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Flashcard 1333463223564

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#urology
Question
What are the histology cell types of renal cell carcinoma?
Answer
--clear cell (70%)
--papillary (10%)
--chromophobe (5%) - less aggressive, less mets
--collecting duct (<1%) - very aggressive, more mets
--other (<1%)


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Atrioventricular valves are leaflets not cusps.
Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure).
Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles).
Mobility is passive – chorda and papillary muscles tether and provide structural support.

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Valvular disease may be associated with multiple other secondary pathologies such as atrial and ventricular dilation, “jet lesions”, mural thrombi, endocardial fibrosis in ventricle and arrhythmias.

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Trauma & bacterial endocarditis are most common causes of acute aortic insufficiency.

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In mitral stenosis, chronic rheumatic valve disease typically takes decades to develop.

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Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis.
With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structures.

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5 types of Bioprosthetic Valves: Porcine valves, Bovine pericardial valves, Stentless valves, Homograft valves (allograft), Autograft valves

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Homograft valves are seen where aortic annulus has been heavily dmg'd d/t something like bacterial endocarditis. It replaces not just the valves, but also the aortic annulus.

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Flashcard 1343523261708

Question
Valvular disease may be associated with multiple other secondary pathologies such as [...], “jet lesions”, mural thrombi, endocardial fibrosis in ventricle and arrhythmias.
Answer
atrial and ventricular dilation


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Valvular disease may be associated with multiple other secondary pathologies such as atrial and ventricular dilation, “jet lesions”, mural thrombi, endocardial fibrosis in ventricle and arrhythmias.

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Flashcard 1343524834572

Question
Valvular disease may be associated with multiple other secondary pathologies such as atrial and ventricular dilation, [...], mural thrombi, endocardial fibrosis in ventricle and arrhythmias.
Answer
“jet lesions”


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Valvular disease may be associated with multiple other secondary pathologies such as atrial and ventricular dilation, “jet lesions”, mural thrombi, endocardial fibrosis in ventricle and arrhythmias.

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Flashcard 1343526407436

Question
Valvular disease may be associated with multiple other secondary pathologies such as atrial and ventricular dilation, “jet lesions”, [...], endocardial fibrosis in ventricle and arrhythmias.
Answer
mural thrombi


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Valvular disease may be associated with multiple other secondary pathologies such as atrial and ventricular dilation, “jet lesions”, mural thrombi, endocardial fibrosis in ventricle and arrhythmias.

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Flashcard 1343529553164

Question
Valvular disease may be associated with multiple other secondary pathologies such as atrial and ventricular dilation, “jet lesions”, mural thrombi, [...] and arrhythmias.
Answer
endocardial fibrosis in ventricle


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Valvular disease may be associated with multiple other secondary pathologies such as atrial and ventricular dilation, “jet lesions”, mural thrombi, endocardial fibrosis in ventricle and arrhythmias.

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Flashcard 1343531126028

Question
Valvular disease may be associated with multiple other secondary pathologies such as atrial and ventricular dilation, “jet lesions”, mural thrombi, endocardial fibrosis in ventricle and [...].
Answer
arrhythmias


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Valvular disease may be associated with multiple other secondary pathologies such as atrial and ventricular dilation, “jet lesions”, mural thrombi, endocardial fibrosis in ventricle and arrhythmias.

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Abnormal valves are at increased risk of secondarily developing bacterial endocarditis due to abnormal hemodynamic parameters. This is one of the reasons why prophylactic abx are considered for pts with abnormal valves.

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Flashcard 1343534009612

Question
[...] are at increased risk of secondarily developing bacterial endocarditis due to abnormal hemodynamic parameters. This is one of the reasons why prophylactic abx are considered for pts with abnormal valves.
Answer
Abnormal valves


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Abnormal valves are at increased risk of secondarily developing bacterial endocarditis due to abnormal hemodynamic parameters. This is one of the reasons why prophylactic abx are considered for pts with







Flashcard 1343535582476

Question
Abnormal valves are at increased risk of secondarily developing [...] due to abnormal hemodynamic parameters. This is one of the reasons why prophylactic abx are considered for pts with abnormal valves.
Answer
bacterial endocarditis


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Abnormal valves are at increased risk of secondarily developing bacterial endocarditis due to abnormal hemodynamic parameters. This is one of the reasons why prophylactic abx are considered for pts with abnormal valves.







Flashcard 1343537155340

Question
Abnormal valves are at increased risk of secondarily developing bacterial endocarditis due to [...]. This is one of the reasons why prophylactic abx are considered for pts with abnormal valves.
Answer
abnormal hemodynamic parameters


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Abnormal valves are at increased risk of secondarily developing bacterial endocarditis due to abnormal hemodynamic parameters. This is one of the reasons why prophylactic abx are considered for pts with abnormal valves.







Flashcard 1343538728204

Question
Abnormal valves are at increased risk of secondarily developing bacterial endocarditis due to abnormal hemodynamic parameters. This is one of the reasons why [...] are considered for pts with abnormal valves.
Answer
prophylactic abx


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Abnormal valves are at increased risk of secondarily developing bacterial endocarditis due to abnormal hemodynamic parameters. This is one of the reasons why prophylactic abx are considered for pts with abnormal valves.







Flashcard 1343540301068

Question
Abnormal valves are at increased risk of secondarily developing bacterial endocarditis due to abnormal hemodynamic parameters. This is one of the reasons why prophylactic abx are considered for pts with [...].
Answer
abnormal valves


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Abnormal valves are at increased risk of secondarily developing bacterial endocarditis due to abnormal hemodynamic parameters. This is one of the reasons why prophylactic abx are considered for pts with abnormal valves.







Flashcard 1343542660364

Question
[...] & bacterial endocarditis are most common causes of acute aortic insufficiency.
Answer
Trauma


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Trauma & bacterial endocarditis are most common causes of acute aortic insufficiency.

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Flashcard 1343544233228

Question
Trauma & [...] endocarditis are most common causes of acute aortic insufficiency.
Answer
bacterial


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Trauma & bacterial endocarditis are most common causes of acute aortic insufficiency.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343545806092

Question
Trauma & bacterial endocarditis are most common causes of [...].
Answer
acute aortic insufficiency


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Trauma & bacterial endocarditis are most common causes of acute aortic insufficiency.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Other causes of aortic insufficiency include: Trauma, Periprocedural complications (iatrogenic), and Aortic dissection

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Flashcard 1343549213964

Question
Other causes of aortic insufficiency include: [...], Periprocedural complications (iatrogenic), and Aortic dissection
Answer
Trauma


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Other causes of aortic insufficiency include: Trauma, Periprocedural complications (iatrogenic), and Aortic dissection

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Flashcard 1343550786828

Question
Other causes of aortic insufficiency include: Trauma, [...], and Aortic dissection
Answer
Periprocedural complications (iatrogenic)


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Other causes of aortic insufficiency include: Trauma, Periprocedural complications (iatrogenic), and Aortic dissection

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Flashcard 1343552359692

Question
Other causes of aortic insufficiency include: Trauma, Periprocedural complications (iatrogenic), and [...]
Answer
Aortic dissection


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Other causes of aortic insufficiency include: Trauma, Periprocedural complications (iatrogenic), and Aortic dissection

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343554718988

Question
In [...], chronic rheumatic valve disease typically takes decades to develop.
Answer
mitral stenosis


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In mitral stenosis, chronic rheumatic valve disease typically takes decades to develop.

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Flashcard 1343556291852

Question
In mitral stenosis, [...] typically takes decades to develop.
Answer
chronic rheumatic valve disease


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In mitral stenosis, chronic rheumatic valve disease typically takes decades to develop.

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Flashcard 1343557864716

Question
In mitral stenosis, chronic rheumatic valve disease typically takes [...] to develop.
Answer
decades


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In mitral stenosis, chronic rheumatic valve disease typically takes decades to develop.

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Acute rheumatic valvulitis occurs as a consequence of post‐streptococcal autoimmune disease – uncommon today in North America.
It's associated with Aschoff nodules which can persist for years in heart (granuloma‐like nodules in myocardium).

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Flashcard 1343561272588

Question
[...] occurs as a consequence of post‐streptococcal autoimmune disease – uncommon today in North America.
It's associated with Aschoff nodules which can persist for years in heart (granuloma‐like nodules in myocardium).
Answer
Acute rheumatic valvulitis


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Acute rheumatic valvulitis occurs as a consequence of post‐streptococcal autoimmune disease – uncommon today in North America. It's associated with Aschoff nodules which can persist for years in heart (granul

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343562845452

Question
Acute rheumatic valvulitis occurs as a consequence of [...] disease – uncommon today in North America.
It's associated with Aschoff nodules which can persist for years in heart (granuloma‐like nodules in myocardium).
Answer
post‐streptococcal autoimmune


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Acute rheumatic valvulitis occurs as a consequence of post‐streptococcal autoimmune disease – uncommon today in North America. It's associated with Aschoff nodules which can persist for years in heart (granuloma‐like nodules in myocardium).</ht

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343564418316

Question
Acute rheumatic valvulitis occurs as a consequence of post‐streptococcal autoimmune disease – uncommon today in North America.
It's associated with [...] which can persist for years in heart (granuloma‐like nodules in myocardium).
Answer
Aschoff nodules


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Acute rheumatic valvulitis occurs as a consequence of post‐streptococcal autoimmune disease – uncommon today in North America. It's associated with Aschoff nodules which can persist for years in heart (granuloma‐like nodules in myocardium).

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343565991180

Question
Acute rheumatic valvulitis occurs as a consequence of post‐streptococcal autoimmune disease – uncommon today in North America.
It's associated with Aschoff nodules which can persist for [...] in heart (granuloma‐like nodules in myocardium).
Answer
years


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Acute rheumatic valvulitis occurs as a consequence of post‐streptococcal autoimmune disease – uncommon today in North America. It's associated with Aschoff nodules which can persist for years in heart (granuloma‐like nodules in myocardium).

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343567564044

Question
Acute rheumatic valvulitis occurs as a consequence of post‐streptococcal autoimmune disease – uncommon today in North America.
It's associated with Aschoff nodules which can persist for years in heart ([...]‐like nodules in myocardium).
Answer
granuloma


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html>Acute rheumatic valvulitis occurs as a consequence of post‐streptococcal autoimmune disease – uncommon today in North America. It's associated with Aschoff nodules which can persist for years in heart (granuloma‐like nodules in myocardium).<html>

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Flashcard 1343569136908

Question
Acute rheumatic valvulitis occurs as a consequence of post‐streptococcal autoimmune disease – uncommon today in North America.
It's associated with Aschoff nodules which can persist for years in heart (granuloma‐like nodules in [...]).
Answer
myocardium


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pan>Acute rheumatic valvulitis occurs as a consequence of post‐streptococcal autoimmune disease – uncommon today in North America. It's associated with Aschoff nodules which can persist for years in heart (granuloma‐like nodules in myocardium).<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343571496204

Question
Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: [...] lead to increased risk of endocarditis.
With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structures.
Answer
Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium)


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Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis. With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343573331212

Question
Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves ([...]) lead to increased risk of endocarditis.
With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structures.
Answer
focal disruption of valvular endothelium


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Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis. With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thromb

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343574904076

Question
Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis.
With [...] disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structures.
Answer
endothelial


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Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis. With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343576476940

Question
Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis.
With endothelial disruption, [...] is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structures.
Answer
thrombus


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Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis. With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structure

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343578049804

Question
Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis.
With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient [...] allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structures.
Answer
bacteremia


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head>Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis. With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structures.<html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343579622668

Question
Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis.
With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to [...] the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structures.
Answer
colonize


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nesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis. With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to <span>colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structures.<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343581195532

Question
Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis.
With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More [...] will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structures.
Answer
thrombus


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itis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis. With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More <span>thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structures.<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343582768396

Question
Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis.
With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and [...] continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structures.
Answer
bacteria


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al disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis. With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and <span>bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structures.<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343584341260

Question
Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis.
With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing [...] to underlying structures.
Answer
injury


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um) lead to increased risk of endocarditis. With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing <span>injury to underlying structures.<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343586700556

Question
5 types of Bioprosthetic Valves: [...] valves, Bovine pericardial valves, Stentless valves, Homograft valves (allograft), Autograft valves
Answer
Porcine


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5 types of Bioprosthetic Valves: Porcine valves, Bovine pericardial valves, Stentless valves, Homograft valves (allograft), Autograft valves

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343588273420

Question
5 types of Bioprosthetic Valves: Porcine valves, [...] valves, Stentless valves, Homograft valves (allograft), Autograft valves
Answer
Bovine pericardial


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5 types of Bioprosthetic Valves: Porcine valves, Bovine pericardial valves, Stentless valves, Homograft valves (allograft), Autograft valves

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343589846284

Question
5 types of Bioprosthetic Valves: Porcine valves, Bovine pericardial valves, [...] valves, Homograft valves (allograft), Autograft valves
Answer
Stentless


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5 types of Bioprosthetic Valves: Porcine valves, Bovine pericardial valves, Stentless valves, Homograft valves (allograft), Autograft valves

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343591419148

Question
5 types of Bioprosthetic Valves: Porcine valves, Bovine pericardial valves, Stentless valves, [...] valves (allograft), Autograft valves
Answer
Homograft


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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5 types of Bioprosthetic Valves: Porcine valves, Bovine pericardial valves, Stentless valves, Homograft valves (allograft), Autograft valves

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343592992012

Question
5 types of Bioprosthetic Valves: Porcine valves, Bovine pericardial valves, Stentless valves, Homograft valves (allograft), [...] valves
Answer
Autograft


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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5 types of Bioprosthetic Valves: Porcine valves, Bovine pericardial valves, Stentless valves, Homograft valves (allograft), Autograft valves

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343596924172

Question
[...] valves are seen where aortic annulus has been heavily dmg'd d/t something like bacterial endocarditis. It replaces not just the valves, but also the aortic annulus.
Answer
Homograft


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Homograft valves are seen where aortic annulus has been heavily dmg'd d/t something like bacterial endocarditis. It replaces not just the valves, but also the aortic annulus.<

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343598497036

Question
Homograft valves are seen where [...] has been heavily dmg'd d/t something like bacterial endocarditis. It replaces not just the valves, but also the aortic annulus.
Answer
aortic annulus


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Homograft valves are seen where aortic annulus has been heavily dmg'd d/t something like bacterial endocarditis. It replaces not just the valves, but also the aortic annulus.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343601642764

Question
Homograft valves are seen where aortic annulus has been heavily dmg'd d/t something like [...]. It replaces not just the valves, but also the aortic annulus.
Answer
bacterial endocarditis


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Homograft valves are seen where aortic annulus has been heavily dmg'd d/t something like bacterial endocarditis. It replaces not just the valves, but also the aortic annulus.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343604264204

Question
[...] valves are leaflets not cusps.
Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure).
Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles).
Mobility is passive – chorda and papillary muscles tether and provide structural support.
Answer
Atrioventricular


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Atrioventricular valves are leaflets not cusps. Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure). Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles). Mobility

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Flashcard 1343605837068

Question
Atrioventricular valves are [...] not cusps.
Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure).
Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles).
Mobility is passive – chorda and papillary muscles tether and provide structural support.
Answer
leaflets


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Atrioventricular valves are leaflets not cusps. Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure). Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles). Mobility is passive – chorda

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343607409932

Question
Atrioventricular valves are leaflets not [...].
Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure).
Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles).
Mobility is passive – chorda and papillary muscles tether and provide structural support.
Answer
cusps


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Atrioventricular valves are leaflets not cusps. Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure). Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles). Mobility is passive – chorda and papil

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343608982796

Question
Atrioventricular valves are leaflets not cusps.
Both valves have [...].
Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles).
Mobility is passive – chorda and papillary muscles tether and provide structural support.
Answer
partial annuli (ring structure)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Atrioventricular valves are leaflets not cusps. Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure). Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles). Mobility is passive – chorda and papillary muscles tether and provide structural support.</sp

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343610555660

Question
Atrioventricular valves are leaflets not cusps.
Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure).
Valves are attached to the [...].
Mobility is passive – chorda and papillary muscles tether and provide structural support.
Answer
subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Atrioventricular valves are leaflets not cusps. Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure). Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles). Mobility is passive – chorda and papillary muscles tether and provide structural support.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343612128524

Question
Atrioventricular valves are leaflets not cusps.
Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure).
Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus ([...]).
Mobility is passive – chorda and papillary muscles tether and provide structural support.
Answer
chorda and papillary muscles


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Atrioventricular valves are leaflets not cusps. Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure). Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles). Mobility is passive – chorda and papillary muscles tether and provide structural support.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343613701388

Question
Atrioventricular valves are leaflets not cusps.
Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure).
Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles).
Mobility is [...] – chorda and papillary muscles tether and provide structural support.
Answer
passive


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Atrioventricular valves are leaflets not cusps. Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure). Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles). Mobility is passive – chorda and papillary muscles tether and provide structural support.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343616060684

Question
Valvular disease can be acute ([...]) or chronic (chronic rheumatic valvulitis) disease.
It can be a primary disease or secondary to some other pathological process (e.g. MR with atherosclerotic heart disease b/c impedes ability of leaflets to come together and form a good seal).
May be associated with systemic conditions (e.g. Marfan Syndrome).
Answer
endocarditis


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Valvular disease can be acute (endocarditis) or chronic (chronic rheumatic valvulitis) disease. It can be a primary disease or secondary to some other pathological process (e.g. MR with atherosclerotic heart disease b/c impe

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Flashcard 1343617633548

Question
Valvular disease can be acute (endocarditis) or chronic ([...]) disease.
It can be a primary disease or secondary to some other pathological process (e.g. MR with atherosclerotic heart disease b/c impedes ability of leaflets to come together and form a good seal).
May be associated with systemic conditions (e.g. Marfan Syndrome).
Answer
chronic rheumatic valvulitis


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Valvular disease can be acute (endocarditis) or chronic (chronic rheumatic valvulitis) disease. It can be a primary disease or secondary to some other pathological process (e.g. MR with atherosclerotic heart disease b/c impedes ability of leaflets to come together a

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343619206412

Question
Valvular disease can be acute (endocarditis) or chronic (chronic rheumatic valvulitis) disease.
It can be a primary disease or secondary to some other pathological process (e.g. [...]).
May be associated with systemic conditions (e.g. Marfan Syndrome).
Answer
MR with atherosclerotic heart disease b/c impedes ability of leaflets to come together and form a good seal


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Valvular disease can be acute (endocarditis) or chronic (chronic rheumatic valvulitis) disease. It can be a primary disease or secondary to some other pathological process (e.g. MR with atherosclerotic heart disease b/c impedes ability of leaflets to come together and form a good seal). May be associated with systemic conditions (e.g. Marfan Syndrome).

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343620779276

Question
Valvular disease can be acute (endocarditis) or chronic (chronic rheumatic valvulitis) disease.
It can be a primary disease or secondary to some other pathological process (e.g. MR with atherosclerotic heart disease b/c [...]).
May be associated with systemic conditions (e.g. Marfan Syndrome).
Answer
impedes ability of leaflets to come together and form a good seal


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Valvular disease can be acute (endocarditis) or chronic (chronic rheumatic valvulitis) disease. It can be a primary disease or secondary to some other pathological process (e.g. MR with atherosclerotic heart disease b/c impedes ability of leaflets to come together and form a good seal). May be associated with systemic conditions (e.g. Marfan Syndrome).<html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343622352140

Question
Valvular disease can be acute (endocarditis) or chronic (chronic rheumatic valvulitis) disease.
It can be a primary disease or secondary to some other pathological process (e.g. MR with atherosclerotic heart disease b/c impedes ability of leaflets to come together and form a good seal).
May be associated with [...].
Answer
systemic conditions (e.g. Marfan Syndrome)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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vulitis) disease. It can be a primary disease or secondary to some other pathological process (e.g. MR with atherosclerotic heart disease b/c impedes ability of leaflets to come together and form a good seal). May be associated with <span>systemic conditions (e.g. Marfan Syndrome).<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343623925004

Question
Valvular disease can be acute (endocarditis) or chronic (chronic rheumatic valvulitis) disease.
It can be a primary disease or secondary to some other pathological process (e.g. MR with atherosclerotic heart disease b/c impedes ability of leaflets to come together and form a good seal).
May be associated with systemic conditions (e.g. [...]).
Answer
Marfan Syndrome


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can be a primary disease or secondary to some other pathological process (e.g. MR with atherosclerotic heart disease b/c impedes ability of leaflets to come together and form a good seal). May be associated with systemic conditions (e.g. <span>Marfan Syndrome).<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343626284300

Question
Aortic Insufficiency is associated with:
-Lesions of the [...]
-Lesions with adjoining ascending aorta causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away)
-Acute or chronic insufficiency
-Associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling (esp. dilatation)
Answer
valve


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Aortic Insufficiency is associated with: -Lesions of the valve -Lesions with adjoining ascending aorta causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away) -Acute or chronic insuf

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343627857164

Question
Aortic Insufficiency is associated with:
-Lesions of the valve
-Lesions with [...] causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away)
-Acute or chronic insufficiency
-Associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling (esp. dilatation)
Answer
adjoining ascending aorta


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Aortic Insufficiency is associated with: -Lesions of the valve -Lesions with adjoining ascending aorta causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away) -Acute or chronic insufficiency -Associated with left vent

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343629430028

Question
Aortic Insufficiency is associated with:
-Lesions of the valve
-Lesions with adjoining ascending aorta causing [...] and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away)
-Acute or chronic insufficiency
-Associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling (esp. dilatation)
Answer
annular dilatation


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Aortic Insufficiency is associated with: -Lesions of the valve -Lesions with adjoining ascending aorta causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away) -Acute or chronic insufficiency -Associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and rem

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343631002892

Question
Aortic Insufficiency is associated with:
-Lesions of the valve
-Lesions with adjoining ascending aorta causing annular dilatation and [...]
-Acute or chronic insufficiency
-Associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling (esp. dilatation)
Answer
loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Open it
Aortic Insufficiency is associated with: -Lesions of the valve -Lesions with adjoining ascending aorta causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away) -Acute or chronic insufficiency -Associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling (esp. dilatation)

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343632575756

Question
Aortic Insufficiency is associated with:
-Lesions of the valve
-Lesions with adjoining ascending aorta causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away)
-[...]
-Associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling (esp. dilatation)
Answer
Acute or chronic insufficiency


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Aortic Insufficiency is associated with: -Lesions of the valve -Lesions with adjoining ascending aorta causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away) -Acute or chronic insufficiency -Associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling (esp. dilatation)<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343634148620

Question
Aortic Insufficiency is associated with:
-Lesions of the valve
-Lesions with adjoining ascending aorta causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away)
-Acute or chronic insufficiency
-Associated with [...] and remodelling (esp. dilatation)
Answer
left ventricular hypertrophy


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Lesions of the valve -Lesions with adjoining ascending aorta causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away) -Acute or chronic insufficiency -Associated with <span>left ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling (esp. dilatation)<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343635721484

Question
Aortic Insufficiency is associated with:
-Lesions of the valve
-Lesions with adjoining ascending aorta causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away)
-Acute or chronic insufficiency
-Associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and [...]
Answer
remodelling (esp. dilatation)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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s with adjoining ascending aorta causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away) -Acute or chronic insufficiency -Associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and <span>remodelling (esp. dilatation)<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343637294348

Question
Aortic Insufficiency is associated with:
-Lesions of the valve
-Lesions with adjoining ascending aorta causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away)
-Acute or chronic insufficiency
-Associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling (esp. [...])
Answer
dilatation


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scending aorta causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away) -Acute or chronic insufficiency -Associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling (esp. <span>dilatation)<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343639653644

Question
Aortic insufficiency:
[...] or aortopathy often associated with ascending aortic aneurysms. The aneurysm pulls the root apart so valve cusps can't touch each other.
Answer
chronic aortitis


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Aortic insufficiency: chronic aortitis or aortopathy often associated with ascending aortic aneurysms. The aneurysm pulls the root apart so valve cusps can't touch each other.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343641226508

Question
Aortic insufficiency:
chronic aortitis or [...] often associated with ascending aortic aneurysms. The aneurysm pulls the root apart so valve cusps can't touch each other.
Answer
aortopathy


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Aortic insufficiency: chronic aortitis or aortopathy often associated with ascending aortic aneurysms. The aneurysm pulls the root apart so valve cusps can't touch each other.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343642799372

Question
Aortic insufficiency:
chronic aortitis or aortopathy often associated with [...]. The aneurysm pulls the root apart so valve cusps can't touch each other.
Answer
ascending aortic aneurysms


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Aortic insufficiency: chronic aortitis or aortopathy often associated with ascending aortic aneurysms. The aneurysm pulls the root apart so valve cusps can't touch each other.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343644372236

Question
Aortic insufficiency:
chronic aortitis or aortopathy often associated with ascending aortic aneurysms. The aneurysm pulls the [...] apart so valve cusps can't touch each other.
Answer
root


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Aortic insufficiency: chronic aortitis or aortopathy often associated with ascending aortic aneurysms. The aneurysm pulls the root apart so valve cusps can't touch each other.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343646731532

Question
Mitral stenosis: most common cause is [...]. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.
Answer
chronic rheumatic valvulitis


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.<

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Flashcard 1343648304396

Question
Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. [...] of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.
Answer
Fibrous thickening


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Open it
Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343649877260

Question
Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of [...] with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.
Answer
leaflets


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Open it
Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343651450124

Question
Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with [...], shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.
Answer
thickening


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Open it
Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343653022988

Question
Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, [...] and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.
Answer
shortening


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Open it
Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343654595852

Question
Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and [...] of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.
Answer
fusion


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.

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Flashcard 1343656168716

Question
Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of [...] (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.
Answer
chordae tendinae


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Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.

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Flashcard 1343657741580

Question
Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of [...]) – commissural fusion also common.
Answer
fibrous tissue thickening


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Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.

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Flashcard 1343659314444

Question
Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – [...] also common.
Answer
commissural fusion


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Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.

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Flashcard 1343661673740

Question
[...] -> “Fish mouth” deformity of Mitral valve.
Answer
Post‐inflammatory mitral valvular stenosis


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Post‐inflammatory mitral valvular stenosis -> “Fish mouth” deformity of Mitral valve.

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Flashcard 1343663246604

Question
Post‐inflammatory mitral valvular stenosis -> [...] deformity of Mitral valve.
Answer
“Fish mouth”


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Post‐inflammatory mitral valvular stenosis -> “Fish mouth” deformity of Mitral valve.

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Flashcard 1343665605900

Question
[...] can be associated with enlarged left atrium, mural thrombi, pulmonary hypertension and arrhythmias.
Answer
Mitral Stenosis


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Mitral Stenosis can be associated with enlarged left atrium, mural thrombi, pulmonary hypertension and arrhythmias.

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Flashcard 1343667178764

Question
Mitral Stenosis can be associated with [...], mural thrombi, pulmonary hypertension and arrhythmias.
Answer
enlarged left atrium


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Mitral Stenosis can be associated with enlarged left atrium, mural thrombi, pulmonary hypertension and arrhythmias.

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Flashcard 1343668751628

Question
Mitral Stenosis can be associated with enlarged left atrium, [...], pulmonary hypertension and arrhythmias.
Answer
mural thrombi


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Mitral Stenosis can be associated with enlarged left atrium, mural thrombi, pulmonary hypertension and arrhythmias.

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Flashcard 1343670324492

Question
Mitral Stenosis can be associated with enlarged left atrium, mural thrombi, [...] and arrhythmias.
Answer
pulmonary hypertension


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Mitral Stenosis can be associated with enlarged left atrium, mural thrombi, pulmonary hypertension and arrhythmias.

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Flashcard 1343671897356

Question
Mitral Stenosis can be associated with enlarged left atrium, mural thrombi, pulmonary hypertension and [...].
Answer
arrhythmias


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Mitral Stenosis can be associated with enlarged left atrium, mural thrombi, pulmonary hypertension and arrhythmias.

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Flashcard 1343674256652

Question
Other causes for mitral insufficiency include: [...], Ischemic mitral regurgitation, Cardiac myxoma interfering with valve orifice, Endocarditis, Papillary muscle rupture
Answer
Mitral annular calcification


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Other causes for mitral insufficiency include: Mitral annular calcification, Ischemic mitral regurgitation, Cardiac myxoma interfering with valve orifice, Endocarditis, Papillary muscle rupture

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Flashcard 1343675829516

Question
Other causes for mitral insufficiency include: Mitral annular calcification, [...], Cardiac myxoma interfering with valve orifice, Endocarditis, Papillary muscle rupture
Answer
Ischemic mitral regurgitation


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Other causes for mitral insufficiency include: Mitral annular calcification, Ischemic mitral regurgitation, Cardiac myxoma interfering with valve orifice, Endocarditis, Papillary muscle rupture

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