# on 16-Jan-2017 (Mon)

#### Flashcard 1428645612812

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#blue-apron #citychef
Question
The company works with [...] to create delivery boxes of perfectly portioned dinners that [...]
local farmers

minimize food waste

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#### Flashcard 1432407379212

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#conjunction #italian #italian-grammar
Question
Conjunctions can either be coordinating, [...], or subordinating, linking a main clause and subordinate clause.
linking two phrases or clauses of equal weight

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ith love but with discipline’; sono andata a letto perché ero stanca ‘I went to bed because I was tired’; i giudici dicono che bisogna cambiare la legge ‘the judges say that the law should be changed’. Conjunctions can either be coordinating, <span>linking two phrases or clauses of equal weight, or subordinating, linking a main clause and subordinate clause.<span><body><html>

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#### Flashcard 1432418651404

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#italian #italian-grammar
Question
Even where living beings are concerned, [...] is not always the same as natural gender
grammatical gender

una tigre (either sex unless specified); un ippopotamo

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All nouns in Italian have a gender: they are either masculine or feminine, even if they are inanimate objects. Even where living beings are concerned, grammatical gender is not always the same as natural gender: una tigre ‘a tiger’ (either sex unless specified); un ippopotamo ‘a hippopotamus’. Gender is important since it determines the form of noun, th

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#### Flashcard 1432722214156

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#italian #italian-grammar #number #structure
Question
Occasionally (as in English) a [...] is used to refer to a collective entity that one might expect to be grammatically plural, e.g. la gente ‘people’.
singular noun

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Number Unlike gender, the grammatical concept of singular or plural (‘number’) causes no problem for speakers of English. Occasionally (as in English) a singular noun is used to refer to a collective entity that one might expect to be grammatically plural, e.g. la gente ‘people’. On the other hand, some objects that are singular in English may be plu

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#### Flashcard 1438236937484

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#3-ene-2017 #el-financiero #noticias
Question
El saldo de la deuda bruta ajustada de México ascendió a [...] millones de dólares al cierre de septiembre del 2016
419 mil 810

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El saldo de la deuda bruta ajustada de México ascendió a 419 mil 810 millones de dólares al cierre de septiembre del 2016

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Deuda externa de México frena su crecimiento
de México perdió fuerza en 2016, lo cual puede ser una señal de un cambio de dirección en su explosivo crecimiento que había registrado desde el 2009 ante las inminentes alzas en las tasas de interés que alejará el dinero barato. <span>El saldo de la deuda bruta ajustada de México ascendió a 419 mil 810 millones de dólares al cierre de septiembre del 2016, de acuerdo con la última información publicada por el Banco de México. Dicho monto representa una disminución de 12 mil 662 millones de dólares con respecto al saldo presentado al cier

#### Flashcard 1438609181964

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#30-dic-2016 #el-financiero #financial-times #noticias
Question
¿Marine Le Pen ganará la presidencia francesa?
No. Aunque la probabilidad no es cero

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¿Marine Le Pen ganará la presidencia francesa? ___No. Aunque la probabilidad no es cero, por supuesto. Una victoria de Le Pen sigue siendo improbable por una razón: ella está defendiendo un retorno al franco y, para un país de los ahorradores, eso es demasiado arriesgado.

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Predicciones mundiales para 2017
historia no son las tendencias estables sino los repentinos choques sísmicos, recibió una poderosa confirmación de su punto de vista en 2016. Así es que los lectores pudieran mirar estos pronósticos para 2017 con cierto desdén. 1. <span>¿Marine Le Pen ganará la presidencia francesa? ___No. Aunque la probabilidad no es cero, por supuesto. Una victoria de Le Pen sigue siendo improbable por una razón: ella está defendiendo un retorno al franco y, para un país de los ahorradores, eso es demasiado arriesgado. (Anne-Sylvaine Chassany) 2. ¿Ganará Angela Merkel la reelección en Alemania? ___Sí. La Sra. Merkel ganará las elecciones parlamentarias de otoño en Alemania, pero con menos asientos para

#### Flashcard 1446940642572

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#charisma
Question
What are the stages to compassion?
1. First comes empathy, the ability to understand what someone is feeling, to detect distress;
2. Second, sympathy, being emotionally moved by distress
3. And third, compassion, which arises with the desire to care for the well-being of the distressed person.

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Paul Gilbert, one of the main researchers in the field of compassion, describes the process of accessing compassion as follows: first comes empathy, the ability to understand what someone is feeling, to detect distress; second, sympathy, being emotionally moved by distress; and third, compassion, which arises with the desire to care for the well-being of the distressed person.

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#### Flashcard 1447028985100

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#python #scip
Question
The '=' symbol is called the [...] in Python (and many other languages)
assignment operator

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he = symbol is called the assignment operator in Python (and many other languages)

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1.2 Elements of Programming
= and a value to the right: >>> radius = 10 >>> radius 10 >>> 2 * radius 20 Names are also bound via import statements. >>> from math import pi >>> pi * 71 / 223 1.0002380197528042 T<span>he = symbol is called the assignment operator in Python (and many other languages). Assignment is our simplest means of abstraction, for it allows us to use simple names to refer to the results of compound operations, such as the area computed above. In this way, co

#### Flashcard 1447070403852

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#biochem
Question
to understand the molecular mechanism of any biological process, we must understand the energy of the [...] that drive the formation of [...] and promote [...]
physical and chemical interactions; specific structures; molecular recognition

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to understand the molecular mechanism of any biological process, we must understand the energy of the physical and chemical interactions that drive the formation of specific structures and promote molecular recognition

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#### Flashcard 1447154027788

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4

Question
For an individual firm operating in a market setting of perfect competition, [...] equals AR and both are equal to a price that stays the same across all levels of output.
MR

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Exhibit 5. Total Revenue, Average Revenue, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition
Exhibit 5 graphically displays the revenue data from perfect competition. For an individual firm operating in a market setting of perfect competition, MR equals AR and both are equal to a price that stays the same across all levels of output. Because price is fixed to the individual seller, the firm’s demand curve is a horizontal line at

#### Flashcard 1447234243852

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
These are truly symbols because they express something [...]: a mermaid, a purple cow, an inhabitant of another planet, a regular polygon with one hundred sides, an elephant, a rose.
conceivable

So also are the symbols given above as examples of the essence, or class nature, of either a species or a genus.

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These are truly symbols because they express something conceivable: a mermaid, a purple cow, an inhabitant of another planet, a regular polygon with one hundred sides, an elephant, a rose. So also are the symbols given above as examples of the essence,

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#### Flashcard 1447240797452

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A proper name or an empirical description must symbolize an [...] or an [...] existing in fact (past or present) or in fiction
individual

aggregate

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A proper name or an empirical description must symbolize an individual or an aggregate existing in fact (past or present) or in fiction (wherein are characters, places, etc. created by the imagination). Otherwise, it is devoid of meaning, as are the presen

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#### Flashcard 1447255739660

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language can symbolize essence by either of two kinds of [...], both of which are applicable to all the members of a class
symbols

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Language can symbolize essence by either of t wo kinds of symbols, both of which are applicable to all the members of a class

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#### Flashcard 1447287196940

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
An individual is one. An [...] is simply a group consisting of two or more individuals.
aggregate

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An individual is one. An aggregate is simply a group consisting of two or more individuals.

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#### Flashcard 1447302925580

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
An aggregat e or group of individuals must be clearly distinguished from a [...]
species or a genus.

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An aggregat e or group of individuals must be clearly distinguished from a species or a genus.

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#### Flashcard 1447414861068

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question

5 [...] is the exercise of the faculties or power of a substance so as to produce an effect in something else or in itself.
Action

for example: clicking a camera, standing up, smiling.

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the nature or form of a substance, for example: dark, handsome, intelligent, athletic, chivalrous. 4 Relation is the reference which a subst ance or accident bears to another, for example: friend, near. 5 <span>Action is the exercise of the faculties or power of a substance so as to produce an effect in something else or in itself, for example: clicking a camera, standing up, smiling. &#1

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#### Flashcard 1447417220364

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#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
6 [...] is the reception by a substance of an effect produced by some agent.

Passion

for example: being invited to return, being drafted.

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r example: friend, near. 5 Action is the exercise of the faculties or power of a substance so as to produce an effect in something else or in itself, for example: clicking a camera, standing up, smiling. 6 <span>Passion is the reception by a substance of an effect produced by some agent, for example: being invited to return, being drafted. 7 When is position in relation to the cour

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#### Flashcard 1447419579660

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
7 [...] is position in relation to the course of extrinsic events which measure the duration of a substance.

When

for example, Sunday afternoon.

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se or in itself, for example: clicking a camera, standing up, smiling. 6 Passion is the reception by a substance of an effect produced by some agent, for example: being invited to return, being drafted. 7 <span>When is position in relation to the course of extrinsic event s which measure the duration of a substance, for example, Sunday afternoon. 8 Where is position in relation

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#### Flashcard 1447422725388

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
8 [...] is position in relation to bodies which surround a substance and measure and determine its place.

Where

for example: on a bench, beside the lake.

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me agent, for example: being invited to return, being drafted. 7 When is position in relation to the course of extrinsic event s which measure the duration of a substance, for example, Sunday afternoon. 8 <span>Where is position in relation to bodies which surround a substance and measure and determine its place, for example: on a bench, beside the lake. 9 Posture is the relative

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#### Flashcard 1447425084684

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
9 [...] is the relative position which the parts of a substance have toward each other.
Posture

for example: sitting, leaning forward.

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duration of a substance, for example, Sunday afternoon. 8 Where is position in relation to bodies which surround a substance and measure and determine its place, for example: on a bench, beside the lake. 9 <span>Posture is the relative position which the parts of a substance have toward each other, for example: sitting, leaning forward. 10 Habiliment consists of clothing, ornaments,

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#### Flashcard 1447427443980

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
10 [...] consists of clothing, ornaments, or weapons with which human beings by their art complement their nature in order to conserve their own being or that of the community (the other self).
Habiliment

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easure and determine its place, for example: on a bench, beside the lake. 9 Posture is the relative position which the parts of a substance have toward each other, for example: sitting, leaning forward. 10 <span>Habiliment consists of clothing, ornaments, or weapons with which human beings by their art complement their nature in order to conserve t heir own being or that of the community (the other self)

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#### Flashcard 1447437667596

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
2 The predicate exists [...]
in the subject.

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2 The predicate exists in the subject. If the predicate exists in the subject absolut ely as flowing from matt er, the predicate is a quantity. (Suzanne is tall.) If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as fl

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#### Flashcard 1447490882828

Tags
#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Essence is that which makes the individual like [...].
other members of its class

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Essence is that which makes the individual like other members of its class. Quantified matter is that which makes t he individual different from other individuals in its class because matter, extended by reason of its quantity, must be this or that matter, whi

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#### Flashcard 1447493242124

Tags
#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is that which makes the individual different from other individuals in its class.
Quantified matter

because matter, extended by reason of its quantity, must be this or that matter, which by limiting the form individuates it.

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Essence is that which makes the individual like other members of its class. Quantified matter is that which makes t he individual different from other individuals in its class because matter, extended by reason of its quantity, must be this or that matter, which by limiting the

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#### Flashcard 1447570836748

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#biochem
Question
the interaction energy for a negative charge that is sepa- rated from a positive charge by 3 Å in vacuum turns out to be about [...] kJ•mol −1
−500

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the interaction energy for a negative charge that is sepa- rated from a positive charge by 3 Å in vacuum turns out to be about −500 kJ•mol −1

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#### Flashcard 1447572409612

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#biochem
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any biological macromolecule must [...] to carry out its particular functions in the cell, and this depends on the ability of molecules to recognize each other specifically
work together with other molecules

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any biological macromolecule must work together with other molecules to carry out its particular functions in the cell, and this depends on the ability of molecules to recognize each other specifically

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#### Flashcard 1447573982476

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#biochem
Question
any biological macromolecule must work together with other molecules to carry out its particular functions in the cell, and this depends on the ability of molecules to [...]
recognize each other specifically

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any biological macromolecule must work together with other molecules to carry out its particular functions in the cell, and this depends on the ability of molecules to recognize each other specifically

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#### Flashcard 1447575555340

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
Functions that manipulate functions are called [...].
higher-order functions

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Functions that manipulate functions are called higher-order functions.

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1.6 Higher-Order Functions
t functions. These patterns can also be abstracted, by giving them names. To express certain general patterns as named concepts, we will need to construct functions that can accept other functions as arguments or return functions as values. <span>Functions that manipulate functions are called higher-order functions. This section shows how higher-order functions can serve as powerful abstraction mechanisms, vastly increasing the expressive power of our language. 1.6.1 Functions as Arguments

#### Annotation 1447577128204

 #biochem Th e β sheet is formed through interac- tions between noncontiguous amino acids in the polypeptide chain

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Th e β sheet is formed through interac- tions between noncontiguous amino acids in the polypeptide chain, in contrast to the α helix, which is formed from one contiguous segment of the chain. β strands are usually from fi ve to 10 residues long and are in an almost fully extended con- fo

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#### Annotation 1447578701068

 #biochem β strands are usually from fi ve to 10 residues long

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Th e β sheet is formed through interac- tions between noncontiguous amino acids in the polypeptide chain, in contrast to the α helix, which is formed from one contiguous segment of the chain. β strands are usually from fi ve to 10 residues long and are in an almost fully extended con- formation. To satisfy their hydrogen-bonding capacity, they form sheets in which β strands are aligned adjacent to each other (Figure 1.37 and

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#### Annotation 1447580273932

 #biochem To satisfy their hydrogen-bonding capacity, they (Beta strands) form sheets in which β strands are aligned adjacent to each other

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ncontiguous amino acids in the polypeptide chain, in contrast to the α helix, which is formed from one contiguous segment of the chain. β strands are usually from fi ve to 10 residues long and are in an almost fully extended con- formation. <span>To satisfy their hydrogen-bonding capacity, they form sheets in which β strands are aligned adjacent to each other (Figure 1.37 and Figure 1.38) such that hydrogen bonds can form between C=O groups and NH groups across the strands. Th e β sheets that are formed from several such β strands are “p

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#### Annotation 1447582633228

 #biochem Th e β sheets that are formed from several such β strands are “pleated”, with C α atoms alternately a little above and below the plane of the β sheet. Th e sidechains follow this pattern, pointing alternately above and below the β sheet.

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ation. To satisfy their hydrogen-bonding capacity, they form sheets in which β strands are aligned adjacent to each other (Figure 1.37 and Figure 1.38) such that hydrogen bonds can form between C=O groups and NH groups across the strands. <span>Th e β sheets that are formed from several such β strands are “pleated”, with C α atoms alternately a little above and below the plane of the β sheet. Th e sidechains follow this pattern, pointing alternately above and below the β sheet.<span><body><html>

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#### Annotation 1447584206092

 #python #sicp The body begins with a base case, a conditional statement that defines the behavior of the function for the inputs that are simplest to process

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A common pattern can be found in the body of many recursive functions. The body begins with a base case, a conditional statement that defines the behavior of the function for the inputs that are simplest to process. In the case of sum_digits , the base case is any single-digit argument, and we simply return that argument. Some recursive functions will have multiple base cases. The base cases are

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1.7 Recursive Functions
til eventually a single-digit input is reached. This example also illustrates how functions with simple bodies can evolve complex computational processes by using recursion. 1.7.1 The Anatomy of Recursive Functions Video: Show Hide <span>A common pattern can be found in the body of many recursive functions. The body begins with a base case, a conditional statement that defines the behavior of the function for the inputs that are simplest to process. In the case of sum_digits , the base case is any single-digit argument, and we simply return that argument. Some recursive functions will have multiple base cases. The base cases are then followed by one or more recursive calls. Recursive calls always have a certain character: they simplify the original problem. Recursive functions express computation by simplifying problems incrementally. For example, summing the digits of 7 is simpler than summing the digits of 73, which in turn is simpler than summing the digits of 738. For each subsequent call, there is less work lef

#### Annotation 1447585778956

 #python #sicp Recursive calls always have a certain character: they simplify the original problem

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to process. In the case of sum_digits , the base case is any single-digit argument, and we simply return that argument. Some recursive functions will have multiple base cases. The base cases are then followed by one or more recursive calls. <span>Recursive calls always have a certain character: they simplify the original problem. Recursive functions express computation by simplifying problems incrementally.<span><body><html>

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1.7 Recursive Functions
til eventually a single-digit input is reached. This example also illustrates how functions with simple bodies can evolve complex computational processes by using recursion. 1.7.1 The Anatomy of Recursive Functions Video: Show Hide <span>A common pattern can be found in the body of many recursive functions. The body begins with a base case, a conditional statement that defines the behavior of the function for the inputs that are simplest to process. In the case of sum_digits , the base case is any single-digit argument, and we simply return that argument. Some recursive functions will have multiple base cases. The base cases are then followed by one or more recursive calls. Recursive calls always have a certain character: they simplify the original problem. Recursive functions express computation by simplifying problems incrementally. For example, summing the digits of 7 is simpler than summing the digits of 73, which in turn is simpler than summing the digits of 738. For each subsequent call, there is less work lef

#### Annotation 1447587351820

 #python #sicp Recursive functions express computation by simplifying problems incrementally.

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nd we simply return that argument. Some recursive functions will have multiple base cases. The base cases are then followed by one or more recursive calls. Recursive calls always have a certain character: they simplify the original problem. <span>Recursive functions express computation by simplifying problems incrementally.<span><body><html>

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1.7 Recursive Functions
til eventually a single-digit input is reached. This example also illustrates how functions with simple bodies can evolve complex computational processes by using recursion. 1.7.1 The Anatomy of Recursive Functions Video: Show Hide <span>A common pattern can be found in the body of many recursive functions. The body begins with a base case, a conditional statement that defines the behavior of the function for the inputs that are simplest to process. In the case of sum_digits , the base case is any single-digit argument, and we simply return that argument. Some recursive functions will have multiple base cases. The base cases are then followed by one or more recursive calls. Recursive calls always have a certain character: they simplify the original problem. Recursive functions express computation by simplifying problems incrementally. For example, summing the digits of 7 is simpler than summing the digits of 73, which in turn is simpler than summing the digits of 738. For each subsequent call, there is less work lef

#### Flashcard 1447588924684

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#python #scip
Question
A numeral evaluates to [...]
the number it names,

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A numeral evaluates to the number it names,

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1.2 Elements of Programming
rule is applied, and the result of that expression. Viewing evaluation in terms of this tree, we can imagine that the values of the operands percolate upward, starting from the terminal nodes and then combining at higher and higher levels. <span>Next, observe that the repeated application of the first step brings us to the point where we need to evaluate, not call expressions, but primitive expressions such as numerals (e.g., 2) and names (e.g., add ). We take care of the primitive cases by stipulating that A numeral evaluates to the number it names, A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment. Notice the important role of an environment in determining the meaning of the symbols in expressions. In Python, it is meaningless to speak of the value of an expression such as >>> add(x, 1) without specifying any information about the environment that would provide a m

#### Annotation 1447628508428

 #programming #r #statistics The first idea is that Bayesian inference is reallocation of credibility across possibilities.

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#### Annotation 1447630867724

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics The second foundational idea is that the possibilities, over which we allocate credibility, are parameter values in meaningful mathematical models.

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#### Annotation 1447632440588

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics Holmes conceived of a set of possible causes for a crime. Some of the possibilities may have seemed very improbable, apriori. Holmes systematically gathered evidence that ruled out a number of the possible causes. If all possible causes but one were eliminated, then (Bayesian) reasoning forced him to conclude that the remaining possible cause was fully credible, even if it seemed improbable at the start

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#### Annotation 1447634013452

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics Because we assume that the candidate causes are mutually exclusive and exhaust all possible causes, the total credibility across causes sums to one.

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#### Annotation 1447635586316

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics judicial exoneration. Suppose there are several possible culprits for a crime, and that these suspects are mutually unaffiliated and exhaust all possibilities. If evidence accrues that one suspect is definitely culpable, then the other suspects are exonerated

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#### Annotation 1447637159180

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics data have only probabilistic relations to their underlying causes

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#### Annotation 1447638732044

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics All scientific data have some degree of “noise” in their values. The techniques of data analysis are designed to infer underlying trends from noisy data.

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#### Annotation 1447640304908

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics The beauty of Bayesian analysis is that the mathematics reveal exactly how much to re-allocate credibility in realistic probabilistic situations

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#### Annotation 1447641877772

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics The distribution of credibility initially reflects prior knowledge about the possibilities, which can be quite vague. Then new data are observed, and the credibility is re-allocated. Possibilities that are consistent with the data garner more credibility, while possibilities that are not consistent with the data lose credibility.

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#### Annotation 1447643712780

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics After the analysis, we can examine whether the data are well described by the most credible possibilities in the considered set. If the data seem not to be well described, then we can consider expanding the set of possibilities. This process is called a posterior predictive check

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#### Annotation 1447645285644

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics How big is the difference between the typical blood pressure in one group versus the typical blood pressure in the other group, and how certain can we be of the difference? The magnitude of difference describes the data, and our goal is to assess which possible descriptions aremoreorlesscredible.

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#### Annotation 1447646858508

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics In general, data analysis begins with a family of candidate descriptions for the data. The descriptions are mathematical formulas that characterize the trends and spreads in the data. The formulas themselves have numbers, called parameter values, that determine the exact shape of mathematical forms.

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#### Annotation 1447648431372

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics You can think of parameters as control knobs on mathematical devices that simulate data generation.

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#### Annotation 1447650004236

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics mathematical devices that simulate data generation.

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#### Annotation 1447651577100

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics The normal distribution has two parameters, called the mean and standard deviation. The mean is a control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls the location of the distribution’s central tendency. The mean is sometimes called a location parameter. The standard deviation is another control knob in the mathematical formula for the normal distribution that controls the width or dispersion of the distribution. The standard deviation is sometimes called a scale parameter.

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#### Annotation 1447654198540

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics The mathematical formula for the normal distribution converts the parameter values to a particular bell-like shape for the probabilities of data values

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#### Annotation 1447655771404

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics The role of Bayesian inference is to compute the exact relative credibilities of candidate parameter values, while also taking into account their prior probabilities.

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#### Annotation 1447657344268

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics the mathematical form should be comprehensible with meaningful parameters. Just as it would be fruitless to describe the data in a language that we do not know, it would be fruitless to describe the data with a mathematical form that we do not understand, with parameters that we cannot interpret

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#### Annotation 1447658917132

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics Bayesian analysis re- allocates credibility among parameter values within a meaningful space of possibilities defined by the chosen model.

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#### Annotation 1447660489996

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics The second desideratum for a mathematical description is that it should be descrip- tively adequate, which means, loosely, that the mathematical form should “look like” the data.

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#### Annotation 1447662062860

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics Bayesian analysis is very useful for assessing the relative credibility of different candidate descriptions of data

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#### Annotation 1447663635724

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics mathematical descriptions of data are not necessarily causal explanations of data

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#### Annotation 1447665208588

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics In general, Bayesian analysis of data follows these steps: 1. Identify the data relevant to the research questions. What are the measurement scales of the data? Which data variables are to be predicted, and which data variables are supposed to act as predictors? 2. Define a descriptive model for the relevant data. The mathematical form and its parameters should be meaningful and appropriate to the theoretical purposes of the analysis. 3. Specify a prior distribution on the parameters. The prior must pass muster with the audience of the analysis, such as skeptical scientists. 4. Use Bayesian inference to re-allocate credibility across parameter values. Interpret the posterior distribution with respect to theoretically meaningful issues (assuming that the model is a reasonable description of the data; see next step). 5. Check that the posterior predictions mimic the data with reasonable accuracy (i.e., conduct a “posterior predictive check”). If not, then consider a different descriptive model

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#### Flashcard 1447699811596

Tags
#vocabulary
Question
Habiliment
1. clothes or clothing.

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easure and determine its place, for example: on a bench, beside the lake. 9 Posture is the relative position which the parts of a substance have toward each other, for example: sitting, leaning forward. 10 <span>Habiliment consists of clothing, ornaments, or weapons with which human beings by their art complement their nature in order to conserve t heir own being or that of the community (the other self)

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#### Flashcard 1447702170892

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as flowing from matter, the predicate is a [...]
quantity. (Suzanne is tall.)

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2 The predicate exists in the subject. If the predicate exists in the subject absolut ely as flowing from matt er, the predicate is a quantity. (Suzanne is tall.) If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as fl

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#### Flashcard 1447704005900

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as flowing from form, the predicate is a [...]

quality. (Suzanne is intelligent.)

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2 The predicate exists in the subject. If the predicate exists in the subject absolut ely as flowing from matt er, the predicate is a quantity. (Suzanne is tall.) If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as fl

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#### Flashcard 1447705840908

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
If the predicate exists in the subject relatively with respect to another, the predicate is in the category [...]

relation. (Suzanne is Mary’s daughter.)

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2 The predicate exists in the subject. If the predicate exists in the subject absolut ely as flowing from matt er, the predicate is a quantity. (Suzanne is tall.) If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as fl

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#### Flashcard 1447723142412

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Blizzard

[...] —water

Quality— [...]

[...] —vaporized, frozen into snow, blown about by a high wind
Substance

cold

Passion

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#### Annotation 1447725501708

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium In the English language a construct is usually symbolized by a single word which does not make explicit the composite character of the construct. In an agglutinated language like German, a construct is more commonly symbolized by a compound word which does make explicit its composite character, for example, Abwehrflammenwerfer (defensive flame-thrower). Also, the English word t a n k in German is Raupenschlepperpanzerkampfwagen (a caterpillarlike, self-moving, armored war wagon). This has been shortened to panzer, a term familiar through films and books.

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#### Annotation 1447726550284

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium In the English language a construct is usually symbolized by a single word which does not make explicit the composite character of the construct.

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In the English language a construct is usually symbolized by a single word which does not make explicit the composite character of the construct. In an agglutinated language like German, a construct is more commonly symbolized by a compound word which does make explicit its composite character, for example, Abwehrflammenwer

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#### Annotation 1447728123148

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium In an agglutinated language like German, a construct is more commonly symbolized by a compound word which does make explicit its composite character, for example, Abwehrflammenwerfer (defensive flame-thrower).

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In the English language a construct is usually symbolized by a single word which does not make explicit the composite character of the construct. In an agglutinated language like German, a construct is more commonly symbolized by a compound word which does make explicit its composite character, for example, Abwehrflammenwerfer (defensive flame-thrower). Also, the English word t a n k in German is Raupenschlepperpanzerkampfwagen (a caterpillarlike, self-moving, armored war wagon). This has been shortened to panzer, a term fam

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#### Annotation 1447729696012

 Logical and Psychological Dimensions of Language #logic-and-psychologic-dimensions-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Language has logical and psychological meanings which may be illustrated through a closer look at the words house and home. If house is represented as a b, then home may be represented as a b x. Objectively, the definition (the logical dimension) of house and home are similar and may be represented by the lines ab; but subjectively, home is a much richer word, for to its logical content is added an emotional content (the psychological dimension) associated with the word and represented by the line bx. The fact that house has practically no psychological dimension while home has much accounts for the different effects produced by the following lines, which are equivalent in the logical dimensions. ILLUSTRATION: Psychological dimension of language House, house, loved, loved house! There’s no place like my house! There’s no place like my house! “Home, Home, sweet, sweet Home! There’s no place like Home! There’s no place like Home!” —John Howard Payne, “Clari, the Maid of Milan”

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#### Annotation 1447731531020

 #logic-and-psychologic-dimensions-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Language has logical and psychological meanings which may be illustrated through a closer look at the words house and home.

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Language has logical and psychological meanings which may be illustrated through a closer look at the words house and home. If house is represented as a b, then home may be represented as a b x. Objectively, the definition (the logical dimension) of house and home are similar and may be represented by the li

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#### Flashcard 1447732579596

Tags
#logic-and-psychologic-dimensions-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language has [...] and psychological meanings.
logical

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Language has logical and psychological meanings which may be illustrated through a closer look at the words house and home.

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#### Annotation 1447734152460

 #logic-and-psychologic-dimensions-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium If house is represented as a b, then home may be represented as a b x.

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Language has logical and psychological meanings which may be illustrated through a closer look at the words house and home. If house is represented as a b, then home may be represented as a b x. Objectively, the definition (the logical dimension) of house and home are similar and may be represented by the lines ab; but subjectively, home is a much richer word, for to its logica

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#### Flashcard 1447735201036

Tags
#logic-and-psychologic-dimensions-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
If house is represented as a b, then home may be represented as a [...]
b x.

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If house is represented as a b, then home may be represented as a b x.

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#### Annotation 1447736773900

 #logic-and-psychologic-dimensions-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Objectively, the definition (the logical dimension) of house and home are similar and may be represented by the lines ab; but subjectively, home is a much richer word, for to its logical content is added an emotional content (the psychological dimension) associated with the word and represented by the line bx.

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Language has logical and psychological meanings which may be illustrated through a closer look at the words house and home. If house is represented as a b, then home may be represented as a b x. Objectively, the definition (the logical dimension) of house and home are similar and may be represented by the lines ab; but subjectively, home is a much richer word, for to its logical content is added an emotional content (the psychological dimension) associated with the word and represented by the line bx. The fact that house has practically no psychological dimension while home has much accounts for the different effects produced by the following lines, which are equivalent in the logica

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#### Flashcard 1447737822476

Tags
#logic-and-psychologic-dimensions-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Objectively, the definition ([...] dimension) of house and home are similar and may be represented by the lines ab; but subjectively, home is a much richer word, for to its logical content is added an emotional content ( [...] dimension) associated with the word and represented by the line bx.
the logical

the psychological

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Objectively, the definition (the logical dimension) of house and home are similar and may be represented by the lines ab; but subjectively, home is a much richer word, for to its logical content is added an emotional content (

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#### Annotation 1447740181772

 #logic-and-psychologic-dimensions-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The fact that house has practically no psychological dimension while home has much accounts for the different effects produced by the following lines, which are equivalent in the logical dimensions. ILLUSTRATION: Psychological dimension of language House, house, loved, loved house! There’s no place like my house! There’s no place like my house! “Home, Home, sweet, sweet Home! There’s no place like Home! There’s no place like Home!” —John Howard Payne, “Clari, the Maid of Milan”

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are similar and may be represented by the lines ab; but subjectively, home is a much richer word, for to its logical content is added an emotional content (the psychological dimension) associated with the word and represented by the line bx. <span>The fact that house has practically no psychological dimension while home has much accounts for the different effects produced by the following lines, which are equivalent in the logical dimensions. ILLUSTRATION: Psychological dimension of language House, house, loved, loved house! There’s no place like my house! There’s no place like my house! “Home, Home, sweet, sweet Home! There’s no place like Home! There’s no place like Home!” —John Howard Payne, “Clari, the Maid of Milan”<span><body><html>

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#### Annotation 1447741754636

 LOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF LANGUAGE #logical-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The logical or intellectual dimension of a word is its thought content, which may be expressed in its definition, given in the dictionary. In rhetoric this is called the denotation of the word.

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#### Flashcard 1447744376076

Tags
#logical-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The logical or intellectual dimension of a word is its thought content, which may be expressed in its definition, given in the dictionary. In rhetoric this is called the [...] of the word.
denotation

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The logical or intellectual dimension of a word is its thought content, which may be expressed in its definition, given in the dictionary. In rhetoric this is called the denotation of the word.

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#### Annotation 1447749094668

 #italian #tre-porcellini C’era una volta una scrofa con tre porcellini. Li amava moltissimo, ma non c’era abbastanza cibo per tutti, quindi lì mandò per il mondo a cercar fortuna. Once upon a time there was a mama pig who had three little pigs. She loved them very much, but there was not enough food for all of them, so she sent them out into the world to seek their fortune.

#### Annotation 1447750929676

 ANALOGY: Logical and psychological dimensions of language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The logical dimension of language may be compared to the incandescent electrified wire in a transparent bulb; the wire is obvious and its limits are clearly defined. The psychological dimension may be compared to a frosted bulb, in which all the light, it is true, comes from the incandescent wire within, but the light is softened and diffused by the bulb, which gives it a more beautiful and psychologically warmer glow.

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#### Flashcard 1447753551116

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The [...] of language may be compared to the incandescent electrified wire in a transparent bulb; the wire is obvious and its limits are clearly defined. The [...] may be compared to a frosted bulb, in which all the light, it is true, comes from the incandescent wire within, but the light is softened and diffused by the bulb, which gives it a more beautiful and psychologically warmer glow.
logical dimension

psychological dimension

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The logical dimension of language may be compared to the incandescent electrified wire in a transparent bulb; the wire is obvious and its limits are clearly defined. The psychological dimension may be compared to a frosted bulb, in which all the light, it is true, comes from the incandescent wire within, but the light is softened and diffused by the bulb, which gives it a more

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#### Annotation 1447755910412

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Language with a purely logical dimension is desirable in legal document s and in scientific and philosophical treatises, where clarit y, precision, and singleness of meaning are requisite. Consequently, synonyms, which usually vary in shades of meaning, ought to be avoided, and the same word should be employed throughout to convey the same meaning; or if it is used with a different meaning, that fact should be made clear. Abstract words are usually clearer and more precise than concrete words, for abstract knowledge is clearer, although less vivid, than sense knowledge. Yet to communicate abstract knowledge, one should employ concrete illustrations from which the reader or listener can make the abstraction for himself since by so doing he grasps the abstract ideas much better than if the writer or speaker gave them to him ready-made.

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#### Annotation 1447756958988

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Language with a purely logical dimension is desirable in legal document s and in scientific and philosophical treatises, where clarit y, precision, and singleness of meaning are requisite.

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Language with a purely logical dimension is desirable in legal document s and in scientific and philosophical treatises, where clarit y, precision, and singleness of meaning are requisite. Consequently, synonyms, which usually vary in shades of meaning, ought to be avoided, and the same word should be employed throughout to convey the same meaning; or if it is

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#### Flashcard 1447758269708

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language with a purely [...] is desirable in legal documents and in scientific and philosophical treatises, where clarity, precision, and singleness of meaning are requisite.
logical dimension

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Language with a purely logical dimension is desirable in legal document s and in scientific and philosophical treatises, where clarit y, precision, and singleness of meaning are requisite.

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#### Annotation 1447760629004

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium In legal texts and scientific treatises synonyms, which usually vary in shades of meaning, ought to be avoided, and the same word should be employed throughout to convey the same meaning; or if it is used with a different meaning, that fact should be made clear.

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Language with a purely logical dimension is desirable in legal document s and in scientific and philosophical treatises, where clarit y, precision, and singleness of meaning are requisite. Consequently, synonyms, which usually vary in shades of meaning, ought to be avoided, and the same word should be employed throughout to convey the same meaning; or if it is used with a different meaning, that fact should be made clear. Abstract words are usually clearer and more precise than concrete words, for abstract knowledge is clearer, although less vivid, than sense knowledge. Yet to communicate abstr

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#### Annotation 1447762988300

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Abstract words are usually clearer and more precise than concrete words, for abstract knowledge is clearer, although less vivid, than sense knowledge.

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uently, synonyms, which usually vary in shades of meaning, ought to be avoided, and the same word should be employed throughout to convey the same meaning; or if it is used with a different meaning, that fact should be made clear. <span>Abstract words are usually clearer and more precise than concrete words, for abstract knowledge is clearer, although less vivid, than sense knowledge. Yet to communicate abstract knowledge, one should employ concrete illustrations from which the reader or listener can make the abstraction for himself since by so doing he gras

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#### Flashcard 1447764036876

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] are usually clearer and more precise than [...], for abstract knowledge is clearer, although less vivid, than sense knowledge.
Abstract words

concrete words

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Abstract words are usually clearer and more precise than concrete words, for abstract knowledge is clearer, although less vivid, than sense knowledge.

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#### Flashcard 1447767706892

Question
зоопарк
[default - edit me]

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ÐÐ¶Ð¾Ð°Ð½ ÐÑÑÐ»Ð¸Ð½ Ð Ð¾Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ð³ - ÐÐ°ÑÑÐ¸ ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐµÑ Ð¸ ÐÑÐ´ÐµÐ½ Ð¤ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÐºÑÐ°
навидели больше, чем вопросы, то это были разговоры о том, чего не бывает на самом деле, неважно, будь то во сне или в мультфильме -- казалось, они боятся, что у него могут возникнуть опасные идеи. Было очень солнечно, была суббота, и <span>зоопарк был забит родителями с детьми. У входа Дарсли купили Дадли и Пирсу по огромной порции шоколадного мороженого, и, так как веселая дама за прилавком спросила Гарри, что ему хочется

#### Annotation 1447769279756

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium To communicate abstract knowledge, one should employ concrete illustrations from which the reader or listener can make the abstraction for himself since by so doing he grasps the abstract ideas much better than if the writer or speaker gave them to him ready-made.

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ing; or if it is used with a different meaning, that fact should be made clear. Abstract words are usually clearer and more precise than concrete words, for abstract knowledge is clearer, although less vivid, than sense knowledge. Yet <span>to communicate abstract knowledge, one should employ concrete illustrations from which the reader or listener can make the abstraction for himself since by so doing he grasps the abstract ideas much better than if the writer or speaker gave them to him ready-made.<span><body><html>

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#### Flashcard 1447771114764

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
To communicate abstract knowledge, one should employ [...] from which the reader or listener can make the abstraction for himself.
concrete illustrations

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To communicate abstract knowledge, one should employ concrete illustrations from which the reader or listener can make the abstraction for himself since by so doing he grasps the abstract ideas much better than if the writer or speaker gave them to him ready-ma

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#### Annotation 1447774784780

 PSYCHOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF LANGUAGE #psychological-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The psychological dimension of language is in its emotional content—the related images, nuances, and emotion spontaneously associated with words. In rhetoric this is called the connotation of the word. Propagandists often abuse the connotative value of words. Language with a rich psychological dimension is desirable in poetry and other literature, where humor, pathos, grandeur, and sublimity are communicated. In literary composition, one should employ words that are concrete rather than abstract, that are rich in imagery and idiomatic. Synonyms should be used in order to avoid monotony of sound and to convey subtle shades of meaning that vary in both the logical and the psychological dimension. A sensitive awareness of the subtleties of language, particularly in its psychological dimension, enables one to recognize good style in the speech and writing of others and to cultivate good style in one’s own composition, both oral and written. The substance of a given composition may be translated almost perfectly from one language to another in the logical dimension. Translation is seldom satisfactory, however, in the psychological dimension. That is why poet ry in translation is usually less pleasing than in the original.

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#### Annotation 1447776619788

 #psychological-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The psychological dimension of language is in its emotional content—the related images, nuances, and emotion spontaneously associated with words.

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The psychological dimension of language is in its emotional content—the related images, nuances, and emotion spontaneously associated with words. In rhetoric this is called the connotation of the word. Propagandists often abuse the connotative value of words. Language with a rich psychological dimension is desirable in poetry and

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#### Flashcard 1447777668364

Tags
#psychological-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The psychological dimension of language is in its [...]
emotional content

—the related images, nuances, and emotion spontaneously associated with words.

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The psychological dimension of language is in its emotional content—the related images, nuances, and emotion spontaneously associated with words.

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#### Annotation 1447780027660

 #psychological-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium In rhetoric the psychological dimension of language is called the connotation of the word.

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The psychological dimension of language is in its emotional content—the related images, nuances, and emotion spontaneously associated with words. In rhetoric this is called the connotation of the word. Propagandists often abuse the connotative value of words. Language with a rich psychological dimension is desirable in poetry and other literature, where humor, pathos, grandeur, and s

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#### Flashcard 1447781862668

Tags
#psychological-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
In rhetoric the psychological dimension of language is called the [...] of the word.
connotation

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In rhetoric the psychological dimension of language is called the connotation of the word.

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#### Annotation 1447783435532

 #psychological-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Language with a rich psychological dimension is desirable in poetry and other literature, where humor, pathos, grandeur, and sublimity are communicated.

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dimension of language is in its emotional content—the related images, nuances, and emotion spontaneously associated with words. In rhetoric this is called the connotation of the word. Propagandists often abuse the connotative value of words. <span>Language with a rich psychological dimension is desirable in poetry and other literature, where humor, pathos, grandeur, and sublimity are communicated. In literary composition, one should employ words that are concrete rather than abstract, that are rich in imagery and idiomatic. Synonyms should be used in order to avoid monotony of so

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#### Flashcard 1447784484108

Tags
#psychological-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language with a rich [...] is desirable in poetry and other literature, where humor, pathos, grandeur, and sublimity are communicated.
psychological dimension

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Language with a rich psychological dimension is desirable in poetry and other literature, where humor, pathos, grandeur, and sublimity are communicated.

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#### Annotation 1447786056972

 #psychological-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium In literary composition, one should employ words that are concrete rather than abstract, that are rich in imagery and idiomatic.

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ed the connotation of the word. Propagandists often abuse the connotative value of words. Language with a rich psychological dimension is desirable in poetry and other literature, where humor, pathos, grandeur, and sublimity are communicated. <span>In literary composition, one should employ words that are concrete rather than abstract, that are rich in imagery and idiomatic. Synonyms should be used in order to avoid monotony of sound and to convey subtle shades of meaning that vary in both the logical and the psychological dimension. A sensitive awareness o

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#### Annotation 1447787629836

 #psychological-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium In literary composition synonyms should be used in order to avoid monotony of sound and to convey subtle shades of meaning that vary in both the logical and the psychological dimension.

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nsion is desirable in poetry and other literature, where humor, pathos, grandeur, and sublimity are communicated. In literary composition, one should employ words that are concrete rather than abstract, that are rich in imagery and idiomatic. <span>Synonyms should be used in order to avoid monotony of sound and to convey subtle shades of meaning that vary in both the logical and the psychological dimension. A sensitive awareness of the subtleties of language, particularly in its psychological dimension, enables one to recognize good style in the speech and writing of others and to cultivat

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#### Annotation 1447789989132

 #psychological-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium A sensitive awareness of the subtleties of language, particularly in its psychological dimension, enables one to recognize good style in the speech and writing of others and to cultivate good style in one’s own composition, both oral and written.

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that are concrete rather than abstract, that are rich in imagery and idiomatic. Synonyms should be used in order to avoid monotony of sound and to convey subtle shades of meaning that vary in both the logical and the psychological dimension. <span>A sensitive awareness of the subtleties of language, particularly in its psychological dimension, enables one to recognize good style in the speech and writing of others and to cultivate good style in one’s own composition, both oral and written. The substance of a given composition may be translated almost perfectly from one language to another in the logical dimension. Translation is seldom satisfactory, however, in the psycho

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#### Annotation 1447791561996

 #psychological-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The substance of a given composition may be translated almost perfectly from one language to another in the logical dimension.

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nsitive awareness of the subtleties of language, particularly in its psychological dimension, enables one to recognize good style in the speech and writing of others and to cultivate good style in one’s own composition, both oral and written. <span>The substance of a given composition may be translated almost perfectly from one language to another in the logical dimension. Translation is seldom satisfactory, however, in the psychological dimension. That is why poet ry in translation is usually less pleasing than in the original.<span><body></html

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#### Flashcard 1447792610572

Tags
#psychological-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The substance of a given composition may be translated almost perfectly from one language to another in the [...] dimension.
logical

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The substance of a given composition may be translated almost perfectly from one language to another in the logical dimension.

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#### Annotation 1447794183436

 #psychological-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Translation is seldom satisfactory, however, in the psychological dimension. That is why poetry in translation is usually less pleasing than in the original.

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le in the speech and writing of others and to cultivate good style in one’s own composition, both oral and written. The substance of a given composition may be translated almost perfectly from one language to another in the logical dimension. <span>Translation is seldom satisfactory, however, in the psychological dimension. That is why poet ry in translation is usually less pleasing than in the original.<span><body><html>

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#### Annotation 1447798902028

 Sound and the Psychological Dimension #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Various characteristics of words affect the psychological dimension of language. The mere sound of a word may produce a pleasing effect which another word of the same meaning lacks. In “Silver” by Walter de la Mare, the poet’s substitution of words like shoon for shoes and casements for windows are examples of the poet’s use of sound to create a psychological effect.

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#### Flashcard 1447801523468

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Various characteristics of words affect the [...] of language.
psychological dimension

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Various characteristics of words affect the psychological dimension of language. The mere sound of a word may produce a pleasing effect which another word of the same meaning lacks. In “Silver” by Walter de la Mare, the poet’s substitution of words like

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#### Flashcard 1447804407052

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The mere [...] of a word may produce a pleasing effect which another word of the same meaning lacks.
sound

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Various characteristics of words affect the psychological dimension of language. The mere sound of a word may produce a pleasing effect which another word of the same meaning lacks. In “Silver” by Walter de la Mare, the poet’s substitution of words like shoon for shoes and casemen

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#### Annotation 1447807552780

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium A pedantic or pompous style is psychologically displeasing. Compare these sentence pairs, identical in logical meaning. Behold! The inhabitants have all ret ired to their domiciles. Look! The people have all gone home. The vaulted dome of heaven is cerulean. The sky is blue.

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#### Annotation 1447812271372

 Idiom and Emotional Effect #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The emotional effect of a word, often a by-product of its historical development, belongs to the idiom of language and would often be lost in translation. The following examples show that sentences alike in logical dimension can be quite different in psychological dimension.

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Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question

The emotional effect of a word, often a by-product of its [...], belongs to the idiom of language and would often be lost in translation.
historical development

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The emotional effect of a word, often a by-product of its historical development, belongs to the idiom of language and would often be lost in translation. The following examples show that sentences alike in logical dimension can be quite different in psychological d

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#### Annotation 1447818038540

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium ILLUSTRATION: Idiom A young man tells a young woman, “Time stands still when I look into your eyes.” Another tells her, “You have a face that would stop a clock.” A young man tells a woman, “You are a vision.” Another, “You are a sight.

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#### Annotation 1447825902860

 #python #sicp Every value in Python has a class that determines what type of value it is.

2.1 Introduction
freely available to all of us online, and computation can be applied to a vast range of different problems. Effective use of built-in and user-defined data types are fundamental to data processing applications. 2.1.1 Native Data Types <span>Every value in Python has a class that determines what type of value it is. Values that share a class also share behavior. For example, the integers 1 and 2 are both instances of the int class. These two values can be treated similarly. For example, they

#### Annotation 1447826951436

 #python #sicp Values that share a class also share behavior.

2.1 Introduction
st range of different problems. Effective use of built-in and user-defined data types are fundamental to data processing applications. 2.1.1 Native Data Types Every value in Python has a class that determines what type of value it is. <span>Values that share a class also share behavior. For example, the integers 1 and 2 are both instances of the int class. These two values can be treated similarly. For example, they can both be negated or added to another integer

#### Annotation 1447828000012

 #python #sicp The built-in type function allows us to inspect the class of any value

2.1 Introduction
e it is. Values that share a class also share behavior. For example, the integers 1 and 2 are both instances of the int class. These two values can be treated similarly. For example, they can both be negated or added to another integer. <span>The built-in type function allows us to inspect the class of any value. >>> type(2) The values we have used so far are instances of a small number of native data types that are built into the Python language. Native data types have the foll

#### Annotation 1447829048588

 #python #sicp The values we have used so far are instances of a small number of native data types that are built into the Python language. Native data types have the following properties: There are expressions that evaluate to values of native types, called literals.There are built-in functions and operators to manipulate values of native types. The int class is the native data type used to represent integers. Integer literals (sequences of adjacent numerals) evaluate to int values, and mathematical operators manipulate these values.

2.1 Introduction
instances of the int class. These two values can be treated similarly. For example, they can both be negated or added to another integer. The built-in type function allows us to inspect the class of any value. >>> type(2) <span>The values we have used so far are instances of a small number of native data types that are built into the Python language. Native data types have the following properties: There are expressions that evaluate to values of native types, called literals. There are built-in functions and operators to manipulate values of native types. The int class is the native data type used to represent integers. Integer literals (sequences of adjacent numerals) evaluate to int values, and mathematical operators manipulate these values. >>> 12 + 3000000000000000000000000 3000000000000000000000012 Python includes three native numeric types: integers ( int ), real numbers ( float ), and complex numbers ( c

#### Annotation 1447830097164

 #python #sicp Python includes three native numeric types: integers ( int ), real numbers ( float ), and complex numbers ( complex ).

2.1 Introduction
data type used to represent integers. Integer literals (sequences of adjacent numerals) evaluate to int values, and mathematical operators manipulate these values. >>> 12 + 3000000000000000000000000 3000000000000000000000012 <span>Python includes three native numeric types: integers ( int ), real numbers ( float ), and complex numbers ( complex ). >>> type(1.5) >>> type(1+1j) Floats. The name float comes from the way in which real numbers are represented in Python and many other programming languages:

#### Annotation 1447831145740

 #python #sicp int objects represent integers exactly, without any approximation or limits on their size. On the other hand, float objects can represent a wide range of fractional numbers, but not all numbers can be represented exactly, and there are minimum and maximum values. Therefore, float values should be treated as approximations to real values.

2.1 Introduction
ming languages: a "floating point" representation. While the details of how numbers are represented is not a topic for this text, some high-level differences between int and float objects are important to know. In particular, <span>int objects represent integers exactly, without any approximation or limits on their size. On the other hand, float objects can represent a wide range of fractional numbers, but not all numbers can be represented exactly, and there are minimum and maximum values. Therefore, float values should be treated as approximations to real values. These approximations have only a finite amount of precision. Combining float values can lead to approximation errors; both of the following expressions would evaluate to 7 if not fo

#### Annotation 1447832194316

 #python #sicp Although int values are combined above, dividing one int by another yields a float value: a truncated finite approximation to the actual ratio of the two integers divided.  >>> type ( 1 / 3 ) >>> 1 / 3 0.3333333333333333  Problems with this approximation appear when we conduct equality tests.  >>> 1 / 3 == 0.333333333333333312345 # Beware of float approximation True

#### Annotation 1447834553612

 The general technique of isolating the parts of a program that deal with how data are represented from the parts that deal with how data are manipulated is a powerful design methodology called data abstraction. Data abstraction makes programs much easier to design, maintain, and modify.

2.2 Data Abstraction
ta enables us to increase the modularity of our programs. If we can manipulate geographic positions as whole values, then we can shield parts of our program that compute using positions from the details of how those positions are represented. <span>The general technique of isolating the parts of a program that deal with how data are represented from the parts that deal with how data are manipulated is a powerful design methodology called data abstraction. Data abstraction makes programs much easier to design, maintain, and modify. Data abstraction is similar in character to functional abstraction. When we create a functional abstraction, the details of how a function is implemented can be suppressed, and the p

#### Annotation 1447836126476

 data abstraction isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed.

2.2 Data Abstraction
r function itself can be replaced by any other function with the same overall behavior. In other words, we can make an abstraction that separates the way the function is used from the details of how the function is implemented. Analogously, <span>data abstraction isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed. The basic idea of data abstraction is to structure programs so that they operate on abstract data. That is, our programs should use data in such a way as to make as few assumptions ab

#### Annotation 1447837175052

 The basic idea of data abstraction is to structure programs so that they operate on abstract data. That is, our programs should use data in such a way as to make as few assumptions about the data as possible. At the same time, a concrete data representation is defined as an independent part of the program.

2.2 Data Abstraction
we can make an abstraction that separates the way the function is used from the details of how the function is implemented. Analogously, data abstraction isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed. <span>The basic idea of data abstraction is to structure programs so that they operate on abstract data. That is, our programs should use data in such a way as to make as few assumptions about the data as possible. At the same time, a concrete data representation is defined as an independent part of the program. These two parts of a program, the part that operates on abstract data and the part that defines a concrete representation, are connected by a small set of functions that implement abs

#### Annotation 1447838223628

 We are using here a powerful strategy for designing programs: wishful thinking. We haven't yet said how a rational number is represented, or how the functions numer , denom , and rational should be implemented. Even so, if we did define these three functions, we could then add, multiply, print, and test equality of rational numbers:

2.2 Data Abstraction
s the following three functions: rational(n, d) returns the rational number with numerator n and denominator d . numer(x) returns the numerator of the rational number x . denom(x) returns the denominator of the rational number x . <span>We are using here a powerful strategy for designing programs: wishful thinking. We haven't yet said how a rational number is represented, or how the functions numer , denom , and rational should be implemented. Even so, if we did define these three functions, we could then add, multiply, print, and test equality of rational numbers: >>> def add_rationals(x, y): nx, dx = numer(x), denom(x) ny, dy = numer(y), denom(y) return rational(nx * dy + ny * dx, dx * dy) >>> def

#### Annotation 1447839272204

 a list , which can be constructed by placing expressions within square brackets separated by commas. Such an expression is called a list literal.

2.2 Data Abstraction
functions. What we need is some way to glue together a numerator and a denominator into a compound value. 2.2.2 Pairs To enable us to implement the concrete level of our data abstraction, Python provides a compound structure called <span>a list , which can be constructed by placing expressions within square brackets separated by commas. Such an expression is called a list literal. >>> [10, 20] [10, 20] The elements of a list can be accessed in two ways. The first way is via our familiar method of multiple assignment, which unpacks a list into its

#### Annotation 1447840320780

 The elements of a list can be accessed in two ways. The first way is via our familiar method of multiple assignment, which unpacks a list into its elements and binds each element to a different name.

2.2 Data Abstraction
a abstraction, Python provides a compound structure called a list , which can be constructed by placing expressions within square brackets separated by commas. Such an expression is called a list literal. >>> [10, 20] [10, 20] <span>The elements of a list can be accessed in two ways. The first way is via our familiar method of multiple assignment, which unpacks a list into its elements and binds each element to a different name. >>> pair = [10, 20] >>> pair [10, 20] >>> x, y = pair >>> x 10 >>> y 20 A second method for accessing the elements in a list is by the

#### Annotation 1447841369356

 One intuition that supports this indexing convention is that the index represents how far an element is offset from the beginning of the list.

2.2 Data Abstraction
g expression. >>> pair[0] 10 >>> pair[1] 20 Lists in Python (and sequences in most other programming languages) are 0-indexed, meaning that the index 0 selects the first element, index 1 selects the second, and so on. <span>One intuition that supports this indexing convention is that the index represents how far an element is offset from the beginning of the list. The equivalent function for the element selection operator is called getitem , and it also uses 0-indexed positions to select elements from a list. >>> from operator impor

#### Annotation 1447842417932

 The equivalent function for the element selection operator is called getitem , and it also uses 0-indexed positions to select elements from a list.

2.2 Data Abstraction
exed, meaning that the index 0 selects the first element, index 1 selects the second, and so on. One intuition that supports this indexing convention is that the index represents how far an element is offset from the beginning of the list. <span>The equivalent function for the element selection operator is called getitem , and it also uses 0-indexed positions to select elements from a list. >>> from operator import getitem >>> getitem(pair, 0) 10 >>> getitem(pair, 1) 20 Two-element lists are not the only method of representing pairs in Pyth

#### Annotation 1447843466508

 The floor division operator, // , expresses integer division, which rounds down the fractional part of the result of division.

2.2 Data Abstraction
ms before constructing the pair. As with many useful tools, such a function already exists in the Python Library. >>> from fractions import gcd >>> def rational(n, d): g = gcd(n, d) return (n//g, d//g) <span>The floor division operator, // , expresses integer division, which rounds down the fractional part of the result of division. Since we know that g divides both n and d evenly, integer division is exact in this case. This revised rational implementation ensures that rationals are expressed in lowest te

#### Annotation 1447844515084

 In general, the underlying idea of data abstraction is to identify a basic set of operations in terms of which all manipulations of values of some kind will be expressed, and then to use only those operations in manipulating the data. By restricting the use of operations in this way, it is much easier to change the representation of abstract data without changing the behavior of a program.

2.2 Data Abstraction
efore continuing with more examples of compound data and data abstraction, let us consider some of the issues raised by the rational number example. We defined operations in terms of a constructor rational and selectors numer and denom . <span>In general, the underlying idea of data abstraction is to identify a basic set of operations in terms of which all manipulations of values of some kind will be expressed, and then to use only those operations in manipulating the data. By restricting the use of operations in this way, it is much easier to change the representation of abstract data without changing the behavior of a program. For rational numbers, different parts of the program manipulate rational numbers using different operations, as described in this table. Parts of the program that... Treat rationals

#### Flashcard 1447845825804

Question
What is a south american cape?
A Poncho, The tendenc is to think geographical cape. But the answer in this case is the wareable item of clothing. The south american poncho which is worn sometimes with a sombrero.

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#### Annotation 1447846350092

 An abstraction barrier violation occurs whenever a part of the program that can use a higher level function instead uses a function in a lower level.

2.2 Data Abstraction
two-element lists list literals and element selection In each layer above, the functions in the final column enforce an abstraction barrier. These functions are called by a higher level and implemented using a lower level of abstraction. <span>An abstraction barrier violation occurs whenever a part of the program that can use a higher level function instead uses a function in a lower level. For example, a function that computes the square of a rational number is best implemented in terms of mul_rational , which does not assume anything about the implementation of a ration

#### Annotation 1447847398668

 Abstraction barriers make programs easier to maintain and to modify. The fewer functions that depend on a particular representation, the fewer changes are required when one wants to change that representation.

2.2 Data Abstraction
(x) * numer(x), denom(x) * denom(x)) Assuming that rationals are represented as two-element lists would violate two abstraction barriers. >>> def square_rational_violating_twice(x): return [x[0] * x[0], x[1] * x[1]] <span>Abstraction barriers make programs easier to maintain and to modify. The fewer functions that depend on a particular representation, the fewer changes are required when one wants to change that representation. All of these implementations of square_rational have the correct behavior, but only the first is robust to future changes. The square_rational function would not require updating ev

#### Annotation 1447851592972

 In general, we can express abstract data using a collection of selectors and constructors, together with some behavior conditions. As long as the behavior conditions are met (such as the division property above), the selectors and constructors constitute a valid representation of a kind of data. The implementation details below an abstraction barrier may change, but if the behavior does not, then the data abstraction remains valid, and any program written using this data abstraction will remain correct.

2.2 Data Abstraction
enom . In addition, the appropriate relationship must hold among the constructor and selectors. That is, if we construct a rational number x from integers n and d , then it should be the case that numer(x)/denom(x) is equal to n/d . <span>In general, we can express abstract data using a collection of selectors and constructors, together with some behavior conditions. As long as the behavior conditions are met (such as the division property above), the selectors and constructors constitute a valid representation of a kind of data. The implementation details below an abstraction barrier may change, but if the behavior does not, then the data abstraction remains valid, and any program written using this data abstraction will remain correct. This point of view can be applied broadly, including to the pair values that we used to implement rational numbers. We never actually said much about what a pair was, only that the la

#### Annotation 1447852903692

 The behavior we require to implement a pair is that it glues two values together. Stated as a behavior condition, If a pair p was constructed from values x and y , then select(p, 0) returns x , and select(p, 1) returns y .

2.2 Data Abstraction
ew can be applied broadly, including to the pair values that we used to implement rational numbers. We never actually said much about what a pair was, only that the language supplied the means to create and manipulate lists with two elements. <span>The behavior we require to implement a pair is that it glues two values together. Stated as a behavior condition, If a pair p was constructed from values x and y , then select(p, 0) returns x , and select(p, 1) returns y . We don't actually need the list type to create pairs. Instead, we can implement two functions pair and select that fulfill this description just as well as a two-element list.

#### Annotation 1447853952268

 Functions are sufficient to represent compound data.

2.2 Data Abstraction
gt;>> select(p, 0) 20 >>> select(p, 1) 14 This use of higher-order functions corresponds to nothing like our intuitive notion of what data should be. Nevertheless, these functions suffice to represent pairs in our programs. <span>Functions are sufficient to represent compound data. The point of exhibiting the functional representation of a pair is not that Python actually works this way (lists are implemented more directly, for efficiency reasons) but that it co

#### Annotation 1447855000844

 #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4 In contrast, imperfect competition is where an individual firm has enough share of the market (or can control a certain segment of the market) and is therefore able to exert some influence over price. Instead of a large number of competing firms, imperfect competition involves a smaller number of firms in the market relative to perfect competition and in the extreme case only one firm (i.e., monopoly). Under any form of imperfect competition, the individual seller confronts a negatively sloped demand curve, where price and the quantity demanded by consumers are inversely related. In this case, price to the firm declines when a greater quantity is offered to the market; price to the firm increases when a lower quantity is offered to the market. This is shown in Exhibits 6 and 7.

#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Consequently, the individual seller faces a horizontal demand curve over relevant output ranges at the price level established by the market (see Exhibit 5). The seller can offer any quantity at this set market price without affecting price. <span>In contrast, imperfect competition is where an individual firm has enough share of the market (or can control a certain segment of the market) and is therefore able to exert some influence over price. Instead of a large number of competing firms, imperfect competition involves a smaller number of firms in the market relative to perfect competition and in the extreme case only one firm (i.e., monopoly). Under any form of imperfect competition, the individual seller confronts a negatively sloped demand curve, where price and the quantity demanded by consumers are inversely related. In this case, price to the firm declines when a greater quantity is offered to the market; price to the firm increases when a lower quantity is offered to the market. This is shown in Exhibits 6 and 7. <span><body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
zation requires that we examine both of those components. Revenue comes from the demand for the firm’s products, and cost comes from the acquisition and utilization of the firm’s inputs in the production of those products. <span>3.1.1. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue This section briefly examines demand and revenue in preparation for addressing cost. Unless the firm is a pure monopolist (i.e., the only seller in its market), there is a difference between market demand and the demand facing an individual firm. A later reading will devote much more time to understanding the various competitive environments (perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly), known as market structure . To keep the analysis simple at this point, we will note that competition could be either perfect or imperfect. In perfect competition , the individual firm has virtually no impact on market price, because it is assumed to be a very small seller among a very large number of firms selling essentially identical products. Such a firm is called a price taker . In the second case, the firm does have at least some control over the price at which it sells its product because it must lower its price to sell more units. Exhibit 4 presents total, average, and marginal revenue data for a firm under the assumption that the firm is price taker at each relevant level of quantity of goods sold. Consequently, the individual seller faces a horizontal demand curve over relevant output ranges at the price level established by the market (see Exhibit 5). The seller can offer any quantity at this set market price without affecting price. In contrast, imperfect competition is where an individual firm has enough share of the market (or can control a certain segment of the market) and is therefore able to exert some influence over price. Instead of a large number of competing firms, imperfect competition involves a smaller number of firms in the market relative to perfect competition and in the extreme case only one firm (i.e., monopoly). Under any form of imperfect competition, the individual seller confronts a negatively sloped demand curve, where price and the quantity demanded by consumers are inversely related. In this case, price to the firm declines when a greater quantity is offered to the market; price to the firm increases when a lower quantity is offered to the market. This is shown in Exhibits 6 and 7. Exhibit 4. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition Quantity Sold (Q) Price (P) Total Revenue (TR) Average Re

#### Annotation 1447857097996

 #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4 imperfect competition is where an individual firm has enough share of the market (or can control a certain segment of the market) and is therefore able to exert some influence over price.

#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
In contrast, imperfect competition is where an individual firm has enough share of the market (or can control a certain segment of the market) and is therefore able to exert some influence over price. Instead of a large number of competing firms, imperfect competition involves a smaller number of firms in the market relative to perfect competition and in the extreme case only one fir

#### Original toplevel document

3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
zation requires that we examine both of those components. Revenue comes from the demand for the firm’s products, and cost comes from the acquisition and utilization of the firm’s inputs in the production of those products. <span>3.1.1. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue This section briefly examines demand and revenue in preparation for addressing cost. Unless the firm is a pure monopolist (i.e., the only seller in its market), there is a difference between market demand and the demand facing an individual firm. A later reading will devote much more time to understanding the various competitive environments (perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly), known as market structure . To keep the analysis simple at this point, we will note that competition could be either perfect or imperfect. In perfect competition , the individual firm has virtually no impact on market price, because it is assumed to be a very small seller among a very large number of firms selling essentially identical products. Such a firm is called a price taker . In the second case, the firm does have at least some control over the price at which it sells its product because it must lower its price to sell more units. Exhibit 4 presents total, average, and marginal revenue data for a firm under the assumption that the firm is price taker at each relevant level of quantity of goods sold. Consequently, the individual seller faces a horizontal demand curve over relevant output ranges at the price level established by the market (see Exhibit 5). The seller can offer any quantity at this set market price without affecting price. In contrast, imperfect competition is where an individual firm has enough share of the market (or can control a certain segment of the market) and is therefore able to exert some influence over price. Instead of a large number of competing firms, imperfect competition involves a smaller number of firms in the market relative to perfect competition and in the extreme case only one firm (i.e., monopoly). Under any form of imperfect competition, the individual seller confronts a negatively sloped demand curve, where price and the quantity demanded by consumers are inversely related. In this case, price to the firm declines when a greater quantity is offered to the market; price to the firm increases when a lower quantity is offered to the market. This is shown in Exhibits 6 and 7. Exhibit 4. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition Quantity Sold (Q) Price (P) Total Revenue (TR) Average Re

#### Flashcard 1447858146572

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
imperfect competition is where an individual firm has [...] and is therefore able to exert some influence over price.
enough share of the market

(or can control a certain segment of the market)

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imperfect competition is where an individual firm has enough share of the market (or can control a certain segment of the market) and is therefore able to exert some influence over price.

#### Original toplevel document

3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
zation requires that we examine both of those components. Revenue comes from the demand for the firm’s products, and cost comes from the acquisition and utilization of the firm’s inputs in the production of those products. <span>3.1.1. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue This section briefly examines demand and revenue in preparation for addressing cost. Unless the firm is a pure monopolist (i.e., the only seller in its market), there is a difference between market demand and the demand facing an individual firm. A later reading will devote much more time to understanding the various competitive environments (perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly), known as market structure . To keep the analysis simple at this point, we will note that competition could be either perfect or imperfect. In perfect competition , the individual firm has virtually no impact on market price, because it is assumed to be a very small seller among a very large number of firms selling essentially identical products. Such a firm is called a price taker . In the second case, the firm does have at least some control over the price at which it sells its product because it must lower its price to sell more units. Exhibit 4 presents total, average, and marginal revenue data for a firm under the assumption that the firm is price taker at each relevant level of quantity of goods sold. Consequently, the individual seller faces a horizontal demand curve over relevant output ranges at the price level established by the market (see Exhibit 5). The seller can offer any quantity at this set market price without affecting price. In contrast, imperfect competition is where an individual firm has enough share of the market (or can control a certain segment of the market) and is therefore able to exert some influence over price. Instead of a large number of competing firms, imperfect competition involves a smaller number of firms in the market relative to perfect competition and in the extreme case only one firm (i.e., monopoly). Under any form of imperfect competition, the individual seller confronts a negatively sloped demand curve, where price and the quantity demanded by consumers are inversely related. In this case, price to the firm declines when a greater quantity is offered to the market; price to the firm increases when a lower quantity is offered to the market. This is shown in Exhibits 6 and 7. Exhibit 4. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition Quantity Sold (Q) Price (P) Total Revenue (TR) Average Re

#### Annotation 1447860768012

 #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4 Under any form of imperfect competition, the individual seller confronts a negatively sloped demand curve, where price and the quantity demanded by consumers are inversely related. In this case, price to the firm declines when a greater quantity is offered to the market; price to the firm increases when a lower quantity is offered to the market.

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e to exert some influence over price. Instead of a large number of competing firms, imperfect competition involves a smaller number of firms in the market relative to perfect competition and in the extreme case only one firm (i.e., monopoly). <span>Under any form of imperfect competition, the individual seller confronts a negatively sloped demand curve, where price and the quantity demanded by consumers are inversely related. In this case, price to the firm declines when a greater quantity is offered to the market; price to the firm increases when a lower quantity is offered to the market. This is shown in Exhibits 6 and 7.<span><body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
zation requires that we examine both of those components. Revenue comes from the demand for the firm’s products, and cost comes from the acquisition and utilization of the firm’s inputs in the production of those products. <span>3.1.1. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue This section briefly examines demand and revenue in preparation for addressing cost. Unless the firm is a pure monopolist (i.e., the only seller in its market), there is a difference between market demand and the demand facing an individual firm. A later reading will devote much more time to understanding the various competitive environments (perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly), known as market structure . To keep the analysis simple at this point, we will note that competition could be either perfect or imperfect. In perfect competition , the individual firm has virtually no impact on market price, because it is assumed to be a very small seller among a very large number of firms selling essentially identical products. Such a firm is called a price taker . In the second case, the firm does have at least some control over the price at which it sells its product because it must lower its price to sell more units. Exhibit 4 presents total, average, and marginal revenue data for a firm under the assumption that the firm is price taker at each relevant level of quantity of goods sold. Consequently, the individual seller faces a horizontal demand curve over relevant output ranges at the price level established by the market (see Exhibit 5). The seller can offer any quantity at this set market price without affecting price. In contrast, imperfect competition is where an individual firm has enough share of the market (or can control a certain segment of the market) and is therefore able to exert some influence over price. Instead of a large number of competing firms, imperfect competition involves a smaller number of firms in the market relative to perfect competition and in the extreme case only one firm (i.e., monopoly). Under any form of imperfect competition, the individual seller confronts a negatively sloped demand curve, where price and the quantity demanded by consumers are inversely related. In this case, price to the firm declines when a greater quantity is offered to the market; price to the firm increases when a lower quantity is offered to the market. This is shown in Exhibits 6 and 7. Exhibit 4. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition Quantity Sold (Q) Price (P) Total Revenue (TR) Average Re

#### Flashcard 1447871778060

Tags
Question
Important capital budgeting concepts (5):

• Sunk cost
• [...]
• Opportunity cost
• [...]
• Conventional versus non-conventional cash flows.
Incremental cash flow

Externalities

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Important capital budgeting concepts: A sunk cost is a cash outlay that has already been incurred and which cannot be recovered regardless of whether a project is accepted or rejected. Since sunk costs are not increment costs, they sho

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Subject 2. Basic Principles of Capital Budgeting
d in the estimated cash flows since the effects of debt financing are reflected in the cost of capital used to discount the cash flows. The existence of a project depends on business factors, not financing. <span>Important capital budgeting concepts: A sunk cost is a cash outlay that has already been incurred and which cannot be recovered regardless of whether a project is accepted or rejected. Since sunk costs are not increment costs, they should not be included in the capital budgeting analysis. For example, a small bookstore is considering opening a coffee shop within its store, which will generate an annual net cash outflow of $10,000 from selling coffee. That is, the coffee shop will always be losing money. In the previous year, the bookstore spent$5,000 to hire a consultant to perform an analysis. This $5,000 consulting fee is a sunk cost; whether the coffee shop is opened or not, the$5,000 is spent. Incremental cash flow is the net cash flow attributable to an investment project. It represents the change in the firm's total cash flow that occurs as a direct result of accepting the project. Forget sunk costs. Subtract opportunity costs. Consider side effects on other parts of the firm: externalities and cannibalization. Recognize the investment and recovery of net working capital. Opportunity cost is the return on the best alternative use of an asset or the highest return that will not be earned if funds are invested in a particular project. For example, to continue with the bookstore example, the space to be occupied by the coffee shop is an opportunity cost - it could be used to sell books and generate a \$5,000 annual net cash inflow. Externalities are the effects of a project on cash flows in other parts of a firm. Although they are difficult to quantify, they should be considered. Externalities can be either positive or negative: Positive externalities create benefits for other parts of the firm. For example, the coffee shop may generate some additional customers for the bookstore (who otherwise may not buy books there). Future cash flows generated by positive externalities occur with the project and do not occur without the project, so they are incremental. Negative externalities create costs for other parts of the firm. For example, if the bookstore is considering opening a branch two blocks away, some customers who buy books at the old store will switch to the new branch. The customers lost by the old store are a negative externality. The primary type of negative externality is cannibalization, which occurs when the introduction of a new product causes sales of existing products to decline. Future cash flows represented by negative externalities occur regardless of the project, so they are non-incremental. Such cash flows represent a transfer from existing projects to new projects, and thus should be subtracted from the new projects' cash flows. Conventional versus non-conventional cash flows. A conventional cash flow pattern is one with an initial outflow followed by a series of inflows. In a non-conventional cash flow pattern, the initial outflow can be followed by inflows and/or outflows. Some project interactions: Indepe

#### Annotation 1448180321548

 Allusion #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium An allusion is a passing reference to phrases or longer passages which the writer takes for granted will be familiar to the reader. Sometimes the writer changes the phrases somewhat, but whether the same or modified, they depend for their effect on reminding the reader of the original; for instance, With Malice Toward Some is a title deliberately intended to remind the reader of the phrase in Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address, “with malice toward none.” An allusion depends for much of its effect on the psychological dimension of language, for it enriches the passage in which it occurs with emotional overtones and associated ideas derived from the context in which it originally appeared. The following examples show the importance of allusion.

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#### Annotation 1448181370124

 ILLUSTRATION: Allusion #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Most of the paper is as blank as Modred’s shield. —Rudyard Kipling, “The Man Who Would Be King” Bores make cowards of us all. —E. V. Lucas, “Bores” Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead Who would not cut the Body from the Head. —J. V. Cunningham, “Friends, on this scaffold

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#### Flashcard 1448183991564

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
An [...] is a passing reference to phrases or longer passages which the writer takes for granted will be familiar to the reader.
allusion

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An allusion is a passing reference to phrases or longer passages which the writer takes for granted will be familiar to the reader. Sometimes the writer changes the phrases somewhat, but whether th

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#### Annotation 1448186350860

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium In Allusion, sometimes the writer changes the phrases somewhat, but whether the same or modified, they depend for their effect on reminding the reader of the original; for instance, With Malice Toward Some is a title deliberately intended to remind the reader of the phrase in Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address, “with malice toward none.”

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An allusion is a passing reference to phrases or longer passages which the writer takes for granted will be familiar to the reader. Sometimes the writer changes the phrases somewhat, but whether the same or modified, they depend for their effect on reminding the reader of the original; for instance, With Malice Toward Some is a title deliberately intended to remind the reader of the phrase in Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address, “with malice toward none.” An allusion depends for much of its effect on the psychological dimension of language, for it enriches the passage in which it occurs with emotional overtones and associated ideas deriv

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#### Annotation 1448188710156

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium An allusion depends for much of its effect on the psychological dimension of language, for it enriches the passage in which it occurs with emotional overtones and associated ideas derived from the context in which it originally appeared.

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they depend for their effect on reminding the reader of the original; for instance, With Malice Toward Some is a title deliberately intended to remind the reader of the phrase in Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address, “with malice toward none.” <span>An allusion depends for much of its effect on the psychological dimension of language, for it enriches the passage in which it occurs with emotional overtones and associated ideas derived from the context in which it originally appeared. The following examples show the importance of allusion.<span><body><html>

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#### Flashcard 1448189758732

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
An allusion depends for much of its effect on the [...] dimension of language.
psychological

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An allusion depends for much of its effect on the psychological dimension of language, for it enriches the passage in which it occurs with emotional overtones and associated ideas derived from the context in which it originally appeared.</spa

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#### Flashcard 1448196312332

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
What types of essences are there?
Specific essence

Generic essence

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Once the human intellect creates symbols from reality, those symbols or words can be manipulated and catalogued to increase our understanding of reality.

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