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Flashcard 4356821617932



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Flashcard 4356826598668



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Flashcard 4356831579404



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Flashcard 4356836560140



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Flashcard 4356841540876



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Flashcard 4356846521612



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Flashcard 4356855172364



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Flashcard 4356860153100



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Flashcard 4356865133836



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Flashcard 4356870901004



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Flashcard 4357022420236



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Flashcard 4360512867596



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Flashcard 4361745206540



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Flashcard 4361750187276



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Flashcard 4361755168012



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Flashcard 4361760148748



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Flashcard 4361769585932



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Not all debt is bad, but all debt needs to be [...]

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[...] and [...] as an area where ML technical debt may rapidly accumulate

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Flashcard 4361831976204

Question
glue code
Answer
is executable code (often source code) that serves solely to "adapt" different parts of code that would otherwise be incompatible


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Glue code - Wikipedia
e 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) It has been suggested that this article be merged into Glue logic. (Discuss) Proposed since September 2018. In computer programming, <span>glue code is executable code (often source code) that serves solely to "adapt" different parts of code that would otherwise be incompatible. Glue code does not contribute any functionality toward







Flashcard 4361834073356

Question
An example of system-level interactions in ML that leads to tech debt
Answer
chaining of input signals


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ML packages may be treated as black boxes, resulting in large masses of [...] or [...] that can lock in assumptions.

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Flashcard 4361838791948

Question
ML is required in exactly those cases when the desired behavior cannot be
Answer
effectively expressed in software logic without dependency on external data .


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Flashcard 4361841151244

Question
CACE principle
Answer
Changing Anything Changes Everything


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CACE applies not only to [...] signals, but also to [...] , [...] settings, [...] methods, [...] thresholds, data [...] , and essentially every other possible tweak.

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Flashcard 4361845083404

Question
Entanglement
Answer
Machine learning systems mix signals together , entangling them and making iso- lation of improvements impossible


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Flashcard 4361848491276

Question
Correction Cascades
Answer
There are often situations in which model ma for problem A exists, but a solution for a slightly different problem A′ is required. In this case, it can be tempting to learn a model m′a that takes ma as input and learns a small correction as a fast way to solve the problem


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Flashcard 4361850850572

Question
Undeclared Consumers.
Answer
Oftentimes, a prediction from a machine learning model ma is made widely accessible, either at runtime or by writing to files or logs that may later be consumed by other systems. Without access controls, some of these consumers may be undeclared, silently using the output of a given model as an input to another system. In more classical software engineering, these issues are referred to as [...]


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Flashcard 4361853209868

Question
Unstable Data Dependencies.
Answer
To move quickly , it is often convenient to consume signals as input features that are produced by other systems. However, some input signals are unstable, meaning that they qualitatively or quantitatively change behavior over time. This can happen implicitly, when the input signal comes from another machine learning model itself that updates over time, or a data-dependent lookup table, such as for computing TF/IDF scores or semantic mappings.


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One common mitigation strategy for unstable data dependencies is to create a [...] of a given signal

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One possible mitigation strategy is to isolate models and serve [...] . This approach is useful in situations in which [...] such as in disjoint multi-class settings like [14]. However, in many cases [...] work well because the errors in the component models are [...] . Relying on the combination creates a [...] : improving an individual component model may actually make the system accuracy [...] if the [...] are more strongly correlated with the [...] .

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A second possible strategy is to focus on detecting changes in [...] behavior as they occur. One such method was proposed in [12], in which a [...] tool was used to allow researchers to quickly see effects across many [...] . Metrics that operate on a [...] basis may also be extremely useful

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Mitigation strategies are to [...] ma to learn the corrections directly within the [...] by [...] features to distinguish among the cases, or to accept the cost of [...] for A′

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Undeclared consumers may be difficult to detect unless the system is specifically designed to guard against this case, for example with [...] or [...]

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Flashcard 4361868152076

Question
Underutilized Data Dependencies
Answer
underutilized data dependencies are input signals that provide little incremental modeling benefit.


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