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#### Flashcard 1623837248780

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#discounted-cashflow-applications
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When we measure [...] , or when the portfolio is subject to additions and withdrawals, portfolio performance measurement is a challenging task.
performance over many periods

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#### Flashcard 1731707669772

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#finance
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the Black–Scholes formula estimates the price of [...]

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is a mathematical model of a financial market containing derivative investment instruments. From the partial differential equation in the model, known as the Black–Scholes equation, one can deduce the Black–Scholes formula, which gives <span>a theoretical estimate of the price of European-style options and shows that the option has a unique price regardless of the risk of the security and its expected return (instead replacing the security's expected return with the risk-neutral rate)

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Black–Scholes model - Wikipedia
Black–Scholes model - Wikipedia Black–Scholes model From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Black–Scholes) Jump to: navigation, search The Black–Scholes /ˌblæk ˈʃoʊlz/ [1] or Black–Scholes–Merton model is a mathematical model of a financial market containing derivative investment instruments. From the partial differential equation in the model, known as the Black–Scholes equation, one can deduce the Black–Scholes formula, which gives a theoretical estimate of the price of European-style options and shows that the option has a unique price regardless of the risk of the security and its expected return (instead replacing the security's expected return with the risk-neutral rate). The formula led to a boom in options trading and provided mathematical legitimacy to the activities of the Chicago Board Options Exchange and other options markets around the world. [2]

#### Flashcard 1731718679820

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#stochastics
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for a [...], at a particular time in the realized sequence, the expectation of the next value is equal to the present observed value, even given knowledge of all prior observed values.
martingale

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In probability theory, a martingale is a sequence of random variables (i.e., a stochastic process) for which, at a particular time in the realized sequence, the expectation of the next value in the sequence is equal to th

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Martingale (probability theory) - Wikipedia
h For the martingale betting strategy, see martingale (betting system). [imagelink] Stopped Brownian motion is an example of a martingale. It can model an even coin-toss betting game with the possibility of bankruptcy. <span>In probability theory, a martingale is a sequence of random variables (i.e., a stochastic process) for which, at a particular time in the realized sequence, the expectation of the next value in the sequence is equal to the present observed value even given knowledge of all prior observed values. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Definitions 2.1 Martingale sequences with respect to another sequence 2.2 General definition 3 Examples of martingales 4 Submartingales, super

#### Flashcard 1732491742476

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#functional-analysis
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In Functional analysis, the vector spaces are endowed with [...] structures
limit-related

Norms, inner products, etc.

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Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.

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Functional analysis - Wikipedia
analysis (psychology). [imagelink] One of the possible modes of vibration of an idealized circular drum head. These modes are eigenfunctions of a linear operator on a function space, a common construction in functional analysis. <span>Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense. The historical roots of functional analysis lie in the study of spaces of functions and the formulation of properties of transformations of functions such as the Fourier transform as transformations defining continuous, unitary etc. operators between function spaces. This point of view turned out to be particularly useful for the study of differential and integral equations. The usage of the word functional goes back to the calculus of variations, implying a function whose argument is a function and the name was first used in Hadamard's 1910 book on that

#### Flashcard 1732493315340

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#functional-analysis
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Functional analysis study vector spaces endowed with limit-related structure and the [...] defined on them.

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span> Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the <span>linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense. <span><body><html>

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Functional analysis - Wikipedia
analysis (psychology). [imagelink] One of the possible modes of vibration of an idealized circular drum head. These modes are eigenfunctions of a linear operator on a function space, a common construction in functional analysis. <span>Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense. The historical roots of functional analysis lie in the study of spaces of functions and the formulation of properties of transformations of functions such as the Fourier transform as transformations defining continuous, unitary etc. operators between function spaces. This point of view turned out to be particularly useful for the study of differential and integral equations. The usage of the word functional goes back to the calculus of variations, implying a function whose argument is a function and the name was first used in Hadamard's 1910 book on that

#### Flashcard 1732731866380

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#inner-product-space #vector-space
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A [...] is a collection vectors that can be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers.
vector space

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A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.

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Vector space - Wikipedia
company, see Vector Space Systems. [imagelink] Vector addition and scalar multiplication: a vector v (blue) is added to another vector w (red, upper illustration). Below, w is stretched by a factor of 2, yielding the sum v + 2w. <span>A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars. Scalars are often taken to be real numbers, but there are also vector spaces with scalar multiplication by complex numbers, rational numbers, or generally any field. The operations of v

#### Flashcard 1733088644364

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a Fourier series represent a function as [...].
the sum of simple sine waves

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In mathematics, a Fourier series ( English: / ˈ f ʊər i ˌ eɪ / ) [1] is a way to represent a function as the sum of simple sine waves.

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Fourier series - Wikipedia
are wave [imagelink] Fourier transforms Continuous Fourier transform Fourier series Discrete-time Fourier transform Discrete Fourier transform Discrete Fourier transform over a ring Fourier analysis Related transforms <span>In mathematics, a Fourier series ( English: /ˈfʊəriˌeɪ/) [1] is a way to represent a function as the sum of simple sine waves. More formally, it decomposes any periodic function or periodic signal into the sum of a (possibly infinite) set of simple oscillating functions, namely sines and cosines (or, equivalently, complex exponentials). The discrete-time Fourier transform is a periodic function, often defined in terms of a Fourier series. The Z-transform, another example of application, reduces to a Fourier series for

#### Flashcard 1735819660556

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#logic
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the introduction of [...] in Europe accelerated the downfall of the disputational culture.
new printing techniques

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It is also not happenstance that the downfall of the disputational culture roughly coincided with the introduction of new printing techniques in Europe by Johannes Gutenberg, around 1440.

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The rise and fall and rise of logic | Aeon Essays
ich is thoroughly disputational, with Meditations on First Philosophy (1641) by Descartes, a book argued through long paragraphs driven by the first-person singular. The nature of intellectual enquiry shifted with the downfall of disputation. <span>It is also not happenstance that the downfall of the disputational culture roughly coincided with the introduction of new printing techniques in Europe by Johannes Gutenberg, around 1440. Before that, books were a rare commodity, and education was conducted almost exclusively by means of oral contact between masters and pupils in the form of expository lectures in which

#### Flashcard 1735825165580

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#logic
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Instead of justification of ideas, early modern authors emphasise the role of [...] and [...]
novelty and individual discovery

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Instead, early modern authors emphasise the role of novelty and individual discovery

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The rise and fall and rise of logic | Aeon Essays
tually unthinkable before the wide availability of printed books) was well-established. Moreover, as indicated by the passage from Descartes above, the very term ‘logic’ came to be used for something other than what the scholastics had meant. <span>Instead, early modern authors emphasise the role of novelty and individual discovery, as exemplified by the influential textbook Port-Royal Logic (1662), essentially, the logical version of Cartesianism, based on Descartes’s conception of mental operations and the prima

#### Flashcard 1735976160524

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#stochastics
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Louis Bachelier used [...] to study price changes on the Paris Bourse

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the Wiener process or Brownian motion process, [a] used by Louis Bachelier to study price changes on the Paris Bourse

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Stochastic process - Wikipedia
arkets have motivated the extensive use of stochastic processes in finance. [16] [17] [18] Applications and the study of phenomena have in turn inspired the proposal of new stochastic processes. Examples of such stochastic processes include <span>the Wiener process or Brownian motion process, [a] used by Louis Bachelier to study price changes on the Paris Bourse, [21] and the Poisson process, used by A. K. Erlang to study the number of phone calls occurring in a certain period of time. [22] These two stochastic processes are considered the mo

#### Flashcard 1735981141260

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#stochastics
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In higher dimensions, stochastic process is usually called [...].

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If the random variables are indexed by the Cartesian plane or some higher-dimensional Euclidean space, then the collection of random variables is usually called a random field instead.

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Stochastic process - Wikipedia
hangeably, often with no specific mathematical space for the set that indexes the random variables. [27] [29] But often these two terms are used when the random variables are indexed by the integers or an interval of the real line. [5] [29] <span>If the random variables are indexed by the Cartesian plane or some higher-dimensional Euclidean space, then the collection of random variables is usually called a random field instead. [5] [30] The values of a stochastic process are not always numbers and can be vectors or other mathematical objects. [5] [28] Based on their properties, stochastic processes can be d

#### Flashcard 1735992413452

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#stochastics
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the Bernoulli process is just a sequence of [...]
iid Bernoulli variables.

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One of the simplest stochastic processes is the Bernoulli process, [60] which is a sequence of independent and identically distributed (iid) Bernoulli variables.

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Stochastic process - Wikipedia
} -dimensional vector process or n {\displaystyle n} -vector process. [51] [52] Examples of stochastic processes[edit source] Bernoulli process[edit source] Main article: Bernoulli process <span>One of the simplest stochastic processes is the Bernoulli process, [60] which is a sequence of independent and identically distributed (iid) random variables, where each random variable takes either the value one or zero, say one with probability p {\displaystyle p} and zero with probability 1 − p {\displaystyle 1-p} . This process can be likened to somebody flipping a coin, where the probability of obtaining a head is p {\displaystyle p} and its value is on

#### Flashcard 1736017317132

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#stochastics
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Wiener process can be considered a continuous version of [...].
the simple random walk

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Almost surely, a sample path of a Wiener process is continuous everywhere but nowhere differentiable. It can be considered a continuous version of the simple random walk.

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Stochastic process - Wikipedia
stant μ {\displaystyle \mu } , which is a real number, then the resulting stochastic process is said to have drift μ {\displaystyle \mu } . [84] [85] [86] <span>Almost surely, a sample path of a Wiener process is continuous everywhere but nowhere differentiable. It can be considered a continuous version of the simple random walk. [49] [85] The process arises as the mathematical limit of other stochastic processes such as certain random walks rescaled, [87] [88] which is the subject of Donsker's theorem or inva

#### Flashcard 1736022035724

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#stochastics
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if [...], the homogeneous Poisson process is also called the stationary Poisson process.
its index set is the real line

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The homogeneous Poisson process can be defined and generalized in different ways. It can be defined such that its index set is the real line, and this stochastic process is also called the stationary Poisson process.

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Stochastic process - Wikipedia
constant, then the process is called a homogeneous Poisson process. [99] [101] The homogeneous Poisson process (in continuous time) is a member of important classes of stochastic processes such as Markov processes and Lévy processes. [49] <span>The homogeneous Poisson process can be defined and generalized in different ways. It can be defined such that its index set is the real line, and this stochastic process is also called the stationary Poisson process. [102] [103] If the parameter constant of the Poisson process is replaced with some non-negative integrable function of t {\displaystyle t} ,

#### Flashcard 1736029900044

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#stochastics
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If the constant parameter of the Poisson process is replaced with some non-negative integrable function of , the resulting process is called an [...],
inhomogeneous or nonhomogeneous Poisson process

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If the parameter constant of the Poisson process is replaced with some non-negative integrable function of , the resulting process is called an inhomogeneous or nonhomogeneous Poisson process, where the average density of points of the process is no longer constant.

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Stochastic process - Wikipedia
sses. [49] The homogeneous Poisson process can be defined and generalized in different ways. It can be defined such that its index set is the real line, and this stochastic process is also called the stationary Poisson process. [102] [103] <span>If the parameter constant of the Poisson process is replaced with some non-negative integrable function of t {\displaystyle t} , the resulting process is called an inhomogeneous or nonhomogeneous Poisson process, where the average density of points of the process is no longer constant. [104] Serving as a fundamental process in queueing theory, the Poisson process is an important process for mathematical models, where it finds applications for models of events randoml

#### Flashcard 1736031472908

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#stochastics
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With an nonhomogeneous Poisson process, the [...] of points of the process is no longer constant.
average density

The density is determined by the parameter, obviously.

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body> If the parameter constant of the Poisson process is replaced with some non-negative integrable function of , the resulting process is called an inhomogeneous or nonhomogeneous Poisson process, where the average density of points of the process is no longer constant. <body><html>

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Stochastic process - Wikipedia
sses. [49] The homogeneous Poisson process can be defined and generalized in different ways. It can be defined such that its index set is the real line, and this stochastic process is also called the stationary Poisson process. [102] [103] <span>If the parameter constant of the Poisson process is replaced with some non-negative integrable function of t {\displaystyle t} , the resulting process is called an inhomogeneous or nonhomogeneous Poisson process, where the average density of points of the process is no longer constant. [104] Serving as a fundamental process in queueing theory, the Poisson process is an important process for mathematical models, where it finds applications for models of events randoml

#### Flashcard 1736175914252

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#matrix
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a square matrix A is called diagonalizable if there exists an invertible matrix P such that [...] is a diagonal matrix.
P−1AP

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In linear algebra, a square matrix A is called diagonalizable if it is similar to a diagonal matrix, i.e., if there exists an invertible matrix P such that P −1 AP is a diagonal matrix.

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Diagonalizable matrix - Wikipedia

#### Flashcard 1736195050764

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#abstract-algebra
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The underlying set for an algebraic structure is called a [...]
carrier set

Think sigma-algebra and measurable space

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In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure is a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms.

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Algebraic structure - Wikipedia
Module-like[show] Module Group with operators Vector space Linear algebra Algebra-like[show] Algebra Associative Non-associative Composition algebra Lie algebra Graded Bialgebra v t e <span>In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure is a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms. [1] Examples of algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, and lattices. More complex structures can be defined by introducing multiple operations, different underlying sets,

#### Flashcard 1739186113804

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#linear-algebra
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a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map [...] ,
V × VK

K is the field of scalars.
An inner product is obviously a bilinear form

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In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × V → K , where K is the field of scalars.

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Bilinear form - Wikipedia
Bilinear form - Wikipedia Bilinear form From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × V → K, where K is the field of scalars. In other words, a bilinear form is a function B : V × V → K that is linear in each argument separately: B(u + v, w) = B(u, w) + B(v, w) and B(λu, v) = λB(u, v) B(u, v + w) = B(u, v) + B(u, w) and B(u, λv) = λB(u, v) The definition of a bilinear form can be extended to include modules over a ring, with linear maps replaced by module homomorphisms. When K is the field of complex numbers C, one

#### Flashcard 1739928505612

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#forward-backward-algorithm #hmm
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In the first pass, the forward–backward algorithm computes [...]

.

the distribution over hidden states given the observations up to the point.

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The forward-backward algorithm In the first pass, the forward–backward algorithm computes a set of forward probabilities which provide, for all , the probability of ending up in any particular state given the first observations in the sequence, i.e. . In the second pass, the algorithm computes a set of backward probabilities which provide the probability of observing the remaining observations given any starting point , i.e. . Thes

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Forward–backward algorithm - Wikipedia
cific instance of this class. Contents [hide] 1 Overview 2 Forward probabilities 3 Backward probabilities 4 Example 5 Performance 6 Pseudocode 7 Python example 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Overview[edit source] <span>In the first pass, the forward–backward algorithm computes a set of forward probabilities which provide, for all k ∈ { 1 , … , t } {\displaystyle k\in \{1,\dots ,t\}} , the probability of ending up in any particular state given the first k {\displaystyle k} observations in the sequence, i.e. P ( X k | o 1 : k ) {\displaystyle P(X_{k}\ |\ o_{1:k})} . In the second pass, the algorithm computes a set of backward probabilities which provide the probability of observing the remaining observations given any starting point k {\displaystyle k} , i.e. P ( o k + 1 : t | X k ) {\displaystyle P(o_{k+1:t}\ |\ X_{k})} . These two sets of probability distributions can then be combined to obtain the distribution over states at any specific point in time given the entire observation sequence: P ( X k | o 1 : t ) = P ( X k | o 1 : k , o k + 1 : t ) ∝ P ( o k + 1 : t | X k ) P ( X k | o 1 : k ) {\displaystyle P(X_{k}\ |\ o_{1:t})=P(X_{k}\ |\ o_{1:k},o_{k+1:t})\propto P(o_{k+1:t}\ |\ X_{k})P(X_{k}|o_{1:k})} The last step follows from an application of the Bayes' rule and the conditional independence of o k + 1 : t {\displaystyle o_{k+1:t}} and o 1 : k {\displaystyle o_{1:k}} given X k {\displaystyle X_{k}} . As outlined above, the algorithm involves three steps: computing forward probabilities computing backward probabilities computing smoothed values. The forward and backward steps m

#### Flashcard 1739930864908

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#forward-backward-algorithm #hmm
Question

In the second pass, the forward-backward algorithm computes [...]

.

the probability of observing the remaining observations given any starting point

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rward probabilities which provide, for all , the probability of ending up in any particular state given the first observations in the sequence, i.e. . In the second pass, the algorithm computes a set of backward probabilities which provide <span>the probability of observing the remaining observations given any starting point , i.e. . These two sets of probability distributions can then be combined to obtain the distribution over states at any specific point in time given the entire observation sequence:

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Forward–backward algorithm - Wikipedia
cific instance of this class. Contents [hide] 1 Overview 2 Forward probabilities 3 Backward probabilities 4 Example 5 Performance 6 Pseudocode 7 Python example 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Overview[edit source] <span>In the first pass, the forward–backward algorithm computes a set of forward probabilities which provide, for all k ∈ { 1 , … , t } {\displaystyle k\in \{1,\dots ,t\}} , the probability of ending up in any particular state given the first k {\displaystyle k} observations in the sequence, i.e. P ( X k | o 1 : k ) {\displaystyle P(X_{k}\ |\ o_{1:k})} . In the second pass, the algorithm computes a set of backward probabilities which provide the probability of observing the remaining observations given any starting point k {\displaystyle k} , i.e. P ( o k + 1 : t | X k ) {\displaystyle P(o_{k+1:t}\ |\ X_{k})} . These two sets of probability distributions can then be combined to obtain the distribution over states at any specific point in time given the entire observation sequence: P ( X k | o 1 : t ) = P ( X k | o 1 : k , o k + 1 : t ) ∝ P ( o k + 1 : t | X k ) P ( X k | o 1 : k ) {\displaystyle P(X_{k}\ |\ o_{1:t})=P(X_{k}\ |\ o_{1:k},o_{k+1:t})\propto P(o_{k+1:t}\ |\ X_{k})P(X_{k}|o_{1:k})} The last step follows from an application of the Bayes' rule and the conditional independence of o k + 1 : t {\displaystyle o_{k+1:t}} and o 1 : k {\displaystyle o_{1:k}} given X k {\displaystyle X_{k}} . As outlined above, the algorithm involves three steps: computing forward probabilities computing backward probabilities computing smoothed values. The forward and backward steps m

#### Flashcard 1741092687116

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#measure-theory
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Technically, a measure is a function that assigns a non-negative real number or +∞ to [...] (see Definition below).
(certain) subsets of a set X

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Technically, a measure is a function that assigns a non-negative real number or +∞ to (certain) subsets of a set X (see Definition below). It must further be countably additive:

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Measure (mathematics) - Wikipedia
[imagelink] Informally, a measure has the property of being monotone in the sense that if A is a subset of B, the measure of A is less than or equal to the measure of B. Furthermore, the measure of the empty set is required to be 0. <span>In mathematical analysis, a measure on a set is a systematic way to assign a number to each suitable subset of that set, intuitively interpreted as its size. In this sense, a measure is a generalization of the concepts of length, area, and volume. A particularly important example is the Lebesgue measure on a Euclidean space, which assigns the conventional length, area, and volume of Euclidean geometry to suitable subsets of the n-dimensional Euclidean space R n . For instance, the Lebesgue measure of the interval [0, 1] in the real numbers is its length in the everyday sense of the word – specifically, 1. Technically, a measure is a function that assigns a non-negative real number or +∞ to (certain) subsets of a set X (see Definition below). It must further be countably additive: the measure of a 'large' subset that can be decomposed into a finite (or countably infinite) number of 'smaller' disjoint subsets, is the sum of the measures of the "smaller" subsets. In general, if one wants to associate a consistent size to each subset of a given set while satisfying the other axioms of a measure, one only finds trivial examples like the counting measure. This problem was resolved by defining measure only on a sub-collection of all subsets; the so-called measurable subsets, which are required to form a σ-algebra. This means that countable unions, countable intersections and complements of measurable subsets are measurable. Non-measurable sets in a Euclidean space, on which the Lebesgue measure cannot be defined consistently, are necessarily complicated in the sense of being badly mixed up with their complement. [1] Indeed, their existence is a non-trivial consequence of the axiom of choice. Measure theory was developed in successive stages during the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Émile Borel, Henri Lebesgue, Johann Radon, and Maurice Fréchet, among others. The ma

#### Flashcard 1748633783564

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A crucial development in the history of money was the [...]

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A crucial development in the history of money was the promissory note . The process began when individuals began leaving their excess gold with goldsmiths, who would look after it for them. In turn the goldsmiths would give the depositors a receipt, stating

Money

#### Flashcard 1750998060300

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The [...] is the amount by which a change in the monetary base is multiplied to calculate the final change in the money supply.

money multiplier

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The money multiplier is the amount by which a change in the monetary base is multiplied to calculate the final change in the money supply. Money Multiplier = 1/b, where b is the required reserve ratio. In

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Subject 1. What is Money?
liquid of all assets, due to its function as the medium of exchange. However, many methods of holding money do not yield an interest return and the purchase power of money will decline during a time of inflation. <span>The Money Creation Process Reserves are the cash in a bank's vault and deposits at Federal Reserve Banks. Under the fractional reserve banking system, a bank is obligated to hold a minimum amount of reserves to back up its deposits. Reserves held for that purpose, which are expressed as a percentage of a bank's demand deposits, are called required reserves. Therefore, the required reserve ratio is the percentage of a bank's deposits that are required to be held as reserves. Banks create deposits when they make loans; the new deposits created are new money. Example Suppose the required reserve ratio in the U.S. is 20%, and then suppose that you deposit $1,000 cash with Citibank. Citibank keeps$200 of the $1,000 in reserves. The remaining$800 of excess reserves can be loaned out to, say, John. After the loan is made, the money supply increases by $800 (your$1,000 + John's $800). After getting the loan, John deposits the$800 with Bank of America (BOA). BOA keeps $160 of the$800 in reserves and can now loan out $640 to another person. Thus, BOA creates$640 of money supply. The process goes on and on. With each deposit and loan, more money is created. However, the money creation process does not create an infinite amount of money. The money multiplier is the amount by which a change in the monetary base is multiplied to calculate the final change in the money supply. Money Multiplier = 1/b, where b is the required reserve ratio. In our example, b is 0.2, so money multiplier = 1/0.2 = 5. Definitions of Money There are different definitions of money. The two most widely used measures of money in the U.S. are: The M1 Money Su

#### Flashcard 1751007497484

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Violations of [...] can harm the community in a variety of ways.
moral principles

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Violations of moral principles can harm the community in a variety of ways.

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Subject 1. Ethics
Ethical conduct is behavior that follows moral principles. Ethical actions are those actions that are perceived as beneficial and conform to the ethical expectations of society. <span>Ethics encompass a set of moral principles ( code of ethics ) and standards of conduct that provide guidance for our behavior. Violations can harm the community in a variety of ways. <span><body><html>

#### Flashcard 1751009332492

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[...] the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.

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Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.

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Prerequisite Reading Demand and Supply Analysis: Introduction
croeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logical starting point for the study of economics. <span>This reading focuses on a fundamental subject in microeconomics: demand and supply analysis. Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. As we will see, prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit. In private enterprise market economies, which are the chief concern of investment analysts, demand and supply analysis encompasses the most basic set of microeconomic tools. Traditionally, microeconomics classifies private economic units into two groups: consumers (or households) and firms. These two groups give rise, respectively, to the theor

#### Flashcard 1751029255436

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Examples of long-lived financial assets include investments in [...].
equity or debt securities issued by other companies

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Examples of long-lived financial assets include investments in equity or debt securities issued by other companies.

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Long-lived assets , also referred to as non-current assets or long-term assets, are assets that are expected to provide economic benefits over a future period of time, typically greater than one year.1 Long-lived assets may be tangible, intangible, or financial assets. Examples of long-lived tangible assets, typically referred to as property, plant, and equipment and sometimes as fixed assets, include land, buildings, furniture and fixtures, machinery and equipment, and vehicles; examples of long-lived intangible assets (assets lacking physical substance) include patents and trademarks; and examples of long-lived financial assets include investments in equity or debt securities issued by other companies. The scope of this reading is limited to long-lived tangible and intangible assets (hereafter, referred to for simplicity as long-lived assets). The first issue in accounting for a long-lived asset is determining its cost at acquisition. The second issue is how to allocate the cost to expense over time. The costs of most long-lived assets are capitalised and then allocated as expenses in the profit or loss (income) statement over the period of time during which they are expected to provide economic benefits. The two main types of long-lived assets with costs that are typically not allocated over time are land, which is not depreciated, and those intangible assets with indefinite useful lives. Additional issues that arise are the treatment of subsequent costs incurred related to the asset, the use of the cost model versus the revaluation model, unexpected declines in the value of the asset, classification of the asset with respect to intent (for example, held for use or held for sale), and the derecognition of the asset. This reading is organised as follows. Section 2 describes and illustrates accounting for the acquisition of long-lived assets, with particular attention to the impact of ca

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What is the largest market measured by turnover?

Measured by daily turnover, the (FX) market is by far the world’s largest market.

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Measured by daily turnover, the foreign exchange (FX) market—the market in which currencies are traded against each other—is by far the world’s largest market.

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Reading 20  Currency Exchange Rates Introduction

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A company’s board of directors is elected by [...]

shareholders

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3.1.4 Board of Directors A company’s board of directors is elected by shareholders to protect shareholders’ interests, provide strategic direction, and monitor company and management performance.

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mally compensated through salary, bonuses, equity based remuneration (or compensation). As a result, managers may be motivated to maximize the value of their total remuneration while also protecting their employment positions. <span>3.1.4 Board of Directors A company’s board of directors is elected by shareholders to protect shareholders’ interests, provide strategic direction, and monitor company and management performance. 3.1.5 Customers Customers expect a company’s products or services to satisfy their needs and provide appropriate benefits given the price paid, as well as to meet a

#### Flashcard 1751222455564

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Corporate governance provides a framework that defines the [...] of various groups within an organization.
rights, roles and responsibilities

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Corporate governance provides a framework that defines the rights, roles and responsibilities of various groups within an organization.

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Corporate Governance Overview
Corporate governance can be defined as: “the system of internal controls and procedures by which individual companies are managed. It provides a framework that defines the rights, roles and responsibilities of various groups . . . within an organization. At its core, corporate governance is the arrangement of checks, balances, and incentives a company needs in order to minimize and manage the conflicting interests between insiders and external shareowners.”

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At its core, corporate governance is the arrangement of [...] a company needs in order to minimize and manage the conflicting interests between insiders and external shareowners.
checks, balances, and incentives

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At its core, corporate governance is the arrangement of checks, balances, and incentives a company needs in order to minimize and manage the conflicting interests between insiders and external shareowners.

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Corporate Governance Overview
Corporate governance can be defined as: “the system of internal controls and procedures by which individual companies are managed. It provides a framework that defines the rights, roles and responsibilities of various groups . . . within an organization. At its core, corporate governance is the arrangement of checks, balances, and incentives a company needs in order to minimize and manage the conflicting interests between insiders and external shareowners.”

#### Annotation 1751404121356

 Neben den chirurgi- schen Erkrankungen, die das akute Abdomen im en- geren Sinne ausmachen, sind selbstverständlich auch die anderen genannten Erkrankungen von Bedeutung, da Differenzialdiagnose und Therapie auf deren Kennt- nis aufbauen und so die Indikation bzw. Kontraindika- tion zu einem operativen Eingriff mitbestimmt wird

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beginnt mit
[default - edit me]

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 It is not likely you will become proficient in High Probability Selling merely by reading about it. However, there are people who do. They read it frequently. Learning High Probability Selling usually requires many hours of rigorous interactive training and a desire to enjoy your work and be very good at what you do.

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It is not likely you will become proficient in High Probability Selling merely by reading about it. However, there are people who do. They read it [...] . Learning High Probability Selling usually requires many hours of rigorous interactive training and a desire to enjoy your work and be very good at what you do.
frequently

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 The principles apply to anyone whose job deals with a product or service – including lawyers, real estate agents, consultants and entrepreneurs

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The principles apply to anyone whose job deals with a product or service – including lawyers, real estate agents, consultants and [...]
entrepreneurs

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#### Annotation 1751643983116

 #mathematical-analysis Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.[1][2]

Mathematical analysis - Wikipedia
: navigation, search [imagelink] A strange attractor arising from a differential equation. Differential equations are an important area of mathematical analysis with many applications to science and engineering. <span>Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions. [1] [2] These theories are usually studied in the context of real and complex numbers and functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the elementary concepts and techniques of a

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It is not likely you will become proficient in High Probability Selling merely by reading about it. However, there are people who do. They [...] frequently. Learning High Probability Selling usually requires many hours of rigorous interactive training and a desire to enjoy your work and be very good at what you do.

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It is not likely you will become proficient in High Probability Selling merely by reading about it. However, there are people who do. They read it frequently. Learning High Probability Selling usually requires many hours of rigorous interactive training and a desire to enjoy your work and be very good at what you do.

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It is not likely you will become proficient in High Probability Selling merely by reading about it. However, there are people who do. They read it frequently. Learning High Probability Selling usually [...] many hours of rigorous interactive training and a desire to enjoy your work and be very good at what you do.
requires

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span> It is not likely you will become proficient in High Probability Selling merely by reading about it. However, there are people who do. They read it frequently. Learning High Probability Selling usually requires many hours of rigorous interactive training and a desire to enjoy your work and be very good at what you do. <span><body><html>

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It is not likely you will become proficient in High Probability Selling merely by reading about it. However, there are people who do. They read it frequently. Learning High Probability Selling usually requires many hours of rigorous interactive training and [...] to enjoy your work and be very good at what you do.
a desire

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become proficient in High Probability Selling merely by reading about it. However, there are people who do. They read it frequently. Learning High Probability Selling usually requires many hours of rigorous interactive training and <span>a desire to enjoy your work and be very good at what you do. <span><body><html>

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#### Annotation 1751652371724

 What is it that the armed forces and salespeople have in common that requires them to be the largest users of motivational training? How many carpenters, mechanics, CPA's, claims adjusters or veterinarians need to attend motivational seminars in order to do their jobs?

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What is it that the armed forces and [...] have in common that requires them to be the largest users of motivational training? How many carpenters, mechanics, CPA's, claims adjusters or veterinarians need to attend motivational seminars in order to do their jobs?
salespeople

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What is it that the armed forces and salespeople have in common that requires them to be the largest users of motivational training? How many carpenters, mechanics, CPA's, claims adjusters or veterinarians need to attend motivatio

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#### Annotation 1751654993164

 #topological-properties In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism or topological isomorphism or bi continuous function is a continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function. Homeomorphisms are the isomorphisms in the category of topological spaces—that is, they are the mappings that preserve all the topological properties of a given space. Two spaces with a homeomorphism between them are called homeomorphic, and from a topological viewpoint they are the same.

Homeomorphism - Wikipedia
formation between a coffee mug and a donut (torus) illustrating that they are homeomorphic. But there need not be a continuous deformation for two spaces to be homeomorphic — only a continuous mapping with a continuous inverse function. <span>In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism or topological isomorphism or bi continuous function is a continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function. Homeomorphisms are the isomorphisms in the category of topological spaces—that is, they are the mappings that preserve all the topological properties of a given space. Two spaces with a homeomorphism between them are called homeomorphic, and from a topological viewpoint they are the same. The word homeomorphism comes from the Greek words ὅμοιος (homoios) = similar or same (French pareil) and μορφή (morphē) = shape, form, introduced to mathematics by Henri Poincaré in 189

#### Annotation 1751657090316

 High Probability Selling trains salespeople how to discover whether there is a mutually acceptable basis for doing business – without using manipulative techniques.

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What is it that High Probability Selling training helps salespeople to discover?
High Probability Selling trains salespeople how to discover whether there is a mutually acceptable basis for doing business – without using manipulative techniques.

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High Probability Selling trains salespeople how to discover whether there is a mutually acceptable basis for doing business – without using manipulative techniques.

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#### Annotation 1751661546764

 #functional-analysis Often, the domain and/or codomain will have additional structure which is inherited by the function space. For example, the set of functions from any set X into a vector space have a natural vector space structure given by pointwise addition and scalar multiplication. In other scenarios, the function space might inherit a topological or metric structure, hence the name function space.

Function space - Wikipedia
tive · Surjective · Bijective   Constructions   Restriction · Composition · λ · Inverse   Generalizations   Partial · Multivalued · Implicit v t e In mathematics, a function space is a set of functions between two fixed sets. <span>Often, the domain and/or codomain will have additional structure which is inherited by the function space. For example, the set of functions from any set X into a vector space have a natural vector space structure given by pointwise addition and scalar multiplication. In other scenarios, the function space might inherit a topological or metric structure, hence the name function space. Contents [hide] 1 In linear algebra 2 Examples 3 Functional analysis 4 Norm 5 Bibliography 6 See also 7 Footnotes In linear algebra[edit source] See also: Vector spac

#### Annotation 1751665741068

 #real-analysis Real analysis (traditionally, the theory of functions of a real variable) is a branch of mathematical analysis dealing with the real numbers and real-valued functions of a real variable. In particular, it deals with the analytic properties of real functions and sequences, including convergence and limits of sequences of real numbers, the calculus of the real numbers, and continuity, smoothness and related properties of real-valued functions.

Real analysis - Wikipedia
edia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search [imagelink] The first four partial sums of the Fourier series for a square wave. Fourier series are an important tool in real analysis. <span>Real analysis (traditionally, the theory of functions of a real variable) is a branch of mathematical analysis dealing with the real numbers and real-valued functions of a real variable. In particular, it deals with the analytic properties of real functions and sequences, including convergence and limits of sequences of real numbers, the calculus of the real numbers, and continuity, smoothness and related properties of real-valued functions. Contents [hide] 1 Scope 1.1 Construction of the real numbers 1.2 Order properties of the real numbers 1.3 Sequences 1.4 Limits and convergence 1.5 Continuity 1.5.1 Uniform

#### Annotation 1751671770380

 #banach-space a Banach space is a complete normed vector space. Normed: with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectorsComplete: a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well defined limit that is within the space.

Banach space - Wikipedia
Banach space - Wikipedia Banach space From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced [ˈbanax]) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well defined limit that is within the space. Banach spaces are named after the Polish mathematician Stefan Banach, who introduced this concept and studied it systematically in 1920–1922 along with Hans Hahn and Eduard Helly. [1]

#### Annotation 1751678323980

 I vaguely recall reading that probability as derived from Cox's theorem only possesses finite additivity, but not countable additivity, whereas the measure-theoretic derivation possesses both.

bayesian probability and measure theory - Mathematics Stack Exchange
ce Cox's theorem never uses any fancy set theory to derive the basic rules of probability, this problem is avoided altogether. If I remember correctly, however, this benefit has some unfortunate drawbacks, and is kind of a double-edged sword--<span>I vaguely recall reading that probability as derived from Cox's theorem only possesses finite additivity, but not countable additivity, whereas the measure-theoretic derivation possesses both. So to conclude, the Kolmogorov axioms and Cox's theorem represent completely distinct ways of building up probability theory. Yes, measure theory can be used as a tool given the Baye

#### Annotation 1751681731852

 the difference between Hilbert spaces and (non Hilbert) Banach spaces is fundamentally geometric.

What is the difference between a Banach and a Hilbert space? - Quora
es of functions and sequences.However, it is also possible to study these objects in finite dimensions, and this way one can use geometry to understand the difference between Hilbert spaces and (non Hilbert) Banach spaces. I would argue that <span>the difference between Hilbert spaces and (non Hilbert) Banach spaces is fundamentally geometric. Mathematicians have abstracted this geometry to a considerable degree, but the basic intuition can be reduced to pictures.Ok, so my approach to this question will be to consider X:=ℝ2X

#### Annotation 1752698326284

 #inner-product-space In a normed space, the statement of the parallelogram law is an equation relating norms:

Parallelogram law - Wikipedia
2 {\displaystyle BD^{2}+AC^{2}=2a^{2}+2b^{2}} Q.E.D. The parallelogram law in inner product spaces[edit source] [imagelink] Vectors involved in the parallelogram law. <span>In a normed space, the statement of the parallelogram law is an equation relating norms: 2 ‖ x ‖ 2 + 2 ‖ y ‖

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In a normed space, the statement of the parallelogram law is [...]:
an equation relating norms

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In a normed space, the statement of the parallelogram law is an equation relating norms:

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Parallelogram law - Wikipedia
2 {\displaystyle BD^{2}+AC^{2}=2a^{2}+2b^{2}} Q.E.D. The parallelogram law in inner product spaces[edit source] [imagelink] Vectors involved in the parallelogram law. <span>In a normed space, the statement of the parallelogram law is an equation relating norms: 2 ‖ x ‖ 2 + 2 ‖ y ‖

#### Annotation 1752704617740

 Dans sa décision du 16 janvier 1982 (JCP 1982 II 19788, note Nguyen Quoc Vinh et C. Franck), le Conseil constitutionnel a estimé que la liberté d’entreprendre est un principe de valeur constitutionnelle. Il s’est fondé sur les articles 2 et 4 de la Déclaration des droits, qui posent respectivement les principes de liberté et de propriété. Il a considéré que les trois principes de la liberté, de la propriété et de la liberté d’entreprendre étaient liés. « La liberté… ne saurait elle-même être préservée si des restrictions arbitraires ou abusives étaient apportées à la liberté d’entreprendre ». En l’occurrence, le Conseil constitutionnel a estimé que les nationalisations votées par la loi du 18 décembre 1981 n’étaient pas d’une importance telle qu’elles restreignaient le champ de la liberté d’entreprendre. Le Conseil constitutionnel a réaffirmé ce principe dans sa décision n°2001-455 du 12 janvier 2002.

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#### Annotation 1752706190604

 ont également des actes de commerce, certaines activités si elles sont réalisées en entreprise. Il est admis qu’il y a entreprise lorsqu’il existe une organisation, c’est-à-dire la réunion de moyens de productions ayant pour but l’exercice d’une activité. Citons, par exemple, les entreprises de fourniture d’énergie (Com. 25 février 2016, N° de pourvoi : 15-10735, RJDA 5/16, n°412, Fiche de TD n°1, DOC. 3 : Ne donne pas de base légale à sa décision une cour d’appel qui, pour accueillir l’exception d’incompétence au profit de la juridiction commerciale soulevée par une banque, assignée en résolution du contrat de prêt destiné au financement d’un générateur solaire photovoltaïque, retient que la vente d’énergie constitue un acte de commerce et que le tribunal de commerce est compétent pour connaître des actes préparatoires nécessaires, comme l’achat et le financement de l’opération, qui sont des actes commerciaux par accessoire, sans rechercher si l’installation photovoltaïque litigieuse n’était pas principalement destinée à un usage personnel), les entreprises de construction, même si elles ne fournissent que la main d’œuvre, les entreprises de transport, les entreprises de location de meubles, les entreprises de production autres qu’agricoles (manufactures, industries mécaniques, chimiques, alimentaires, métallurgiques…), les entreprises d’agences d’affaires (agences de voyages, agences immobilières), entreprises de spectacles publics, entreprises d’exploitations minières… Dans certains cas, le nombre de salariés permet de distinguer l’entreprise artisanale de l’entreprise commerciale, cette dernière spécule sur le travail d’autrui (Com. 11 juillet 1984, N° de pourvoi : 83- 10274, Bull. 1984 IV, n° 228, Fiche de TD n°1, DOC. 1 : une cour d’appel peut reconnaître à la personne qui dirige une entreprise de plâtrerie-peinture la qualité de commerçant et prononcer la liquidation de ses biens, en relevant qu’employant plusieurs salariés et ayant réalisé de très importants achats de matériaux, elle a tiré profit tant du travail de ses ouvriers, que des matériaux fournis lors des travaux effectués), alors que l’artisan tire l’essentiel de ses revenus de son propre travail, même si son activité consiste par exemple à transformer la matière première qu’il achète en produit de consommation qu’il revend (V. infra « 1. Personnes exerçant une activité artisanale »).

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#### Annotation 1752708812044

 #banach-space a Banach space is a complete normed vector space.

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a Banach space is a complete normed vector space. Normed: with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors Complete: a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well defined limit tha

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Banach space - Wikipedia
Banach space - Wikipedia Banach space From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced [ˈbanax]) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well defined limit that is within the space. Banach spaces are named after the Polish mathematician Stefan Banach, who introduced this concept and studied it systematically in 1920–1922 along with Hans Hahn and Eduard Helly. [1]

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a Banach space is a [...] vector space.

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a Banach space is a complete normed vector space.

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Banach space - Wikipedia
Banach space - Wikipedia Banach space From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced [ˈbanax]) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well defined limit that is within the space. Banach spaces are named after the Polish mathematician Stefan Banach, who introduced this concept and studied it systematically in 1920–1922 along with Hans Hahn and Eduard Helly. [1]

#### Annotation 1752712744204

 #banach-space A normed space has a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors

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a Banach space is a complete normed vector space. Normed: with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors Complete: a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well defined limit that is within the space.

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Banach space - Wikipedia
Banach space - Wikipedia Banach space From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced [ˈbanax]) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well defined limit that is within the space. Banach spaces are named after the Polish mathematician Stefan Banach, who introduced this concept and studied it systematically in 1920–1922 along with Hans Hahn and Eduard Helly. [1]

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A normed space has a metric that allows the computation of [...]
vector length and distance between vectors

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A normed space has a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors

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Banach space - Wikipedia
Banach space - Wikipedia Banach space From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced [ˈbanax]) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well defined limit that is within the space. Banach spaces are named after the Polish mathematician Stefan Banach, who introduced this concept and studied it systematically in 1920–1922 along with Hans Hahn and Eduard Helly. [1]

#### Flashcard 1752717462796

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A normed space has a [...] that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors

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A normed space has a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors

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Banach space - Wikipedia
Banach space - Wikipedia Banach space From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced [ˈbanax]) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well defined limit that is within the space. Banach spaces are named after the Polish mathematician Stefan Banach, who introduced this concept and studied it systematically in 1920–1922 along with Hans Hahn and Eduard Helly. [1]

#### Flashcard 1752719035660

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Question
A [...] has a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors
normed space

An inner product space defines an inner product, which produces a metric; so inner product space is a normed space. But a norm doesn't have to be defined by an inner product. So here the right answer is a normed space.

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A normed space has a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors

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Banach space - Wikipedia
Banach space - Wikipedia Banach space From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced [ˈbanax]) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well defined limit that is within the space. Banach spaces are named after the Polish mathematician Stefan Banach, who introduced this concept and studied it systematically in 1920–1922 along with Hans Hahn and Eduard Helly. [1]

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The scope of working capital management includes [...]
transactions, relations, analyses, and focus

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The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment. Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained t

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Reading 38  Working Capital Management Intro
and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. <span>Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capital Needs Internal Factors External Factors Company size and growth rates Organizational structure Sophistication of working capital management Borrowing and investing positions/activities/capacities Banking services Interest rates New technologies and new products The economy Competitors The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment. Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively. Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented. Focus requires that organizations of all sizes today must have a global viewpoint with strong emphasis on liquidity. In this reading, we examine the different types of working capital and the management issues associated with each. We also look at methods of evaluating the effectiveness of working capital management. <span><body><html>

#### Flashcard 1752745250060

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High Probability Selling; is a new paradigm that requires salespeople to sell with integrity in order to achieve what?
outstanding results

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Transactions include [...] , [...] , and [...]
payments for trade, financing and investment.

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The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment. Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively. Analyses of working capit

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Reading 38  Working Capital Management Intro
and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. <span>Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capital Needs Internal Factors External Factors Company size and growth rates Organizational structure Sophistication of working capital management Borrowing and investing positions/activities/capacities Banking services Interest rates New technologies and new products The economy Competitors The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment. Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively. Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented. Focus requires that organizations of all sizes today must have a global viewpoint with strong emphasis on liquidity. In this reading, we examine the different types of working capital and the management issues associated with each. We also look at methods of evaluating the effectiveness of working capital management. <span><body><html>

#### Annotation 1752750755084

 #has-images #pie-de-cabra-session #reading-molo #scope-with-nascar-flags #semaforo Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively.

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ead> The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment. Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively. Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented. Focus requires that orga

#### Original toplevel document

Reading 38  Working Capital Management Intro
and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. <span>Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capital Needs Internal Factors External Factors Company size and growth rates Organizational structure Sophistication of working capital management Borrowing and investing positions/activities/capacities Banking services Interest rates New technologies and new products The economy Competitors The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment. Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively. Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented. Focus requires that organizations of all sizes today must have a global viewpoint with strong emphasis on liquidity. In this reading, we examine the different types of working capital and the management issues associated with each. We also look at methods of evaluating the effectiveness of working capital management. <span><body><html>

#### Annotation 1752752327948

 #has-images #pie-de-cabra-session #reading-molo #scope-with-nascar-flags #semaforo Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented.

#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment. Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively. <span>Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented. Focus requires that organizations of all sizes today must have a global viewpoint with strong emphasis on liquidity. <span><body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

Reading 38  Working Capital Management Intro
and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. <span>Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capital Needs Internal Factors External Factors Company size and growth rates Organizational structure Sophistication of working capital management Borrowing and investing positions/activities/capacities Banking services Interest rates New technologies and new products The economy Competitors The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment. Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively. Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented. Focus requires that organizations of all sizes today must have a global viewpoint with strong emphasis on liquidity. In this reading, we examine the different types of working capital and the management issues associated with each. We also look at methods of evaluating the effectiveness of working capital management. <span><body><html>

#### Annotation 1752753900812

 #has-images #pie-de-cabra-session #reading-molo #scope-with-nascar-flags #semaforo Focus requires that organizations of all sizes today must have a global viewpoint with strong emphasis on liquidity.

#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
ing partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively. Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented. <span>Focus requires that organizations of all sizes today must have a global viewpoint with strong emphasis on liquidity. <span><body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

Reading 38  Working Capital Management Intro
and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. <span>Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capital Needs Internal Factors External Factors Company size and growth rates Organizational structure Sophistication of working capital management Borrowing and investing positions/activities/capacities Banking services Interest rates New technologies and new products The economy Competitors The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment. Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively. Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented. Focus requires that organizations of all sizes today must have a global viewpoint with strong emphasis on liquidity. In this reading, we examine the different types of working capital and the management issues associated with each. We also look at methods of evaluating the effectiveness of working capital management. <span><body><html>

#### Flashcard 1752755473676

Question
What is the new paradigm in High Probability Selling?
The paradigm shifts from the old getting the prospect to buy, to determining whether there is a mutually acceptable basis for doing business.

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#### Flashcard 1752760192268

Question
Your response when a prospect seems to be annoyed;
You seem upset.

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#### Flashcard 1752762551564

Question
The prospect is upset and states that It has nothing to do with you. How do you respond?
Perhaps we should come back at another time.

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#### Flashcard 1752765435148

Question
iI the prospect responds with something like; No, it's all right. There's nothing I can do about it now, but remains upset; say
You still seem upset.

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#### Flashcard 1752767794444

Question
A prospect expresses; I've been having some problems with,,,, respond with this question;
What kind of problems?

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#### Flashcard 1752770940172

Question
A question to a prospect that acknowledges there are problems and you want to clarify the severity?
How serious are the problems?

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#### Flashcard 1752773299468

Question
An available time frame question;
How much time is available to...?

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#### Flashcard 1752874487052

Question
Prospect expresses they want something done, to confirm if you should do it, ask;
Is that something you want us to do?

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#### Flashcard 1752942382348

Question
Know exactly what's required by stating;
All right. But I'll need to review the ...., so that I know exactly what's required for the quote.

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#### Flashcard 1753001364748

Question
When you need to get all of the necessary information;
That's not how I work. I'm not willing to quote it twice. After we get all of the necessary information I'll quote it. That's why we need to talk to the product manager first. Is that okay with you... or not?

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#### Flashcard 1753068211468

Question
Confirm if the proposed solution is agreeable to them. ask;
Does that work for you?

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#### Annotation 1753070570764

 #economics Marginal product (MP) is the change in total product resulting from the use of one more (or one less) unit of the variable input:^

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#### Flashcard 1753076862220

Question
Confirm what they want us to do;
We can have the ..... We can ...... after you approve the,,,,,. That meets the,,,,, schedule you need. Is that what you want us to do?

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#### Annotation 1753093901580

 #has-images #megafono-session #reading-estandarte An understanding of the underlying framework of financial reporting standards, which is broader than knowledge of specific accounting rules, will allow an analyst to assess the valuation implications of financial statement elements and transactions—including transactions, such as those that represent new developments, which are not specifically addressed by the standards.