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Flashcard 1431767223564

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
These arts of (3)[...] each constitute both a field of knowledge and the technique to acquire that knowledge.
Answer
reading, writing, and reckoning

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These arts of reading, writing, and reckoning have formed the traditional basis of liberal education, each constituting both a field of knowledge and the technique t o acquire that knowledge.

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Flashcard 1432294657292

Tags
#blue-apron #business-model #citychef #operational-model
Question
Purchasing in bulk allows the company to negotiate prices with farmers, who are happy to receive a [...] for a [...].
Answer
slightly lower price

guaranteed volume

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ilment center, workers on assembly lines pack boxes with poultry, meat, vegetables and condiments to be delivered anywhere from 1-7 days later. Purchasing in bulk allows the company to negotiate prices with farmers, who are happy to receive a <span>slightly lower price for a guaranteed volume. By only offering 6 recipes per week, Blue Apron can allocate the ingredients in a way that reduces food waste. Everything subscribers receive is pre-measured to

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Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
lity ingredients. On the recipe cards, they provide an information sheet that highlights the farms which provided the produce alongside information about how to cut and cook. Click here to view a video featuring Blue Apron’s Ghee Supplier. <span>Blue Apron aligns its operating model with its business model through: Control of the supply chain . Blue Apron’s model centers on delivering fresh ingredients. To maintain control of quality, the company manages its own distribution channel. The company sources farms differently for each of their three regional fulfilment centers, so the food is local and fresh and the delivery costs are low. The boxes are delivered in refrigerated boxes to maintain freshness, however, so delivery is outsourced to the cheapest partner for a given shipment. Bulk purchasing, portioned delivery . Blue Apron built its model on the idea of reducing food waste. At each fulfilment center, workers on assembly lines pack boxes with poultry, meat, vegetables and condiments to be delivered anywhere from 1-7 days later. Purchasing in bulk allows the company to negotiate prices with farmers, who are happy to receive a slightly lower price for a guaranteed volume. By only offering 6 recipes per week, Blue Apron can allocate the ingredients in a way that reduces food waste. Everything subscribers receive is pre-measured to the precise proportions the recipe requires, meaning less spending on unnecessary produce and less food waste. Data analytics . As a subscription business, Blue Apron collects data on its customers that allows for predictive modeling of demand. They built an internal suite of tools that manage the workflow of purchasing, fulfilment operations, ecommerce and order processing, shipping software, customer service software 6 . The software can estimate how many customers will cancel an order in any given week, for example, which allows the company to plan meals based on the expected availability and price of certain crops. Using this data helps create processes that improve operational efficiency and lower costs, supporting the $10 per meal price. Supporting Suppliers. There is a team at Blue Apron responsible for negotiating with farms to source ingredients, but they also work closely with farmers on crop rotation and management. This allows the company to work with farmers to plan production in a way that is more seasonal, more efficient and utilizes their resources better, all of which results in higher quality crops at lower prices for consumers. Additionally, by helping farmers to plan to rotate “heavy feeder” plants with less hungry plants like legumes, the farms use less pesticide and fertilize, resulting in healthier farms. Blue Apron focuses on bringing their customers an easy way to cook through a high quality food delivery service that has never bene available at scale before. Key operational decision







Flashcard 1432421010700

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
[...] is important since it determines the form of noun, the article and adjective.
Answer
Gender

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masculine or feminine, even if they are inanimate objects. Even where living beings are concerned, grammatical gender is not always the same as natural gender: una tigre ‘a tiger’ (either sex unless specified); un ippopotamo ‘a hippopotamus’. <span>Gender is important since it determines the form of noun, the article and adjective.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1432555228428

Tags
#blue-apron #citychef #operational-model #supply-chain
Question
To maintain control of quality, the company manages its own [...].
Answer
distribution channel

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Blue Apron’s model centers on delivering fresh ingredients. To maintain control of quality, the company manages its own distribution channel. The company sources farms differently for each of their three regional fulfilment centers, so the food is local and fresh and the delivery costs are low. The boxes are delivered in ref

Original toplevel document

Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
lity ingredients. On the recipe cards, they provide an information sheet that highlights the farms which provided the produce alongside information about how to cut and cook. Click here to view a video featuring Blue Apron’s Ghee Supplier. <span>Blue Apron aligns its operating model with its business model through: Control of the supply chain . Blue Apron’s model centers on delivering fresh ingredients. To maintain control of quality, the company manages its own distribution channel. The company sources farms differently for each of their three regional fulfilment centers, so the food is local and fresh and the delivery costs are low. The boxes are delivered in refrigerated boxes to maintain freshness, however, so delivery is outsourced to the cheapest partner for a given shipment. Bulk purchasing, portioned delivery . Blue Apron built its model on the idea of reducing food waste. At each fulfilment center, workers on assembly lines pack boxes with poultry, meat, vegetables and condiments to be delivered anywhere from 1-7 days later. Purchasing in bulk allows the company to negotiate prices with farmers, who are happy to receive a slightly lower price for a guaranteed volume. By only offering 6 recipes per week, Blue Apron can allocate the ingredients in a way that reduces food waste. Everything subscribers receive is pre-measured to the precise proportions the recipe requires, meaning less spending on unnecessary produce and less food waste. Data analytics . As a subscription business, Blue Apron collects data on its customers that allows for predictive modeling of demand. They built an internal suite of tools that manage the workflow of purchasing, fulfilment operations, ecommerce and order processing, shipping software, customer service software 6 . The software can estimate how many customers will cancel an order in any given week, for example, which allows the company to plan meals based on the expected availability and price of certain crops. Using this data helps create processes that improve operational efficiency and lower costs, supporting the $10 per meal price. Supporting Suppliers. There is a team at Blue Apron responsible for negotiating with farms to source ingredients, but they also work closely with farmers on crop rotation and management. This allows the company to work with farmers to plan production in a way that is more seasonal, more efficient and utilizes their resources better, all of which results in higher quality crops at lower prices for consumers. Additionally, by helping farmers to plan to rotate “heavy feeder” plants with less hungry plants like legumes, the farms use less pesticide and fertilize, resulting in healthier farms. Blue Apron focuses on bringing their customers an easy way to cook through a high quality food delivery service that has never bene available at scale before. Key operational decision







Flashcard 1432563092748

Tags
#blue-apron #business-model #citychef #operational-model #supporting-suppliers
Question
There is a team at Blue Apron responsible for negotiating with [...], but they also work closely with farmers on [...]
Answer
farms to source ingredients

crop rotation and management.

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There is a team at Blue Apron responsible for negotiating with farms to source ingredients, but they also work closely with farmers on crop rotation and management. This allows the company to work with farmers to plan production in a way that is more seasonal, more efficient

Original toplevel document

Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
lity ingredients. On the recipe cards, they provide an information sheet that highlights the farms which provided the produce alongside information about how to cut and cook. Click here to view a video featuring Blue Apron’s Ghee Supplier. <span>Blue Apron aligns its operating model with its business model through: Control of the supply chain . Blue Apron’s model centers on delivering fresh ingredients. To maintain control of quality, the company manages its own distribution channel. The company sources farms differently for each of their three regional fulfilment centers, so the food is local and fresh and the delivery costs are low. The boxes are delivered in refrigerated boxes to maintain freshness, however, so delivery is outsourced to the cheapest partner for a given shipment. Bulk purchasing, portioned delivery . Blue Apron built its model on the idea of reducing food waste. At each fulfilment center, workers on assembly lines pack boxes with poultry, meat, vegetables and condiments to be delivered anywhere from 1-7 days later. Purchasing in bulk allows the company to negotiate prices with farmers, who are happy to receive a slightly lower price for a guaranteed volume. By only offering 6 recipes per week, Blue Apron can allocate the ingredients in a way that reduces food waste. Everything subscribers receive is pre-measured to the precise proportions the recipe requires, meaning less spending on unnecessary produce and less food waste. Data analytics . As a subscription business, Blue Apron collects data on its customers that allows for predictive modeling of demand. They built an internal suite of tools that manage the workflow of purchasing, fulfilment operations, ecommerce and order processing, shipping software, customer service software 6 . The software can estimate how many customers will cancel an order in any given week, for example, which allows the company to plan meals based on the expected availability and price of certain crops. Using this data helps create processes that improve operational efficiency and lower costs, supporting the $10 per meal price. Supporting Suppliers. There is a team at Blue Apron responsible for negotiating with farms to source ingredients, but they also work closely with farmers on crop rotation and management. This allows the company to work with farmers to plan production in a way that is more seasonal, more efficient and utilizes their resources better, all of which results in higher quality crops at lower prices for consumers. Additionally, by helping farmers to plan to rotate “heavy feeder” plants with less hungry plants like legumes, the farms use less pesticide and fertilize, resulting in healthier farms. Blue Apron focuses on bringing their customers an easy way to cook through a high quality food delivery service that has never bene available at scale before. Key operational decision







Flashcard 1434991856908

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
Verb forms alter according to the [...] of the subject: il ragazzo nuota ‘the boy swims’; i ragazzi nuotano ‘the boys swim’.
Answer
number

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Number is the distinction between singular and plural. Verb forms alter according to the number of the subject: il ragazzo nuota ‘the boy swims’; i ragazzi nuotano ‘the boys swim’.

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Flashcard 1435832814860

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
The [...] is used with the verb avere or essere to form the passato prossimo tense: non abbiamo mangiato gli hamburgers ‘we didn’t eat hamburgers’.
Answer
past participle

When used with essere, it agrees with the subject: nel 2004 siamo andati a Los Angeles ‘in 2004 we went to Los Angeles’.

The present participle, less frequently used, changes form when used as an adjective i . . . cantanti.

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(present, past) Verbs normally have a present participle and a past participle. Unlike other (finite) verb forms, the participle cannot be used on its own but is found together with other verb forms. The past participle is used with the verb avere or essere to form the passato prossimo tense: non abbiamo mangiato gli hamburgers ‘we didn’t eat hamburgers’. When used with essere, it agrees with the subje

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Flashcard 1436174912780

Tags
#costs #finance #investopedia
Question

Explicit costs are incurred during business operations and are actual [...].

Answer
cash outlays

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l>BREAKING DOWN 'Explicit Cost' An explicit cost is an expense that has occurred and has a clearly defined dollar amount. These expenses are incurred during business operations and are actual out-of-pocket cash outlays. The objective dollar amounts are subject to reporting. <html>

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Explicit Cost Definition | Investopedia
value. Good examples of explicit costs would be items such as wage expense, rent or lease costs as it is easy to see the source of the cash outflow and the business activities to which the expense is attributed. <span>BREAKING DOWN 'Explicit Cost' An explicit cost is an expense that has occurred and has a clearly defined dollar amount. These expenses are incurred during business operations and are actual out-of-pocket cash outlays. The objective dollar amounts are subject to reporting. Examples of Explicit Costs Net income of a business reflects residual income remaining after all explicit costs have been paid. Explicit costs are the only costs necessary to calculate







Flashcard 1450634513676

Tags
#2-1-3-economic-rent #2-1-types-of-profit-measures #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-2-objectives-of-the-firm #study-session-4
Question
What is the use of economic rent in financial analysis
Answer
Commodities or resources that have it can reward equity investors more than what is required to attract their capital to the fucking company

Greater shareholders’ wealth, player

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How is the concept of economic rent useful in financial analysis? Commodities or resources that command economic rent have the potential to reward equity investors more than what is required to attract their capital to that activity, resulting in greater shareholders’ wealth.

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2. OBJECTIVES OF THE FIRM
er competing firms to compete away any economic profit over the long run. Economic profit that exists over the long run is usually found where competitive conditions persistently are less than perfect in the market. <span>2.1.3. Economic Rent The surplus value known as economic rent results when a particular resource or good is fixed in supply (with a vertical supply curve) and market price is higher than what is required to bring the resource or good onto the market and sustain its use. Essentially, demand determines the price level and the magnitude of economic rent that is forthcoming from the market. Exhibit 1 illustrates this concept, where P 1 is the price level that yields a normal profit return to the business that supplies the item. When demand increases from Demand 1 to Demand 2 , price rises to P 2 , where at this higher price level economic rent is created. The amount of this economic rent is calculated as (P 2 – P 1 ) × Q 1 . The firm has not done anything internally to merit this special reward: It benefits from an increase in demand in conjunction with a supply curve that does not fully adjust with an increase in quantity when price rises. Exhibit 1. Economic Rent Because of their limited availability in nature, certain resources—such as land and specialty commodities—possess highly inelastic supply curves in both the short run and long run (shown in Exhibit 1 as a vertical supply curve). When supply is relatively inelastic, a high degree of market demand can result in pricing that creates economic rent. This economic rent results from the fact that when price increases, the quantity supplied does not change or, at the most, increases only slightly. This is because of the fixation of supply by nature or by such artificial constraints as government policy. How is the concept of economic rent useful in financial analysis? Commodities or resources that command economic rent have the potential to reward equity investors more than what is required to attract their capital to that activity, resulting in greater shareholders’ wealth. Evidence of economic rent attracts additional capital funds to the economic endeavor. This new investment capital increases shareholders’ value as investors bid up share prices of existing firms. Any commodity, resource, or good that is fixed or nearly fixed in supply has the potential to yield economic rent. From an analytical perspective, one can obtain industry supply data to calculate the elasticity of supply , which measures the sensitivity of quantity supplied to a change in price. If quantity supplied is relatively unresponsive ( inelastic ) to price changes, then a potential condition exists in the market for economic rent. A reliable forecast of changes in demand can indicate the degree of any economic rent that is forthcoming from the market in the future. When one is analyzing fixed or nearly fixed supply markets (e.g., gold), a fundamental comprehension of demand determinants is necessary to make rational financial decisions based on potential economic rent. EXAMPLE 1 Economic Rent and Investment Decision Making The following market data show the global demand, global supply, and price on an annual basis for gold over the period 2006–2008. Based on the data, what observation can be made about market demand, supply, and economic rent? Year 2006 2007 2008 Percent Change 2006–2008 Supply (in metric tons) 3,569 3,475 3,508 –1.7 Demand (in metric tons) 3,423 3,552 3,805 +11.2 Average spot price (in US$) 603.92 695.39 871.65 +44.3 Source: GFMS and World Gold Council. Solution: The amount of total gold supplied to the world market over this period has actually declined slightly by 1.7 percent during a period when there was a double-digit increase of 11.2 percent in demand. As a consequence, the spot price has dramatically increased by 44.3 percent. Economic rent has resulted from this market relationship of a relatively fixed supply of gold and a rising demand for it. 2.2. Comparison of Profit Measures All three types of profit are interconnected because, according to Equation 4, acco







Flashcard 1450665708812

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question
Over an initial range of production, average variable costs, after reaching a minimum point, increases as the firm utilizes more of its [...].
Answer
production capacity

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Over an initial range of production, average variable cost declines and then reaches a minimum point. Thereafter, cost increases as the firm utilizes more of its production capacity. This higher cost results primarily from production constraints imposed by the fixed assets at higher volume levels. The minimum point on the AVC coincides with the lowest average varia

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Average variable cost (AVC) is derived by dividing total variable cost by quantity. For example, average variable cost at 5 units is (300 ÷ 5) or 60. Over an initial range of production, average variable cost declines and then reaches a minimum point. Thereafter, cost increases as the firm utilizes more of its production capacity. This higher cost results primarily from production constraints imposed by the fixed assets at higher volume levels. The minimum point on the AVC coincides with the lowest average variable cost. However, the minimum point on the AVC does not correspond to the least-cost quantity for average total cost. In Exhibit 13, average variable cost is minimized at 2 units, whereas average total cost is the lowest at 3 units. Average total cost (ATC) is calculated by dividing total costs by quantity or by summing average fixed cost and average variable cost. For instance, in Exhibit 13, at 8 un







Flashcard 1450793110796

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
La planeación consiste en [...] para tomar [...] las decisiones que permitan alcanzarlo de forma eficiente.
Answer
prever el futuro

en el presente

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La planeación consiste en prever el futuro para tomar en el presente las decisiones que permitan alcanzarlo de forma eficiente; define el futuro y anticipa el impacto en la empresa de los cambios del entorno, para mitigarlos

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Flashcard 1450836364556

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Los [...] permiten a los proveedores y a los solicitantes de préstamos e inversiones tanto de corto como de largo plazo, realizar transacciones directamente.
Answer
Mercados Financieros

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Los Mercados Financieros permiten a los proveedores y a los solicitantes de préstamos e inversiones tanto de corto como de largo plazo, realizar transacciones directamente. En tanto que los p

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Flashcard 1450879618316

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Para dirigir la operación de la empresa conforme al tamaño adecuado que deba tener y para enfocarla hacia una actitud de servicio al cliente, se debe hacer un [...] de la organización.
Answer
redimensionamiento

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y>Redimensionamiento de la empresa. Con el objetivo de dirigir la operación de la empresa conforme al tamaño adecuado que deba tener, así como para enfocarla hacia una actitud de servicio al cliente, se debe hacer un redimensionamiento de la organización, con el objetivo de que las funciones, puestos, inversiones, costos y gastos incurridos en la operación se minimicen, y como consecuencia optimi

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Flashcard 1450898492684

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Adelgazar una organización no sólo significa reducir su tamaño, despedir personal o vender sus activos ociosos. Adelgazarla va más allá de esos aspectos materiales, pues implica cambios profundos, trascendentales y difíciles en:

• Actitudes personales.


[...]
• Cultura organizacional.

• Formas de trabajo.
Answer
Procesos operativos.

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significa reducir su tamaño, despedir personal o vender sus activos ociosos. Adelgazarla va más allá de esos aspectos materiales, pues implica cambios profundos, trascendentales y difíciles en: • Actitudes personales. • <span>Procesos operativos. • Cultura organizacional. • Formas de trabajo.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1450901900556

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Una empresa que [...] se convierte en una organización eficiente y altamente productiva.
Answer
adelgaza su tamaño

Es el resultado de operarla de forma eficiente, al menor costo posible y para generar utilidades.

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Una empresa que adelgaza su tamaño se convierte en una organización eficiente y altamente productiva, pues es el resultado de operarla, desde el punto de vista productivo y administrativo, de forma eficaz y eficiente, al

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Flashcard 1450913434892

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
La [...] debe estar enfocada a que el cliente sea el elemento más importante de la estructura y que el personal operativo, supervisor y directivo enfoque su quehacer diario al servicio del cliente.
Answer
estructura organizacional

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La estructura organizacional debe estar enfocada a que el cliente sea el elemento más importante de la estructura y que el personal operativo, supervisor y directivo enfoque su quehacer diario al servicio del clien

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Flashcard 1450915794188

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Está comprobado que mientras [...], el contacto de los altos niveles jerárquicos con los clientes y el mercado es cada vez menor
Answer
mayor es una estructura organizacional (pirámide alargada)

Por lo tanto su involucramiento con la operación y necesidades del cliente y la sensibilidad del mercado se convierten casi en inexistentes.

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structura organizacional debe estar enfocada a que el cliente sea el elemento más importante de la estructura y que el personal operativo, supervisor y directivo enfoque su quehacer diario al servicio del cliente. Está comprobado que mientras <span>mayor es una estructura organizacional (pirámide alargada), el contacto de los altos niveles jerárquicos con los clientes y el mercado es cada vez menor y, por lo tanto, su involucramiento con la operación, las necesidades y problemas de los cl

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Flashcard 1450934668556

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
En una Reestructuración Financiera es necesario tomar en consideración las diferentes [...], los plazos y los [...]
Answer
opciones de financiamiento

costos de cada opción

De acuerdo con la capacidad presente y futura de la empresa para solventar los nuevos compromisos.


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uración Financiera es algo más complicada que la negociación con los acreedores sobre los nuevos plazos y tasas a considerar para los adeudos insolutos, o la solución a problemas de liquidez. Es necesario tomar en consideración las diferentes <span>opciones de financiamiento, los plazos y los costos que le son relativos a cada opción, y todo ello en concordancia con la capacidad presente y futura de la empresa para solventar los nuevos compromisos contraído

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Flashcard 1450942795020

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Efectuar una reestructuración financiera no sólo es recalendarización de los pasivos a cargo de la empresa, sino que implica el desarrollo de cambios radicales tanto en la [...] como en la de [...].
Answer
estructura financiera

capital

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Efectuar una reestructuración financiera no sólo es recalendarización de los pasivos a cargo de la empresa, sino que implica el desarrollo de cambios radicales tanto en la estructura financiera como en la de capital.

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Flashcard 1450964028684

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Para llevar a cabo un proyecto de reestructura financiera es necesario dividirlo en diferentes fases, las cuales podemos conjuntar de la siguiente manera:

Primera fase: [...]

Segunda Fase: Marco institucional


Tercera fase: Estrategia de reestructuración

Cuarta fase: [...]

Answer
Marco de referencia.

Análisis derivado de la reestructura financiera

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Para llevar a cabo un proyecto de reestructura financiera es necesario dividirlo en diferentes fases, las cuales podemos conjuntar de la siguiente manera: Primera fase: Marco de referencia. Es el momento actual que está viviendo la empresa sin llevar a cabo una reestructuración financiera. Es necesario conocer, entre otros, los niveles de ventas, costos, utilidades, f

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#biochem
nucleosides in DNA and RNA have the base attached cova- lently to the sugar by a single bond from the C1ʹ atom of the sugar to the N1 or N9 atom of the pyrimidine or purine base
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#biochem
Th e glycosidic bond is a sin- gle bond, and so rotations about it are possible.
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#biochem
Th e conformation with the lowest energy, and hence the one most frequently observed, places the sugar H1ʹ atom and the base C6 or C8 atoms (for pyrimidines and purines, respectively) in a trans conformation about the glycosidic bond
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#biochem
Although the anti conformation is lower in energy and occurs more frequently, there are situations that can enforce adoption of the syn conformation. For exam- ple, in some structures there is much better stacking of the bases in the syn con- formation, as seen in a form of DNA known as Z-DNA (see Section 2.12) and in some RNA loop structures. Chemical modifi cations of bases may also aff ect the relative energies of the anti and syn conformations
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#biochem
Another important conformational parameter for DNA and RNA is known as the sugar pucker, which refers to the diff erent out-of-plane distortions in the deox- yribose or ribose rings of nucleosides
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#biochem
When the out-of-plane atom is located on the same side of the plane as C5ʹ, the conformation is referred to as endo (“inside”). When it is located on the side opposite C5ʹ, the conformation is referred to as exo (“outside”)
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#biochem
pucker in which the C2ʹ atom is out of the plane and is on the same side of the plane as C5ʹ, is referred to as C2ʹ endo, whereas a sugar pucker in which C2ʹ is on the side opposite C5ʹ is called C2ʹ exo. Likewise, a C3ʹ endo sugar pucker has C3ʹ out of the plane, but on the same side as C5ʹ, whereas a C3ʹ exo sugar has C3ʹ on the side opposite C5
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#biochem
In nucleic acids, endo sugar puckers are more common than exo. In DNA, the sugar pucker can be either C2 ʹ endo (in B-form DNA) or C3ʹ endo (in A-form DNA). In RNA, however, the C2ʹ endo sugar pucker cannot be adopted because of steric hindrance between the OH group on C2 ʹ and the phosphate group on C3ʹ
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#biochem
RNA cannot adopt the standard Watson-Crick double- helical structure because of constraints on its sugar pucker
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#biochem
In the standard Watson-Crick model of DNA, all of the sugar groups have the C2ʹ endo conformation. Th is results in close contact between one of the oxygen atoms of the 3ʹ phosphate group and the hydrogen atom at the 2ʹ position of the ribose ring in DNA (Figure 2.8). Th e distance between the phos- phate oxygen and the hydrogen atom is 1.9 Å. If the 2ʹ hydrogen were replaced by a hydroxyl group, as in the ribose ring of RNA, the two oxygen atoms would repel each other strongly. Instead, in RNA, the sugar adopts a C3ʹ endo conformation (Figure 2.9), which causes a change in phosphate separation and a general modi- fi cation of the double-helical structure
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#biochem
Th e structure of double-helical DNA, as originally described by Watson and Crick on the basis of Franklin and Wilkinsʹ x-ray diff raction data, is known as B-form DNA or B-DNA
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#biochem
h e base pairs, for example, are perpendicular to the axis of the helix. Each base pair is centered on the helix axis, so that when viewed from above, the base pairs all cross each other, in projection, at the central axis
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#biochem
Th e complementary chains are parallel, but run in opposite directions, and together they twist into a right-handed double helix. Th e helix forms two grooves of unequal size (Figure 2.10). Th e wider and more accessible major groove (Figure 2.11) allows regulatory proteins or other molecules to gain access to nucleotide functional groups on the edges of the groove. Th e narrower, less acces- sible minor groove (Figure 2.12) allows much more limited access to the func- tional groups lying within the groove.
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#biochem
Th e B-form helix rises ~34 Å per helical turn and there are 10–11 base pairs per turn, so the rise per base pair is ~3.1–3.4 Å.
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#biochem
Th ere is, in addition, a fundamentally dif- ferent way of reading information stored in DNA that neither opens the helix nor copies the sequence, but instead reads the base sequence from the “outside” (via the grooves), leaving the helix largely intact. Th is process of reading the surface signposts of the base pairs is particularly important in the mechanisms by which DNA replication and transcription are controlled
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#biochem
How do these proteins, known as transcription factors, recognize their target sites on DNA? Th ey do so by interacting with the edges of the base pairs in double-helical DNA, which are exposed within the major and minor grooves. Th ere are four potential types of interactions with complementary base pairs, illustrated in Figure 2.13. Th ese involve, on the DNA, hydrogen-bond donors (for example, the amino group of adenine in Figure 2.13C and D), hydrogen-bond acceptors (for example, the N7 nitrogen atom of guanine in Figure 2.13A and B), hydrophobic groups (for exam- ple, the methyl group of thymine in Figure 2.13C and D), and nonpolar hydrogen atoms (for example, the ring proton of cytosine in Figure 2.13A and B).
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#biochem
Th e patterns of recognition elements in the major groove are unique for each of the four base pairs (G-C, C-G, A-T, and T-A). In the minor groove, however, the pattern for G-C is indistinguishable from that for C-G, and the pattern for A-T is the same as that for T-A. Th us, the major groove of DNA allows each of the four kinds of base pairs to be distinguished from each other, whereas the interactions in the minor groove do not.
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#biochem
ecall from Section 2.7 that RNA cannot readily adopt the C2ʹ endo sugar pucker characteristic of B-DNA. However, RNA does form a double-helical structure known as the A-form helix, in which the sugar pucker is C3ʹ endo.
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#biochem
DNA can also adopt the A-form helical structure (Figure 2.15), but it is usually only favored when limited water is available to hydrate the DNA. When DNA molecules that are in the B-form are allowed to dry out slowly, they switch spontaneously to A-DNA. Th e A-form helix is also adopted by RNA-DNA hybrids
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#biochem
A-form DNA or RNA is similar to B-DNA in several aspects. Th e two polynucle- otide strands are antiparallel, and form a right-handed spiral with the phosphate groups on the outside and the bases on the inside. Th e precise number of base pairs per turn depends on whether the double helix is DNA-DNA, DNA-RNA, or RNA-RNA, but it is generally close to the ~10 base pairs per turn of B-DNA
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#biochem
One important diff erence between B-form DNA and A-form DNA or RNA is the position of the base pairs with respect to the helix axis. In B-DNA, they are all parallel to each other and perpendicular to the axis of the helix. In A-form heli- ces, however, the base pairs are tilted away from perpendicular and are moved away from the center of the helix
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#biochem
the major groove in the A-form is deeper and narrower than it is in B-form DNA, while the minor groove is wider and shallower (Figure 2.18 and Figure 2.19). Th e narrowing and deepening of the major groove in A-form helices means that it is more diffi cult for proteins to read out the sequence-specifi c information at the edges of the bases in A-form helices (that is, α helices cannot readily enter the narrower major groove of the A-form helix).
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#biochem
the double-helical structure of RNA impedes access to the major groove, so access to sequence-specifi c information in RNA is usually through its nonpaired regions
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#biochem
Z-form DNA or Z-DNA, discov- ered by Alexander Rich.
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#biochem
Unlike the A- and B-forms, Z-DNA is a left-handed helix ( Figure 2.20). Th e Z-form is adopted preferentially by segments of DNA that have strictly alternating C and G nucleotides.
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Flashcard 1451117382924

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#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Un [...] de la organización se hace con el objetivo de que las funciones, puestos, inversiones, costos y gastos incurridos en la operación se minimicen, y como consecuencia optimizar los recursos involucrados en la empresa.
Answer
redimensionamiento

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y>Redimensionamiento de la empresa. Con el objetivo de dirigir la operación de la empresa conforme al tamaño adecuado que deba tener, así como para enfocarla hacia una actitud de servicio al cliente, se debe hacer un redimensionamiento de la organización, con el objetivo de que las funciones, puestos, inversiones, costos y gastos incurridos en la operación se minimicen, y como consecuencia optimi

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Flashcard 1451126295820

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#estructura-financiera-y-de-capital
Question

La [...] engloba todas las fuentes de Financiamiento, incluyendo las de corto plazo.
Answer
Estructura Financiera

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Flashcard 1451128130828

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#estructura-financiera-y-de-capital
Question
La [...] se basa exclusivamente en instrumentos de largo plazo.
Answer
Estructura de Capital

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Flashcard 1451133635852

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#rentabilidad-productividad
Question
La rentabilidad es la relación entre [...]
Answer
utilidad e inversión

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Flashcard 1451135470860

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#rentabilidad-productividad
Question
[...] es la relación entre lo que se produce y lo que se consume para producirlo.
Answer
La productividad

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#charisma #myth
Charisma in a Crisis CHARISMA IS PARTICULARLY effective during times of uncertainty, ambiguity, or crisis. “Leaders perceived as charismatic are rated higher when times are tough and anxiety is high,” Omar Sultan Haque of Harvard’s department of psychology told me. It’s easier to be perceived as charismatic during a crisis because people facing an emergency are more readily affected by a leader’s magnetism; 1 they become “charisma hungry.” Whether it was Churchill’s ability to rouse England’s spirits and inspire her people to stand while the rest of Europe fell, Napoleon taking France by storm as it was reeling from the French Revolution, or Gandhi voicing a clear path during India’s identity crisis, people who respond to crisis with bold, decisive actions will be perceived as charismatic. If you find yourself in a crisis, it’s actually an opportunity to gain charisma—if you play your cards right. This chapter will show you how. First, retain at least a certain measure of equanimity. Most charismatic leaders are known for their ability to remain (or appear) calm even in the midst of turbulent circumstances.
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#charisma #myth
To keep cool, use all the internal tools—this is where they really shine. I particularly recommend the following techniques: Check your physiology often, both for your own sake (it affects your psychology) and for that of others (it will be “caught” by them and will spread). Skillfully handle internal negativity: destigmatize, dedramatize, and neutralize the negative perceptions that may be crowding your mind. Rewrite reality to whatever degree is helpful. To get out of a pessimistic state, find a few different ways of viewing the situation positively. Use visualizations to keep yourself in the right state. For instance, a responsibility transfer could be useful for reducing anxiety.
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#charisma #myth
Second, express high expectations. Sometimes, simply assigning to people the labels you want them to live up to is enough.
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Article 1451160636684

How the dude charmed his enemy
#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement

The first step was learning how to get him to accept me – charm him. It was a matter of speaking his language, understanding his perspective, and projecting my respect for him in a tangible way. These are things you might think you’re doing, but it requires more than just a bit of awareness and effort. Next, I needed to befriend him and become more than an acquaintance. If I could get into his inner circle, I could get that same type of snarky argumentation on my side, and that could be valuable. Making someone feel validated and heard is the carpool lane to deeper friendships, especially when you combine it with humor. Finally, I learned to defend myself from the extraneous and often off-base accusations and arguments he was making. Along with making sure that I was heard and people didn’t take advantage of me, it forced him to respect me more.



Flashcard 1451161947404

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#strategym
Question
To device a plan to charm her you will need to [...] and [...]
Answer
speak her language

understand her perspective

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#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Making someone feel validated and heard is the carpool lane to deeper friendships, especially when you combine it with humor.
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How the dude charmed his enemy
st a bit of awareness and effort. Next, I needed to befriend him and become more than an acquaintance. If I could get into his inner circle, I could get that same type of snarky argumentation on my side, and that could be valuable. <span>Making someone feel validated and heard is the carpool lane to deeper friendships, especially when you combine it with humor. Finally, I learned to defend myself from the extraneous and often off-base accusations and arguments he was making. Along with making sure that I was heard and people didn’t




Flashcard 1451164830988

Tags
#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
Making someone feel [...] and [...] is the carpool lane to deeper friendships.
Answer
validated

heard

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Making someone feel validated and heard is the carpool lane to deeper friendships, especially when you combine it with humor.

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How the dude charmed his enemy
st a bit of awareness and effort. Next, I needed to befriend him and become more than an acquaintance. If I could get into his inner circle, I could get that same type of snarky argumentation on my side, and that could be valuable. <span>Making someone feel validated and heard is the carpool lane to deeper friendships, especially when you combine it with humor. Finally, I learned to defend myself from the extraneous and often off-base accusations and arguments he was making. Along with making sure that I was heard and people didn’t







Article 1451167190284


#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement

Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)



#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)
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Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)




Flashcard 1451169549580

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#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
Conversation tactics are like [...].
Answer
the background music in a television scene

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Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)

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Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)







Flashcard 1451171122444

Tags
#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
Why are conversation tactics background music in a television scene?
Answer
When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly.

But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)

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Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)

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Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)







#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Compliments are meant to make people feel better about themselves, which ultimately builds comfort and rapport.
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Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)




Flashcard 1451174792460

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#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
Compliments are meant to [...] which ultimately builds comfort and rapport.
Answer
make people feel better about themselves,

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Compliments are meant to make people feel better about themselves, which ultimately builds comfort and rapport.

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Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)







Flashcard 1451176365324

Tags
#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
What are the steps that complements follow to help in a conversation?
Answer
1. people feel better about themselves,

2. they translate that feeling to the conversation

3. They leave feeling that way about you

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Compliments are meant to make people feel better about themselves, which ultimately builds comfort and rapport.

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Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)







Flashcard 1451178200332

Tags
#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
Why aint people comfortable with direct praise?
Answer
​We live in a passive society

When we avoid being direct in our lives, we have no idea what to do when we’re face-to-face with it.

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Compliments are meant to make people feel better about themselves, which ultimately builds comfort and rapport.

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Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)







Flashcard 1451181608204

Tags
#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
Complements are what to some degree?
Answer
selfish

because we give them for people to like us

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Compliments are meant to make people feel better about themselves, which ultimately builds comfort and rapport.

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Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)







#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
The response was probably one of the following:

- False modesty – Oh, my muscles? I just started going to the gym and apparently it’s working!

- Awkward stuttering – Um… you mean my biceps? Thanks… I guess… Um…

- Flat-out denial – What are you talking about? I’m fat, ugly and out of shape. You’re blind.

- Evocation of a deep insecurity – I’m fit? I don’t know, I used to be the fat kid and I never really see myself as attractive or deserving of anyone…

- Direct gratitude – Hey, thanks! Now how about the weather? …


Each with its varying negative implications. Only the last example doesn’t derail a conversation and make both parties feel weird about being positive.
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#charisma #myth
After analyzing more than three dozen studies of charismatic leadership, Wharton School professor Robert House concluded that “expressing high performance expectations” of people while “communicating a high degree of confidence” in their ability to meet those expectations was the hallmark of charismatic leadership. Think of the people you want your charisma to impact. What standard would you like them to live up to or exceed? Express this expectation as if you have full confidence that they can live up to it. Better yet, act like you assume they already are meeting these standards.
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#charisma #myth
Third, articulate a vision. A charismatic vision is what will give your charisma staying power when the crisis is over.
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#charisma #myth
To be charismatic, your vision must vividly illustrate the difference between the way things are now and the way they could be.
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#charisma #myth
Once you have expressed your vision, be bold and decisive.
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Flashcard 1451191045388

Tags
#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
Name the response to a compliment and say if it is ok:

[...] – Oh, my muscles? I just started going to the gym and apparently it’s working!

Answer
- False modesty

Negative as shit

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The response was probably one of the following: - False modesty – Oh, my muscles? I just started going to the gym and apparently it’s working! - Awkward stuttering – Um… you mean my biceps? Thanks… I guess… Um… - Flat-out denia







Flashcard 1451193404684

Tags
#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
The response was probably one of the following:

- [...] – Um… you mean my biceps? Thanks… I guess… Um…



Answer
Awkward stuttering

Son you must be joking

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The response was probably one of the following: - False modesty – Oh, my muscles? I just started going to the gym and apparently it’s working! - Awkward stuttering – Um… you mean my biceps? Thanks… I guess… Um… - Flat-out denial – What are you talking about? I’m fat, ugly and out of shape. You’re blind. - Evocation of a deep







#charisma #myth
You’re going to have to compensate for your charisma in order to limit the jealousy and resentment others may feel. You have three choices: you can refuse the glory, reflect the glory, or transfer the glory.
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#charisma #myth
Refusing the glory means trying to self-efface—to minimize the praise you’re getting.
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Flashcard 1451198909708

Tags
#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
The response was probably one of the following:


- [...] – What are you talking about? I’m fat, ugly and out of shape. You’re blind.

Answer
Flat-out denial

Real fucking bad

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response was probably one of the following: - False modesty – Oh, my muscles? I just started going to the gym and apparently it’s working! - Awkward stuttering – Um… you mean my biceps? Thanks… I guess… Um… - <span>Flat-out denial – What are you talking about? I’m fat, ugly and out of shape. You’re blind. - Evocation of a deep insecurity – I’m fit? I don’t know, I used to be the fat kid and I never rea







#charisma #myth
You can try to bring yourself back down through self-deprecation, downplaying compliments and praise. But we’ve seen how this can backfire, as you’re essentially contradicting your admirers and making them feel wrong.
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#charisma #myth
Reflecting the glory means highlighting others’ contributions. This works well, and has the additional bonus of making you look modest. Something as simple as “Thanks! We were really lucky to have Susan checking the financials and Bill doing his graphic magic.” But sometimes, no matter how much you reflect, some people will still become envious or resentful of your magnetism and your success. You may need to go a step further, which is to transfer the glory
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Flashcard 1451204414732

Tags
#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
The response was probably one of the following:



- [...] – I’m fit? I don’t know, I used to be the fat kid and I never really see myself as attractive or deserving of anyone…



Answer
Evocation of a deep insecurity

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going to the gym and apparently it’s working! - Awkward stuttering – Um… you mean my biceps? Thanks… I guess… Um… - Flat-out denial – What are you talking about? I’m fat, ugly and out of shape. You’re blind. - <span>Evocation of a deep insecurity – I’m fit? I don’t know, I used to be the fat kid and I never really see myself as attractive or deserving of anyone… - Direct gratitude – Hey, thanks! Now how about the weat







Flashcard 1451206774028

Tags
#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
The response was probably one of the following:


- [...] – Hey, thanks! Now how about the weather? …


Answer
Direct gratitude

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re you talking about? I’m fat, ugly and out of shape. You’re blind. - Evocation of a deep insecurity – I’m fit? I don’t know, I used to be the fat kid and I never really see myself as attractive or deserving of anyone… - <span>Direct gratitude – Hey, thanks! Now how about the weather? … Each with its varying negative implications. Only the last example doesn’t derail a conversation and make both parties feel







#charisma #myth
Giving people a sense of ownership for your success is a great way to prevent resentment and engender good feelings, such as pride and loyalty, instead. This technique is, in fact, known as a Clinton classic.
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#charisma #myth
Justification. Create an excuse for contacting the person
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#charisma #myth
Appreciation. Thank the person for what they’ve done for you. You can thank someone for taking time to meet you, whether in person or by phone, especially if you spoke with them for the first time or for a long time. You can also acknowledge good advice or interesting information someone gave you. Lay it all out. Demonstrate exactly how the person helped you. Acknowledge their effort: “I know you didn’t have to do…” or “I know you went out of your way to do…” Impact. Let them know the positive impact they’ve had on you. What did they do or say or what example did they set that changed you for the better? What do you do or say differently because of what they did or said or because of the example they set for you? How is your life or your behavior different? Tell them the difference it made to you personally; make it dramatic. People love to feel important. Responsibility. The Justification-Appreciation-Laying-out-the-Impact sequence creates a feeling of Responsibility (JALIR). It gives people a feeling of vested interest in your success. Give them as much credit as you can. Make them feel that they own your success and they will feel driven to help you continue to succeed
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Flashcard 1451215949068

Tags
#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
What should you be carful with when giving a compliment?
Answer
sarcasm son

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Compliments are meant to make people feel better about themselves, which ultimately builds comfort and rapport.

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Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)







Flashcard 1451217784076

Tags
#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
People engage in conversation with each other for either [...] , information, [...] , and sometimes all of them at once.
Answer
entertainment

pleasure

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Compliments are meant to make people feel better about themselves, which ultimately builds comfort and rapport.

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Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)







#charisma #myth
It’s not easy, however, to slow people down when they’re in the middle of this kind of experience without leaving them feeling hurt and rejected. Here are a few “soft landing” approaches to try: 1. Pay attention. When they start sharing, ask yourself: Will they regret having said this tomorrow? 2. As soon as you hear them start to say something you think they may regret, interject a “me, too” story. This is the one case where interruption is warranted. Ideally, this would be something you’ve personally experienced, second best would be something that someone close to you has experienced, and third best would be something you’ve heard about. The “me, too” interjection accomplishes three things: First, this forces them to pause, interrupts their flow, and gives them a chance to slow down the stream of personal revelations. Second, they get to hear something similar to what they’ve just shared told by someone else, and with this switching of roles, a chance to hear how revelatory their own sharing was. They can then decide whether they feel comfortable continuing on that path. Last, this will help them when they come off the high. If their ego recoils in shame over having shared too much, they can cling to the fact that the person they shared so much with revealed something similar. 3. If it’s too late and they’ve already gone too far, show them that you are placing their revelations in the whole-scope context of all you know about them—that whatever they are revealing is just one piece of a much bigger picture that contains many elements they can be proud of. Say something like, “Wow, I never would have guessed you had such a strong impostor syndrome, too, considering all your accomplishments.” 4. You can also aim to make them feel admired for having shared and revealed so much. Remember, what you’re trying to counteract is shame, and few things work better for this than admiration. For example: “You’re showing some serious courage to be delving so deep. That’s impressive.”
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#charisma #myth
Showing Vulnerability Think of the next three or four conversations you’re going to have. Pick one or two that have low stakes. Now find a small vulnerability you could share. This should not be something major. Any minor fear, hesitation, concern, or regret will do. You might share something you’re worried about, something you think you did wrong, or something you wish you could have done better. Before the conversation, do a compassion visualization and a responsibility transfer for the outcome of this exercise. This gets your body language right and prevents anxiety from overwhelming you, though you should expect discomfort—that’s what vulnerability is all about. During the conversation, here are a few good ways to ease into the sharing: ♦ “You know, I have to tell you…” or “I have to admit…” are good preambles. ♦ Prepare the terrain by saying “I’m feeling a bit nervous about saying this, but…” ♦ You can also ask them to keep this conversation confidential. Not only will this make you feel safer, it will make people treasure the moment more. People love secrets
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#charisma #myth
Set a timer for one minute. Close your eyes and try to focus on one of three things: 1. Sounds: Scan your environment for sound. Imagine your ears are satellite dishes, passively registering sounds. 2. Your breath: Focus on your breath and the sensations it creates in your nostrils or stomach as it goes in and out. 3. Your toes: Focus your attention on the sensations in your toes
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#charisma #myth
Whenever you feel your brain rehashing possible outcomes to a situation, try a transfer of responsibility to alleviate the anxiety. 1. Sit comfortably or lie down, relax, and close your eyes. 2. Take two or three deep breaths. As you inhale, imagine drawing clean air toward the top of your head. As you exhale, let it whoosh out, washing all your worries away. 3. Imagine lifting the weight of everything you’re concerned about off your shoulders and placing it in the hands of whichever benevolent entity you’d like to put in charge. Now that everything is taken care of, you can sit back, relax, and enjoy whatever good you can find along the way
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The next time an uncomfortable emotion is hindering you, try this step-by-step guide to destigmatizing: 1. Remind yourself that this is normal and that we all experience it from time to time. 2. Think of others who have gone through this, especially people you admire. 3. Remember that right now, in this very moment, many others are going through this very same experience.
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#charisma #myth
The guidelines below will help you broadcast power through your voice. 1. Speak slowly. Visualize the contrast between a nervous, squeaky-voiced teenager speaking at high speed and the slow, emphatic tone of a judge delivering a verdict. 2. Pause. People who broadcast confidence often pause while speaking. They will pause for a second or two between sentences or even in the middle of a sentence. This conveys the feeling that they’re so confident in their power, they trust that people won’t interrupt. 3. Drop intonation. You know how a voice rises at the end of a question? Just reread the last sentence and hear your voice go up at the end. Now imagine an assertion: a judge saying “This case is closed.” Feel how the intonation of the word closed drops. Lowering the intonation of your voice at the end of a sentence broadcasts power. When you want to sound superconfident, you can even lower your intonation midsentence. 4. Check your breathing. Make sure you’re breathing deeply into your belly and inhale and exhale through your nose rather than your mouth. Breathing through your mouth can make you sound breathless and anxious.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
In R, running a script is called source-ing the script, because you are redirecting the source of commands from the command line to the script.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Let’s arbitrarily select x values from −2to+2, separated by intervals of 0.1. We have R set up the list of x values by using the built-in sequence function: x = seq( from = -2, to = 2, by = 0.1 ) .
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
ordered list of numerical values is called a “vector” in R
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Conveniently, R has a built-in function called plot, which we call by entering plot (x,y,type="l"). The segment of code, type="l" (that’s a letter “ l” not a numeral “1”) tells R to plot connecting lines between the points, with no distinctive symbols marking the points. If we omitted that part of the command, then R would plot only points by default, not the connecting lines.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
A comment in R begins with the “ #”symbol, called a number sign or a pound sign.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Type the command ?"plot" and you can read all about it. In particular, the information directs you to another command, par, that controls all the plot parameters. To learn about it, type ?"par". In general, it actually is helpful to use R’s built-in help. To get a list of all sorts of online documentation, much of it written in readable prose instead of telegraphic lists, type help.start()
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
While ?"plot" returns the single help page that explains the plot function, ??"plot" returns a list of dozens of help pages that contain the word “plot.”
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The double equal sign for testing equality, used above, is brittle and can give unintended results due to the limited precision of representing numbers in the computer’s memory. For example, in most computers, the value of 0.5 − 0.3 does not equal the value of 0.3 − 0.1, even though mathematically they are equivalent. Therefore, R has another function, all.equal, for testing equality up to the degree of precision for the computer being used.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
A vector is not technically a class in R, but a vector is the fundamental data structure.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
A vector is simply an ordered list of elements of the same type
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By “ordered” I mean that R knows the elements by their position in the list, not that the elements themselves somehow go in increasing or decreasing value.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The combine function, c (yes, the single letter “c”),makesvectors.Actually,thecombine function can combine different types of data structures, but at this point we consider only its ability to create vectors by combining elements. For example, c( 2.718 , 3.14 , 1.414 ) combines the three numbers into a vector.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
R defaults to component-by-component vector operations. In particular, if x and y are two vectors of the same length, then x*y is the vector consisting of the products of corresponding components.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
R automatically applies a scalar operation to all elements of a vector. For example: > 2 * c(1,2,3) [1]246 > 2 + c(1,2,3) [1]345
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The colon operator, :, makes sequences of integers. For example, 4:7 creates the vector 4, 5, 6, 7 .
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The colon operator has precedence over basic arithmetical operators, but not over the power operator.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The sequence function, seq, is very handy for creating vectors that consist of regular sequences of numbers. In its basic form, the user specifies the starting value of the sequence, the ending value, and the increment between successive values, like this: > seq( from=0 , to=3 , by=0.5 ) # length not specified [1] 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
If the increment is not an exact divisor of the distance between the starting and ending values, the sequence will not exceed the ending value.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The seq function is clever and will infer whatever value is omitted by the user. This capability can be very useful, for example if we want a sequence of a certain length and do not care about the exact end point or the increment.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
44 Doing Bayesian Data Analysis > seq( from=0 , by=0.5 , length.out=7 ) # end not specified [1] 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 > seq( from=0 , to=3 , length.out=7 ) # increment not specified [1] 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 > seq( to=3 , by=0.5 , length.out=7 ) # start not specified [1] 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The replicate function, rep, is also very useful for creating vectors. Here are some examples: > ABC = c("A","B","C") # define a vector for replication > rep( ABC, 2 ) [1] "A" "B" "C" "A" "B" "C" > rep( ABC, times=2 ) [1] "A" "B" "C" "A" "B" "C" > rep( ABC, times=c(4,2,1) ) [1] "A" "A" "A" "A" "B" "B" "C" > rep( ABC, each=2 ) [1] "A" "A" "B" "B" "C" "C" > rep( ABC, each=2, length=10) [1] "A" "A" "B" "B" "C" "C" "A" "A" "B" "B" > rep( ABC, each=2, times=3) [1] "A" "A" "B" "B" "C" "C" "A" "A" "B" "B" "C" "C" "A" "A" "B" "B" "C" "C"
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