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Flashcard 1428170607884

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Inverse demand function is a restatement of the demand function in which
[...]
Answer
price is stated as a function of quantity.


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Inverse demand function is a restatement of the demand function in which price is stated as a function of quantity.







Flashcard 1430533311756

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Graphically, Consumer Surplus translates into the area [...]
Answer
under the consumer’s demand curve, up to and including the last unit consumed


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Graphically, this measure translates into the area under the consumer’s demand curve, up to and including the last unit consumed

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3.9. Consumer Surplus—Value minus Expenditure
onal unit. This interpretation of the demand curve allows us to measure the total value of consuming any given quantity of a good: It is the sum of all the marginal values of each unit consumed, up to and including the last unit. <span>Graphically, this measure translates into the area under the consumer’s demand curve, up to and including the last unit consumed, as shown in Exhibit 12, in which the consumer is choosing to buy Q 1 units of the good at a price of P 1 . The marginal value of the Qth1 unit is clearly P 1 , because that is the h







Flashcard 1432975183116

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
households typically choose to spend less on consumption than they earn from their labor. This behavior is called [...]
Answer


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households typically choose to spend less on consumption than they earn from their labor. This behavior is called saving , through which households can accumulate financial capital, the returns on which can produce other sources of household income, such as interest, dividends, and capital gains. Househol

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2. TYPES OF MARKETS
they judge that the value of the productivity of workers is greater than the cost of employing them. A major source of household income and a major cost to firms is compensation paid in exchange for labor services. Additionally, <span>households typically choose to spend less on consumption than they earn from their labor. This behavior is called saving , through which households can accumulate financial capital, the returns on which can produce other sources of household income, such as interest, dividends, and capital gains. Households may choose to lend their accumulated savings (in exchange for interest) or invest it in ownership claims in firms (in hopes of receiving dividends and capital gains). Households make these savings choices when their anticipated future returns are judged to be more valuable today than the present consumption that households must sacrifice when they save. Indeed, a major purpose of financial institutions and markets is to enable the transfer of these savings into capital investments. Firms use capital markets (markets for







Flashcard 1433074273548

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-4-the-opportunity-set #study-session-4 #the-production-opportunity-set
Question
In this event, the production opportunity frontier would become steeper as the company moved its production point away from cars and toward more trucks, resulting in a frontier that would be concave as viewed from the origin.

What event?
Answer
Dedicating the company to make only trucks because then you get more specialized n shit


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ore and more trucks are produced, fewer inputs that are particularly well suited to producing truck inputs could be transferred to assist in their manufacture, causing the cost of trucks (in terms of cars) to rise as more trucks are produced. <span>In this event, the production opportunity frontier would become steeper as the company moved its production point away from cars and toward more trucks, resulting in a frontier that would be concave as viewed from the origin. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

4. THE OPPORTUNITY SET: CONSUMPTION, PRODUCTION, AND INVESTMENT CHOICE
on the vertical axis, the slope is equal to –(P L /P C ) = –10/16 = –0.625. (Note: If we had chosen to measure quantity of lamb on the vertical axis, the slope would be inverted: –(P C /P L ) = −1.6.) <span>4.2. The Production Opportunity Set Companies face constraints on their production opportunities, just as consumers face limits on the bundles of goods that they can consume. Consider a company that produces two products using the same production capacity. For example, an automobile company might use the same factory to produce either automobiles or light trucks. If so, then the company is constrained by the limited capacity to produce vehicles. If it produces more trucks, it must reduce its production of automobiles; likewise, if it produces more automobiles, it must produce fewer trucks. The company’s production opportunity frontier shows the maximum number of units of one good it can produce, for any given number of the other good that it chooses to manufacture. Such a frontier for the vehicle company might look something like that in Exhibit 9. Exhibit 9. The Production Opportunity Frontier Note: The production opportunity frontier for a vehicle manufacturer shows the maximum number of autos for any given level of truck production. In this example, the opportunity cost of a truck is 0.8 autos. There are two important things to notice about this example. First, if the company devoted its entire production facility to the manufacture of automobiles, it could produce 1 million in a year. Alternatively, if it devoted its entire plant to trucks, it could produce 1.25 million a year. Of course, it could devote only part of the year’s production to trucks, in which case it could produce automobiles during the remainder of the year. In this simple example, for every additional truck the company chooses to make, it would have to produce 0.8 fewer cars. That is, the opportunity cost of a truck is 0.8 cars, or the opportunity cost of a car is 1.25 trucks. The opportunity cost of trucks is the negative of the slope of the production opportunity frontier: 1/1.25. And of course, the opportunity cost of an automobile is the inverse of that ratio, or 1.25. The other thing to notice about this exhibit is that it assumes the opportunity cost of a truck is independent of how many trucks (and cars) the company produces. The production opportunity frontier is linear with a constant slope. Perhaps a more realistic example would be to increase marginal opportunity cost. As more and more trucks are produced, fewer inputs that are particularly well suited to producing truck inputs could be transferred to assist in their manufacture, causing the cost of trucks (in terms of cars) to rise as more trucks are produced. In this event, the production opportunity frontier would become steeper as the company moved its production point away from cars and toward more trucks, resulting in a frontier that would be concave as viewed from the origin. 4.3. The Investment Opportunity Set The investment opportunity set is examined in detail in readings on investments, but it is appropriate to exa







Flashcard 1435632798988

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economic-and-normal-profit #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-2-objectives-of-the-firm #study-session-4
Question
Consider the start-up which had an accounting profit of €300,000 and suppose that the executive who launched it stoped earning a salary of €100,000 per year in the job he left.

Besides labor, financial capital is a resource. Suppose he makes an investment of €1,500,000 to launch the start-up and that he might be earning €200,000 per year on that amount in a similar risk investment.

Total implicit opportunity costs are [...] per year so economic profit is [...]
Answer
€100,000 + €200,000 = €300,000

zero: €300,000 – €300,000 = €0.


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13; Besides labor, financial capital is a resource. Suppose he makes an investment of €1,500,000 to launch the start-up and that he might be earning €200,000 per year on that amount in a similar risk investment (opportunity cost). <span>Total implicit opportunity costs are €100,000 + €200,000 = €300,000 per year so economic profit is zero: €300,000 – €300,000 = €0. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

2. OBJECTIVES OF THE FIRM
00 – $48,000,000 = $2,000,000. Note that total accounting costs in either case include interest expense—which represents the return required by suppliers of debt capital—because interest expense is an explicit cost. <span>2.1.2. Economic Profit and Normal Profit Economic profit (also known as abnormal profit or supernormal profit ) may be defined broadly as accounting profit less the implicit opportunity costs not included in total accounting costs. Equation (3a)  Economic profit = Accounting profit – Total implicit opportunity costs We can define a term, economic cost , equal to the sum of total accounting costs and implicit opportunity costs. Economic profit is therefore equivalently defined as: Equation (3b)  Economic profit = Total revenue – Total economic costs For publicly traded corporations, the focus of investment analysts’ work, the cost of equity capital is the largest and most readily identified implicit opportunity cost omitted in calculating total accounting cost. Consequently, economic profit can be defined for publicly traded corporations as accounting profit less the required return on equity capital. Examples will make these concepts clearer. Consider the start-up company for which we calculated an accounting profit of €300,000 and suppose that the entrepreneurial executive who launched the start-up took a salary reduction of €100,000 per year relative to the job he left. That €100,000 is an opportunity cost of involving him in running the start-up. Besides labor, financial capital is a resource. Suppose that the executive, as sole owner, makes an investment of €1,500,000 to launch the enterprise and that he might otherwise expect to earn €200,000 per year on that amount in a similar risk investment. Total implicit opportunity costs are €100,000 + €200,000 = €300,000 per year and economic profit is zero: €300,000 – €300,000 = €0. For the publicly traded corporation, we consider the cost of equity capital as the only implicit opportunity cost identifiable. Suppose that equity investment is $18,750,000 and shareholders’ required rate of return is 8 percent so that the dollar cost of equity capital is $1,500,000. Economic profit for the publicly traded corporation is therefore $2,000,000 (accounting profit) less $1,500,000 (cost of equity capital) or $500,000. For the start-up company, economic profit was zero. Total economic costs were just covered by revenues and the company was not earning a euro more nor less than the amount that meets the opportunity costs of the resources used in the business. Economists would say the company was earning a normal profit (economic profit of zero). In simple terms, normal profit is the level of accounting profit needed to just cover the implicit opportunity costs ignored in accounting costs. For the publicly traded corporation, normal profit was $1,500,000: normal profit can be taken to be the cost of equity capital (in money terms) for such a company or the dollar return required on an equal investment by equity holders in an equivalently risky alternative investment opportunity. The publicly traded corporation actually earned $500,000 in excess of normal profit, which should be reflected in the common shares’ market price. Thus, the following expression links accounting profit to economic profit and normal profit: Equation (4)  Accounting profit = Economic profit + Normal profit When accounting profit equals normal profit, economic profit is zero. Further, when accounting profit is greater than normal profit, economic profit is positive; and when accounting profit is less than normal profit, economic profit is negative (the firm has an economic loss ). Economic profit for a firm can originate from sources such as: competitive advantage; exceptional managerial efficiency or skill; difficult to copy technology or innovation (e.g., patents, trademarks, and copyrights); exclusive access to less-expensive inputs; fixed supply of an output, commodity, or resource; preferential treatment under governmental policy; large increases in demand where supply is unable to respond fully over time; exertion of monopoly power (price control) in the market; and market barriers to entry that limit competition. Any of the above factors may lead the firm to have positive net present value investment (NPV) opportunities. Access to positive NPV opportunities and therefore profit in excess of normal profits in the short run may or may not exist in the long run, depending on the potential strength of competition. In highly competitive market situations, firms tend to earn the normal profit level over time because ease of market entry allows for other competing firms to compete away any economic profit over the long run. Economic profit that exists over the long run is usually found where competitive conditions persistently are less than perfect in the market. 2.1.3. Economic Rent The surplus value known as economic rent results when a particular resource or good is fixed in supply (with a vertical su







Flashcard 1435778026764

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
To calculate a marginal term, [...]
Answer
take the change in the total and divide by the change in the quantity number.


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To calculate a marginal term, take the change in the total and divide by the change in the quantity number.

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3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
calculated with respect to the quantity produced and sold in a single period (as opposed to averaging a quantity over a number of time periods). For example, average revenue is calculated by dividing total revenue by the number of items sold. <span>To calculate a marginal term, take the change in the total and divide by the change in the quantity number. Exhibit 3 shows a summary of the terminology and formulas pertaining to profit maximization, where profit is defined as total revenue minus total economic costs. Note that







Flashcard 1439264279820

Tags
#eximbank #fees #octopus #usa
Question
Preliminary commitment: [...] of [...] percent of the financed amount up to $ [...]
Answer
0.1

1

25,000.


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Preliminary commitment: 0.1 of 1 percent of the financed amount up to $25,000.

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Government-Assisted Foreign Buyer Financing (Eximbank USA)
disbursement of a loan to the foreign buyers. Generally, goods shipped by sea must be carried exclusively on U.S. vessels. Direct loans are best used when the buyer insists on a fixed rate. <span>Fees and Ex-Im Bank Contact Information Letter of interest: $50 for online application; $100 for paper application via mail and fax. Preliminary commitment: 0.1 of 1 percent of the financed amount up to $25,000. Guarantee commitment: 0.125 percent per year on the undisbursed balance of the loan. Direct loan commitment: 0.5 percent per year on the undisbursed balance of the loan. Exposure fee: varies, depending upon tenor, country risk, and buyer credit risk. For more information about loans from Ex-Im Bank, visit its Web site at www.exim.gov or call 1-800-565-EXIM (3946). <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1442942946572

Tags
#2-1-3-economic-rent #2-1-types-of-profit-measures #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-2-objectives-of-the-firm #study-session-4
Question
How is the supply curve graphically depicted when economic rent is created?
Answer
vertical supply curve


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Because of their limited availability in nature, certain resources—such as land and specialty commodities—possess highly inelastic supply curves in both the short run and long run (shown in Exhibit 1 as a vertical supply curve). When supply is relatively inelastic, a high degree of market demand can result in pricing that creates economic rent. This economic rent results from the fact that when price increase

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2. OBJECTIVES OF THE FIRM
er competing firms to compete away any economic profit over the long run. Economic profit that exists over the long run is usually found where competitive conditions persistently are less than perfect in the market. <span>2.1.3. Economic Rent The surplus value known as economic rent results when a particular resource or good is fixed in supply (with a vertical supply curve) and market price is higher than what is required to bring the resource or good onto the market and sustain its use. Essentially, demand determines the price level and the magnitude of economic rent that is forthcoming from the market. Exhibit 1 illustrates this concept, where P 1 is the price level that yields a normal profit return to the business that supplies the item. When demand increases from Demand 1 to Demand 2 , price rises to P 2 , where at this higher price level economic rent is created. The amount of this economic rent is calculated as (P 2 – P 1 ) × Q 1 . The firm has not done anything internally to merit this special reward: It benefits from an increase in demand in conjunction with a supply curve that does not fully adjust with an increase in quantity when price rises. Exhibit 1. Economic Rent Because of their limited availability in nature, certain resources—such as land and specialty commodities—possess highly inelastic supply curves in both the short run and long run (shown in Exhibit 1 as a vertical supply curve). When supply is relatively inelastic, a high degree of market demand can result in pricing that creates economic rent. This economic rent results from the fact that when price increases, the quantity supplied does not change or, at the most, increases only slightly. This is because of the fixation of supply by nature or by such artificial constraints as government policy. How is the concept of economic rent useful in financial analysis? Commodities or resources that command economic rent have the potential to reward equity investors more than what is required to attract their capital to that activity, resulting in greater shareholders’ wealth. Evidence of economic rent attracts additional capital funds to the economic endeavor. This new investment capital increases shareholders’ value as investors bid up share prices of existing firms. Any commodity, resource, or good that is fixed or nearly fixed in supply has the potential to yield economic rent. From an analytical perspective, one can obtain industry supply data to calculate the elasticity of supply , which measures the sensitivity of quantity supplied to a change in price. If quantity supplied is relatively unresponsive ( inelastic ) to price changes, then a potential condition exists in the market for economic rent. A reliable forecast of changes in demand can indicate the degree of any economic rent that is forthcoming from the market in the future. When one is analyzing fixed or nearly fixed supply markets (e.g., gold), a fundamental comprehension of demand determinants is necessary to make rational financial decisions based on potential economic rent. EXAMPLE 1 Economic Rent and Investment Decision Making The following market data show the global demand, global supply, and price on an annual basis for gold over the period 2006–2008. Based on the data, what observation can be made about market demand, supply, and economic rent? Year 2006 2007 2008 Percent Change 2006–2008 Supply (in metric tons) 3,569 3,475 3,508 –1.7 Demand (in metric tons) 3,423 3,552 3,805 +11.2 Average spot price (in US$) 603.92 695.39 871.65 +44.3 Source: GFMS and World Gold Council. Solution: The amount of total gold supplied to the world market over this period has actually declined slightly by 1.7 percent during a period when there was a double-digit increase of 11.2 percent in demand. As a consequence, the spot price has dramatically increased by 44.3 percent. Economic rent has resulted from this market relationship of a relatively fixed supply of gold and a rising demand for it. 2.2. Comparison of Profit Measures All three types of profit are interconnected because, according to Equation 4, acco







Flashcard 1446858591500

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #fra-introduction #reading-22-financial-statement-analysis-intro #study-session-7
Question
Basic financial statement analysis provides a foundation that enables the analyst to better understand information gathered [...] beyond the financial reports.
Answer
from research


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Basic financial statement analysis provides a foundation that enables the analyst to better understand information gathered from research beyond the financial reports.

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1. INTRODUCTION
s with the information found in a company’s financial reports. These financial reports include audited financial statements, additional disclosures required by regulatory authorities, and any accompanying (unaudited) commentary by management. <span>Basic financial statement analysis—as presented in this reading—provides a foundation that enables the analyst to better understand information gathered from research beyond the financial reports. This reading is organized as follows: Section 2 discusses the scope of financial statement analysis. Section 3 describes the sources of information used in financial statem







Flashcard 1450730196236



Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question
If P < AVC, the firm will [...]
Answer
shut down operations


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If P < AVC, the firm will shut down operations and simply absorb the unavoidable fixed costs. This problem occurs at output Q 1 , which corresponds to point C where price is less than average variable cost.

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osts in the short run as a business entity. In the short run, a business is capable of operating in a loss situation as long as it covers its variable costs even though it is not earning sufficient revenue to cover all fixed cost obligations. <span>If variable costs cannot be covered in the short run (P < AVC), the firm will shut down operations and simply absorb the unavoidable fixed costs. This problem occurs at output Q 1 , which corresponds to point C where price is less than average variable cost. However, in the long run, to remain in business, the price must cover all costs. Therefore, in the long run, at any price below the breakeven point, the firm will exit the market, i.e.,







Flashcard 1450744614156



Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question
In the case of perfect competition, the [...] is the quantity where price, average revenue, and marginal revenue equal average total cost.


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In the case of perfect competition, the breakeven point is the quantity where price, average revenue, and marginal revenue equal average total cost.

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Open it
point, the firm will exit the market, i.e., the firm will no longer participate in the market. Point D, which corresponds to output Q 3 , is a position where economic profit occurs because price is greater than ATC. <span>In the case of perfect competition, the breakeven point is the quantity where price, average revenue, and marginal revenue equal average total cost. It is also defined as the quantity where total revenue equals total costs. Firms strive to reach initial breakeven as soon as possible to avoid start-up losses for any extended period o







Flashcard 1475150482700

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #reading-23-financial-reporting-mechanics
Question
[...] and [...] generally relate to providing goods or services in a company’s primary business activities.

Answer
Revenue

expenses


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Revenue and expenses generally relate to providing goods or services in a company’s primary business activities. Gains (losses) relate to increases (decreases) in resources that are

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3.2. Accounting Equations
ss than its expenses, it reports a net loss. Other terms are used synonymously with revenue, including sales and turnover (in the United Kingdom). Other terms used synonymously with net income include net profit and net earnings. <span>Also, as noted earlier, revenue and expenses generally relate to providing goods or services in a company’s primary business activities. In contrast, gains (losses) relate to increases (decreases) in resources that are not part of a company’s primary business activities. Distinguishing a company’s primary business activities from other business activities is important in financial analysis; however, for purposes of the accounting equation, gains are inc







Flashcard 1645061999884

Question
But almost without exception hijāʾ refers to [medium].
Answer
poetry


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But almost without exception hij' a) refers to poetry.

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#eni #expediente-electronico #normativa
La definición de las condiciones para los servicios de intercambio y consulta de expedientes electrónicos en el marco normativo del ENI, responde al derecho reconocido en la Ley 39/2015, de 1 de octubre, en su artículo 53, relativo a que los interesados pueden solicitar la consulta o puesta a disposición de expedientes por medios electrónicos, mediante el acceso al Punto de Acceso General electrónico de la Administración o a una sede electrónica por ejemplo, o bien solicitar la remisión o envío del mismo. 63. Cuando se producen solicitudes de remisión o puesta a disposición de expedientes entre distintas organizaciones o por parte de los ciudadanos, éstas deben seguir unas pautas comunes, para llevar a cabo dichas consultas y el intercambio de expedientes electrónicos, que favorezcan la interoperabilidad. 64. Sin embargo, cuando el intercambio de expedientes se produce a nivel interno, cada organización se rige por lo establecido en su política interna, pudiendo contemplar las consideraciones que se desarrollan a continuación.

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#eni #expediente-electronico #normativa
Formato y estructura para el intercambio de expedientes 69. Según la NTI, por tanto, la estructura a aplicar para el intercambio de expedientes electrónicos será de forma general: i. Un fichero XML que seguirá la estructura definida en el anexo II de la NTI que incluirá: a. Índice firmado que incluye las referencias de los documentos electrónicos que componen el expediente, mencionadas de forma genérica en el punto 4.3.2 de la guía, y que se concretan en caso de intercambio atendiendo al apartado V.4 de la NTI. Nótese que, como elemento que refleja el estado del expediente en un determinado momento del tiempo, la NTI establece que el índice ha de contener también la fecha en que se genera. b. Metadatos mínimos obligatorios del expediente electrónico. c. Opcionalmente, un elemento para incluir una visualización alternativa de la información del expediente, como podría ser el índice o el contenido completo de los documentos que lo componen

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[unknown IMAGE 1698491141388]
Esquemas XML para intercambio de expedientes electrónicos
#eni #expediente-electronico #has-images #normativa

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[unknown IMAGE 1698494549260]
Sujetos de naturalez pública obligados por la Ley de Transparencia (Andaluza)
#has-images #transparencia

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#hipócrates
Os dois tratados partem do mesmo princípio: nenhuma doença é mais divina, nem mais sagrada do que qualquer outr

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#hipócrates
Em filosofia, considera-se ética "teleológica" aquela que julga a retidão de uma ação totalmente dependente de sua provável eficácia para atingir uma finalidade boa ou, direta ou indiretamente, o máximo bem; ética "deontológica", em certa medida, é aquela que considera uma ação correta ainda que não decorra de uma boa motivação do agente

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Flashcard 1698518928652

Tags
#hipócrates
Question
Em filosofia, considera-se ética "[...]" aquela que julga a retidão de uma ação totalmente dependente de sua provável eficácia para atingir uma finalidade boa ou, direta ou indiretamente, o máximo bem; ética "deontológica", em certa medida, é aquela que considera uma ação correta ainda que não decorra de uma boa motivação do agente
Answer
teleológica


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Em filosofia, considera-se ética "teleológica" aquela que julga a retidão de uma ação totalmente dependente de sua provável eficácia para atingir uma finalidade boa ou, direta ou indiretamente, o máximo

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Flashcard 1698520501516

Tags
#hipócrates
Question
Em filosofia, considera-se ética "teleológica" aquela que julga a retidão de uma ação totalmente dependente de sua provável eficácia para atingir uma finalidade boa ou, direta ou indiretamente, o máximo bem; ética "[...]", em certa medida, é aquela que considera uma ação correta ainda que não decorra de uma boa motivação do agente
Answer
deontológica


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considera-se ética "teleológica" aquela que julga a retidão de uma ação totalmente dependente de sua provável eficácia para atingir uma finalidade boa ou, direta ou indiretamente, o máximo bem; ética "<span>deontológica", em certa medida, é aquela que considera uma ação correta ainda que não decorra de uma boa motivação do agente<span><body><html>

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#hipócrates
em seguir a carreira médica: por amor ao dinheiro, para desfrutar da isenção de taxas 229 , pela glória e pelas honras ou, então, por amor à humanidade. Glória, dinheiro, filantropia, acrescentou ele, são assuntos de ordem pessoal; não há conexão intrínseca entre essas mo- tivações e a prática médica (Galeno, V).

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os autores dos tratados hipocráticos reconheceram a necessidade de o bom médico se comportar apropriadamente, para que a existência da arte médica fosse reconhecida pelo público em geral (CH, Da medicina antiga) e não se tornasse difícil diferenciar o charlatão do médico bem preparado. Incidentalmente, ao praticar essas recomendações, o renome e a boa reputação do próprio médico aumentariam

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Flashcard 1698526006540

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Question
Por qual motivo o médico foi orientado a se comportar bem (de acordo com os tratados hipocráticos)?
Answer
Para que não fosse difícil diferenciar o charlatão do médico bem preparado


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ead><head>os autores dos tratados hipocráticos reconheceram a necessidade de o bom médico se comportar apropriadamente, para que a existência da arte médica fosse reconhecida pelo público em geral (CH, Da medicina antiga) e não se tornasse difícil diferenciar o charlatão do médico bem preparado. Incidentalmente, ao praticar essas recomendações, o renome e a boa reputação do próprio médico aumentariam<html>

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#hipócrates
8. não fornecer drogas mortais a pedido ou não, nem praticar abortos;

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juramento, conhecido popularmente por 'Juramento de Hipócrates", é a um só tempo o mais curto c o mais famoso tratado da coleção hipocrática. A universalidade das obriga- ções e deveres especificados em suas cláusulas influenciou tão fortemente a cultura ociden- tal que o texto se tornou modelo de todos os códigos de ética adotados pelos médicos e até por profissionais de outras áreas.

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Dado o status inferior da mulher no direito familiar grego, não é de admirar que a arte médica na Grécia Antiga fosse reservada apenas aos homens. Mulheres eram admitidas somente como parteiras

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