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#filosofia #wiki
O ascetismo ou asceticismo é uma filosofia de vida na qual se realizam certas práticas visando ao desenvolvimento espiritual.
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Ascetismo (filosofia) – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
ismo (filosofia) Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre. Ir para: navegação, pesquisa [imagelink] Praticantes de ioga. A ioga é um exemplo de prática ascética. <span>O ascetismo ou asceticismo é uma filosofia de vida na qual se realizam certas práticas visando ao desenvolvimento espiritual. Muitas vezes, essas práticas consistem no refreamento dos prazeres mundanos e na austeridade. [1] Aquelas que praticam um estilo de vida austero definem suas práticas como virtuosas e




Flashcard 1708827217164

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#filosofia #wiki
Question
O [...]ou [...] é uma filosofia de vida na qual se realizam certas práticas visando ao desenvolvimento espiritual.
Answer
ascetismo
asceticismo

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O ascetismo ou asceticismo é uma filosofia de vida na qual se realizam certas práticas visando ao desenvolvimento espiritual.

Original toplevel document

Ascetismo (filosofia) – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
ismo (filosofia) Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre. Ir para: navegação, pesquisa [imagelink] Praticantes de ioga. A ioga é um exemplo de prática ascética. <span>O ascetismo ou asceticismo é uma filosofia de vida na qual se realizam certas práticas visando ao desenvolvimento espiritual. Muitas vezes, essas práticas consistem no refreamento dos prazeres mundanos e na austeridade. [1] Aquelas que praticam um estilo de vida austero definem suas práticas como virtuosas e







Flashcard 1708829576460

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#filosofia #wiki
Question
O ascetismo ou asceticismo é uma filosofia de vida na qual se realizam certas práticas visando ao desenvolvimento [...].
Answer

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O ascetismo ou asceticismo é uma filosofia de vida na qual se realizam certas práticas visando ao desenvolvimento espiritual.

Original toplevel document

Ascetismo (filosofia) – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
ismo (filosofia) Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre. Ir para: navegação, pesquisa [imagelink] Praticantes de ioga. A ioga é um exemplo de prática ascética. <span>O ascetismo ou asceticismo é uma filosofia de vida na qual se realizam certas práticas visando ao desenvolvimento espiritual. Muitas vezes, essas práticas consistem no refreamento dos prazeres mundanos e na austeridade. [1] Aquelas que praticam um estilo de vida austero definem suas práticas como virtuosas e







#economia #mises
Muitos historiadores e escritores modernos estão imbuídos do dogma marxista, segundo o qual o advento do socialismo é não só inevitável, como também extremamente desejável, e as forças traba- lhistas foram designadas para a histórica missão de destruir o sistema capitalista. Partindo dessa premissa, consideram natural que os par- tidos de “esquerda”, os eleitos, recorram à violência e ao crime para atingir seus objetivos.
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#economia #mises
Mas, se alguma dessas vítimas ousa defender-se ou mesmo revidar a agressão, será duramente criticada. São poucos os que se atrevem a simplesmente mencionar os atos de sabotagem, destruição e violência praticados por grevistas.
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#economia #mises
Muitos intelectuais in- vejam a renda elevada de negociantes prósperos e este ressentimento os conduz ao socialismo. Acreditam que as autoridades de uma co- munidade socialista lhes pagariam salários maiores do que aqueles que poderiam ganhar no regime capitalista.
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#economia #mises
Os cientistas devem analisar qualquer doutrina como se os seus defensores não tivessem outro propósito a não ser a busca do conhecimento.
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Flashcard 1708838227212

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#economia #mises
Question
O que deseja o sibaritismo?
Answer
Desejo de luxos e prazeres.

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les fixateurs symbiotique sont des bactéries qui vivent en association avec les plantes légumineuses
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Zoom sur les bactéries fixatrices d'azote
e bactéries capables de fixer l’azote atmosphérique et de réaliser ces transformations. Les différents types de bactéries fixatrices d’azote : - Les fixateurs symbiotiques : Appartenant à la famille des micro-organismes rhizobiums, <span>les fixateurs symbiotique sont des bactéries qui vivent en association avec les plantes légumineuses (ils entrent en symbiose avec elles). La fixation de l’azote intervient au niveau d’organes appelés les nodules, qui se forment au niveau de la racine de la plante. C’est le cas de Brad




La fixation de l’azote intervient au niveau d’organes appelés les nodules
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Zoom sur les bactéries fixatrices d'azote
d’azote : - Les fixateurs symbiotiques : Appartenant à la famille des micro-organismes rhizobiums, les fixateurs symbiotique sont des bactéries qui vivent en association avec les plantes légumineuses (ils entrent en symbiose avec elles). <span>La fixation de l’azote intervient au niveau d’organes appelés les nodules, qui se forment au niveau de la racine de la plante. C’est le cas de Bradyrhizobium japonicum, qui est une espèce de nodosité que l’on retrouve sur les cultures de soja. Dans les




Flashcard 1708857888012

Question
Dans les [...] , s’effectuent les échanges symbiotiques entre les racines de la plante et les bactéries
Answer
Dans les nodules, s’effectuent les échanges symbiotiques entre les racines de la plante et les bactéries

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Zoom sur les bactéries fixatrices d'azote
tion de l’azote intervient au niveau d’organes appelés les nodules, qui se forment au niveau de la racine de la plante. C’est le cas de Bradyrhizobium japonicum, qui est une espèce de nodosité que l’on retrouve sur les cultures de soja. <span>Dans les nodules, s’effectuent les échanges symbiotiques entre les racines de la plante et les bactéries : les fixateurs symbiotiques se nourrissent de composés carbonés libérés par les racines ; en contrepartie ils fixent le diazote de l’atmosphère et le rendent disponible aux racines sou







Flashcard 1708859985164

Question
les fixateurs symbiotique sont des [...]
Answer
les fixateurs symbiotique sont des bactéries

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Zoom sur les bactéries fixatrices d'azote
e bactéries capables de fixer l’azote atmosphérique et de réaliser ces transformations. Les différents types de bactéries fixatrices d’azote : - Les fixateurs symbiotiques : Appartenant à la famille des micro-organismes rhizobiums, <span>les fixateurs symbiotique sont des bactéries qui vivent en association avec les plantes légumineuses (ils entrent en symbiose avec elles). La fixation de l’azote intervient au niveau d’organes appelés les nodules, qui se forment a







Flashcard 1708861820172

Question
les fixateurs symbiotique sont des bactéries qui vivent en association avec [...] (ils entrent en symbiose avec elles)
Answer
les fixateurs symbiotique sont des bactéries qui vivent en association avec les plantes légumineuses (ils entrent en symbiose avec elles)

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Zoom sur les bactéries fixatrices d'azote
e bactéries capables de fixer l’azote atmosphérique et de réaliser ces transformations. Les différents types de bactéries fixatrices d’azote : - Les fixateurs symbiotiques : Appartenant à la famille des micro-organismes rhizobiums, <span>les fixateurs symbiotique sont des bactéries qui vivent en association avec les plantes légumineuses (ils entrent en symbiose avec elles). La fixation de l’azote intervient au niveau d’organes appelés les nodules, qui se forment au niveau de la racine de la plante. C’est le cas de Bradyrhizobium japonicum, qui est une esp







Flashcard 1708863655180

Question
La fixation de l’azote intervient au niveau d’organes appelés les nodules , qui se forment [...]
Answer
La fixation de l’azote intervient au niveau d’organes appelés les nodules , qui se forment au niveau de la racine de la plante.

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Zoom sur les bactéries fixatrices d'azote
d’azote : - Les fixateurs symbiotiques : Appartenant à la famille des micro-organismes rhizobiums, les fixateurs symbiotique sont des bactéries qui vivent en association avec les plantes légumineuses (ils entrent en symbiose avec elles). <span>La fixation de l’azote intervient au niveau d’organes appelés les nodules, qui se forment au niveau de la racine de la plante. C’est le cas de Bradyrhizobium japonicum, qui est une espèce de nodosité que l’on retrouve sur les cultures de soja. Dans les nodules, s’effectuent les échanges symbiotiques entre







Flashcard 1708866014476

Question
C’est le cas de [...] , qui est une espèce de nodosité que l’on retrouve sur les cultures de soja.
Answer
C’est le cas de Bradyrhizobium japonicum, qui est une espèce de nodosité que l’on retrouve sur les cultures de soja.

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Zoom sur les bactéries fixatrices d'azote
ue sont des bactéries qui vivent en association avec les plantes légumineuses (ils entrent en symbiose avec elles). La fixation de l’azote intervient au niveau d’organes appelés les nodules, qui se forment au niveau de la racine de la plante. <span>C’est le cas de Bradyrhizobium japonicum, qui est une espèce de nodosité que l’on retrouve sur les cultures de soja. Dans les nodules, s’effectuent les échanges symbiotiques entre les racines de la plante et les bactéries : les fixateurs symbiotiques se nourrissent de composés carbonés libérés p







Flashcard 1708868635916

Question
les fixateurs symbiotiques se nourrissent de [...] ;
Answer
les fixateurs symbiotiques se nourrissent de composés carbonés libérés par les racines ;

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Zoom sur les bactéries fixatrices d'azote
e la plante. C’est le cas de Bradyrhizobium japonicum, qui est une espèce de nodosité que l’on retrouve sur les cultures de soja. Dans les nodules, s’effectuent les échanges symbiotiques entre les racines de la plante et les bactéries : <span>les fixateurs symbiotiques se nourrissent de composés carbonés libérés par les racines ; en contrepartie ils fixent le diazote de l’atmosphère et le rendent disponible aux racines sous une forme assimilable (voir schéma ci-dessous). Ces micro-organismes sont capables







Flashcard 1708870470924

Question
les fixateurs symbiotiques se nourrissent de composés carbonés libérés par les racines ; en contrepartie ils fixent le [...] et le rendent disponible aux racines sous une forme assimilable
Answer
les fixateurs symbiotiques se nourrissent de composés carbonés libérés par les racines ; en contrepartie ils fixent le diazote de l’atmosphère et le rendent disponible aux racines sous une forme assimilable

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Zoom sur les bactéries fixatrices d'azote
e la plante. C’est le cas de Bradyrhizobium japonicum, qui est une espèce de nodosité que l’on retrouve sur les cultures de soja. Dans les nodules, s’effectuent les échanges symbiotiques entre les racines de la plante et les bactéries : <span>les fixateurs symbiotiques se nourrissent de composés carbonés libérés par les racines ; en contrepartie ils fixent le diazote de l’atmosphère et le rendent disponible aux racines sous une forme assimilable (voir schéma ci-dessous). Ces micro-organismes sont capables de fixer jusqu’à 300 Unités d’azote par an. Cependant leur action est limitée aux cultures légumineuses, à l’exception







#economia #mises
distinção epistemológica entre o sistema lógico e o sistema praxe- ológico consiste exatamente no fato de que este pressupõe as categorias tempo e causalidade. O sistema praxeológico também é apriorístico e dedutivo; como sistema, é atemporal. A diferença entre um e outro reside no fato de a praxeologia ter a mudança como um de seus elemen- tos; as noções de mais cedo ou mais tarde e de causa e efeito fazem parte do sistema
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Article 1708928666892

db1
#database

the data stored in the database is generally not in the most appropriate form for the application to manipulate or expose to the user. The relational data model of the database schema is typically (and rightly) optimized around storage and integrity concerns, not for application usage.



Article 1708934696204

bi
#database

Business Intelligence (BI) comprises the strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis ofbusiness information. [1] BI technologies provide historical, current and predictive views of business operations. Common functions of business intelligence technologies include reporting, online analytical processing, analytics, data mining, process mining, complex event processing, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining,predictive analytics and prescriptive analytics. BI technologies can handle large amounts of structured and sometimes unstructured data to help identify, develop and otherwise create new strategic business opportunities. They aim to allow for the easy interpretation of these big data. Identifying new opportunities and implementing an effective strategy based on insights can provide businesses with a competitive market advantage and long-term stability. [2] Business intelligence can be used by enterprises to support a wide range of business decisions - ran



Flashcard 1708936531212

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Question

[...] (BI) comprises the strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis ofbusiness information.[1] BI technologies provide historical, current and predictive views of business operations. Common functions of business intelligence technologies include reporting, online analytical processing, analytics, data mining, process mining, complex event processing, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining,predictive analytics and prescriptive analytics. BI technologies can handle large amounts of structured and sometimes unstructured data to help identify, develop and otherwise create new strategic business opportunities. They aim to allow for the easy interpretation of these big data. Identifying new opportunities and implementing an effective strategy based on insights can provide businesses with a competitive market advantage and long-term stability.[2]

Business intelligence can be used by enterprises to support a wide range of business decisions - ranging from operational to strategic. Basic operating decisions include product positioning or pricing. Strategic business decisions involve priorities, goals and directions at the broadest level. In all cases, BI is most effective when it combines data derived from the market in which a c

...
Answer
Business Intelligence

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bi
Business Intelligence (BI) comprises the strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis ofbusiness information. [1] BI technologies provide historical, current and predictive views of







#database
Business intelligence can be used by enterprises to support a wide range of business decisions - ranging from operational to strategic. Basic operating decisions include product positioning or pricing. Strategic business decisions involve priorities, goals and directions at the broadest level. In all cases, BI is most effective when it combines data derived from the market in which a company operates (external data) with data from company sources internal to the business such as financial and operations data (internal data). When combined, external and internal data can provide a more complete picture which, in effect, creates an "intelligence" that cannot be derived by any singular set of data.[3] Amongst myriad uses, business intelligence tools empower organizations to gain insight into new markets, to assess demand and suitability of products and services for differentmarket segments and to gauge the impact of marketing efforts.[4]
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bi
o allow for the easy interpretation of these big data. Identifying new opportunities and implementing an effective strategy based on insights can provide businesses with a competitive market advantage and long-term stability. [2] <span>Business intelligence can be used by enterprises to support a wide range of business decisions - ranging from operational to strategic. Basic operating decisions include product positioning or pricing. Strategic business decisions involve priorities, goals and directions at the broadest level. In all cases, BI is most effective when it combines data derived from the market in which a company operates (external data) with data from company sources internal to the business such as financial and operations data (internal data). When combined, external and internal data can provide a more complete picture which, in effect, creates an "intelligence" that cannot be derived by any singular set of data. [3] Amongst myriad uses, business intelligence tools empower organizations to gain insight into new markets, to assess demand and suitability of products and services for differentmarket segments and to gauge the impact of marketing efforts. [4] Often [quantify] BI applications use data gathered from a data warehouse (DW) or from a data mart, and the concepts of BI and DW combine as "BI/DW" [5] or as &q




Flashcard 1708940201228

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#database
Question

Business Intelligence (BI) comprises the strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis ofbusiness information.[1] BI technologies provide historical, current and predictive views of business operations. Common functions of business intelligence technologies include reporting, online analytical processing, analytics, data mining, process mining, complex event processing, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining,predictive analytics and prescriptive analytics. BI technologies can handle large amounts of structured and sometimes unstructured data to help identify, develop and otherwise create new strategic business opportunities. They aim to allow for the easy interpretation of these big data. Identifying new opportunities and implementing an effective strategy based on insights can provide businesses with a competitive market advantage and long-term stability.[2]

Business intelligence can be used by enterprises to support a wide range of business decisions - ranging from operational to strategic. Basic operating decisions include product positioning or pricing. Strategic business decisions involve priorities, goals and directions at the broadest level. In all cases, BI is most effective when it combines data derived from the market in which a company operates (external data) with data from company sour

...
Answer
Multidimensional

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bi
ouse contains a copy of analytical data that facilitates decision support. Components[edit] Business intelligence is made up of an increasing number of components including: <span>Multidimensional aggregation and allocation Denormalization, tagging and standardization Realtime reporting with analytical alert A method of interfacing with unstructured data sources Group consolidati







Article 1708943346956

linux
#linux

I want to tell you a story. No, not the story of how, in 1991, Linus Torvalds wrote the first version of the Linux kernel. You can read that story in lots of Linux books. Nor am I going to tell you the story of how, some years earlier, Richard Stallman began the GNU Project to create a free Unix-like operating system. That's an important story too, but most other Linux books have that one, as well. No, I want to tell you the story of how you can take back control of your computer. When I began working with computers as a college student in the late 1970s, there was a revolution going on. The invention of the microprocessor had made it possible for ordinary people like you and me to actually own a computer. It's hard for many people today to imagine what the world was like when only big business and big government ran all the computers. Let's just say, you couldn't get much done. Today, the world is very different. Computers are everywhere, from tiny wristwatches to giant data centers to everythin



#linux
I want to tell you a story.
No, not the story of how, in 1991, Linus Torvalds wrote the first version of the Linux
kernel. You can read that story in lots of Linux books. Nor am I going to tell you the
story of how, some years earlier, Richard Stallman began the GNU Project to create a free
Unix-like operating system. That's an important story too, but most other Linux books
have that one, as well.
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linux
I want to tell you a story. No, not the story of how, in 1991, Linus Torvalds wrote the first version of the Linux kernel. You can read that story in lots of Linux books. Nor am I going to tell you the story of how, some years earlier, Richard Stallman began the GNU Project to create a free Unix-like operating system. That's an important story too, but most other Linux books have that one, as well. No, I want to tell you the story of how you can take back control of your computer. When I began working with computers as a college student in the late 1970s, there was a&#13




#linux
No, I want to tell you the story of how you can take back control of your computer.
When I began working with computers as a college student in the late 1970s, there was a
revolution going on. The invention of the microprocessor had made it possible for
ordinary people like you and me to actually own a computer. It's hard for many people
today to imagine what the world was like when only big business and big government ran
all the computers. Let's just say, you couldn't get much done.
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linux
going to tell you the story of how, some years earlier, Richard Stallman began the GNU Project to create a free Unix-like operating system. That's an important story too, but most other Linux books have that one, as well. <span>No, I want to tell you the story of how you can take back control of your computer. When I began working with computers as a college student in the late 1970s, there was a revolution going on. The invention of the microprocessor had made it possible for ordinary people like you and me to actually own a computer. It's hard for many people today to imagine what the world was like when only big business and big government ran all the computers. Let's just say, you couldn't get much done. Today, the world is very different. Computers are everywhere, from tiny wristwatches to giant data centers to everything in between. In addition to ubiquitous computers, we al




#linux
Today, the world is very different. Computers are everywhere, from tiny wristwatches to
giant data centers to everything in between. In addition to ubiquitous computers, we also
have a ubiquitous network connecting them together. This has created a wondrous new
age of personal empowerment and creative freedom, but over the last couple of decades
something else has been happening. A single giant corporation has been imposing its
control over most of the world's computers and deciding what you can and cannot do
with them. Fortunately, people from all over the world are doing something about it.
They are fighting to maintain control of their computers by writing their own software.
They are building Linux.
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linux
people like you and me to actually own a computer. It's hard for many people today to imagine what the world was like when only big business and big government ran all the computers. Let's just say, you couldn't get much done. <span>Today, the world is very different. Computers are everywhere, from tiny wristwatches to giant data centers to everything in between. In addition to ubiquitous computers, we also have a ubiquitous network connecting them together. This has created a wondrous new age of personal empowerment and creative freedom, but over the last couple of decades something else has been happening. A single giant corporation has been imposing its control over most of the world's computers and deciding what you can and cannot do with them. Fortunately, people from all over the world are doing something about it. They are fighting to maintain control of their computers by writing their own software. They are building Linux. Many people speak of “freedom” with regard to Linux, but I don't think most people know what this freedom really means. Freedom is the power to decide what your computer




#linux
Why Use The Command Line?
the computer, he never touches a mouse? It's because movie makers realize that we, as
human beings, instinctively know the only way to really get anything done on a computer
is by typing on a keyboard.
Most computer users today are only familiar with the graphical user interface (GUI) and
have been taught by vendors and pundits that the command line interface (CLI) is a
terrifying thing of the past. This is unfortunate, because a good command line interface is
a marvelously expressive way of communicating with a computer in much the same way
the written word is for human beings. It's been said that “graphical user interfaces make
easy tasks easy, while command line interfaces make difficult tasks possible” and this is
still very true today.
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linux
break into the ultra-secure military computer in under thirty seconds —sits down at 2 <span>Why Use The Command Line? the computer, he never touches a mouse? It's because movie makers realize that we, as human beings, instinctively know the only way to really get anything done on a computer is by typing on a keyboard. Most computer users today are only familiar with the graphical user interface (GUI) and have been taught by vendors and pundits that the command line interface (CLI) is a terrifying thing of the past. This is unfortunate, because a good command line interface is a marvelously expressive way of communicating with a computer in much the same way the written word is for human beings. It's been said that “graphical user interfaces make easy tasks easy, while command line interfaces make difficult tasks possible” and this is still very true today. Since Linux is modeled after the Unix family of operating systems, it shares the same rich heritage of command line tools as Unix. Unix came into prominence during the ea




#database
When combined, external and internal data can provide a more complete picture which, in effect, creates an "intelligence" that cannot be derived by any singular set of data.[3] Amongst myriad uses, business intelligence tools empower organizations to gain insight into new markets, to assess demand and suitability of products and services for differentmarket segments and to gauge the impact of marketing efforts.[4]
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level. In all cases, BI is most effective when it combines data derived from the market in which a company operates (external data) with data from company sources internal to the business such as financial and operations data (internal data). <span>When combined, external and internal data can provide a more complete picture which, in effect, creates an "intelligence" that cannot be derived by any singular set of data. [3] Amongst myriad uses, business intelligence tools empower organizations to gain insight into new markets, to assess demand and suitability of products and services for differentmarket segments and to gauge the impact of marketing efforts. [4]<span><body><html>

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bi
o allow for the easy interpretation of these big data. Identifying new opportunities and implementing an effective strategy based on insights can provide businesses with a competitive market advantage and long-term stability. [2] <span>Business intelligence can be used by enterprises to support a wide range of business decisions - ranging from operational to strategic. Basic operating decisions include product positioning or pricing. Strategic business decisions involve priorities, goals and directions at the broadest level. In all cases, BI is most effective when it combines data derived from the market in which a company operates (external data) with data from company sources internal to the business such as financial and operations data (internal data). When combined, external and internal data can provide a more complete picture which, in effect, creates an "intelligence" that cannot be derived by any singular set of data. [3] Amongst myriad uses, business intelligence tools empower organizations to gain insight into new markets, to assess demand and suitability of products and services for differentmarket segments and to gauge the impact of marketing efforts. [4] Often [quantify] BI applications use data gathered from a data warehouse (DW) or from a data mart, and the concepts of BI and DW combine as "BI/DW" [5] or as &q




#linux
They are fighting to maintain control of their computers by writing their own software.
They are building Linux.
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happening. A single giant corporation has been imposing its control over most of the world's computers and deciding what you can and cannot do with them. Fortunately, people from all over the world are doing something about it. <span>They are fighting to maintain control of their computers by writing their own software. They are building Linux.<span><body><html>

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linux
people like you and me to actually own a computer. It's hard for many people today to imagine what the world was like when only big business and big government ran all the computers. Let's just say, you couldn't get much done. <span>Today, the world is very different. Computers are everywhere, from tiny wristwatches to giant data centers to everything in between. In addition to ubiquitous computers, we also have a ubiquitous network connecting them together. This has created a wondrous new age of personal empowerment and creative freedom, but over the last couple of decades something else has been happening. A single giant corporation has been imposing its control over most of the world's computers and deciding what you can and cannot do with them. Fortunately, people from all over the world are doing something about it. They are fighting to maintain control of their computers by writing their own software. They are building Linux. Many people speak of “freedom” with regard to Linux, but I don't think most people know what this freedom really means. Freedom is the power to decide what your computer




#2017 #cgo #computer-science
Abstract This paper shows that many applications exhibit execution- phase-specific sensitivity towards approximation of the in- ternal subcomputations. Therefore, approximation in certain phases can be more beneficial than others. Further, this paper presents OPPROX, a novel system for application’s execution- phase-aware approximation. For a user provided error bud- get and target input parameters, OPPROX identifies different program phases and searches for profitable approximation settings for each phase of the application execution. Our evaluation with five benchmarks and four existing transfor- mations show that our phase-aware optimization on average does 14% less work for a 5% error tolerance bound and 42% less work for a 20% tolerance bound
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#2017 #cgo #computer-science
Approximate computing trades accuracy of computation for savings in execution time and/or energy by leveraging approx- imation opportunities across the computing stack, including programming languages[ 14 , 34 , 38 , 40 ], compilers[ 7 , 26 , 42 , 43 ], runtime systems[ 9 , 18 , 21 ], and hardware[ 17 , 19 , 32 , 41 ]. In addition to data-parallel and streaming applications[ 23 , 24 , 39 ] researchers proposed approximation techniques suit- able for iterative numerical computations, such as iterative solvers, large scale numerical models, and sparse matrix calculations[16, 46, 47]. Approximate computing techniques typically introduce inexactness and/or approximation by transforming compute- intensive kernels, which we call approximable blocks (ABs). Furthermore, many approximation techniques expose knobs to calibrate the approximation levels (ALs), which control the error or speedup. For instance, loop perforation [ 26 , 43 ] skips a fraction of a loop’s iterations, and exposes this fraction as a knob to control the accuracy/speedup tradeoff.
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#filosofia #platão
L ACHES : But the fact is, Nicias, that it is difficult to maintain of any study whatsoever that it ought not to be learned, because it seems to be a good idea to learn everything. So as far as this fighting in armor is concerned, e if it is a genuine branch of study, as those who teach it claim, and as Nicias says, then it ought to be learned, but if it is not a real subject and the people who propose to teach it are deceiving us, or if it is a real subject but not a very important one, what need is there to learn it?
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#2017 #cgo #computer-science
Outer-Loop Pattern. Many applications follow a compu- tation pattern in which the majority of computation is per- formed inside a main loop (we refer to it as the outer loop) encompassing all the ABs. Examples of outer loops include timestep loops in scientific simulations, convergence loops in iterative solvers, or enumerator loops for processing a series of information blocks (e.g., video frames).
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#2017 #cgo #computer-science
For large applications with multiple ABs, the trade-off between speedup and error becomes complex. Often the optimum configuration of ALs in the various ABs are not obvious, especially if the approximation of internal ABs influences the number of iterations of the outer loop. Off-line exhaustive search can be possible only for a small number of approximate program configurations[ 43 ], and the majority of the previous approaches used various heuristic search strategies based on representative inputs[ 7 , 14 , 26 , 38 ], or dynamically tuned the ALs based on the observed errors from the approximated regions[ 7 , 25 , 38 , 44 ]. While many of these techniques identify and leverage properties of specific code patterns in ABs, they typically apply the same transformation for the entire execution and/or input. Such fixed optimization choices may lead to rigid transformed programs that miss fine-grained optimization opportunities
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#2017 #cgo #computer-science
Phase-Aware Optimization. For many iterative computa- tions, the outer loop controls the precision of the final solution. Here, the iterations of the outer loop naturally segment the overall application execution into multiple phases. We define a phase as a segment of execution that has distinct speedup or error characteristics. For example, a numerical solver execu- tion can go through an initialization phase, a maturity phase, and a convergence phase. Our experimental results show that two different phases of the computation may generate different amounts of error for the same level of approximation. This exposes a new opportunity for optimization algorithms – they can select not just how much to approximate, but also in which phase to approximate. We find empirically that for some applications (such as LULESH[ 3 ]), approximating one phase may induce almost 8X less error than applying the same approximation in another phase of the executio
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#2017 #cgo #computer-science
Our Solution Approach. We present OPPROX, a system for phase-aware optimization of approximate programs. OPPROX takes as inputs: a program with tunable approximable blocks and a user-provided accuracy specification, which consists of (1) a set of representative inputs that exercise the application’s desired functionality, (2) an accuracy metric that tells how to compute the difference between the results of the exact and the approximate execution, and (3) an error budget e b that specifies how much reduction in the accuracy metric in the final output the user is ready to tolerate
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