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#medicine #rheumatology
Mind Map: Patterns of presentation of arthritis

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Flashcard 3147816635660

Question
In Linux, a [...] is a process running in the background that is not associated with any terminal
Answer
Daemon


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Flashcard 3169709591820

Question
a=10; b=20
def my_function():
    [...] a
    a=11; b=21
my_function()
print(a) #prints 11
print(b) #prints 20
Answer
global


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ame is still not found, it searches the built-in namespace. Finally, if this fails then the interpreter raises a NameError exception. Consider the following code: a=10; b=20 def my_function(): <span>global a a=11; b=21 my_function() print(a) #prints 11 print(b) #prints 20 <span>

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Flashcard 3169748913420

Question
In python add a list to another existing list, item by item, e.g. add [3,4,5] to list=[1,2] so value list will then be [1,2,3,4,5]
Answer
list.extend([3,4,5])


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In python, functions (like all other objects) are first class objects, meaning they can be :
  1. Assigned as a variable or in a data structure (for example list: [greeting('fr'), greeting('en'), greenting('de')]
  2. Passed as an argument to a function
  3. ​​​​​​​Returned as the result of a function

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Flashcard 3169787972876

Question
In python, functions (like all other objects) are first class objects, meaning they can be :
  1. Assigned as a variable or in a [...]
  2. Passed as an argument to a function
  3. ​​​​​​​Returned as the result of a function
Answer
data structure (for example list: [greeting('fr'), greeting('en'), greenting('de')]


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In python, functions (like all other objects) are first class objects, meaning they can be : Assigned as a variable or in a data structure (for example list: [greeting('fr'), greeting('en'), greenting('de')] Passed as an argument to a function ​​​​​​​Returned as the result of a function

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Flashcard 3169789545740

Question
In python, functions (like all other objects) are first class objects, meaning they can be :
  1. Assigned as a variable or in a data structure (for example list: [greeting('fr'), greeting('en'), greenting('de')]
  2. [...]
  3. ​​​​​​​Returned as the result of a function
Answer
Passed as an argument to a function


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ctions (like all other objects) are first class objects, meaning they can be : Assigned as a variable or in a data structure (for example list: [greeting('fr'), greeting('en'), greenting('de')] <span>Passed as an argument to a function ​​​​​​​Returned as the result of a function <span>

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Flashcard 3169791118604

Question
In python, functions (like all other objects) are first class objects, meaning they can be :
  1. Assigned as a variable or in a data structure (for example list: [greeting('fr'), greeting('en'), greenting('de')]
  2. Passed as an argument to a function
  3. ​​​​​​​[...]
Answer
Returned as the result of a function


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lass objects, meaning they can be : Assigned as a variable or in a data structure (for example list: [greeting('fr'), greeting('en'), greenting('de')] Passed as an argument to a function ​​​​​​​<span>Returned as the result of a function <span>

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Flashcard 3169792691468

Question
In python, functions (like all other objects) are [...], meaning they can be :
  1. Assigned as a variable or in a data structure (for example list: [greeting('fr'), greeting('en'), greenting('de')]
  2. Passed as an argument to a function
  3. ​​​​​​​Returned as the result of a function
Answer
first class objects


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In python, functions (like all other objects) are first class objects, meaning they can be : Assigned as a variable or in a data structure (for example list: [greeting('fr'), greeting('en'), greenting('de')] Passed as an argument to a function ​​​​​​​Retu

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Flashcard 3169794264332

Question
In python, functions (like all other [...]) are first class objects, meaning they can be :
  1. Assigned as a variable or in a data structure (for example list: [greeting('fr'), greeting('en'), greenting('de')]
  2. Passed as an argument to a function
  3. ​​​​​​​Returned as the result of a function
Answer
objects


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In python, functions (like all other objects) are first class objects, meaning they can be : Assigned as a variable or in a data structure (for example list: [greeting('fr'), greeting('en'), greenting('de')] Passed as an argument

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Higher order functions are functions that :
  1. take other functions as arguments
  2. return functions

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Flashcard 3169798982924

Question
Higher order functions are functions that :
  1. [...]
  2. return functions
Answer
take other functions as arguments


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Higher order functions are functions that : take other functions as arguments return functions

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Flashcard 3169800555788

Question
Higher order functions are functions that :
  1. take other functions as arguments
  2. [...]
Answer
return functions


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Higher order functions are functions that : take other functions as arguments return functions

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Flashcard 3171878833420

Question
What are steroid hormones?
Answer
Steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol and are synthesized in the adrenal cortex, gonads, and placenta. Th ey are lipid soluble, circulate bound to binding proteins in plasma, and cross the plasma membrane to bind to intracellular cyto- solic or nuclear receptors. Vitamin D and its metabolites are also considered ste- roid hormones


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Transport Hormones released into the circulation can circulate either freely or bound to [...] proteins, also known as binding proteins

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Flashcard 3171884600588

Question
What is the half life of a hormone?
Answer
The time during which the concentration of a hormone decreases to 50% of its initial concentration


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Amino acid–derived hormones are those hormones that are synthesized from t he amino acid tyrosine and include the catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine; as well as the thyroid hormones.

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Flashcard 3171894824204

Question
Amino acid–derived hormones are those hormones that are synthesized from t he amino acid [...] and include the catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine; as well as the thyroid hormones.
Answer
tyrosine


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Amino acid–derived hormones are those hormones that are synthesized from t he amino acid tyrosine and include the catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine; as well as the thyroid hormones.

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Flashcard 3171896397068

Question
Amino acid–derived hormones are those hormones that are synthesized from t he amino acid tyrosine and include the catecholamines [...]; as well as the thyroid hormones.
Answer
norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine


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Amino acid–derived hormones are those hormones that are synthesized from t he amino acid tyrosine and include the catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine; as well as the thyroid hormones.

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Menus or buttons more generally actions in the GUIs are typeset like this: Menu . Code_Aster reserved words, operators, function names, key- words, concepts are typeset like this: MECA_STATIQUE. File, or exten- sion, names are typeset like this: .comm. And windows, or dialog boxes, titles as they appear on the screen are typeset like this: Gmsh. “X” or “YOZ”, in uppercase refer to a global direction or plane, while “x”, in lower case, refers to a local direction i.e. in the local element coordinate system

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The regulation of plasma Ca 2+ levels is critical for normal cell funciton , neural transmission, membrane stability, bone structure, blood coagulation, and intracellular signaling

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Flashcard 3171909242124

Question
The regulation of plasma Ca 2+ levels is critical for normal cell funciton , n[...]
Answer
eural transmission, membrane stability, bone structure, blood coagulation, and intracellular signaling


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The regulation of plasma Ca 2+ levels is critical for normal cell funciton , neural transmission, membrane stability, bone structure, blood coagulation, and intracellular signaling

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PTH stimulates bone resorption and the release of Ca 2+ into the circulation. In the kidney, PTH promotes Ca 2+ reabsorption and inorganic phosphate excretion in the urine.

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Flashcard 3171913174284

Question
PTH stimulates bone resorption and the release of Ca 2+ into the circulation. In the kidney, PTH promotes Ca 2+ [...] and inorganic phosphate excretion in the urine.
Answer
reabsorption


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PTH stimulates bone resorption and the release of Ca 2+ into the circulation. In the kidney, PTH promotes Ca 2+ reabsorption and inorganic phosphate excretion in the urine.

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Flashcard 3171914747148

Question
PTH stimulates bone resorption and the release of Ca 2+ into the circulation. In the kidney, PTH promotes Ca 2+ reabsorption and inorganic phosphate [...]
Answer
excretion in the urine.


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PTH stimulates bone resorption and the release of Ca 2+ into the circulation. In the kidney, PTH promotes Ca 2+ reabsorption and inorganic phosphate excretion in the urine.

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Vitamin D increases intestinal absorption of dietary Ca 2+ and facilitates renal absorption of filtered Ca 2+

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Flashcard 3171918679308

Question
Vitamin D increases intestinal [...] and facilitates renal absorption of filtered Ca 2+
Answer
absorption of dietary Ca 2+


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Vitamin D increases intestinal absorption of dietary Ca 2+ and facilitates renal absorption of filtered Ca 2+

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Flashcard 3171920252172

Question
Vitamin D increases intestinal absorption of dietary Ca 2+ and facilitates [...]
Answer
renal absorption of filtered Ca 2+


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Vitamin D increases intestinal absorption of dietary Ca 2+ and facilitates renal absorption of filtered Ca 2+

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In bone, vitamin D increases bone resorption with a resulting increase in the release of Ca 2+ into the circulation.

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Flashcard 3171925232908

Question
In bone, vitamin D increases [...]
Answer
bone resorption with a resulting increase in the release of Ca 2+ into the circulation.


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In bone, vitamin D increases bone resorption with a resulting increase in the release of Ca 2+ into the circulation.

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In addition to its central role in the regulation of Ca 2+ levels and bone mass, PTH participates in the renal excretion of phosphate and in the acti- vation of vitamin D

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Flashcard 3171928378636

Question
In addition to its central role in the regulation of Ca 2+ levels and bone mass, PTH participates in the renal [...] and in the acti- vation of vitamin D
Answer
excretion of phosphate


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In addition to its central role in the regulation of Ca 2+ levels and bone mass, PTH participates in the renal excretion of phosphate and in the acti- vation of vitamin D

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Flashcard 3171929951500

Question
Mature and intact PTH consists of? ( How many amino acids)
Answer
84 amino acids


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Small changes in plasma Ca 2+ levels are detected by the parathyroid Ca 2+ -sensing receptor

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Flashcard 3172277030156

Question
An acute decrease in circulating calcium levels (hypocalcemia) elicits a biphasic wave of PTH release. Explain this.
Answer
Preformed PTH is released within seconds, followed by a reduction in intracellular degradation of PTH and increase in PTH release minutes to hours later


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In addition the active form of vitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D] also contributes to modulation of PTH levels by reducing PTH gene transcription

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Flashcard 3172281748748

Question
In addition the active form of vitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D] also contributes to modulation of PTH levels by [...]
Answer
reducing PTH gene transcription


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In addition the active form of vitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D] also contributes to modulation of PTH levels by reducing PTH gene transcription

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The Ca 2+ sensor is a G protein (G q/11 and G i )–coupled receptor located on the plasma membrane of the parathyroid chief cells

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Flashcard 3172285680908

Question
What is the type of receptor on Calcium sensing receptor?
Answer
G protein (G q/11 and G i )–coupled receptor


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The Ca 2+ sensor is a G protein (G q/11 and G i )–coupled receptor located on the plasma membrane of the parathyroid chief cells

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Flashcard 3172288040204

Question
The Ca 2+ sensor is a G protein (G q/11 and G i )–coupled receptor located on the [...]
Answer
plasma membrane of the parathyroid chief cells


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The Ca 2+ sensor is a G protein (G q/11 and G i )–coupled receptor located on the plasma membrane of the parathyroid chief cells

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Th e release of PTH is inhibited in response to elevations in plasma Ca 2+ concentrations and activation of the Ca 2+ receptor

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The granules are under regulatory control by plasma Ca 2+ levels; persistent hypercalcemia leads to rapid degradation of most (90%) of the mature PTH in the cell.

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Flashcard 3172293545228

Question
The granules are under regulatory control by plasma Ca 2+ levels; persistent hypercalcemia leads to [...].
Answer
rapid degradation of most (90%) of the mature PTH in the cell


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The granules are under regulatory control by plasma Ca 2+ levels; persistent hypercalcemia leads to rapid degradation of most (90%) of the mature PTH in the cell.

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Flashcard 3172295118092

Question
PTH release i s increased by ?
Answer
Hypocalcemia, Hyperphosphatemia, Catecholamines


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Flashcard 3172320283916

Question
PTH release is suppressed by
Answer
Hypercalcemia, Vitamin D and Severe hypomagnesemia


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Flashcard 3172388703500

Question
PTH release is also under regulatory control by
Answer
phosphate and magnesium levels


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Elevations in plasma phosphate levels increase PTH secretion by decreasing phospholipase A 2 activity and arachidonic acid formation, thus removing the inhibitory effect on PTH secretion.

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The role of phosphate in PTH release is critical in patients with impaired renal function. If not controlled, the increasing levels of phosphate in these individuals result in abnormal elevations in PTH release.

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Flashcard 3172773530892

Question
The role of phosphate in PTH release is critical in patients with impaired renal function. If not controlled, the increasing levels of phosphate in these individuals [...].
Answer
result in abnormal elevations in PTH release


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The role of phosphate in PTH release is critical in patients with impaired renal function. If not controlled, the increasing levels of phosphate in these individuals result in abnormal elevations in PTH release.

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Flashcard 3172790832396

Question
Elevations in plasma phosphate levels increase PTH secretion by [...], thus removing the inhibitory effect on PTH secretion.
Answer
decreasing phospholipase A 2 activity and arachidonic acid formation


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Elevations in plasma phosphate levels increase PTH secretion by decreasing phospholipase A 2 activity and arachidonic acid formation, thus removing the inhibitory effect on PTH secretion.

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The balance of magnesium is closely linked to that of calcium. Magnesium depletion or deficiency is frequently associated with hypocalcemia

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Th is combined decrease in Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ leads to impairment in the individual’s ability to secrete PTH

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Moreover, severe hypomagnesemia impairs not only the release of PTH from the parathyroid gland in response to hypocalcemia, but it also prevents the responsiveness of bone to PTH-mediated bone resorption

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Flashcard 3172884942092

Question
The balance of magnesium is closely linked to that of [...] Magnesium depletion or deficiency is frequently associated with hypocalcemia
Answer
calcium.


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The balance of magnesium is closely linked to that of calcium. Magnesium depletion or deficiency is frequently associated with hypocalcemia

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Flashcard 3172900146444

Question
The balance of magnesium is closely linked to that of calcium. Magnesium depletion or deficiency is frequently [...]
Answer
associated with hypocalcemia


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The balance of magnesium is closely linked to that of calcium. Magnesium depletion or deficiency is frequently associated with hypocalcemia

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Flashcard 3173150756108

Question
Th is combined decrease in Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ leads to impairment in the individual’s [...]
Answer
ability to secrete PTH


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Th is combined decrease in Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ leads to impairment in the individual’s ability to secrete PTH

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Flashcard 3173164911884

Question
Moreover, severe hypomagnesemia impairs not only the release of PTH from the parathyroid gland in response to hypocalcemia, but it also prevents the [...]
Answer
responsiveness of bone to PTH-mediated bone resorption


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Moreover, severe hypomagnesemia impairs not only the release of PTH from the parathyroid gland in response to hypocalcemia, but it also prevents the responsiveness of bone to PTH-mediated bone resorption

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Three types of PTH receptors have been identified (PTHR1, PTHR2, PTHR3), all of which are G protein–coupled receptors. The important physiologic effects of PTH are mediated by PTHR1; the physiologic importance of PTHR2 and PTHR3 is not clear.

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Flashcard 3173239098636

Question
Three types of PTH receptors have been identified [...], all of which are G protein–coupled receptors. The important physiologic effects of PTH are mediated by PTHR1; the physiologic importance of PTHR2 and PTHR3 is not clear.
Answer
(PTHR1, PTHR2, PTHR3)


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Three types of PTH receptors have been identified (PTHR1, PTHR2, PTHR3), all of which are G protein–coupled receptors. The important physiologic effects of PTH are mediated by PTHR1; the physiologic importance of PTHR2 and PTHR3 is not clear.

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Flashcard 3173248011532

Question
Three types of PTH receptors have been identified (PTHR1, PTHR2, PTHR3), all of which are [...]. The important physiologic effects of PTH are mediated by PTHR1; the physiologic importance of PTHR2 and PTHR3 is not clear.
Answer
G protein–coupled receptors


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Three types of PTH receptors have been identified (PTHR1, PTHR2, PTHR3), all of which are G protein–coupled receptors. The important physiologic effects of PTH are mediated by PTHR1; the physiologic importance of PTHR2 and PTHR3 is not clear.

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Flashcard 3173257973004

Question
Three types of PTH receptors have been identified (PTHR1, PTHR2, PTHR3), all of which are G protein–coupled receptors. The important physiologic effects of PTH are mediated by [...]r.
Answer
PTHR1; the physiologic importance of PTHR2 and PTHR3 is not clea


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Three types of PTH receptors have been identified (PTHR1, PTHR2, PTHR3), all of which are G protein–coupled receptors. The important physiologic effects of PTH are mediated by PTHR1; the physiologic importance of PTHR2 and PTHR3 is not clear.

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Flashcard 3173284711692

Question
Whrere is PTHR1 is expressed?
Answer
In bone osteoblasts and kidneys


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In the kidney, PTH directly stimulates Ca 2+ reabsorption, phosphate excretion, and the activity of 1α-hydroxylase,

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Flashcard 3175032163596

Question
In the kidney, PTH directly stimulates
Answer
Ca 2+ reabsorption, phosphate excretion, and the activity of 1α-hydroxylase


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In the kidney, PTH directly stimulates Ca 2+ reabsorption, phosphate excretion, and the activity of 1α-hydroxylase,

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Flashcard 3175672581388

Question
The site of PTH regulation of Ca 2 + reabsorption is?
Answer
the distal tubules


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Flashcard 3177202715916

Question
In the distal tubule, Ca 2 + absorption is entirely transcellular and is regulated by?
Answer
PTH, vitamin D, and calcitonin; it can also be affected by Ca 2+ -sparing drugs such as thiazide diuretics


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Flashcard 3179080977676

Question
Inside the tubular epithelial cell, Ca 2 + binds to what?
Answer
Calbindin-D 28K


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Calbindin-D 28K is a vitamin D–dependent calcium-binding protein that is present in the cytosol of cells lining the distal part of the nephron

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Flashcard 3181337775372

Question
Calbindin-D 28K is a [...]
Answer
vitamin D–dependent calcium-binding protein that is present in the cytosol of cells lining the distal part of the nephron


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Calbindin-D 28K is a vitamin D–dependent calcium-binding protein that is present in the cytosol of cells lining the distal part of the nephron

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Vitamin D contributes to the enhanced calcium reabsorption by stimulating the synthesis of calbindin and the activity of Ca 2+ -ATPase

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PTH decreases the renal (and intestinal) reabsorption of phosphate by decreasing the expression of the type II Na + /PO 4 2– cotransporter

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Flashcard 3181375524108

Question
Vitamin D contributes to the enhanced calcium reabsorption by stimulating the [...]
Answer
synthesis of calbindin and the activity of Ca 2+ -ATPase


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Vitamin D contributes to the enhanced calcium reabsorption by stimulating the synthesis of calbindin and the activity of Ca 2+ -ATPase

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Flashcard 3181377096972

Question
PTH decreases the renal (and intestinal) reabsorption of phosphate [...]
Answer
by decreasing the expression of the type II Na + /PO 4 2– cotransporter


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PTH decreases the renal (and intestinal) reabsorption of phosphate by decreasing the expression of the type II Na + /PO 4 2– cotransporter

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Renal reabsorption of phosphate occurs through apical sodium (Na + )– inorganic phosphate (Pi) cotransport. Three different Na + /Pi cotransporters have been identified: types I, II, and III

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Type II cotransporters are expressed in the renal proximal tubule (type IIa) and in the small intestine (type IIb

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Type IIa cotransporters are the major target for PTH regulation and contribute to most (up to 70%) of proximal tubular Pi reabsorption

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Flashcard 3181384174860

Question
Renal reabsorption of phosphate occurs through apical s[...]t. Three different Na + /Pi cotransporters have been identified: types I, II, and III
Answer
odium (Na + )– inorganic phosphate (Pi) cotranspor


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Renal reabsorption of phosphate occurs through apical sodium (Na + )– inorganic phosphate (Pi) cotransport. Three different Na + /Pi cotransporters have been identified: types I, II, and III

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Flashcard 3181385747724

Question
Type II cotransporters are expressed in the [...]
Answer
renal proximal tubule (type IIa) and in the small intestine (type IIb


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Type II cotransporters are expressed in the renal proximal tubule (type IIa) and in the small intestine (type IIb

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Flashcard 3181388893452

Question
Type IIa cotransporters are the major target for [...]
Answer
PTH regulation and contribute to most (up to 70%) of proximal tubular Pi reabsorption


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Type IIa cotransporters are the major target for PTH regulation and contribute to most (up to 70%) of proximal tubular Pi reabsorption

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Phosphate reabsorption in the proximal tubule can also be decreased by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)

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Flashcard 3181392039180

Tags
#Endocrinology
Question
What is Fibroblast growth factor 23?
Answer
a peptide produced in osteoblasts and osteocytes. FGF23 suppresses 1α-hydroxylase
activity and renal and intestinal Na+/ PO4 2– cotransporter expression.


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Flashcard 3181393874188

Question
Phosphate reabsorption in the proximal tubule can also be [...] fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)
Answer
decreased by


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Phosphate reabsorption in the proximal tubule can also be decreased by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)

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#Endocrinology
PTH is a major mediator of bone remodeling. PTH binds to receptors found in osteoblasts resulting in a cascade of events culminating in osteoclast activation and leading to a rapid release of Ca 2+ from the bone matrix into the extracellular compartment, where it enters the systemic circulation

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Effects of PTH in osteoblasts are mediated through the synthesis or activity of several proteins, including osteoclast-differentiating factor (ODF ), also known as receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) or osteoprotegerin ligand

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Flashcard 3181406719244

Question
Effects of PTH in osteoblasts are mediated through the synthesis or activity of several proteins, including [...], also known as receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) or osteoprotegerin ligand
Answer
osteoclast-differentiating factor (ODF )


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Effects of PTH in osteoblasts are mediated through the synthesis or activity of several proteins, including osteoclast-differentiating factor (ODF ), also known as receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) or osteoprotegerin ligand

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Flashcard 3181408292108

Question
Effects of PTH in osteoblasts are mediated through the synthesis or activity of several proteins, including osteoclast-differentiating factor (ODF ), also known as [...]
Answer
receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) or osteoprotegerin ligand


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Effects of PTH in osteoblasts are mediated through the synthesis or activity of several proteins, including osteoclast-differentiating factor (ODF ), also known as receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) or osteoprotegerin ligand

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Flashcard 3181409864972

Tags
#Endocrinology
Question
PTH is a major mediator of bone remodeling. PTH binds to receptors [...] resulting in a cascade of events culminating in osteoclast activation and leading to a rapid release of Ca 2+ from the bone matrix into the extracellular compartment, where it enters the systemic circulation
Answer
found in osteoblasts


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PTH is a major mediator of bone remodeling. PTH binds to receptors found in osteoblasts resulting in a cascade of events culminating in osteoclast activation and leading to a rapid release of Ca 2+ from the bone matrix into the extracellular compartment, where it enters th

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Flashcard 3181411437836

Tags
#Endocrinology
Question
PTH is a major mediator of bone remodeling. PTH binds to receptors found in osteoblasts resulting in a cascade of events culminating in [...] and leading to a rapid release of Ca 2+ from the bone matrix into the extracellular compartment, where it enters the systemic circulation
Answer
osteoclast activation


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PTH is a major mediator of bone remodeling. PTH binds to receptors found in osteoblasts resulting in a cascade of events culminating in osteoclast activation and leading to a rapid release of Ca 2+ from the bone matrix into the extracellular compartment, where it enters the systemic circulation

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Flashcard 3181413010700

Question
PTH-mediated effects in bone involve..
Answer
  • osteoblast activation and stimulation of genes vital to the processes of degradation of the extracellular matrix and bone remodeling (collagenase-3),
  • production of growth factors (insulin-like growth factor 1),
  • stimulation and recruitment of osteoclasts (RANKL and interleukin 6).
PTH also increases the number of osteoblasts, by decreasing their apoptosis and increasing their proliferation


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chronic elevations of PTH result in bone resorption, intermittent administration of PTH stimulates bone formation more than bone resorption

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Flashcard 3181417729292

Question
chronic elevations of PTH result in
Answer
bone resorption


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chronic elevations of PTH result in bone resorption, intermittent administration of PTH stimulates bone formation more than bone resorption

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Flashcard 3181419302156

Question
intermittent administration of PTH stimulates
Answer
bone formation more than bone resorption


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chronic elevations of PTH result in bone resorption, intermittent administration of PTH stimulates bone formation more than bone resorption

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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Osmotic diarrhoea The gut mucosa acts as a semipermeable membrane and fluid enters the bowel if there are large quantities of non- absorbed hypertonic substances in the lumen.

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Flashcard 3181425331468

Question
Osmotic diarrhoea The gut mucosa acts as a semipermeable membrane and fluid enters the bowel if there are large quantities of non- absorbed [...] in the lumen.
Answer
hypertonic substances


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Osmotic diarrhoea The gut mucosa acts as a semipermeable membrane and fluid enters the bowel if there are large quantities of non- absorbed hypertonic substances in the lumen.

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Flashcard 3181426380044

Tags
#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Question
Mechanisms of Osmotic diarrhea.
Answer
  • patient has ingested a non-absorbable substance (e.g. a purgative such as magnesium sulphate or magnesium-containing antacid)
  • The patient has generalized malabsorption so that high concentrations of solute (e.g. glucose) remain in the lumen
  • The patient has a specific absorptive defect (e.g. disaccharidase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption).


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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
The volume of diarrhoea produced by these mechanisms is reduced by the absorption of fluid by the ileum and colon.

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ileum and colon.

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The volume of diarrhoea produced by these mechanisms is reduced by the absorption of fluid by the ileum and colon.

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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Cholera toxin binds to its receptor (monosialoganglioside G i ) via fimbria (toxin co-regulated pilus) on its β-subunit. This activates the a s subunit (of the Gs protein), which in turn dissociates and activates cyclic AMP (cAMP).

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Flashcard 3181434244364

Question
Cholera toxin binds to its receptor [...] ) via fimbria (toxin co-regulated pilus) on its β-subunit. This activates the a s subunit (of the Gs protein), which in turn dissociates and activates cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Answer
(monosialoganglioside G i


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Cholera toxin binds to its receptor (monosialoganglioside G i ) via fimbria (toxin co-regulated pilus) on its β-subunit. This activates the a s subunit (of the Gs protein), which in turn dissociates and activates cyclic AMP (cAMP).

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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
The increase in cAMP activates intermediates (e.g. protein kinase and Ca 2+ ) which then act on the apical membrane causing Cl − secretion (with water) and inhibition of Na + and Cl − absorption

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Flashcard 3181436865804

Question
The increase in cAMP activates intermediates (e.g. protein kinase and Ca 2+ ) which then act on the [...] (with water) and inhibition of Na + and Cl − absorption
Answer
apical membrane causing Cl − secretion


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The increase in cAMP activates intermediates (e.g. protein kinase and Ca 2+ ) which then act on the apical membrane causing Cl − secretion (with water) and inhibition of Na + and Cl − absorption

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Flashcard 3181438438668

Tags
#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Question
n this disorder, there is both active intestinal secretion of fluid and electrolytes as well as decreased absorption
Answer
n this disorder, there is both active intestinal secretion of fluid and electrolytes as well as decreased absorption


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Flashcard 3181439487244

Tags
#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Question
Common causes of secretory diarrhoea are:
Answer
  • Enterotoxins (e.g. cholera, E. coli thermolabile or thermostable toxin, C. difficile)
  • Hormones (e.g. vasoactive intestinal peptide in the Verner–Morrison syndrome)
  • Bile salts (in the colon) following ileal resection Fatty acids (in the colon) following ileal resection
  • Some laxatives (e.g. docusate sodium)


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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Diaabetic, post-vagotomy and hyperthyroid diarrhoea are all due to abnormal motility of the upper gut. Symptoms may be exacerbated by small bowel bacterial overgrowth.

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Flashcard 3181443681548

Question
Diaabetic, post-vagotomy and hyperthyroid diarrhoea are all due to [...] of the upper gut. Symptoms may be exacerbated by small bowel bacterial overgrowth.
Answer
abnormal motility


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Diaabetic, post-vagotomy and hyperthyroid diarrhoea are all due to abnormal motility of the upper gut. Symptoms may be exacerbated by small bowel bacterial overgrowth.

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Flashcard 3181444730124

Question
Symptoms in abnormal motility of the bowel may be exacerbated by..
Answer
small bowel bacterial overgrowth.


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Diaabetic, post-vagotomy and hyperthyroid diarrhoea are all due to abnormal motility of the upper gut. Symptoms may be exacerbated by small bowel bacterial overgrowth.

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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
diarrhoea due to viral agents may also last 24–48 hours

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Flashcard 3181448662284

Question
diarrhoea due to viral agents may also last [...]
Answer
24–48 hours


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diarrhoea due to viral agents may also last 24–48 hours

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Flashcard 3181450235148

Tags
#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Question
What are the infective causes of diarrhea?
Answer
Bacterial
  • Campylobacter jejuni
  • Salmonella spp.
  • Shigella
  • Escherichia coli
  • Staphylococcal enterocolitis
  • Bacillus cereus
  • Clostridium perfringens, botulinum, difficile
  • gastrointestinal tuberculosis

Viral,
  • rotavirus

Fungal,
  • histoplasmosis

Parasitic,
  • amoebic dysentery ( Entamoeba histolytica )
  • schistosomiasis
  • Giardia intestinalis


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Flashcard 3181452594444

Tags
#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Question
What are the non-infective causes of diarrhoea?
Answer
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Radiation proctitis or colitis
  • Behçet’s disease
  • Diverticular disease
  • Ischaemic colitis
  • Gastrointestinal lymphoma Carcinoma of the colon (change in bowel habit)
  • Malabsorption Gut resection
  • Bile acid malabsorption
  • Drugs – many, including laxatives metformin anticancer drugs statins proton pump inhibitors
  • Faecal impaction with overflow
  • Irritable bowel syndrome and functional diarrhoea


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Flashcard 3181454953740

Tags
#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Question
What are the causes of bile acid diarrhoea?
Answer
  • Ileal resection
  • Ileal disease, e.g. active or inactive Crohn’s disease
  • Primary bile acid diarrhoea
  • Postinfective gastroenteritis
  • Rapid small bowel transit
  • Post-cholecystectomy


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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Bile acid malabsorption is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic diarrhoea and many patients with this disorder are assumed to have irritable bowel syndrome.

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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Bile acid diarrhoea occurs when the terminal ileum fails to reabsorb bile acids. Bile acids (particularly the dihydroxy bile acids: deoxy- cholate and chenodeoxycholate) when present in increased concentrations in the colon lead to diarrhoea by reducing absorption of water and electrolytes and, at higher concen- trations, inducing secretion as well as increasing colonic motility

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Flashcard 3181461245196

Question
Bile acid malabsorption is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic diarrhoea and many patients with this disorder are assumed to have [...]
Answer
irritable bowel syndrome.


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Bile acid malabsorption is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic diarrhoea and many patients with this disorder are assumed to have irritable bowel syndrome.

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Flashcard 3181463604492

Question
Bile acid diarrhoea occurs when the [...]. Bile acids (particularly the dihydroxy bile acids: deoxy- cholate and chenodeoxycholate) when present in increased concentrations in the colon lead to diarrhoea by reducing absorption of water and electrolytes and, at higher concen- trations, inducing secretion as well as increasing colonic motility
Answer
terminal ileum fails to reabsorb bile acids


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Bile acid diarrhoea occurs when the terminal ileum fails to reabsorb bile acids. Bile acids (particularly the dihydroxy bile acids: deoxy- cholate and chenodeoxycholate) when present in increased concentrations in the colon lead to diarrhoea by reducing absorption

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Flashcard 3181465177356

Question
Bile acid diarrhoea occurs when the terminal ileum fails to reabsorb bile acids. Bile acids (particularly the dihydroxy bile acids: deoxy- cholate and chenodeoxycholate) when present in increased concentrations in the colon lead to diarrhoea by [...] and, at higher concen- trations, inducing secretion as well as increasing colonic motility
Answer
reducing absorption of water and electrolytes


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fails to reabsorb bile acids. Bile acids (particularly the dihydroxy bile acids: deoxy- cholate and chenodeoxycholate) when present in increased concentrations in the colon lead to diarrhoea by <span>reducing absorption of water and electrolytes and, at higher concen- trations, inducing secretion as well as increasing colonic motility <span>

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Flashcard 3181466750220

Question
Bile acid diarrhoea occurs when the terminal ileum fails to reabsorb bile acids. Bile acids (particularly the dihydroxy bile acids: deoxy- cholate and chenodeoxycholate) when present in increased concentrations in the colon lead to diarrhoea by reducing absorption of water and electrolytes and, at higher concen- trations, i[...]
Answer
nducing secretion as well as increasing colonic motility


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deoxy- cholate and chenodeoxycholate) when present in increased concentrations in the colon lead to diarrhoea by reducing absorption of water and electrolytes and, at higher concen- trations, i<span>nducing secretion as well as increasing colonic motility <span>

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Flashcard 3181468323084

Tags
#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Question
How is diagnosis made in bile acid malabsorption?
Answer
Diagnosis is made using the SeHCAT test in which a radiolabelled bile acid analogue is administered and percentage retention at 7 days calculated ( < 19% retention abnormal).


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Analíticos anteriores é um dos textos mais importantes não apenas de Aristóteles mas, também, da própria lógica, já que é nesse texto que o filósofo apresenta sua teoria do silogismo. O texto ocupa-se com análise dos argumentos de acordo com suas formas, isto é, de acordo com as várias figuras e modos do silogismo.

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Analíticos Anteriores – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
idade da obra. É o terceiro livro do "Organon", sucedendo Da Interpretação e antecedendo os Analíticos posteriores. Edições mais clássicas traduzem Αναλυτικων πρότερων por Primeiros analíticos. <span>Analíticos anteriores é um dos textos mais importantes não apenas de Aristóteles mas, também, da própria lógica, já que é nesse texto que o filósofo apresenta sua teoria do silogismo. O texto ocupa-se com análise dos argumentos de acordo com suas formas, isto é, de acordo com as várias figuras e modos do silogismo. Segundo o filósofo: "Nossa primeira tarefa consiste em indicar o objeto de estudo de nossa investigação e a que ciência ele pertence: que concerne à demonstração e que pertece a uma ciê




Flashcard 3181474876684

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#aristoteles #wiki
Question
[...] é um dos textos mais importantes não apenas de Aristóteles mas, também, da própria lógica, já que é nesse texto que o filósofo apresenta sua teoria do silogismo. O texto ocupa-se com análise dos argumentos de acordo com suas formas, isto é, de acordo com as várias figuras e modos do silogismo.
Answer
Analíticos anteriores


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Analíticos anteriores é um dos textos mais importantes não apenas de Aristóteles mas, também, da própria lógica, já que é nesse texto que o filósofo apresenta sua teoria do silogismo . O texto ocupa-se com a

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Analíticos Anteriores – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
idade da obra. É o terceiro livro do "Organon", sucedendo Da Interpretação e antecedendo os Analíticos posteriores. Edições mais clássicas traduzem Αναλυτικων πρότερων por Primeiros analíticos. <span>Analíticos anteriores é um dos textos mais importantes não apenas de Aristóteles mas, também, da própria lógica, já que é nesse texto que o filósofo apresenta sua teoria do silogismo. O texto ocupa-se com análise dos argumentos de acordo com suas formas, isto é, de acordo com as várias figuras e modos do silogismo. Segundo o filósofo: "Nossa primeira tarefa consiste em indicar o objeto de estudo de nossa investigação e a que ciência ele pertence: que concerne à demonstração e que pertece a uma ciê







Flashcard 3181476449548

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#aristoteles #wiki
Question
Analíticos anteriores é um dos textos mais importantes não apenas de [...] mas, também, da própria lógica, já que é nesse texto que o filósofo apresenta sua teoria do [...] . O texto ocupa-se com análise dos argumentos de acordo com suas [...] , isto é, de acordo com as várias figuras e modos do [...] .
Answer
Aristóteles
silogismo
formas
silogismo


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Analíticos anteriores é um dos textos mais importantes não apenas de Aristóteles mas, também, da própria lógica, já que é nesse texto que o filósofo apresenta sua teoria do silogismo . O texto ocupa-se com análise dos argumentos de acordo com suas formas, isto é, de

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Analíticos Anteriores – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
idade da obra. É o terceiro livro do "Organon", sucedendo Da Interpretação e antecedendo os Analíticos posteriores. Edições mais clássicas traduzem Αναλυτικων πρότερων por Primeiros analíticos. <span>Analíticos anteriores é um dos textos mais importantes não apenas de Aristóteles mas, também, da própria lógica, já que é nesse texto que o filósofo apresenta sua teoria do silogismo. O texto ocupa-se com análise dos argumentos de acordo com suas formas, isto é, de acordo com as várias figuras e modos do silogismo. Segundo o filósofo: "Nossa primeira tarefa consiste em indicar o objeto de estudo de nossa investigação e a que ciência ele pertence: que concerne à demonstração e que pertece a uma ciê







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Existem quatro tipos de proposições, de acordo com Aristóteles: Universal Afirmativa, Universal Negativa, Particular Afirmativa, Particular Negativa.

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Analíticos Anteriores – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
s da utilização do verbo ser (nas universais, são). Contudo, em seu texto são encontradas formas que hoje não são ortodoxas, como P pertence a todo S (ao invés de Todo S é P, como hoje em dia). <span>Existem quatro tipos de proposições: Universal Afirmativa, Universal Negativa, Particular Afirmativa, Particular Negativa. Na tradição medieval foram-lhes atribuídas as seguintes letras: A, E, I, O, respectivamente. As Figuras[editar | editar código-fonte] Nas proposições das premissas um termo aparecia nec




Flashcard 3181482478860

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#aristoteles #wiki
Question
Existem quatro tipos de proposições, de acordo com Aristóteles: [...], [...] , [...] , [...] .
Answer
Universal Afirmativa
Universal Negativa
Particular Afirmativa
Particular Negativa


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Existem quatro tipos de proposições, de acordo com Aristóteles: Universal Afirmativa, Universal Negativa, Particular Afirmativa, Particular Negativa.

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Analíticos Anteriores – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
s da utilização do verbo ser (nas universais, são). Contudo, em seu texto são encontradas formas que hoje não são ortodoxas, como P pertence a todo S (ao invés de Todo S é P, como hoje em dia). <span>Existem quatro tipos de proposições: Universal Afirmativa, Universal Negativa, Particular Afirmativa, Particular Negativa. Na tradição medieval foram-lhes atribuídas as seguintes letras: A, E, I, O, respectivamente. As Figuras[editar | editar código-fonte] Nas proposições das premissas um termo aparecia nec







Flashcard 3181485362444

Question
Linux command to see free/used disk space on whole system/os level?
Answer
df -h


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The Posterior Analytics is a text from Aristotle's Organon that deals with demonstration, definition, and scientific knowledge

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Posterior Analytics - Wikipedia
Athenians Rhetoric Poetics Rhetoric Rhetoric to Alexander Poetics Fragments Fragments* Aristotle Aristotelianism [*]: Authenticity disputed strikethrough: Generally agreed to be spurious v t e <span>The Posterior Analytics (Greek: Ἀναλυτικὰ Ὕστερα; Latin: Analytica Posteriora) is a text from Aristotle's Organon that deals with demonstration, definition, and scientific knowledge. The demonstration is distinguished as a syllogism productive of scientific knowledge, while the definition marked as the statement of a thing's nature, ... a statement of the meaning o




Flashcard 3181500828940

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#aristoteles #wiki
Question
The [...] is a text from Aristotle's Organon that deals with demonstration, definition, and scientific knowledge
Answer
Posterior Analytics


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The Posterior Analytics is a text from Aristotle 's Organon that deals with demonstration , definition , and scientific knowledge

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Posterior Analytics - Wikipedia
Athenians Rhetoric Poetics Rhetoric Rhetoric to Alexander Poetics Fragments Fragments* Aristotle Aristotelianism [*]: Authenticity disputed strikethrough: Generally agreed to be spurious v t e <span>The Posterior Analytics (Greek: Ἀναλυτικὰ Ὕστερα; Latin: Analytica Posteriora) is a text from Aristotle's Organon that deals with demonstration, definition, and scientific knowledge. The demonstration is distinguished as a syllogism productive of scientific knowledge, while the definition marked as the statement of a thing's nature, ... a statement of the meaning o







#aristoteles #wiki
De acordo com Aristóteles:
When the premises are certain, true, and primary, and the conclusion formally follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called apodeictical. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called dialectical. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called sophistical.

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Posterior Analytics - Wikipedia
ises and the conclusion. Even where there is no fault in the form, there may be in the matter, i.e. the propositions of which it is composed, which may be true or false, probable or improbable. <span>When the premises are certain, true, and primary, and the conclusion formally follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called apodeictical, and are dealt with in the two books of the Posterior Analytics. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called dialectical, and these are dealt with in the eight books of the Topics. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called sophistical, and these are dealt with in the book On Sophistical Refutations. The contents of the Posterior Analytics may be summarised as follows: All demonstration must be founded on principles already known. The principles on which




Flashcard 3182084099340

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#aristoteles #wiki
Question
De acordo com Aristóteles:
When the premises are certain, true, and primary, and the conclusion formally follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called [...].
Answer
apodeictical


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When the premises are certain, true, and primary, and the conclusion formally follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called <span>apodeictical. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called dialectical. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called sophistical. </spa

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Posterior Analytics - Wikipedia
ises and the conclusion. Even where there is no fault in the form, there may be in the matter, i.e. the propositions of which it is composed, which may be true or false, probable or improbable. <span>When the premises are certain, true, and primary, and the conclusion formally follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called apodeictical, and are dealt with in the two books of the Posterior Analytics. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called dialectical, and these are dealt with in the eight books of the Topics. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called sophistical, and these are dealt with in the book On Sophistical Refutations. The contents of the Posterior Analytics may be summarised as follows: All demonstration must be founded on principles already known. The principles on which







Flashcard 3182086458636

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#aristoteles #wiki
Question
De acordo com Aristóteles:
When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called [...].
Answer
dialectical


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ly follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called apodeictical. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called <span>dialectical. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called sophistical. <span>

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Posterior Analytics - Wikipedia
ises and the conclusion. Even where there is no fault in the form, there may be in the matter, i.e. the propositions of which it is composed, which may be true or false, probable or improbable. <span>When the premises are certain, true, and primary, and the conclusion formally follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called apodeictical, and are dealt with in the two books of the Posterior Analytics. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called dialectical, and these are dealt with in the eight books of the Topics. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called sophistical, and these are dealt with in the book On Sophistical Refutations. The contents of the Posterior Analytics may be summarised as follows: All demonstration must be founded on principles already known. The principles on which







Flashcard 3182088817932

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#aristoteles #wiki
Question
De acordo com Aristóteles:
A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called [...].
Answer
sophistical


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ms are called apodeictical. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called dialectical. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called <span>sophistical. <span>

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Posterior Analytics - Wikipedia
ises and the conclusion. Even where there is no fault in the form, there may be in the matter, i.e. the propositions of which it is composed, which may be true or false, probable or improbable. <span>When the premises are certain, true, and primary, and the conclusion formally follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called apodeictical, and are dealt with in the two books of the Posterior Analytics. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called dialectical, and these are dealt with in the eight books of the Topics. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called sophistical, and these are dealt with in the book On Sophistical Refutations. The contents of the Posterior Analytics may be summarised as follows: All demonstration must be founded on principles already known. The principles on which