of base pairs for replication, repair, and transcription. One measure of deformability is how easily DNA can be bent. Th e stiff ness of DNA is characterized by its persistence length. DNA segments that are longer than the persistence length

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#biochem
One measure of deformability is how easily DNA can be bent. Th e stiff ness of DNA is characterized by its persistence length.

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ml>Th e deformability of double-stranded DNA is critical for its packaging in the cell, for its recognition by other molecules, and for the opening up of base pairs for replication, repair, and transcription. One measure of deformability is how easily DNA can be bent. Th e stiff ness of DNA is characterized by its persistence length. DNA segments that are longer than the persistence length can bend without a signifi cant energy penalty, whereas DNA segments shorter than the persistence length are relatively rigid

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#biochem
Th e persistence length of B-form DNA is approximately 500 Å. Th is corresponds to 14 or 15 helical turns, or roughly 140–150 base pairs

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ness of DNA is characterized by its persistence length. DNA segments that are longer than the persistence length can bend without a signifi cant energy penalty, whereas DNA segments shorter than the persistence length are relatively rigid. <span>Th e persistence length of B-form DNA is approximately 500 Å. Th is corresponds to 14 or 15 helical turns, or roughly 140–150 base pairs<span><body><html>

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
A matrix is simply a two-dimensional array of values of the same type.

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A matrix is simply a two-dimensional array of values of the same type. A matrix can be created in R using the matrix command. The first argument specifies the contents of the matrix, in order. Other arguments specify the size of the matrix, the order in wh

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
A matrix can be created in R using the matrix command. The first argument specifies the contents of the matrix, in order. Other arguments specify the size of the matrix, the order in which the matrix should be filled, and, optionally, the names of the dimensions and rows and columns.

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A matrix is simply a two-dimensional array of values of the same type. A matrix can be created in R using the matrix command. The first argument specifies the contents of the matrix, in order. Other arguments specify the size of the matrix, the order in which the matrix should be filled, and, optionally, the names of the dimensions and rows and columns.

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
An array is a generalization of a matrix to multiple dimensions

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An array is a generalization of a matrix to multiple dimensions. There is really no need for a separate matrix function because it is merely the two-dimensional case of the array function. In the array function, the first argument specifies the orde

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
n the array function, the first argument specifies the ordered contents, the second argument specifies the size of each dimension, and an optional third argument specifies the names of the dimensions and levels within dimensions

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An array is a generalization of a matrix to multiple dimensions. There is really no need for a separate matrix function because it is merely the two-dimensional case of the array function. In the array function, the first argument specifies the ordered contents, the second argument specifies the size of each dimension, and an optional third argument specifies the names of the dimensions and levels within dimensions

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Unlike the matrix function, there is no built-in way to load the contents into the array in a different ordering of dimensions

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the array function fills the array by incrementing the first index (row) first, then incrementing the second index (column) next, then incrementing the third index (layer) next, and so forth. Unlike the matrix function, there is no built-in way to load the contents into the array in a different ordering of dimensions

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Flashcard 1456550579468

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
How does the array function fill the array (what is the incrementation like?)
Answer
the array function fills the array by incrementing the first index (row) first, then incrementing the second index (column) next, then incrementing the third index (layer) next, and so forth.


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the array function fills the array by incrementing the first index (row) first, then incrementing the second index (column) next, then incrementing the third index (layer) next, and so forth. Unlike the matrix function, there is no built-in way to load the contents into the array in a different ordering of dimensions

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Flashcard 1456552938764

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The list structure is a [...in which...]
Answer
generic vector in which components can be of different types, and named.


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The list structure is a generic vector in which components can be of different types, and named.

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#enneagram-made-easy
The Enneagram is a study of the nine basic types of people.

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#enneagram-made-easy
The enneagram explains why we behave the way we do, and it points to specific directions for individual growth.

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#enneagram-made-easy
The Enneagram teaches that early in life we learned to feel safe and to cope with our family situations and personal circumstances by developing a strategy based on our natural talents and abilities.

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#enneagram-made-easy
People of the same type have the same basic motivations and view the world in some fundamentally similar ways

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#enneagram-made-easy
Variations within each type stem from such factors as maturity, parents’ types, birth order, cultural values, and inherent traits such as being naturally introverted or extroverted.

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#enneagram-made-easy
As you learn the Enneagram, you will readily begin to “type” people you know. We urge you to keep your guesses to yourself and to keep an open mind.

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#enneagram-made-easy
The behavior patterns that emerge from the nine types are, however, as numerous, mysterious, and unique as the individuals involved.

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#enneagram-made-easy
Each point on the Enneagram connects to two other points. These two points or types are called your arrows.

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#enneagram-made-easy
Your personality may blend into or be influenced by the types on either side of yours. For instance, a Nine may have some characteristics of a One or an Eight. These neighboring types are called your wings.

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#enneagram-made-easy
Some people seem to have been different types as children than as adults. Usually these types are related by the arrows or wings.

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#enneagram-made-easy
1. Perfectionists are realistic, conscientious, and principled. They strive to live up to their high ideals.

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#enneagram-made-easy
ls. 2. Helpers are warm, concerned, nurturing, and sensitive to other people’s needs.

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#enneagram-made-easy
3. Achievers are energetic, optimistic, self-assured, and goal oriented.

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#enneagram-made-easy
4. Romantics have sensitive feelings and are warm and perceptive.

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#enneagram-made-easy
5. Observers have a need for knowledge and are introverted, curious, analytical, and insightful.

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#enneagram-made-easy
6. Questioners are responsible, trustworthy, and value loyalty to family, friends, groups, and causes. Their personalities range broadly from reserved and timid to outspoken and confrontative.

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#enneagram-made-easy
7. Adventurers are energetic, lively, and optimistic. They want to contribute to the world.

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#enneagram-made-easy
8. Asserters are direct, self-reliant, self-confident, and protective.

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#enneagram-made-easy
9. Peacemakers are receptive, good-natured, and supportive. They seek union with others and the world around them.

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#enneagram-made-easy
Finding your “center” is a key to finding your type. Each center is made up of three adjacent types, corresponding to the three centers of the body: the heart, the head, and the gut.

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#enneagram-made-easy
Helpers (Twos) are interested in people and in nurturing. They want to present a loving image.

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#enneagram-made-easy
Achievers (Threes) like to be seen in a good light, according to socially agreed-upon norms.

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#enneagram-made-easy
Romantics (Fours) have strong needs to express themselves and to be seen as original.

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The Heart or Feeling Center (Image)
#enneagram-made-easy
Helpers (Twos) are interested in people and in nurturing. They want to present a loving image. Achievers (Threes) like to be seen in a good light, according to socially agreed-upon norms. Romantics (Fours) have strong needs to express themselves and to be seen as original.

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The Head or Thinking Center (Fear)
#enneagram-made-easy
Observers (Fives) rely on their own resources and find safety in knowledge.

Questioners (Sixes) seek relief from fear through the permission and approval of authority figures or through rebelling against authority.


Adventurers (Sevens) are active and optimistic. They shun unpleasant emotions, including fear.

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The Gut or Instinctive Center (Anger)
#enneagram-made-easy
Asserters (Eights) present a strong image and are not afraid to express their anger.

Peacemakers (Nines) are agreeable, accommodating, and can often be out of touch with their anger.

Perfectionists (Ones) see anger as a character flaw and try to hold it back. They follow standards of behavior closely and/or try to better the world.

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#enneagram-made-easy
Ones are motivated by the need to live their life the right way, including improving themselves and the world around them.

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#enneagram-made-easy #perfectionist
Ones at their BEST are
ethical
reliable
productive
wise
idealistic
fair
honest
self-disciplined


Ones at their WORST are
judgmental
inflexible
dogmatic
obsessive-compulsive
critical of others
overly serious
controlling orderly
anxious
jealous

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Small words can have a big effect when used with care and understanding. And because they are small, they often go undetected, which makes them subtle tools for change and persuasion.

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Ace (perfection)

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#69-ways-to-influence
we also live in an incredible age, where the study of human psychology has researched, worked out, proven and explained many concrete ways in which humans are powerfully influenced.

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#69-ways-to-influence
Influence and control really boils down to making someone else make a decision in the direction you wish them to.

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#69-ways-to-influence
The first principle to understand is that human beings are emotional creatures. Our day to day lives are filled with hundreds of micro-decisions, which we mostly make unconsciously, and these decisions are largely based on our emotional responses to things.

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#69-ways-to-influence
Because nobody likes to admit that our decisions are based mainly on how we feel in that moment, we almost always explain out decision to ourselves based on logic.

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#69-ways-to-influence
it is very effective to influence someone using a strong emotional technique, and then help them along by giving them a logical reason to explain to themselves or others by saying ‘because…’ and giving any logical reason.

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#69-ways-to-influence
It’s important to remember that people make decisions emotionally, because then you start to realize that people will follow their emotions. Yet they do not necessarily know where their emotions are coming from. You can lead their emotions, in many man ways.

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