on 20-May-2017 (Sat)

Annotation 149468295

 adding article you MUST have a user

Wikipedia:FAQ - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
cal, legal, financial, safety, and other critical issues? 8 Who owns Wikipedia? 9 Why am I having trouble logging in? 10 How can I contact Wikipedia? How do I create a new page? <span>You are required to have a Wikipedia account to create a new article—you can register here. To see other benefits to creating an account, see Why create an account? For creating a new article see Wikipedia:Your first article and Wikipedia:Article development; and you may wi

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Reading 16 explains [...] in which firms sell output.
the types of markets

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Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of dif

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Study Session 4
nsumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. <span>Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.<span><body><html>

Annotation 1604254567692

 Some of the most-used operations on strings are to check their  length  ,

String - JavaScript | MDN
eeds \ to wrap across multiple lines because \ otherwise my code is unreadable."; Both of these result in identical strings being created. DescriptionEdit Strings are useful for holding data that can be represented in text form. <span>Some of the most-used operations on strings are to check their length , to build and concatenate them using the + and += string operators, checking for the existence or location of substrings with the indexOf() method, or extracting substrings with the s

Flashcard 1604256140556

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
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Some of the most-used operations on strings are to check their  [...]

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Some of the most-used operations on strings are to check their length ,

Original toplevel document

String - JavaScript | MDN
eeds \ to wrap across multiple lines because \ otherwise my code is unreadable."; Both of these result in identical strings being created. DescriptionEdit Strings are useful for holding data that can be represented in text form. <span>Some of the most-used operations on strings are to check their length , to build and concatenate them using the + and += string operators, checking for the existence or location of substrings with the indexOf() method, or extracting substrings with the s

Flashcard 1604258237708

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
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How do you concatenate strings

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String - JavaScript | MDN
result in identical strings being created. DescriptionEdit Strings are useful for holding data that can be represented in text form. Some of the most-used operations on strings are to check their length , to build and concatenate them <span>using the + and += string operators, checking for the existence or location of substrings with the indexOf() method, or extracting substrings with the substring() method. Character access There are two ways to ac

Flashcard 1604260597004

Question
How do you check for the existence or location of substrings
with the  indexOf()  method, or extracting

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String - JavaScript | MDN
olding data that can be represented in text form. Some of the most-used operations on strings are to check their length , to build and concatenate them using the + and += string operators, checking for the existence or location of substrings <span>with the indexOf() method, or extracting substrings with the substring() method. Character access There are two ways to access an individual character in a string. The first is the charAt() method: return 'cat'.ch

Annotation 1604263218444

 There are two ways to access an individual character in a string. The first is the charAt() method:  return 'cat' . charAt ( 1 ) ; // returns "a" 

String - JavaScript | MDN
heir length , to build and concatenate them using the + and += string operators, checking for the existence or location of substrings with the indexOf() method, or extracting substrings with the substring() method. Character access <span>There are two ways to access an individual character in a string. The first is the charAt() method: return 'cat'.charAt(1); // returns "a" The other way (introduced in ECMAScript 5) is to treat the string as an array-like object, where individual characters correspond to a numerical index: return 'cat'[1]; // returns

Flashcard 1604264791308

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
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There are two ways to access an individual character in a string. The first is the

[...]
 return 'cat' . charAt ( 1 ) ; // returns "a" 

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There are two ways to access an individual character in a string. The first is the charAt() method: return 'cat' . charAt ( 1 ) ; // returns "a"

Original toplevel document

String - JavaScript | MDN
heir length , to build and concatenate them using the + and += string operators, checking for the existence or location of substrings with the indexOf() method, or extracting substrings with the substring() method. Character access <span>There are two ways to access an individual character in a string. The first is the charAt() method: return 'cat'.charAt(1); // returns "a" The other way (introduced in ECMAScript 5) is to treat the string as an array-like object, where individual characters correspond to a numerical index: return 'cat'[1]; // returns

Annotation 1604267150604

 #javascript #object #string #syntax The other way to access an individual character on a screen is to treat the string as an array-like object, where individual characters correspond to a numerical index:  return 'cat' [ 1 ] ; // returns "a" 

String - JavaScript | MDN
ethod, or extracting substrings with the substring() method. Character access There are two ways to access an individual character in a string. The first is the charAt() method: return 'cat'.charAt(1); // returns "a" <span>The other way (introduced in ECMAScript 5) is to treat the string as an array-like object, where individual characters correspond to a numerical index: return 'cat'[1]; // returns "a" For character access using bracket notation, attempting to delete or assign a value to these properties will not succeed. The properties involved are neither writable nor configurabl

Flashcard 1604269772044

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
Question

The other way to access an individual character on a screen is to treat the string as

[...]  return 'cat' [ 1 ] ; // returns "a" 
an array-like object, where individual characters correspond to a numerical index:

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The other way to access an individual character on a screen is to treat the string as an array-like object, where individual characters correspond to a numerical index: return 'cat' [ 1 ] ; // returns "a"

Original toplevel document

String - JavaScript | MDN
ethod, or extracting substrings with the substring() method. Character access There are two ways to access an individual character in a string. The first is the charAt() method: return 'cat'.charAt(1); // returns "a" <span>The other way (introduced in ECMAScript 5) is to treat the string as an array-like object, where individual characters correspond to a numerical index: return 'cat'[1]; // returns "a" For character access using bracket notation, attempting to delete or assign a value to these properties will not succeed. The properties involved are neither writable nor configurabl

Annotation 1604271344908

 return 'cat' [ 1 ] ; // returns "a"

String - JavaScript | MDN
first is the charAt() method: return 'cat'.charAt(1); // returns "a" The other way (introduced in ECMAScript 5) is to treat the string as an array-like object, where individual characters correspond to a numerical index: <span>return 'cat'[1]; // returns "a" For character access using bracket notation, attempting to delete or assign a value to these properties will not succeed. The properties involved are neither writable nor configurabl

Flashcard 1604272917772

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
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return 'cat' [ 1 ] ; // [...]
returns "a"

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return 'cat' [ 1 ] ; // returns "a"

Original toplevel document

String - JavaScript | MDN
first is the charAt() method: return 'cat'.charAt(1); // returns "a" The other way (introduced in ECMAScript 5) is to treat the string as an array-like object, where individual characters correspond to a numerical index: <span>return 'cat'[1]; // returns "a" For character access using bracket notation, attempting to delete or assign a value to these properties will not succeed. The properties involved are neither writable nor configurabl

Annotation 1604275277068

 C developers have the strcmp() function for comparing strings. In JavaScript, you just use the less-than and greater-than operators:  var a = 'a' ; var b = 'b' ; if ( a < b ) { // true console . log ( a + ' is less than ' + b ) ; } else if ( a > b ) { console . log ( a + ' is greater than ' + b ) ; } else { console . log ( a + ' and ' + b + ' are equal.' ) ; } 

String - JavaScript | MDN
using bracket notation, attempting to delete or assign a value to these properties will not succeed. The properties involved are neither writable nor configurable. (See Object.defineProperty() for more information.) Comparing strings <span>C developers have the strcmp() function for comparing strings. In JavaScript, you just use the less-than and greater-than operators: var a = 'a'; var b = 'b'; if (a < b) { // true console.log(a + ' is less than ' + b); } else if (a > b) { console.log(a + ' is greater than ' + b); } else { console.log(a + ' and ' + b + ' are equal.'); } A similar result can be achieved using the localeCompare() method inherited by String instances. Distinction between string primitives and String objects Note that JavaSc

Flashcard 1604276849932

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
Question

C developers have the strcmp() function for comparing strings. In JavaScript,

[...]
 var a = 'a' ; var b = 'b' ; if ( a < b ) { // true console . log ( a + ' is less than ' + b ) ; } else if ( a > b ) { console . log ( a + ' is greater than ' + b ) ; } else { console . log ( a + ' and ' + b + ' are equal.' ) ; } 

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C developers have the strcmp() function for comparing strings. In JavaScript, you just use the less-than and greater-than operators: var a = 'a' ; var b = 'b' ; if ( a < b ) { // true console . log ( a + ' is less than ' + b ) ; } else if ( a > b ) { console . log ( a + ' is greater than ' + b ) ; } else { c

Original toplevel document

String - JavaScript | MDN
using bracket notation, attempting to delete or assign a value to these properties will not succeed. The properties involved are neither writable nor configurable. (See Object.defineProperty() for more information.) Comparing strings <span>C developers have the strcmp() function for comparing strings. In JavaScript, you just use the less-than and greater-than operators: var a = 'a'; var b = 'b'; if (a < b) { // true console.log(a + ' is less than ' + b); } else if (a > b) { console.log(a + ' is greater than ' + b); } else { console.log(a + ' and ' + b + ' are equal.'); } A similar result can be achieved using the localeCompare() method inherited by String instances. Distinction between string primitives and String objects Note that JavaSc

Annotation 1604279209228

 String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the new keyword) are primitive strings

String - JavaScript | MDN
ethod inherited by String instances. Distinction between string primitives and String objects Note that JavaScript distinguishes between String objects and primitive string values. (The same is true of Boolean and Numbers .) <span>String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the new keyword) are primitive strings. JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings. In contexts where a method is to be invoke

Flashcard 1604280782092

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#javascript #object #string
Question
String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the new keyword) [...]
are primitive strings

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String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the new keyword) are primitive strings

Original toplevel document

String - JavaScript | MDN
ethod inherited by String instances. Distinction between string primitives and String objects Note that JavaScript distinguishes between String objects and primitive string values. (The same is true of Boolean and Numbers .) <span>String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the new keyword) are primitive strings. JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings. In contexts where a method is to be invoke

Annotation 1604283141388

 JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings

String - JavaScript | MDN
alues. (The same is true of Boolean and Numbers .) String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the new keyword) are primitive strings. <span>JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings. In contexts where a method is to be invoked on a primitive string or a property lookup occurs, JavaScript will automatically wrap the string primitive and call the method or perform th

Flashcard 1604284714252

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
Question
JavaScript automatically converts primitives to [...], so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings
String objects

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JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings

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String - JavaScript | MDN
alues. (The same is true of Boolean and Numbers .) String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the new keyword) are primitive strings. <span>JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings. In contexts where a method is to be invoked on a primitive string or a property lookup occurs, JavaScript will automatically wrap the string primitive and call the method or perform th

Annotation 1604287073548

 String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the new keyword)

String - JavaScript | MDN
ethod inherited by String instances. Distinction between string primitives and String objects Note that JavaScript distinguishes between String objects and primitive string values. (The same is true of Boolean and Numbers .) <span>String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the new keyword) are primitive strings. JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings. In contexts where a

Flashcard 1604288646412

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
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String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the [...] keyword)

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String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the new keyword)

Original toplevel document

String - JavaScript | MDN
ethod inherited by String instances. Distinction between string primitives and String objects Note that JavaScript distinguishes between String objects and primitive string values. (The same is true of Boolean and Numbers .) <span>String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the new keyword) are primitive strings. JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings. In contexts where a

Annotation 1604291005708

 JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings

String - JavaScript | MDN
alues. (The same is true of Boolean and Numbers .) String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the new keyword) are primitive strings. <span>JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings. In contexts where a method is to be invoked on a primitive string or a property lookup occurs, JavaScript will automatically wrap the string primitive and call the method or perform th

Flashcard 1604292578572

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
Question
JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use [...] for primitive strings
String object methods

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JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings

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String - JavaScript | MDN
alues. (The same is true of Boolean and Numbers .) String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the new keyword) are primitive strings. <span>JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings. In contexts where a method is to be invoked on a primitive string or a property lookup occurs, JavaScript will automatically wrap the string primitive and call the method or perform th

Flashcard 1604294937868

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
Question
In contexts where a method is to be invoked on a primitive string or a property lookup occurs, what will javascript do?
JavaScript will automatically wrap the string primitive and call the method or perform the property lookup

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String - JavaScript | MDN
ings. JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings. In contexts where a method is to be invoked on a primitive string or a property lookup occurs, <span>JavaScript will automatically wrap the string primitive and call the method or perform the property lookup. var s_prim = 'foo'; var s_obj = new String(s_prim); console.log(typeof s_prim); // Logs "string" console.log(typeof s_obj); // Logs "object" String primitiv

Annotation 1604297297164

 #javascript #object #string #syntax In contexts where a method is to be invoked on a primitive string or a property lookup occurs, JavaScript will automatically wrap the string primitive and call the method or perform the property lookup.  var s_prim = 'foo' ; var s_obj = new String ( s_prim ) ; console . log ( typeof s_prim ) ; // Logs "string" console . log ( typeof s_obj ) ; // Logs "object" 

String - JavaScript | MDN
g calls in a non-constructor context (i.e., without using the new keyword) are primitive strings. JavaScript automatically converts primitives to String objects, so that it's possible to use String object methods for primitive strings. <span>In contexts where a method is to be invoked on a primitive string or a property lookup occurs, JavaScript will automatically wrap the string primitive and call the method or perform the property lookup. var s_prim = 'foo'; var s_obj = new String(s_prim); console.log(typeof s_prim); // Logs "string" console.log(typeof s_obj); // Logs "object" String primitives and String objects also give different results when using eval() . Primitives passed to eval are treated as source code; String objects are treated as all ot

Annotation 1604299656460

 String primitives and String objects also give different results when using eval(). Primitives passed to eval are treated as source code; String objects are treated as all other objects are, by returning the object. For example:  var s1 = '2 + 2' ; // creates a string primitive var s2 = new String ( '2 + 2' ) ; // creates a String object console . log ( eval ( s1 ) ) ; // returns the number 4 console . log ( eval ( s2 ) ) ; // returns the string "2 + 2" 

String - JavaScript | MDN
the string primitive and call the method or perform the property lookup. var s_prim = 'foo'; var s_obj = new String(s_prim); console.log(typeof s_prim); // Logs "string" console.log(typeof s_obj); // Logs "object" <span>String primitives and String objects also give different results when using eval() . Primitives passed to eval are treated as source code; String objects are treated as all other objects are, by returning the object. For example: var s1 = '2 + 2'; // creates a string primitive var s2 = new String('2 + 2'); // creates a String object console.log(eval(s1)); // returns the number 4 console.log(eval(s2)); // returns the string "2 + 2" For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead, although generally authors need not worry about the distinction.

Flashcard 1604301491468

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
Question

String primitives and String objects also give different results when using [...] Primitives passed to eval are treated as source code; String objects are treated as all other objects are, by returning the object. For example:

 var s1 = '2 + 2' ; // creates a string primitive var s2 = new String ( '2 + 2' ) ; // creates a String object console . log ( eval ( s1 ) ) ; // returns the number 4 console . log ( eval ( s2 ) ) ; // returns the string "2 + 2" 

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String primitives and String objects also give different results when using eval() . Primitives passed to eval are treated as source code; String objects are treated as all other objects are, by returning the object. For example: var s1 = '2 + 2' ; // creates a s

Original toplevel document

String - JavaScript | MDN
the string primitive and call the method or perform the property lookup. var s_prim = 'foo'; var s_obj = new String(s_prim); console.log(typeof s_prim); // Logs "string" console.log(typeof s_obj); // Logs "object" <span>String primitives and String objects also give different results when using eval() . Primitives passed to eval are treated as source code; String objects are treated as all other objects are, by returning the object. For example: var s1 = '2 + 2'; // creates a string primitive var s2 = new String('2 + 2'); // creates a String object console.log(eval(s1)); // returns the number 4 console.log(eval(s2)); // returns the string "2 + 2" For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead, although generally authors need not worry about the distinction.

Flashcard 1604303850764

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
Question

String primitives and String objects also give different results when using eval(). Primitives passed to eval are treated as [...]; String objects are treated as all other objects are, by returning the object. For example:

 var s1 = '2 + 2' ; // creates a string primitive var s2 = new String ( '2 + 2' ) ; // creates a String object console . log ( eval ( s1 ) ) ; // returns the number 4 console . log ( eval ( s2 ) ) ; // returns the string "2 + 2" 
source code

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String primitives and String objects also give different results when using eval() . Primitives passed to eval are treated as source code; String objects are treated as all other objects are, by returning the object. For example: var s1 = '2 + 2' ; // creates a string primitive var s2 = new String ( '2 + 2' ) ; // cr

Original toplevel document

String - JavaScript | MDN
the string primitive and call the method or perform the property lookup. var s_prim = 'foo'; var s_obj = new String(s_prim); console.log(typeof s_prim); // Logs "string" console.log(typeof s_obj); // Logs "object" <span>String primitives and String objects also give different results when using eval() . Primitives passed to eval are treated as source code; String objects are treated as all other objects are, by returning the object. For example: var s1 = '2 + 2'; // creates a string primitive var s2 = new String('2 + 2'); // creates a String object console.log(eval(s1)); // returns the number 4 console.log(eval(s2)); // returns the string "2 + 2" For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead, although generally authors need not worry about the distinction.

Annotation 1604306472204

 String primitives and  String  objects also give different results when using  eval()  . Primitives passed to  eval  are treated as source code;  String  objects are treated as all other objects are, by returning the object. For example:

String - JavaScript | MDN
the string primitive and call the method or perform the property lookup. var s_prim = 'foo'; var s_obj = new String(s_prim); console.log(typeof s_prim); // Logs "string" console.log(typeof s_obj); // Logs "object" <span>String primitives and String objects also give different results when using eval() . Primitives passed to eval are treated as source code; String objects are treated as all other objects are, by returning the object. For example: var s1 = '2 + 2'; // creates a string primitive var s2 = new String('2 + 2'); // creates a String object console.log(eval(s1)); // returns the number 4 console.log

Flashcard 1604308045068

Question
String primitives and  String  objects also give different results when using  eval()  . Primitives passed to  eval  are treated as source code;  String  objects are treated as all other objects are, by [...]. For example:
returning the object

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>String primitives and String objects also give different results when using eval() . Primitives passed to eval are treated as source code; String objects are treated as all other objects are, by returning the object. For example:<html>

Original toplevel document

String - JavaScript | MDN
the string primitive and call the method or perform the property lookup. var s_prim = 'foo'; var s_obj = new String(s_prim); console.log(typeof s_prim); // Logs "string" console.log(typeof s_obj); // Logs "object" <span>String primitives and String objects also give different results when using eval() . Primitives passed to eval are treated as source code; String objects are treated as all other objects are, by returning the object. For example: var s1 = '2 + 2'; // creates a string primitive var s2 = new String('2 + 2'); // creates a String object console.log(eval(s1)); // returns the number 4 console.log

Annotation 1604309617932

 For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead,

String - JavaScript | MDN
ar s1 = '2 + 2'; // creates a string primitive var s2 = new String('2 + 2'); // creates a String object console.log(eval(s1)); // returns the number 4 console.log(eval(s2)); // returns the string "2 + 2" <span>For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead, although generally authors need not worry about the distinction. A String object can always be converted to its primitive counterpart with the valueOf() method. console.log(ev

Flashcard 1604311190796

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
Question
For these reasons, code may break when it encounters [...] when it expects a primitive string instead,
String objects

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For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead,

Original toplevel document

String - JavaScript | MDN
ar s1 = '2 + 2'; // creates a string primitive var s2 = new String('2 + 2'); // creates a String object console.log(eval(s1)); // returns the number 4 console.log(eval(s2)); // returns the string "2 + 2" <span>For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead, although generally authors need not worry about the distinction. A String object can always be converted to its primitive counterpart with the valueOf() method. console.log(ev

Annotation 1604313550092

 For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead,

String - JavaScript | MDN
ar s1 = '2 + 2'; // creates a string primitive var s2 = new String('2 + 2'); // creates a String object console.log(eval(s1)); // returns the number 4 console.log(eval(s2)); // returns the string "2 + 2" <span>For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead, although generally authors need not worry about the distinction. A String object can always be converted to its primitive counterpart with the valueOf() method. console.log(ev

Flashcard 1604315122956

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
Question
For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a [...] instead,
primitive string

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For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead,

Original toplevel document

String - JavaScript | MDN
ar s1 = '2 + 2'; // creates a string primitive var s2 = new String('2 + 2'); // creates a String object console.log(eval(s1)); // returns the number 4 console.log(eval(s2)); // returns the string "2 + 2" <span>For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead, although generally authors need not worry about the distinction. A String object can always be converted to its primitive counterpart with the valueOf() method. console.log(ev

Annotation 1604317482252

 A String object can always be converted to its primitive counterpart with the valueOf() method.

String - JavaScript | MDN
eval(s2)); // returns the string "2 + 2" For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead, although generally authors need not worry about the distinction. <span>A String object can always be converted to its primitive counterpart with the valueOf() method. console.log(eval(s2.valueOf())); // returns the number 4 Note: For another possible approach to strings in JavaScript, please read the article about StringView — a C-like repre

Flashcard 1604319055116

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
Question
A String object can always be converted to its primitive counterpart with the [...] method.

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A String object can always be converted to its primitive counterpart with the valueOf() method.

Original toplevel document

String - JavaScript | MDN
eval(s2)); // returns the string "2 + 2" For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead, although generally authors need not worry about the distinction. <span>A String object can always be converted to its primitive counterpart with the valueOf() method. console.log(eval(s2.valueOf())); // returns the number 4 Note: For another possible approach to strings in JavaScript, please read the article about StringView — a C-like repre

Flashcard 1604321676556

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#javascript #object #string #syntax
Question
var s1 = '2 + 2' ; // creates a string primitive
var s2 = new String ( '2 + 2' ) ; // creates a String object
console . log ( eval ( s1 ) ) ; // returns the number 4
console . log ( eval ( s2 ) ) ; // returns the string "2 + 2"

console.log(eval(s2.valueOf())); // [...]
returns the number 4

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
String - JavaScript | MDN
String primitives and String objects also give different results when using eval() . Primitives passed to eval are treated as source code; String objects are treated as all other objects are, by returning the object. For example: <span>var s1 = '2 + 2'; // creates a string primitive var s2 = new String('2 + 2'); // creates a String object console.log(eval(s1)); // returns the number 4 console.log(eval(s2)); // returns the string "2 + 2" For these reasons, code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead, although generally authors need not worry about the distinction.

Annotation 1604326133004

 In this article, I’ll explain how to solve freeCodeCamp’s “Repeat a string repeat a string” challenge. This involves repeating a string a certain number of times.There are the three approaches I’ll cover:using a while loopusing recursionusing ES6 repeat() method

Three ways to repeat a string in JavaScript – freeCodeCamp
amp | https://sonyamoisset.github.io Feb 13 Three ways to repeat a string in JavaScript In this article, I’ll explain how to solve freeCodeCamp’s “Repeat a string repeat a string” challenge. This involves repeating a string a certain number of times. There are the three approaches I’ll cover: using a while loop using recursion using ES6 repeat() method The Algorithm Challenge Description Repeat a given string (first argument) num times (second argument). Return an empty string if num is not a positive number. < cl

Annotation 1604329540876

 A while statement executes its statement as long as a specified condition evaluates to true.A while statement looks like this:while (condition) statement

Three ways to repeat a string in JavaScript – freeCodeCamp
", 1) should return "abc" . repeatStringNumTimes("*", 8) should return "********" . repeatStringNumTimes("abc", -2) should return "" . Approach #1: Repeat a String with a While Loop <span>A while statement executes its statement as long as a specified condition evaluates to true. A while statement looks like this: while (condition) statement with a condition which is evaluated before each pass through the loop. If the condition is true, the statement is executed. If the condition is false, the execution continues with any s

Annotation 1604332686604

 A while statement looks like this:while (condition) statementwith a condition which is evaluated before each pass through the loop. If the condition is true, the statement is executed. If the condition is false, the execution continues with any statement after the while loop.The statement is executed as long as the condition is true. Here’s the solution:

Three ways to repeat a string in JavaScript – freeCodeCamp
eturn "********" . repeatStringNumTimes("abc", -2) should return "" . Approach #1: Repeat a String with a While Loop A while statement executes its statement as long as a specified condition evaluates to true. <span>A while statement looks like this: while (condition) statement with a condition which is evaluated before each pass through the loop. If the condition is true, the statement is executed. If the condition is false, the execution continues with any statement after the while loop. The statement is executed as long as the condition is true. Here’s the solution: <span>
<3D400&

Annotation 1604335832332

 Recursion is a technique for iterating over an operation by having a function call itself repeatedly until it arrives at a result. There are a few key features of recursion that must be included in order for it to work properly. The first is a base case: this is a statement, usually within a conditional clause like if, that stops the recursion.The second is a recursive case: this is the statement where the recursive function is called on itself.

Three ways to repeat a string in JavaScript – freeCodeCamp
ef71a8a5bd" data-media-id="55ae02568c70035d3c905ccfe3f0e2f5" src="/media/55ae02568c70035d3c905ccfe3f0e2f5?postId=2a9053b93a2d" height="250" width="700"><iframe><div> Approach #2: Repeat a String using a Conditional and Recursion Recursion is a technique for iterating over an operation by having a function call itself repeatedly until it arrives at a result. There are a few key features of recursion that must be included in order for it to work properly. The first is a base case : this is a statement, usually within a conditional clause like if , that stops the recursion. The second is a recursive case : this is the statement where the recursive function is called on itself. Here’s the solution:
<%2Fu%2

Annotation 1604338978060

 You can use a ternary operator as a shortcut for the if/else statement, like this:times > 0 ? string.repeat(times) : "";

Three ways to repeat a string in JavaScript – freeCodeCamp
2Fu%2F13507232%3Fv%3D3%26s%3D400&key=4fce0568f2ce49e8b54624ef71a8a5bd" data-media-id="577c9098b8ea4ad56d00f10ddffe3147" src="/media/577c9098b8ea4ad56d00f10ddffe3147?postId=2a9053b93a2d" height="250" width="700"><iframe><div> You can use a ternary operator as a shortcut for the if/else statement, like this: times > 0 ? string.repeat(times) : ""; This can be read as: if (times > 0) { return string.repeat(times);} else { return "";} You can then return the ternary operator in your function: <d

Annotation 1604342123788

 This can be read as:if (times > 0) { return string.repeat(times);} else { return "";}

Three ways to repeat a string in JavaScript – freeCodeCamp
77c9098b8ea4ad56d00f10ddffe3147?postId=2a9053b93a2d" height="250" width="700"><iframe><div> You can use a ternary operator as a shortcut for the if/else statement, like this: times > 0 ? string.repeat(times) : ""; This can be read as: if (times > 0) { return string.repeat(times);} else { return "";} You can then return the ternary operator in your function:
<3A%2F%

Approach #3: Repeat a String using ES6 repeat() method

For this solution, you’ll use the String.prototype.repeat() method:

• The repeat() method constructs and returns a new string which contains the specified number of copies of the string on which it was called, concatenated together.

Three ways to repeat a string in JavaScript – freeCodeCamp
2Fu%2F13507232%3Fv%3D3%26s%3D400&key=4fce0568f2ce49e8b54624ef71a8a5bd" data-media-id="0b02a88f1a5e90045e5d05148e621837" src="/media/0b02a88f1a5e90045e5d05148e621837?postId=2a9053b93a2d" height="250" width="700"><iframe><div> Approach #3: Repeat a String using ES6 repeat() method For this solution, you’ll use the String.prototype.repeat() method: The repeat() method constructs and returns a new string which contains the specified number of copies of the string on which it was called, concatenated together. Here’s the solution:
<%2Fu%2

Annotation 1604349201676

 You can use a ternary operator as a shortcut for the if/else statement, like this:times > 0 ? string.repeat(times) : "";

Three ways to repeat a string in JavaScript – freeCodeCamp
2Fu%2F13507232%3Fv%3D3%26s%3D400&key=4fce0568f2ce49e8b54624ef71a8a5bd" data-media-id="577c9098b8ea4ad56d00f10ddffe3147" src="/media/577c9098b8ea4ad56d00f10ddffe3147?postId=2a9053b93a2d" height="250" width="700"><iframe><div> You can use a ternary operator as a shortcut for the if/else statement, like this: times > 0 ? string.repeat(times) : ""; This can be read as: if (times > 0) { return string.repeat(times);} else { return "";} You can then return the ternary operator in your function: <d

Annotation 1605900045580

 Classical conditioning focuses on responses that are automatic and involuntary, responses that are not deliberate and don't require effort. The theory is also known as respondent (i.e., involuntary), Pavlovian, or stimulus-response conditioning. The two pioneers of this theory were Ivan Pavlov (of the famous dog experiments) and John Watson.

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Annotation 1606133878028

 Conditioning is just another word for learning. An unconditioned response is simply an unlearned response. A conditioned response is simply a learned response

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Annotation 1606888066316

 classical conditioning, which posits that learning is based on pairing; operant conditioning, which posits that learning is based on rewards and punishments; and social learning theory, which posits that learning is based on observation and imitation.

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Annotation 1606912707852

 Pavlov focused on the linksbetween stimuli and responses; these stimulus-response links are known as reflexes.

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Annotation 1606915853580

 Unconditioned reflexesby definition are inborn, require no learning, and are generally the same for all members of a species.

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Annotation 1606917688588

 When learning has not yet taken place and the link between the stimulus and response is inborn, we have an unconditioned reflex. An unconditioned reflex involves an unconditioned stimulus (US) that evokes an unconditioned response (UR). It is depicted graphically as: US -> UR. In Pavlov's classic experiment with dogs, the unconditioned reflex involved meat powder (US) leading to salivation (UR). Other examples include turning the lights off (US) eliciting pupil dilation (UR), and a loud noise (US) eliciting a startle response (UR).

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Annotation 1606919785740

 A conditioned reflex consists of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and a conditioned response (CR).

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Annotation 1606927125772

 How is a conditioned reflex learned? First, a stimulus that naturally evokes no automatic response, a neutral stimulus (NS), is paired repeatedly with the unconditioned stimulus (US). Through these repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response similar to the unconditioned response (UR). In the classic Pavlovian example, a tone (neutral stimulus) is repeatedly paired with the meat powder (unconditioned stimulus) until the tone elicits salivation. Once the neutral stimulus can elicitthe response by itself (i.e., the tone by itself elicits salivation), the neutral stimulus is renamed the conditioned stimulus (CS). The response to the conditioned stimulus (CS) is called the conditioned response (CR).

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Annotation 1606930009356

 Note that the unconditioned response (UR) and the conditioned response (CR) are the same behavior, e.g., salivation. It's simply that the unconditioned response (UR) occurred naturally without learning while the conditioned response (CR) required learning. In addition, the conditioned response (CR) is frequently of less magnitude than the unconditioned response (UR)

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Annotation 1606933155084

 examples of conditioned reflexes include feeling perked up (CR) by the first sip of coffee (CS), feeling nausea (CR) at the first bite of food (CS) that had previously made one sick, feeling happy (CR) on hearing the bell of an ice cream truck (CS).

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Annotation 1606937611532

 classical conditioning theory states that unconditioned stimuli (US) elicit respondent behaviors (UR). If the unconditioned stimulus (US) is paired with a neutral stimulus (NS) sufficiently, eventually the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and elicits a conditioned response (CR). The CR typically mimics the UR but is of lesser magnitude

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Annotation 1606939708684

 To decide if a stimulus is unconditioned, ask yourself: Is the response to the stimulus universal among members ofthe species? For example, is a blackfishnet stocking an unconditioned or conditioned stimulus? Since every member of the human species does not respond sexually to such a stocking, it is clearly not an unconditioned stimulus but rather a conditioned one.

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Annotation 1606943902988

 it is not simply the closeness in time (contiguity) that causes conditioning. Rather, the unconditioned stimulus must appear to depend on or be contingent on the conditioned stimulus (contingency) (Rescorla, 1967

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Annotation 1606947048716

 DELAY CONDITIONING (STANDARD PAIRING) In the standard pairing paradigm, the conditioned stimulus (originally the neutral stimulus) precedes the unconditioned stimulus (US) typically by a short interval (as little as .5 seconds) and overlaps into the presentation of the unconditioned stimulus (US).

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Annotation 1606953864460

 In trace conditioning, the conditioned stimulus (CS) precedes the unconditioned stimulus (US) by a period and stops right before the unconditioned stimulus (US). For example, a dog first hears the sound of the can opener (originally the neutral stimulus) and then is fed the dog food (US). Over time, the dog will likely begin to salivate (CR) when it hears the can opener sound (CS). Again, the US appears to depend (be contingent) upon the presentation of the CS.

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Annotation 1606957010188

 Temporal conditioning occurs when the unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented repeatedly at a consistent time interval. Eventually, time itself begins to act as the conditioned stimulus (CS). For example, if zoo animals are consistently fed at noon each day, the animals actually begin to anticipate feeding time. Thus, at noon, the animal may begin to salivate or pace the cage even if there are no other cues that feeding is imminent. Here, time is acting as the conditioned stimulus (CS) eliciting the animal's anticipatory behavior (CR). T

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Annotation 1606960155916

 In simultaneous conditioning, the neutral stimulus andthe unconditioned stimulus (US) completely overlap. For example, the tone (NS) is sounded at exactly the same time the meat powder (US) is presented. Although this is termed "simultaneous conditioning," no learning or conditioning actually takes place. The neutral stimulus never becomes a conditioned stimulus and never elicits the conditioned response. Here, the US and the neutral stimulus are close in time (contiguity) buttheUS does not appear to depend onthe neutral stimulus (no contingency).

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Annotation 1606963039500

 In backward conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus (US) precedes the neutral stimulus (NS). For example, the meat powder (US) is presented first, and the tone (NS) follows. Again, no learning or conditioning occurs. In this scenario, the tone will never elicit salivation. Again,closeness in time (contiguity) is not sufficient; contingency is requiredfor conditioningto occur.

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Annotation 1606965923084

 whileall the approaches are termed "conditioning," true conditioning onlyoccurswhenthe CS is presented beforethe US. Learning does not take placewhen the CS and US are presented simultaneously, nor when the US precedes the CS.

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Annotation 1606973000972

 In stimulus generalization (also known as mediated generalization), the subject automatically generalizes from a conditioned stimulus (CS) to other similar neutral stimuli. The subject then demonstrates the same conditioned response (CR) to these similar stimuli. An example of stimulus generalization comes from John Watson's experiment with Little Albert B., who was initially evaluated at 9 months, and conditioned at 11 months. Little Albert was classically conditioned to be afraid of a white rat (neutral stimulus) when the rat was paired with a loud noise (US). Without any further training or exposure, Little Albert generalized from the rat (CS) to other furry white objects (e.g., white rabbit and Santa Claus mask), and demonstrated a fear response to these similar neutral stimuli. Note that stimulus generalization occurs automatically and without any deliberate attempt on the part of the experimenter.

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Annotation 1606974573836

 Higher order conditioning is a deliberate process in which a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with a neutral stimulus that is typically unrelated until eventually the new neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus and also elicits the conditioned response (CR). For example, the tone (CSj) is repeatedly paired with a flash of light (NS) until the animal begins to salivate to the light

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Annotation 1606976146700

 The flash of light is now the CS2 and second order conditioning has been accomplished

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Annotation 1606977719564

 third order conditioning occurs when a third neutral stimulus (e.g., the color red) is repeatedly paired with the flash of light (CS2) until the color red (CS3) elicits salivation. It is impossible to condition beyond the third level.

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Annotation 1606979292428

 Stimulus generalization is an automaticprocess in which the subject demonstrates the conditioned response to stimuli similar to the original conditioned stimulus. Higher order conditioning is a deliberateprocess in which conditioning trials cause the subject to demonstrate the conditioned response to new stimuli (typically non-similar) by pairing them with the conditioned stimulus

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Annotation 1606980865292

 Classical extinction results from repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus (CS) without the unconditioned stimulus (US). When the tone (CS) is repeatedly presented without the meat powder (US), the dog eventually stops salivating to the tone (i.e., the CR is extinguished). If Little Albert had been repeatedly presented with the white rat (CS) without the loud noise (US), his fear response (CR) would have been gradually /^% eliminated.

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Annotation 1606982438156

 repeated presentation of the unconditioned stimulus (US) without the conditioned stimulus (CS) (e.g., repeated presentation of the loud noise without the rat) does not result in extinction. This is because the conditioned stimulus (CS) (e.g., the white rat) continues to have signaling value (i.e., the person anticipates the loud noise).

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Annotation 1606984535308

 During extinction trials, following a rest period, the conditioned response (CR) to the conditioned stimulus (CS) often briefly reappears; this reappearanceis known as spontaneous recovery. For example, a dog undergoes extinction trials, i.e., he is repeatedly presented with a tone (CS) and no meat powder (US). Eventually, he stops salivating to the tone. However, the next day, when he is first brought back into the laboratory, he may initially salivate (CR) to the tone (CS), i.e., the conditioned response (CR) will spontaneously recover. The conditioned response will once again vanish if extinction trials continue

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Annotation 1606986370316

 stimulus discrimination, an animal learns to discriminate between two similar neutral stimuli because one has been paired with the unconditioned stimulus (US) (e.g., a 500 Hz tone) while the other has not (e.g., a 100 Hz /m^ tone).

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Annotation 1606987943180

 If the stimulus discriminations are then made too difficult, such as discriminating

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Annotation 1606989516044

 between a 500 Hz tone and a 450 Hz tone, the animal will experience experimental neurosis. A dog, for example, may become agitated, barking, and howling. Interestingly, if the dog is then returned to the original discrimination it had mastered (i.e., the 100 Hz vs. the 500 Hz tone), it will no longer be able to successfully discriminate; it's as though the dog has had a breakdown.

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Annotation 1606991613196

 Pseudoconditioning occurs accidentally. A neutral stimulus that was not deliberately paired with either the unconditioned stimulus (US) or the conditioned stimulus (CS) comes to elicit the conditioned response (CR). For example, the dog salivates when the light to the room is first turned on. Pseudoconditioning may be caused by either inadvertent pairing or heightened arousal.

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Annotation 1606999215372

 HABITUATION IS LOSING RESPONSE TO THE US; EXTINCTION IS LOSING RESPONSE TO THE CS. In habituation, the subject becomes accustomed to and less responsive to an unconditioned stimulus (US) after repeated exposure. When a subject habituates to an unconditioned stimulus (US), the unconditioned stimulus (US) no longer elicits the unconditioned response (UR). For example, a person who moves to an apartment underneath an elevated railway becomes so used to the noise of passing trains ^ (US) that after a few weeks, he no longer startles (UR) and wakens when the trains come by. Habituation is not possible with all unconditioned stimuli (e.g., extreme electric shock). HINT: Habituation always involves the unconditioned stimulus, not the conditioned stimulus.

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Flashcard 1608079772940

Question
GRE
Generic Routing Encapsulation

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

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Annotation 1608082132236

 GRE Creating a virtual point-to-point link to Cisco routers at remote points over an IP internetwork. By connecting multiprotocol subnets in a single-protocol backbone environment.

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Annotation 1608085540108

 GRE add header with tunneling IP header create at least 24 bytes of additional overhead for tunneled packets, that is why we need to decrease MTU to 1400 to free some space to these additional bytes

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Annotation 1608088161548

 GRE Tunnel can be used to make two endpoint communicate with each Private subnet while physical interface assigned public IP , we can also use to let two IPv6 islands communicate through a sea of IPv4 networks

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Flashcard 1608089996556

Question
GRE tunnel will [...] encrypt or secure your data goes through it unless we use IPsec
GRE tunnel will not encrypt or secure your data goes through it unless we use IPsec

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

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Flashcard 1608092355852

Question
0.1.12 .1

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

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Annotation 1608093928716

 A significant limitation of classical conditioning is that it only explains how we learn involuntary behaviors or responses (e.g., salivation, startling)

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Annotation 1608096025868

 operant conditioning explains voluntary behavior, such as getting up in the morning, getting dressed, coming to class, doing homework, going to the gym, etc.

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Annotation 1608097598732

 Operant conditioning posits that we learn as a result of reward and punishment. Other names for the theory include Skinnerian conditioning and instrumental conditioning, in that behavior is instrumental (or goal-directed) toward obtaining rewards. Its two major theorists are E. L. Thorndike and B. F. Skinner.

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Annotation 1608123813132

 According toThorndike's Lawof Effect, behaviors are initially emitted in random, trial and error fashion. Those random behaviors that are followed by pleasurable consequences (rewards) become stronger and more frequent while those behaviors followed by unpleasant consequences (punishers) become weaker and less frequent. Thorndike later revised the Law of Effect by deleting the part about punishers, since he did not find sufficient evidence that punishment effectively decreases behavior. Despite Thorndike's findings, the current theory of operant conditioning includes both punishment and reinforcement.

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Annotation 1608125910284

 Reinforcement and punishment are the consequences or contingencies

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Annotation 1608127745292

 Reinforcement, by definition, always increases the target behavior. It brings the subject into a more desirable state. Punishment, by definition, always decreases the target behavior.

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Annotation 1608130366732

 Positive means that something is "added* following emission of the target behavior and negative means that something is "subtracted."

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Annotation 1608136920332

 Positive reinforcement is reward. After the target behavior is performed, something of value is given to the person. It is reinforcement because it brings the person into a more desirable state, thus increasing the target behavior.

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Annotation 1608139017484

 Negative reinforcement is relief. After the target behavior is performed, something annoying or aversive is removed. It is reinforcement because it brings the subject into a more desirable state, thus increasing the target behavior. It is negative because something is being subtracted.

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Annotation 1608141376780

 Positive punishment is pain. After the target behavior is performed, something aversive is added. It is punishment because it brings the subject into a less desirable state, thus decreasing the target behavior. It is positive because something is added.

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Annotation 1608144260364

 Negative punishment is loss. After the target behavior is performed, something valuable is removed. It is punishment because it brings the subject into a less desirable state, thus decreasing the target behavior.

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Annotation 1608151076108

 The acquisition phase refers to the period during which new learning r & G/- occurs

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Annotation 1608152648972

 extinction refers to the period in which reinforcement is withheld.

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Annotation 1608154221836

 The strength of a behavior, termed operant strength [OPERANT...THEY'RE OPERATING ON THIER ENVIRONMENT, TRYING TO CHANGE SOMETHING], is measured by the rate of responding (i.e., how often do the pigeons peck) during both acquisition and extinction trials.

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Annotation 1608156843276

 Continuous reinforcement simply means reinforcing every occurrence of the behavior. For example, every time a first grader reads a word, she receives a candy. Continuous reinforcement is the best schedule for acquiring new behaviors

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Annotation 1608158416140

 satiation describes this phenomenon of a reinforcer losing its value through overuse.

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Annotation 1608159989004

 although continuous reinforcement is best for the acquisition phase, it is highly susceptible to satiation and extinction.

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Annotation 1608161561868

 after acquisition, the schedule of reinforcement is best changed from continuous to intermittent, a change termed thinning.

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Annotation 1608163134732

 In intermittent reinforcement, the subject is not reinforced for every occurrence of the behavior.

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Annotation 1608164707596

 In ratio schedules, the subject is reinforced based on how often the subject has emitted a target behavior (e.g., 2:1,for every two pecks, one pellet).

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Annotation 1608166280460

 In interval reinforcemtn schedules, reinforcement is limited by time, not how many times the behavior happened. (e.g., if the pigeon has pecked 50 times during the 60 seconds, it still only gets one treat).

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Annotation 1608167853324

 In fixed schedules, the ratio or time interval doesn't change whereas in variable schedules, the ratios or time intervals do change.

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Annotation 1608169426188

 FIXED INTERVAL (FI): You can only get one reinforcer in a certain period fo time (e.g., Getting sex after taking out trash, but at most once per week).

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Annotation 1608170999052

 On a fixed interval schedule the response rate is high near the end of the interval and low (or non-existent) during most of the interval.

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Annotation 1608173096204

 FIXED INTERVAL (FI) Reinforcement occurs the first time the target behavior is o i V JU 3 ¥ emitted after the fixed time interval has elapsed. For example, a child is taken to Baskin- Robbins for an ice cream cone if she completes her homework unassisted (the target behavior) provided at least a week has passed (fixed interval) since she was last

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Annotation 1608174669068

 VARIABLE INTERVAL (VI) Reinforcement occurs the first time the target behavior is emitted after a variable/unpredictable interval of time has elapsed. For example, Skinner's pigeons might receive feed if they pecked once at the end of a 30 second interval, then at the end of a 20 second interval, then after a 40 second interval, etc. Here, the subject can't anticipate when reinforcement might occur and therefore continues to perform the behavior at a moderate rate and without pause.

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Annotation 1608176241932

 FIXED RATIO (FR) Reinforcement occurs after a fixed/set/exact number of responses are emitted. For example, in piecemeal work, the person is paid after every 500 envelopes stuffed. Response rate is typically moderate to high, and the subject may pause after reinforcement is provided, especially if the ratio is large (i.e., many responses are required before reinforcement).

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Annotation 1608177814796

 VARIABLE RATIO (VR) Reinforcement occurs after an unpredictable number of c# responses are emitted. Slot machines are the classic example: one cannot predict how many times of playing are required to win the jackpot (reinforcement). This schedule Oy results in subject continuing to perform the behavior at high rates and with little pause.

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Annotation 1608182009100

 Fixed schedules are still intermittent schedules because reinforcement does not occur for every response.

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Annotation 1608184630540

 RATES OF RESPONDING DURING ACQUISITION During acquisition, variable ratio (VR) results in the greatest operant strength followed by fixed ratio (FR), variable interval (VI), and fixed interval (FI). Fixed interval (FI) has the lowest response rates during new learning

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Annotation 1608223165708

 Variable ratio (VR) is the most resistant to extinction (just think of those slot machines!), followed by fixed ratio (FR), variable interval (VI), and fixed interval (FI). Behaviors learned through fixed interval (FI) extinguish most easily and quickly.

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Annotation 1608224738572

 the fixed schedules result in pauses after reinforcement. When graphed, this pattern is termed scalloped. Variable schedules result in more uninterrupted behavior. When graphed, this pattern looks smooth. The fixed interval (FI) schedule appears most scalloped.

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Annotation 1608226311436

 At first, withholding reinforcement will usually result in an increase in the behavior, termed a response burst. A child, for example, who's used to getting her way by whining will actually whine more if the father suddenly stops responding to her whining. Over time, however, the unreinforced behavior will diminish, i.e., it will be extinguished.

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Annotation 1608227884300

 Superstitious behavior results from accidental reinforcement or from non-contingent reinforcement,

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Annotation 1608229457164

 DISCRIMINATION LEARNING (STIMULUS CONTROL) In some experiments, and usually in the real world, target behaviors are reinforced in certain circumstances but not in others. In discrimination learning or stimulus control, the subject learns to "discriminate" between those situations (i.e., stimuli) in which reinforcement will be forthcoming and those in which it will not. The stimulus that signals reinforcement will take place is known as the discriminative stimulus (SD); the stimulus that signals reinforcement will not take place is known as the S delta (SA). For example, a child whines in the presence of his grandmother because he knows that his grandmother will pay attention but he does not whine around his mother who ignores the whining behavior. Here, the grandmother is serving as an SD (signaling reinforcement) while mother is serving as an SA (signaling no reinforcement).

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Annotation 1608231030028

 Stimulus generalization occurs when a subject begins to emit the target behavior in the presence of stimuli similar to but not exactly the same as the discriminative stimulus. For example, the pigeon that gets food when it pecks to a green light might also peck to blue light, expecting reinforcement.

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Annotation 1608232602892

 Response generalization refers to performing a -^ behavior that is similar but not identical to the one that has been previously been reinforced.

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Annotation 1608234175756

 To decide whether a phenomenon is stimulus generalization or response generalization, ask yourself: What's changing, the stimulus or the response? In the above examples, the child's behavior of whining is the same, but the stimulus to which he does it has changed (grandmother to other elderly); hence it is stimulus generalization. When the dog starts doing different dog tricks, his response has changed, and hence it is response generalization.

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Annotation 1608235748620

 Prompting involves cueing the subject about what behavior to perforin. For example, to teach a child good manners, a parent may prompt the child with the instruction "Say thank you." Over time, the parent gradually reduces the prompt to "What do you say?" and eventually to justa look. This gradual reduction in prompting is known as fading.

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Annotation 1608237321484

 Shaping involves is when you reinforce someone for getting closer and closer to what you want them to do.

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Annotation 1608238894348

 Chaining involves stringing together different behaviors to accomplish a goal. Each behavior in the sequence is mildly reinforced (minor reinforcement) and serves as a cue (discriminative stimulus) to perform the next behavior in the chain. The major reinforcement occurs at the end of the chain.

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Annotation 1608240467212

 Every step must be reinforced or else the chain will stop. For instance, if the person gets up to the ticket window and finds that he has left his wallet at home, he is not reinforced and the whole chain is interrupted.

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Annotation 1608242564364

 The Premack principle, also known as Grandma's rule. Use a high frequency behavior (i.e., something the person likes to do) to reinforce a low frequency behavior (i.e., something the person doesn't much care to do). For example, "If you eat your spinach (low frequency behavior), you can go out to play(high frequency behavior)."

pdf

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Annotation 1608244137228

 Imagine a situation in which two behaviors have been equally reinforced (e.g., both cleaning one's room and raking the yard earns allowance). Then, only one of the behaviors is reinforced (only cleaning one's room is reinforced). Typically the behavior that is being reinforced (cleaning) increases in frequency, while the behavior that is no longer being reinforced (raking) decreases. This phenomenon is termed behavioral contrast.

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Annotation 1608245710092

 According to Social Learning Theory (also known as the theory of observational learning), human learning and behavior cannot fully be explained by behavioral principles of reinforcement (operant conditioning) or association (classical conditioning). Social Learning Theory proposes that learning, especially complex learning (e.g., brain surgery), occurs through the observation and modeling (imitation) of behavior that has been witnessed. In the classic Bobo doll study Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1963) found that children exposed to violent models tended to imitate the exact violent behavior they observed. In general, models who were high status, nurturant, and of the same sex as the observer were more likely to be imitated than models who were low status, non-nurturant, or of the opposite sex.

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Annotation 1608247282956

 Bandura's social learning theory says we anticipate reinforcers and act accordingly; classical and operant conditioning believe that we are programmed by past reinforcement/punishment.

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Annotation 1608248855820

 The radical behaviorist viewpoint contends that all behavior is shaped by contingencies in the environment. In contrast, social learning theorists believe in reciprocal determinism, according to which an interactive triad of the person, his/her behavior, and the environment regulate the individual's behavior. For example, a car accident victim anticipates positive reinforcement (i.e., money) for complaints of pain and therefore files a disability claim. Receiving this reinforcement leads the victim to become even less active which then weakens his muscles further and thereby causes him more (and very real) pain.

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Annotation 1608250428684

 #eppp According to Bandura, Observational Learning has 4 steps: attention (attending to model), retention (remembering what is seen/heard), production (reproducing the memory during imitation), and motivation (reinforcement for accurate performance)

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Flashcard 1608253574412

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#eppp
Question
According to [...], Observational Learning has 4 steps: attention (attending to model), retention (remembering what is seen/heard), production (reproducing the memory during imitation), and motivation (reinforcement for accurate performance)
Bandura

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According to Bandura, Observational Learning has 4 steps: attention (attending to model), retention (remembering what is seen/heard), production (reproducing the memory during imitation), and motivation (re

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Flashcard 1608255147276

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According to Bandura, [...] has 4 steps: attention (attending to model), retention (remembering what is seen/heard), production (reproducing the memory during imitation), and motivation (reinforcement for accurate performance)
Observational Learning

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According to Bandura, Observational Learning has 4 steps: attention (attending to model), retention (remembering what is seen/heard), production (reproducing the memory during imitation), and motivation (reinforcement for accurate

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Flashcard 1608256720140

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#eppp
Question
According to Bandura, Observational Learning has 4 steps: [...], retention (remembering what is seen/heard), production (reproducing the memory during imitation), and motivation (reinforcement for accurate performance)
attention (attending to model)

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According to Bandura, Observational Learning has 4 steps: attention (attending to model), retention (remembering what is seen/heard), production (reproducing the memory during imitation), and motivation (reinforcement for accurate performance)

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Flashcard 1608258293004

Tags
#eppp
Question
According to Bandura, Observational Learning has 4 steps: attention (attending to model), [...], production (reproducing the memory during imitation), and motivation (reinforcement for accurate performance)
retention (remembering what is seen/heard)

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According to Bandura, Observational Learning has 4 steps: attention (attending to model), retention (remembering what is seen/heard), production (reproducing the memory during imitation), and motivation (reinforcement for accurate performance)

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Flashcard 1608259865868

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#eppp
Question
According to Bandura, Observational Learning has 4 steps: attention (attending to model), retention (remembering what is seen/heard), [...], and motivation (reinforcement for accurate performance)
production (reproducing the memory during imitation)

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According to Bandura, Observational Learning has 4 steps: attention (attending to model), retention (remembering what is seen/heard), production (reproducing the memory during imitation), and motivation (reinforcement for accurate performance)

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Flashcard 1608261438732

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#eppp
Question
According to Bandura, Observational Learning has 4 steps: attention (attending to model), retention (remembering what is seen/heard), production (reproducing the memory during imitation), and [...]
motivation (reinforcement for accurate performance)

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According to Bandura, Observational Learning has 4 steps: attention (attending to model), retention (remembering what is seen/heard), production (reproducing the memory during imitation), and motivation (reinforcement for accurate performance)

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Flashcard 1608263011596

Question
The [...] behaviorist viewpoint contends that all behavior is shaped by contingencies in the environment. In contrast, social learning theorists believe in reciprocal determinism, according to which an interactive triad of the person, his/her behavior, and the environment regulate the individual's behavior. For example, a car accident victim anticipates positive reinforcement (i.e., money) for complaints of pain and therefore files a disability claim. Receiving this reinforcement leads the victim to become even less active which then weakens his muscles further and thereby causes him more (and very real) pain.

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The radical behaviorist viewpoint contends that all behavior is shaped by contingencies in the environment. In contrast, social learning theorists believe in reciprocal determinism, according to wh

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Flashcard 1608264584460

Question
The radical behaviorist viewpoint contends that all behavior is shaped by [...] in the environment. In contrast, social learning theorists believe in reciprocal determinism, according to which an interactive triad of the person, his/her behavior, and the environment regulate the individual's behavior. For example, a car accident victim anticipates positive reinforcement (i.e., money) for complaints of pain and therefore files a disability claim. Receiving this reinforcement leads the victim to become even less active which then weakens his muscles further and thereby causes him more (and very real) pain.
contingencies

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The radical behaviorist viewpoint contends that all behavior is shaped by contingencies in the environment. In contrast, social learning theorists believe in reciprocal determinism, according to which an interactive triad of the person, his/her behavior, and the environmen

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Flashcard 1608266157324

Question
The radical behaviorist viewpoint contends that all behavior is shaped by contingencies in the environment. In contrast, [...] learning theorists believe in reciprocal determinism, according to which an interactive triad of the person, his/her behavior, and the environment regulate the individual's behavior. For example, a car accident victim anticipates positive reinforcement (i.e., money) for complaints of pain and therefore files a disability claim. Receiving this reinforcement leads the victim to become even less active which then weakens his muscles further and thereby causes him more (and very real) pain.
social

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The radical behaviorist viewpoint contends that all behavior is shaped by contingencies in the environment. In contrast, social learning theorists believe in reciprocal determinism, according to which an interactive triad of the person, his/her behavior, and the environment regulate the individual's behavior. Fo

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Flashcard 1608267730188

Question
The radical behaviorist viewpoint contends that all behavior is shaped by contingencies in the environment. In contrast, social learning theorists believe in [...] determinism, according to which an interactive triad of the person, his/her behavior, and the environment regulate the individual's behavior. For example, a car accident victim anticipates positive reinforcement (i.e., money) for complaints of pain and therefore files a disability claim. Receiving this reinforcement leads the victim to become even less active which then weakens his muscles further and thereby causes him more (and very real) pain.
reciprocal

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The radical behaviorist viewpoint contends that all behavior is shaped by contingencies in the environment. In contrast, social learning theorists believe in reciprocal determinism, according to which an interactive triad of the person, his/her behavior, and the environment regulate the individual's behavior. For example, a car accident victim anticipa

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Flashcard 1608270089484

Question
Bandura's [...] theory says we do things based on the reinforcers we anticipate; classical and operant conditioning believe that we are programmed by past reinforcement/punishment.
social learning

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Bandura's social learning theory says we do things based on the reinforcers we anticipate; classical and operant conditioning believe that we are programmed by past reinforcement/punishment.

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Flashcard 1608271662348

Question
Bandura's social learning theory says we do things based on the [...] we anticipate; classical and operant conditioning believe that we are programmed by past reinforcement/punishment.
reinforcers

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Bandura's social learning theory says we do things based on the reinforcers we anticipate; classical and operant conditioning believe that we are programmed by past reinforcement/punishment.

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Flashcard 1608275070220

Question
Bandura's social learning theory says we [...] reinforcers and act accordingly; classical and operant conditioning believe that we are programmed by past reinforcement/punishment.
anticipate

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Bandura's social learning theory says we anticipate reinforcers and act accordingly; classical and operant conditioning believe that we are programmed by past reinforcement/punishment.

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Flashcard 1608276643084

Question
According to Social Learning Theory (also known as the theory of observational learning), human learning and behavior cannot fully be explained by behavioral principles of reinforcement (operant conditioning) or association (classical conditioning). Social Learning Theory proposes that learning, especially complex learning (e.g., brain surgery), occurs through the [...] and modeling (imitation) of behavior that has been witnessed. In the classic Bobo doll study Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1963) found that children exposed to violent models tended to imitate the exact violent behavior they observed. In general, models who were high status, nurturant, and of the same sex as the observer were more likely to be imitated than models who were low status, non-nurturant, or of the opposite sex.
observation

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fully be explained by behavioral principles of reinforcement (operant conditioning) or association (classical conditioning). Social Learning Theory proposes that learning, especially complex learning (e.g., brain surgery), occurs through the <span>observation and modeling (imitation) of behavior that has been witnessed. In the classic Bobo doll study Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1963) found that children exposed to violent models tended to imita

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Flashcard 1608278215948

Question
According to Social Learning Theory (also known as the theory of observational learning), human learning and behavior cannot fully be explained by behavioral principles of reinforcement (operant conditioning) or association (classical conditioning). Social Learning Theory proposes that learning, especially complex learning (e.g., brain surgery), occurs through the observation and [...] of behavior that has been witnessed. In the classic Bobo doll study Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1963) found that children exposed to violent models tended to imitate the exact violent behavior they observed. In general, models who were high status, nurturant, and of the same sex as the observer were more likely to be imitated than models who were low status, non-nurturant, or of the opposite sex.
modeling (imitation)

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ned by behavioral principles of reinforcement (operant conditioning) or association (classical conditioning). Social Learning Theory proposes that learning, especially complex learning (e.g., brain surgery), occurs through the observation and <span>modeling (imitation) of behavior that has been witnessed. In the classic Bobo doll study Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1963) found that children exposed to violent models tended to imitate the exact violent beha

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Flashcard 1608279788812

Question
Imagine a situation in which two behaviors have been equally reinforced (e.g., both cleaning one's room and raking the yard earns allowance). Then, only one of the behaviors is reinforced (only cleaning one's room is reinforced). Typically the behavior that is being reinforced (cleaning) increases in frequency, while the behavior that is no longer being reinforced (raking) decreases. This phenomenon is termed behavioral [...].
contrast

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forced (only cleaning one's room is reinforced). Typically the behavior that is being reinforced (cleaning) increases in frequency, while the behavior that is no longer being reinforced (raking) decreases. This phenomenon is termed behavioral <span>contrast.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1608281361676

Question
Imagine a situation in which two behaviors have been equally reinforced (e.g., both cleaning one's room and raking the yard earns allowance). Then, only one of the behaviors is reinforced (only cleaning one's room is reinforced). Typically the behavior that is being reinforced (cleaning) increases in frequency, while the behavior that is no longer being reinforced (raking) decreases. This phenomenon is termed [...] contrast.
behavioral

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ors is reinforced (only cleaning one's room is reinforced). Typically the behavior that is being reinforced (cleaning) increases in frequency, while the behavior that is no longer being reinforced (raking) decreases. This phenomenon is termed <span>behavioral contrast.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1608283720972

Question
The [...], also known as Grandma's rule. Use a high frequency behavior (i.e., something the person likes to do) to reinforce a low frequency behavior (i.e., something the person doesn't much care to do). For example, "If you eat your spinach (low frequency behavior), you can go out to play(high frequency behavior)."

Premack principle

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The Premack principle, also known as Grandma's rule. Use a high frequency behavior (i.e., something the person likes to do) to reinforce a low frequency behavior (i.e., something the person doesn't much car

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Flashcard 1608285293836

Question
The Premack principle, also known as Grandma's rule. Use a [...] frequency behavior (i.e., something the person likes to do) to reinforce a low frequency behavior (i.e., something the person doesn't much care to do). For example, "If you eat your spinach (low frequency behavior), you can go out to play(high frequency behavior)."

high

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The Premack principle, also known as Grandma's rule. Use a high frequency behavior (i.e., something the person likes to do) to reinforce a low frequency behavior (i.e., something the person doesn't much care to do). For example, "If you eat yo

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Flashcard 1608286866700

Question
The Premack principle, also known as Grandma's rule. Use a high frequency behavior (i.e., something the person likes to do) to reinforce a [...] frequency behavior (i.e., something the person doesn't much care to do). For example, "If you eat your spinach (low frequency behavior), you can go out to play(high frequency behavior)."

low

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The Premack principle, also known as Grandma's rule. Use a high frequency behavior (i.e., something the person likes to do) to reinforce a low frequency behavior (i.e., something the person doesn't much care to do). For example, "If you eat your spinach (low frequency behavior), you can go out to play(high frequency behav

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Flashcard 1608289225996

Question
What is a FIXED INTERVAL (FI) reinforcer?
You can only get one reinforcer in a certain period fo time (e.g., Getting sex after taking out trash, but at most once per week).

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FIXED INTERVAL (FI): You can only get one reinforcer in a certain period fo time (e.g., Getting sex after taking out trash, but at most once per week).

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Flashcard 1608294468876

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On a fixed interval schedule the response rate is [...] near the end of the interval and low (or non-existent) during most of the interval.
high

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On a fixed interval schedule the response rate is high near the end of the interval and low (or non-existent) during most of the interval.

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Flashcard 1608296041740

Question
On a fixed interval schedule the response rate is high near the end of the interval and [...] during most of the interval.
low (or non-existent)

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On a fixed interval schedule the response rate is high near the end of the interval and low (or non-existent) during most of the interval.

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Flashcard 1608299187468

Question
In [...] reinforcemtn schedules, reinforcement is limited by time, not how many times the behavior happened. (e.g., if the pigeon has pecked 50 times during the 60 seconds, it still only gets one treat).
interval

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In interval reinforcemtn schedules, reinforcement is limited by time, not how many times the behavior happened. (e.g., if the pigeon has pecked 50 times during the 60 seconds, it still only gets on

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Flashcard 1608300760332

Question
In interval reinforcemtn schedules, reinforcement is limited by [...], not how many times the behavior happened. (e.g., if the pigeon has pecked 50 times during the 60 seconds, it still only gets one treat).
time

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In interval reinforcemtn schedules, reinforcement is limited by time, not how many times the behavior happened. (e.g., if the pigeon has pecked 50 times during the 60 seconds, it still only gets one treat).

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Flashcard 1608302333196

Question
In [...] schedules, the subject is reinforced based on how often the subject has emitted a target behavior (e.g., 2:1,for every two pecks, one pellet).
ratio

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In ratio schedules, the subject is reinforced based on how often the subject has emitted a target behavior (e.g., 2:1,for every two pecks, one pellet).

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Flashcard 1608303906060

Question
In ratio schedules, the subject is reinforced based on how [...] the subject has emitted a target behavior (e.g., 2:1,for every two pecks, one pellet).
often

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In ratio schedules, the subject is reinforced based on how often the subject has emitted a target behavior (e.g., 2:1,for every two pecks, one pellet).

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Flashcard 1608305478924

Question
In [...] schedules, the ratio or time interval doesn't change whereas in variable schedules, the ratios or time intervals do change.
fixed

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In fixed schedules, the ratio or time interval doesn't change whereas in variable schedules, the ratios or time intervals do change.

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Flashcard 1608307051788

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In fixed schedules, the ratio or time interval doesn't change whereas in [...] schedules, the ratios or time intervals do change.
variable

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In fixed schedules, the ratio or time interval doesn't change whereas in variable schedules, the ratios or time intervals do change.

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Flashcard 1608309673228

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VARIABLE INTERVAL (VI) Reinforcement occurs the first time the target behavior is emitted after a [...] interval of time has elapsed. For example, Skinner's pigeons might receive feed if they pecked once at the end of a 30 second interval, then at the end of a 20 second interval, then after a 40 second interval, etc. Here, the subject can't anticipate when reinforcement might occur and therefore continues to perform the behavior at a moderate rate and without pause.
variable/unpredictable

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VARIABLE INTERVAL (VI) Reinforcement occurs the first time the target behavior is emitted after a variable/unpredictable interval of time has elapsed. For example, Skinner's pigeons might receive feed if they pecked once at the end of a 30 second interval, then at the end of a 20 second interval, then aft

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Flashcard 1608311246092

Question
[...] schedules are still intermittent schedules because reinforcement does not occur for every response.
Fixed

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Fixed schedules are still intermittent schedules because reinforcement does not occur for every response.

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Flashcard 1608312818956

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Fixed schedules are still [...] schedules because reinforcement does not occur for every response.
intermittent

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Fixed schedules are still intermittent schedules because reinforcement does not occur for every response.

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Flashcard 1608314391820

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[...] describes this phenomenon of a reinforcer losing its value through overuse.
satiation

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satiation describes this phenomenon of a reinforcer losing its value through overuse.

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Flashcard 1608316226828

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although continuous reinforcement is best for the [...] phase, it is highly susceptible to satiation and extinction.
acquisition

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although continuous reinforcement is best for the acquisition phase, it is highly susceptible to satiation and extinction.

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Flashcard 1608317799692

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although continuous reinforcement is best for the acquisition phase, it is highly susceptible to [...] and extinction.
satiation

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although continuous reinforcement is best for the acquisition phase, it is highly susceptible to satiation and extinction.

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Flashcard 1608319372556

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although continuous reinforcement is best for the acquisition phase, it is highly susceptible to satiation and [...].
extinction

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although continuous reinforcement is best for the acquisition phase, it is highly susceptible to satiation and extinction.

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Flashcard 1608320945420

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after acquisition, the schedule of reinforcement is best changed from continuous to intermittent, a change termed [...].
thinning

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after acquisition, the schedule of reinforcement is best changed from continuous to intermittent, a change termed thinning.

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Flashcard 1608322518284

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after [...], the schedule of reinforcement is best changed from continuous to intermittent, a change termed thinning.
acquisition

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after acquisition, the schedule of reinforcement is best changed from continuous to intermittent, a change termed thinning.

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Flashcard 1608324091148

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In [...] reinforcement, the subject is not reinforced for every occurrence of the behavior.
intermittent

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In intermittent reinforcement, the subject is not reinforced for every occurrence of the behavior.

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FIXED RATIO (FR) Reinforcement occurs after a [...] number of responses are emitted. For example, in piecemeal work, the person is paid after every 500 envelopes stuffed. Response rate is typically moderate to high, and the subject may pause after reinforcement is provided, especially if the ratio is large (i.e., many responses are required before reinforcement).
fixed/set/exact

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FIXED RATIO (FR) Reinforcement occurs after a fixed/set/exact number of responses are emitted. For example, in piecemeal work, the person is paid after every 500 envelopes stuffed. Response rate is typically moderate to high, and the subject may p

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Flashcard 1608329071884

Question
[...] involves stringing together different behaviors to accomplish a goal. Each behavior in the sequence is mildly reinforced (minor reinforcement) and serves as a cue (discriminative stimulus) to perform the next behavior in the chain. The major reinforcement occurs at the end of the chain.
Chaining

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Chaining involves stringing together different behaviors to accomplish a goal. Each behavior in the sequence is mildly reinforced (minor reinforcement) and serves as a cue (discriminative stimul

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Flashcard 1608330644748

Question
Chaining involves stringing together different behaviors to accomplish a goal. Each behavior in the sequence is [...] reinforced (minor reinforcement) and serves as a cue (discriminative stimulus) to perform the next behavior in the chain. The major reinforcement occurs at the end of the chain.
mildly

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Chaining involves stringing together different behaviors to accomplish a goal. Each behavior in the sequence is mildly reinforced (minor reinforcement) and serves as a cue (discriminative stimulus) to perform the next behavior in the chain. The major reinforcement occurs at the end of the chain.<

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Flashcard 1608332217612

Question
Chaining involves stringing together different behaviors to accomplish a goal. Each behavior in the sequence is mildly reinforced (minor reinforcement) and serves as a cue ([...] stimulus) to perform the next behavior in the chain. The major reinforcement occurs at the end of the chain.
discriminative

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Chaining involves stringing together different behaviors to accomplish a goal. Each behavior in the sequence is mildly reinforced (minor reinforcement) and serves as a cue (discriminative stimulus) to perform the next behavior in the chain. The major reinforcement occurs at the end of the chain.

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Flashcard 1608334576908

Question
[...] involves is when you reinforce someone for getting closer and closer to what you want them to do.