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Flashcard 4348407581964

Question
The connection between the talus and calcaneus forms the [...] joint.
Answer
Subtalar

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Flashcard 4353852312844

Tags
#christina
Question
Tia
Answer
786738

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Flashcard 4353902120204

Question
How to include function in a bash script ?
Answer

source filename [arguments]

source functions.sh

source /path/to/functions.sh arg1 arg2

source functions.sh WWWROOT=/apache.jail PHPROOT=/fastcgi.php_jail


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Source command - Linux Shell Scripting Tutorial - A Beginner's handbook
mes in $PATH are used to find the directory containing FILENAME. If any ARGUMENTS are supplied, they become the positional parameters when FILENAME is executed. Syntax The syntax is as follows: <span>source filename [arguments] source functions.sh source /path/to/functions.sh arg1 arg2 source functions.sh WWWROOT=/apache.jail PHPROOT=/fastcgi.php_jail Example Create a shell script called mylib.sh as follows: #!/bin/bash JAIL_ROOT=/www/httpd is_root(){ [ $(id -u) -eq 0 ] && return $TRUE || return $FALSE } Save and close the fi







Flashcard 4353908935948

Question
How to write a factorial function recursivly ?
Answer
  • A recursive function is a function that repeatedly calls itself.
  • No limit is placed on the number of recursive calls.
  • Create a shell script called fact.sh:
 #!/bin/bash
# fact.sh - Shell script to to find factorial of given command line arg
factorial () {
 local i = $1
 local f
 declare -i i
 declare -i f

 # factorial() is called until the value of $f is returned and is it is <= 2
 # This is called the recursion
 [ $i -le 2 ] && echo $i || { f = $(( i - 1 ))
 f = $( factorial $f )
 f = $(( f * i ))
 echo $f ; } }

# display usage [ $# -eq 0 ] && { echo "Usage: $0 number" ; exit 1 ; }
# call factorial
factorial $1 

Save and close the file. Run it as follows:

 chmod +x fact.sh
./fact.sh
./fact.sh 2 ./fact.sh 5 

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Recursive function - Linux Shell Scripting Tutorial - A Beginner's handbook
- A Beginner's handbook Recursive function From Linux Shell Scripting Tutorial - A Beginner's handbook Jump to navigation Jump to search ← Source command Home Putting functions in background → <span>A recursive function is a function that repeatedly calls itself. No limit is placed on the number of recursive calls. Create a shell script called fact.sh: #!/bin/bash # fact.sh - Shell script to to find factorial of given command line arg factorial(){ local i=$1 local f declare -i i declare -i f # factorial() is called until the value of $f is returned and is it is <= 2 # This is called the recursion [ $i -le 2 ] && echo $i || { f=$(( i - 1)); f=$(factorial $f); f=$(( f * i )); echo $f; } } # display usage [ $# -eq 0 ] && { echo "Usage: $0 number"; exit 1; } # call factorial factorial $1 Save and close the file. Run it as follows: chmod +x fact.sh ./fact.sh ./fact.sh 2 ./fact.sh 5 Sample outputs: 2 120 You can debug the script as follows: bash -x ./fact.sh 5 Sample outputs: + '[' 1 -eq 0 ']' + factorial 5 + local i=5 + local f + declare -i i + declare -i f + [[ 5







Flashcard 4353912081676

Question
How do the return syntax looks like ?
Answer

Syntax

  • The return command causes a function to exit with the return value specified by N and syntax is:
return N
  • If N is not specified, the return status is that of the last command.
  • The return command terminates the function.
  • The return command is not necessary when the return value is that of the last command executed.

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Returning from a function - Linux Shell Scripting Tutorial - A Beginner's handbook
utput ƒ(x). In computer a shell function name can take an input, $1 and return back the value (true or false) to the script. In other words, you can return from a function with an exit status . <span>Syntax The return command causes a function to exit with the return value specified by N and syntax is: return N If N is not specified, the return status is that of the last command. The return command terminates the function. The return command is not necessary when the return value is that of the last command executed. Example Create a shell script called isroot.sh as follows: #!/bin/bash # version 1.0 # Purpose: Determine if current user is root or not is_root_user(){ [ $(id -u) -eq 0 ] } # invoke th







Flashcard 4353915751692

Question
How to dot sourcing a function ?
Answer
. /path/to/fuctions.sh

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Writing functions - Linux Shell Scripting Tutorial - A Beginner's handbook
/functions All shell functions are treated as a command. You must define a function at the start of a script. You must load a function file at the start of a script using source (or .) command: <span>. /path/to/fuctions.sh OR source /path/to/fuctions.sh You can call function like normal command: name name arg1 arg2 Write a function at the start of a script A function must be created before calling. For ex







Flashcard 4353919421708

Question
How to write a helper function for backup ?
Answer

dobackup (){

# put backup commands here

tar -zcvf /dev/st0 /home >/dev/null 2 > & 1

}


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Putting functions in background - Linux Shell Scripting Tutorial - A Beginner's handbook
y progress while making backup # Based on idea presnted by nixCraft forum user rockdalinux # Show progress dots progress(){ echo -n "$0: Please wait..." while true do echo -n "." sleep 5 done } <span>dobackup(){ # put backup commands here tar -zcvf /dev/st0 /home >/dev/null 2>&1 } # Start it in the background progress & # Save progress() PID # You need to use the PID to kill the function MYSELF=$! # Start backup # Transfer control to dobackup() dobackup # Kil







Flashcard 4353923091724

Question
How to remove a function ?
Answer
unset -f functionName

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Removing functions - Linux Shell Scripting Tutorial - A Beginner's handbook
l Scripting Tutorial - A Beginner's handbook Jump to navigation Jump to search ← Displaying functions Home Defining functions → To unset or remove the function use the unset command as follows: <span>unset -f functionName unset -f hello declare See also unset command declare command ← Displaying functions Home Defining functions → Retrieved from "https://bash.cyberciti.biz/wiki/index.php?title=Removing_f







Flashcard 4356804578572

Question
How to backup with rsync ?
Answer
# rsync -av /home/* /srv/home/

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How to Move Home Directory to New Partition or Disk in Linux
time being. # mkdir -p /srv/home # mount /dev/sdb1 /srv/home Then move the content of /home into /srv/home (so they will be practically stored in /dev/sdb1) using rsync command or cp command . <span># rsync -av /home/* /srv/home/ OR # cp -aR /home/* /srv/home/ After that, we will find the difference between the two directories using the diff tool , if all is well, continue to the next step. # diff -r /home /srv/







Flashcard 4356806937868

Question
How to back up with cp ?
Answer
# cp -aR /home/* /srv/home/

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How to Move Home Directory to New Partition or Disk in Linux
# mount /dev/sdb1 /srv/home Then move the content of /home into /srv/home (so they will be practically stored in /dev/sdb1) using rsync command or cp command . # rsync -av /home/* /srv/home/ OR <span># cp -aR /home/* /srv/home/ After that, we will find the difference between the two directories using the diff tool , if all is well, continue to the next step. # diff -r /home /srv/home Afterwards, delete all the







Flashcard 4356810083596

Question
For which backups is tar not usable ?
Answer

1. Backup Restore using tar command

tar features:

1. tar ( tape archive ) is used for single or multiple files backup and restore on/from a tape or file.
2. tar can not backup special character & block device files , shows as 0 byte files with first letter of permissions as b or c for block or character.
3. tar Works only on mounted file system, it can not access the files on unmounted file system.


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Backup Commands in Linux &amp; Unix with Usage and Examples
– How to use cpio for backing up unix and linux files 3. backup commands ufsdump and restore – For Solaris filesystem 4. backup commands dump and restore – For taking Linux file system backup. <span>1. Backup Restore using tar command tar features: 1. tar ( tape archive ) is used for single or multiple files backup and restore on/from a tape or file. 2. tar can not backup special character & block device files , shows as 0 byte files with first letter of permissions as b or c for block or character. 3. tar Works only on mounted file system, it can not access the files on unmounted file system. Backing up all files in a directory including subdirectories to a tape device (/dev/rmt/0) or a file. Example 1 : $tar cvf /dev/rmt/0 * In the command above Options are c -> create ;







Flashcard 4356812442892

Question
Which files can you backup with cpio ?
Answer

2. Backup restore using cpio command

cpio features

1. Used for single or multiple files backup .
2. Can backup special character & block device files .
3. Works only on mounted file system.
4. Need a list of files to be backed up .
5. Preserve hard links and time stamps of the files .


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Backup Commands in Linux &amp; Unix with Usage and Examples
ar ball becomes big and it can compressed to copy or store with less space. Compressing file/s compress -v file_name gzip filename To uncompress a file uncompress file_name.Z or gunzip filename <span>2. Backup restore using cpio command cpio features 1. Used for single or multiple files backup . 2. Can backup special character & block device files . 3. Works only on mounted file system. 4. Need a list of files to be backed up . 5. Preserve hard links and time stamps of the files . Using cpio command to backup all the files in current directory to tape. find . -depth -print | cpio -ovcB > /dev/rmt/0 cpio expects a list of files and find command provides the lis







Flashcard 4356814277900

Question
How should you backup ext2,3,4 filesystem ?
Answer
ext2 ext3 ext4 backup and restore can be easily done with a dump utility which allows you to take full and incremental file system backup. Backup can be taken on a tape , file or a remote system and restore full or selective files

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Backup Commands in Linux &amp; Unix with Usage and Examples
to 5120 bytes Compress/uncompress files : You may have to compress the files before or after the backup . click for full options and details of GNU cpio 3. Backup and Restore linux file system <span>ext2 ext3 ext4 backup and restore can be easily done with a dump utility which allows you to take full and incremental file system backup. Backup can be taken on a tape , file or a remote system and restore full or selective files Dump is available at sourceforge.net http://dump.sourceforge.net/ Here are complete steps to get started with complete linux file system backup and restore 1. Install dump package Dump







Flashcard 4356821617932

Tags
#bones #bony #femur #has-images #landmarks





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Flashcard 4356826598668

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Flashcard 4356831579404

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Flashcard 4356836560140

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Flashcard 4356841540876

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Flashcard 4356846521612

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Flashcard 4356855172364

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Flashcard 4356860153100

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Flashcard 4356865133836

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Flashcard 4356870901004

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Flashcard 4357022420236

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The conventional Euclidean norm is not appropriate because, as discussed in Section 9.2, some states are more important than ot he rs because they occur more frequently or because we are more interested in them ( S ect i on 9.11)
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Flashcard 4360512867596

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Flashcard 4361745206540

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Flashcard 4361750187276

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Flashcard 4361755168012

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Flashcard 4361760148748

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#computer-science #machine-learning #reinforcement-learning
Among the algorithms investigated so far in this book, only the Monte Carlo methods are true SGD methods. These methods converge robustly under both on-policy and off-policy training as well as for general nonlinear (differentiable) function approximators, though they are often slower than semi-gradient methods with bootstrapping, which are not SGD methods.
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Flashcard 4361766964492

Tags
#computer-science #machine-learning #reinforcement-learning
Question
Among the algorithms investigated so far in this book, only the [...] methods are true SGD methods. These methods converge robustly under both on-policy and off-policy training as well as for general nonlinear (differentiable) function approximators, though they are often slower than semi-gradient methods with bootstrapping, which are not SGD methods.
Answer
Monte Carlo

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Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
data-bubo-id="temp-selection">Monte Carlo<span> methods are true SGD methods. These methods converge robustly under both on-policy and o↵-policy training as well as for general nonlinear (di↵erentiable) function approximators, though

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 4361769585932

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Not all debt is bad, but all debt needs to be [...]
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[...] and [...] as an area where ML technical debt may rapidly accumulate
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Flashcard 4361831976204

Question
glue code
Answer
is executable code (often source code) that serves solely to "adapt" different parts of code that would otherwise be incompatible

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Glue code - Wikipedia
e 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) It has been suggested that this article be merged into Glue logic. (Discuss) Proposed since September 2018. In computer programming, <span>glue code is executable code (often source code) that serves solely to "adapt" different parts of code that would otherwise be incompatible. Glue code does not contribute any functionality toward







Flashcard 4361834073356

Question
An example of system-level interactions in ML that leads to tech debt
Answer
chaining of input signals

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ML packages may be treated as black boxes, resulting in large masses of [...] or [...] that can lock in assumptions.
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Flashcard 4361838791948

Question
ML is required in exactly those cases when the desired behavior cannot be
Answer
effectively expressed in software logic without dependency on external data .

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Flashcard 4361841151244

Question
CACE principle
Answer
Changing Anything Changes Everything

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CACE applies not only to [...] signals, but also to [...] , [...] settings, [...] methods, [...] thresholds, data [...] , and essentially every other possible tweak.
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Flashcard 4361845083404

Question
Entanglement
Answer
Machine learning systems mix signals together , entangling them and making iso- lation of improvements impossible

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Flashcard 4361848491276

Question
Correction Cascades
Answer
There are often situations in which model ma for problem A exists, but a solution for a slightly different problem A′ is required. In this case, it can be tempting to learn a model m′a that takes ma as input and learns a small correction as a fast way to solve the problem

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Flashcard 4361850850572

Question
Undeclared Consumers.
Answer
Oftentimes, a prediction from a machine learning model ma is made widely accessible, either at runtime or by writing to files or logs that may later be consumed by other systems. Without access controls, some of these consumers may be undeclared, silently using the output of a given model as an input to another system. In more classical software engineering, these issues are referred to as [...]

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Flashcard 4361853209868

Question
Unstable Data Dependencies.
Answer
To move quickly , it is often convenient to consume signals as input features that are produced by other systems. However, some input signals are unstable, meaning that they qualitatively or quantitatively change behavior over time. This can happen implicitly, when the input signal comes from another machine learning model itself that updates over time, or a data-dependent lookup table, such as for computing TF/IDF scores or semantic mappings.

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One common mitigation strategy for unstable data dependencies is to create a [...] of a given signal
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One possible mitigation strategy is to isolate models and serve [...] . This approach is useful in situations in which [...] such as in disjoint multi-class settings like [14]. However, in many cases [...] work well because the errors in the component models are [...] . Relying on the combination creates a [...] : improving an individual component model may actually make the system accuracy [...] if the [...] are more strongly correlated with the [...] .
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A second possible strategy is to focus on detecting changes in [...] behavior as they occur. One such method was proposed in [12], in which a [...] tool was used to allow researchers to quickly see effects across many [...] . Metrics that operate on a [...] basis may also be extremely useful
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Mitigation strategies are to [...] ma to learn the corrections directly within the [...] by [...] features to distinguish among the cases, or to accept the cost of [...] for A′
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Undeclared consumers may be difficult to detect unless the system is specifically designed to guard against this case, for example with [...] or [...]
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Flashcard 4361868152076

Question
Underutilized Data Dependencies
Answer
underutilized data dependencies are input signals that provide little incremental modeling benefit.

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