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Flashcard 1409833897228

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#obgyn
Question
-decreased [...] with advancing maternal age
-increased risk of spontaneous abortion & increased risk of chromosomal abnormality with advancing maternal age
Answer
fertility


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Preconception - Targeted Review - Age
What to ask about 'Age' in a preconception review: -decreased fertility -increased risk of spontaneous abortion & increased risk of chromosomal abnormality with advancing maternal age







Flashcard 1409837042956

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#obgyn
Question
-increased risk of spontaneous abortion & increased risk of [...] with advancing maternal age
Answer
chromosomal abnormality


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Preconception - Targeted Review - Age
What to ask about 'Age' in a preconception review: -decreased fertility -increased risk of spontaneous abortion & increased risk of chromosomal abnormality with advancing maternal age







#rhetoric
productive arguments use [...] tense, the language of choices and decisions.

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Flashcard 1419515661580

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#obgyn
Question
What is the fetal 'position'? What are the parts? How is it determined?
Answer
how presenting fetus part relates to pelvis
- occiput (vertex presentation)
- sacrum (breech ")
- mentum (face ")
e.g. LOA if vertex

determined via vag exam (location of sagittal suture & fontanelles)


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Flashcard 1419517496588

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#obgyn
Question
What is the fetal 'station'?
Answer
level of presenting part in relation to ischial spines


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Flashcard 1419519331596

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#obgyn
Question
What are the 7 mechanisms/movements of labour?
Answer
1. engagement (BPD of fetal head passes through pelvic inlet)
2. descent
3. flexion (of fetal head)
4. internal rotation (rotation of fetal head to occipitoant/post position)
5. extension
6. ext rotation (restitution; head aligns with shoulders)
7. expulsion (ant shoulder delivery followed by rest of body)


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Flashcard 1419521166604

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#obgyn
Question
What should be done in the initial assessment of labour?
Answer
- vital signs (reassuring FHR)
- Hx (from pt + antenatal records for risk stratification, GA, parity, GBS status, etc)
- Px
o strength, timing, duration of contractions
o deg of maternal distress
o membrane status, quality of fluid if ruptured
o fetal lie & presentation
o presence of show
o speculum exam if needed
o vag exam for dilation, effacement, station, position of cervix
- Lab (G&S, urinalysis & b/w if other conditions like UTI/HTN)
- admission (for active labour or conditions needing in-pt observation)


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Te demand curve
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction
The demand function represents buyers' behavior.

Prices influence consumers' purchase decisions. The demand function can be depicted as a negatively sloped demand curve.

  • If all other factors are equal, as the price of a good rises, consumer demand falls. This is mainly due to the availability of substitutes, which are goods that perform similar functions.
  • As the price of a good falls, consumer demand rises.

Therefore, there is an inverse relationship between the price of a good and the amount that consumers are willing to buy. The demand curve normally slopes downward. It tells the analyst the quantity that consumers are willing to buy for each possible price when all other influences on consumers' planned purchases remain the same.

Example 1

Refer to the graph below. What is the quantity of cassettes demanded when their price is $4.00 per week?

Answer: Two cassettes per week. The demand curve tells how much is demanded at each price. To determine the quantity demanded, find $4.00 on the vertical axis and read across until you meet the demand curve. Then read the quantity from the horizontal axis.

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Subject 2. Basic Principles and Concepts
The Demand Function and the Demand Curve The demand function represents buyers' behavior. Prices influence consumers' purchase decisions. The demand function can be depicted as a negatively sloped demand curve. If all other factors are equal, as the price of a good rises, consumer demand falls. This is mainly due to the availability of substitutes, which are goods that perform similar functions. As the price of a good falls, consumer demand rises. Therefore, there is an inverse relationship between the price of a good and the amount that consumers are willing to buy. The demand curve normally slopes downward. It tells the analyst the quantity that consumers are willing to buy for each possible price when all other influences on consumers' planned purchases remain the same. Example 1 Refer to the graph below. What is the quantity of cassettes demanded when their price is $4.00 per week? Answer: Two cassettes per week. The demand curve tells how much is demanded at each price. To determine the quantity demanded, find $4.00 on the vertical axis and read across until you meet the demand curve. Then read the quantity from the horizontal axis. When any factor that influences buying plans, other than the price of the good, changes, there is a change in demand for that good. When the quantity of the good tha




Demand curve shifts
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction
When any factor that influences buying plans, other than the price of the good, changes, there is a change in demand for that good. When the quantity of the good that people plan to buy changes at each and every price, there is a new demand curve. These factors include changes in income, number of consumers in the market, changes in the price of a related good, etc.

Example 2

Assume the graph below reflects demand in the automobile market. Which arrow best captures the impact of increased consumer income on the automobile market?

Answer: D. Income is a shift factor of demand. An increase in income increases the number of automobiles demanded at each price. Therefore demand has shifted to the right.

  • When demand increases, the quantity that people plan to buy increases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts rightward.
  • When demand decreases, the quantity that people plan to buy decreases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts leftward.

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Subject 2. Basic Principles and Concepts
e demand curve tells how much is demanded at each price. To determine the quantity demanded, find $4.00 on the vertical axis and read across until you meet the demand curve. Then read the quantity from the horizontal axis. <span>When any factor that influences buying plans, other than the price of the good, changes, there is a change in demand for that good. When the quantity of the good that people plan to buy changes at each and every price, there is a new demand curve. These factors include changes in income, number of consumers in the market, changes in the price of a related good, etc. Example 2 Assume the graph below reflects demand in the automobile market. Which arrow best captures the impact of increased consumer income on the automobile market? Answer: D. Income is a shift factor of demand. An increase in income increases the number of automobiles demanded at each price. Therefore demand has shifted to the right. When demand increases, the quantity that people plan to buy increases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts rightward. When demand decreases, the quantity that people plan to buy decreases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts leftward. A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand The demand curve isolates the impact of price on the amount of a product purchased.&




Flashcard 1419527195916

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#obgyn
Question
What are indirect measures of fetal health?
Answer
- presence of mec/blood in amniotic fluid
- mat temp


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Flashcard 1419529817356

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What are the methods of FHR monitoring?
Answer
1. intermittent ausc w/ doppler (q15-30min for 1 min following a contraction in active phase of 1st stage; q5min during 2nd stage when pushing)

If non-reassuring IA,
2. EFM (continuous)


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A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction



The demand curve isolates the impact of price on the amount of a product purchased.

  • A change in quantity demanded (caused by price change ONLY) is a movement along a demand curve from one point to another.
  • Changes in other factors (anything other than price), such as income, tastes, expectations, and the prices of closely related goods, will shift the entire demand curve inwards or outwards. This is referred to as change in demand.

Example 3

Refer to the graph below. Consumers began purchasing more of a product due to a decrease in price. Which arrow best represents this statement?

Answer: C. A change in price causes a movement along the demand curve. When price falls, the movement is downward and to the right.

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Subject 2. Basic Principles and Concepts
ople plan to buy increases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts rightward. When demand decreases, the quantity that people plan to buy decreases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts leftward. <span>A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand The demand curve isolates the impact of price on the amount of a product purchased. A change in quantity demanded (caused by price change ONLY) is a movement along a demand curve from one point to another. Changes in other factors (anything other than price), such as income, tastes, expectations, and the prices of closely related goods, will shift the entire demand curve inwards or outwards. This is referred to as change in demand. Example 3 Refer to the graph below. Consumers began purchasing more of a product due to a decrease in price. Which arrow best represents this statement? Answer: C. A change in price causes a movement along the demand curve. When price falls, the movement is downward and to the right. The Supply Function and the Supply Curve Resources and technology determine what it is possible to produce. Supply reflects a decision about whic




Flashcard 1419534798092

Tags
#obgyn
Question
Contractions in active labour should be:
Answer
mod-strong, last ~45 sec, q2-3min


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#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction
The Supply Function and the Supply Curve

Resources and technology determine what it is possible to produce. Supply reflects a decision about which technologically feasible items are best to produce. The supply function represents sellers' behavior.

Prices influence producers' supply decisions. The supply function can be depicted as a positively sloped supply curve.

  • If all other factors are equal, a higher price will increase the producer's incentive to supply the good. Higher prices increase the producer's profit, which is the excess of sales revenue over the cost of production.
  • As the price of a good falls, its supply falls as well.

Therefore, there is a direct relationship between the price of a good and the amount of that good that will be supplied. The supply curve slopes upward. It tells the analyst the quantity that producers are willing to supply for each price when all other influences on producers' planned sales remain the same.

Example 4

The graph below displays the quantity associated with price in a supply table.

To find the quantity supplied at a price of $1, extend a horizontal line from $1 to the supply curve and drop a vertical line down to the quantity axis. These lines will intersect at 0. This is the quantity that will be associated with a price of $1 on a supply table.

The law of supply results from the general tendency for the marginal cost of producing a good or service to increase as the quantity produced increases.

A supply curve is also a minimum-supply-price curve. The greater the quantity produced, the higher the price a firm must be offered to be willing to produce that quantity.

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Subject 2. Basic Principles and Concepts
Which arrow best represents this statement? Answer: C. A change in price causes a movement along the demand curve. When price falls, the movement is downward and to the right. <span>The Supply Function and the Supply Curve Resources and technology determine what it is possible to produce. Supply reflects a decision about which technologically feasible items are best to produce. The supply function represents sellers' behavior. Prices influence producers' supply decisions. The supply function can be depicted as a positively sloped supply curve. If all other factors are equal, a higher price will increase the producer's incentive to supply the good. Higher prices increase the producer's profit, which is the excess of sales revenue over the cost of production. As the price of a good falls, its supply falls as well. Therefore, there is a direct relationship between the price of a good and the amount of that good that will be supplied. The supply curve slopes upward. It tells the analyst the quantity that producers are willing to supply for each price when all other influences on producers' planned sales remain the same. Example 4 The graph below displays the quantity associated with price in a supply table. To find the quantity supplied at a price of $1, extend a horizontal line from $1 to the supply curve and drop a vertical line down to the quantity axis. These lines will intersect at 0. This is the quantity that will be associated with a price of $1 on a supply table. The law of supply results from the general tendency for the marginal cost of producing a good or service to increase as the quantity produced increases. A supply curve is also a minimum-supply-price curve. The greater the quantity produced, the higher the price a firm must be offered to be willing to produce that quantity. A Change in Supply Changes in other factors will influence the amount of products that producers are willing to supply. These factors include the




Flashcard 1419537681676

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#obgyn
Question
What can you consider for ineffective contractions?
Answer
AROM, prostaglandins, oxy


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Flashcard 1419539516684

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What are the 4 basic shapes of the human pelvis which can impact labour & position of baby?
Answer
- gynecoid
- android
- anthropoid
- platypelloid


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Flashcard 1419541875980

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What are factors to consider for OB analgesia/anesthesia?
Answer
- effectiveness
- t 1/2
- s/e
- allergies
- contraindications


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Flashcard 1419543710988

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What are the methods of OB anesthesia?
Answer
general anesthesia:
- comfort measures
- narcotic analgesics
- inhalation analg
- general anesthetic

local anesthesia:
- local
- pudendal block
- paracervical block

regional anesthesia:
- epidural
- spinal


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Flashcard 1419545545996

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#obgyn
Question
What are examples of comfort measures in labour?
Answer
change in mat position, counter-pressure on lower back, aqua therapy, massage, breathing techniques, supportive care


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A Change in the Quantity Supplied Versus a Change in Supply
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #subject-2-basic-principles-and-concepts

The quantity supplied of a good or service is the amount that producers plan to sell during a given time period at a particular price.

Price is just one of the factors that affect producers' supply decisions. The supply curve isolates the impact of price on the quantity of a product supplied and assumes that all other factors stay the same.

  • A change in quantity supplied is caused by a price change ONLY. It is a movement along the same supply curve.
  • When one of the other factors that influence selling plans changes, there is a change in supply and a shift of the supply curve.

Example 6

A tax will shift the supply curve up by the amount of the tax.

At every price level, less is supplied. For example, at price P0, originally Q0 is supplied. After the tax, Q1 is supplied at price P0.

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Subject 2. Basic Principles and Concepts
in the cost of producing the good causes supply to shift leftward. An increase in the number of firms and a decrease in taxes cause supply to shift rightward. A change in price causes a movement along supply, not a shift. <span>A Change in the Quantity Supplied Versus a Change in Supply The quantity supplied of a good or service is the amount that producers plan to sell during a given time period at a particular price. Price is just one of the factors that affect producers' supply decisions. The supply curve isolates the impact of price on the quantity of a product supplied and assumes that all other factors stay the same. A change in quantity supplied is caused by a price change ONLY. It is a movement along the same supply curve. When one of the other factors that influence selling plans changes, there is a change in supply and a shift of the supply curve. Example 6 A tax will shift the supply curve up by the amount of the tax. At every price level, less is supplied. For example, at price P 0 , originally Q 0 is supplied. After the tax, Q 1 is supplied at price P 0 .<span><body><html>




Flashcard 1419548953868

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#obgyn
Question
When can you use narcotic analgesia for labour?
Answer
- early in 1st stage alone, or as adjunct
- avoid using <4h to delivery b/c mat sedation + newborn resp depression


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Flashcard 1419550788876

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the inhalation analgesia used in labour, and when can you use it?
Answer
- usually mix of NO & O2
- typically used in late 1st or 2nd stage
- doesn't diminish uterine activity/motor control/ability to push
- can be adjunct to local/pudendal


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Flashcard 1419553410316

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#obgyn
Question
What are risks of general anesthesia in labour? What are complications of pregnancy that can impact a general anesthesia?
Answer
- risk of aspiration, delayed gastric emptying, difficult intubation, high intra-abdo pressure, most crosses placenta
- complications of preg = gestational HTN, placental abruption, coagulopathy, etc


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Flashcard 1419555245324

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What's the local used in labour?
Answer
1% lidocaine (xylocaine) +/- epinephrine


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Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #subject-3-market-equilibrium

An aggregate demand curve is simply a schedule that shows amounts of a product that buyers collectively desire to purchase at each possible price level.

An aggregate supply curve is simply a curve showing the amounts of a product that all firms will produce at each price level.

Example 1

Refer to the graph below. What is the market quantity that would be supplied at a price of $2.00?

Market quantity is the sum of individual quantities supplied at each price. At a price of $2.00, Ann supplies 4, Barry supplies 3, and Charlie supplies 0. The market supply is 7.

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Subject 3. Market Equilibrium
Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply An aggregate demand curve is simply a schedule that shows amounts of a product that buyers collectively desire to purchase at each possible price level. An aggregate supply curve is simply a curve showing the amounts of a product that all firms will produce at each price level. Example 1 Refer to the graph below. What is the market quantity that would be supplied at a price of $2.00? Market quantity is the sum of individual quantities supplied at each price. At a price of $2.00, Ann supplies 4, Barry supplies 3, and Charlie supplies 0. The market supply is 7. Market Equilibrium Equilibrium is a state in which conflicting forces are in balance. In equilibrium, it will be possible for both buyers and sel




Flashcard 1419558128908

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#obgyn
Question
Where is the epidural injected?
Answer
L3-L4 or L4-L5; between ligamentum flavum & dura


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Flashcard 1419561274636

Tags
#obgyn
Question
How does an epidural compare to a spinal?
Answer
epidural requires larger dose/volume & takes 10-15min to take effect


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Flashcard 1419563109644

Tags
#obgyn
Question
Why is IV preloading of the mom required in epidural administration?
Answer
to avoid maternal hypotension & fetal brady


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Flashcard 1419564944652

Tags
#obgyn
Question
List 5 conditions that would require consultation to an OB by a fam physician/midwife.
Answer
- gestational dm requiring insulin
- VBAC
- gestational HTN
- active antepartum hemorrhage
- preterm labour or rupture of membranes <36 wk
- mult gestations
- malpresentations (breech)
- c/s
- failure to progress/descend
- induction/augmentation w/ oxy if higher risk factor involved (e.g. VBAC, IUGR, etc)
- vulvovag tears (extensive tears)
- retained placenta


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#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #subject-3-market-equilibrium
Market Equilibrium

Equilibrium is a state in which conflicting forces are in balance. In equilibrium, it will be possible for both buyers and sellers to realize their goals simultaneously.

The following graph depicts the market supply and demand for concert tickets at Madison Square Garden in New York City.

Equilibrium price and quantity are where the supply and demand curves intersect. Draw a horizontal line from the intersection to the price axis. This is equilibrium price: $60. Draw a vertical line from the intersection to the quantity axis. This is equilibrium quantity: 300. It is equilibrium because quantity demanded equals quantity supplied at $60 per ticket. At this price, there is neither surplus (excess supply) nor shortage (excess demand), so there is no downward or upward pressure for the price to change.

Surplus will push prices downward towards equilibrium.

  • Suppose the price is initially above the equilibrium price (P2) and sits at P1.
  • Quantity supplied (Q1s) will exceed quantity demanded (Q1D), creating a surplus.
  • The surplus will put downward pressure on prices since producers will begin to lower their prices to sell the surplus.
  • As a result, the price will fall, the quantity supplied will decrease, and the quantity demanded will increase until the equilibrium price (P2) is restored.
  • This process involves movements along supply-and-demand curves since the changes are caused by price fluctuations.

Similarly, shortages push prices upward towards equilibrium.

Because the price rises if it is below equilibrium, falls if it is above equilibrium, and remains constant if it is at equilibrium, the price is pulled toward equilibrium and remains there until some event changes the equilibrium. We refer to such an equilibrium as being stable because whenever price is disturbed away from the equilibrium, it tends to converge back to that equilibrium.

An unstable equilibrium is an equilibrium that is not restored if disrupted by an external force. While most equilibria studied in economics are of the stable variety, a few cases of unstable equilibria do emerge from time to time, in limited circumstances.

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Subject 3. Market Equilibrium
; Market quantity is the sum of individual quantities supplied at each price. At a price of $2.00, Ann supplies 4, Barry supplies 3, and Charlie supplies 0. The market supply is 7. <span>Market Equilibrium Equilibrium is a state in which conflicting forces are in balance. In equilibrium, it will be possible for both buyers and sellers to realize their goals simultaneously. The following graph depicts the market supply and demand for concert tickets at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Equilibrium price and quantity are where the supply and demand curves intersect. Draw a horizontal line from the intersection to the price axis. This is equilibrium price: $60. Draw a vertical line from the intersection to the quantity axis. This is equilibrium quantity: 300. It is equilibrium because quantity demanded equals quantity supplied at $60 per ticket. At this price, there is neither surplus (excess supply) nor shortage (excess demand), so there is no downward or upward pressure for the price to change. Surplus will push prices downward towards equilibrium. Suppose the price is initially above the equilibrium price (P 2 ) and sits at P 1 . Quantity supplied (Q 1s ) will exceed quantity demanded (Q 1D ), creating a surplus. The surplus will put downward pressure on prices since producers will begin to lower their prices to sell the surplus. As a result, the price will fall, the quantity supplied will decrease, and the quantity demanded will increase until the equilibrium price (P 2 ) is restored. This process involves movements along supply-and-demand curves since the changes are caused by price fluctuations. Similarly, shortages push prices upward towards equilibrium. Because the price rises if it is below equilibrium, falls if it is above equilibrium, and remains constant if it is at equilibrium, the price is pulled toward equilibrium and remains there until some event changes the equilibrium. We refer to such an equilibrium as being stable because whenever price is disturbed away from the equilibrium, it tends to converge back to that equilibrium. An unstable equilibrium is an equilibrium that is not restored if disrupted by an external force. While most equilibria studied in economics are of the stable variety, a few cases of unstable equilibria do emerge from time to time, in limited circumstances.<span><body><html>




Flashcard 1419618422028

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Question
What is the most commonly transmitted STI worldwide?
Answer
HPV


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Flashcard 1419620257036

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#obgyn
Question
What are 3 clinical outcomes following an HPV infection?
Answer
- asx/subclinical (majority)
- anogenital warts (HPV 6, 11)
- genital tract neoplasia (HPV 16, 18, 45, 31, and more)


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#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction
Consumer Surplus

Consumer surplus is the area below the demand curve but above the actual price paid. It is the difference between the amount consumers are willing to pay and the amount they have to pay for a good.

Consider the market for a good.

  • If the market price is $100, then the 30th unit will not sell because those who demand it are only willing to pay $60 for the good.
  • At $100, the 17th unit will sell because those who demand it are willing to pay up to $100 for the good.
  • At $100, the 5th unit will sell because those who demand it are willing to pay up to $133 for the good.

  • For all those goods under 17 units, people are willing to pay more than $100.
  • The area represented by the distance above the actual price paid and below the demand curve is called consumer surplus.
  • This area represents the net gains to buyers from market exchange.

Lower market prices increase the amount of consumer surplus in the market.

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Subject 5. Consumer Surplus, Producer Surplus, and Total Surplus
Consumer Surplus Consumer surplus is the area below the demand curve but above the actual price paid. It is the difference between the amount consumers are willing to pay and the amount they have to pay for a good. Consider the market for a good. If the market price is $100, then the 30th unit will not sell because those who demand it are only willing to pay $60 for the good. At $100, the 17th unit will sell because those who demand it are willing to pay up to $100 for the good. At $100, the 5th unit will sell because those who demand it are willing to pay up to $133 for the good. For all those goods under 17 units, people are willing to pay more than $100. The area represented by the distance above the actual price paid and below the demand curve is called consumer surplus. This area represents the net gains to buyers from market exchange. Lower market prices increase the amount of consumer surplus in the market. Producer Surplus Producer surplus is the difference between the minimum supply price, represented by the supply curve, and the actual sales price




Consumer Surplus (Superávit de consumo)
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Es el exedente en precio que unas personas están dispuestas a pagar por sobre el precio de equilibrio.

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Subject 5. Consumer Surplus, Producer Surplus, and Total Surplus
Consumer Surplus Consumer surplus is the area below the demand curve but above the actual price paid. It is the difference between the amount consumers are willing to pay and the amount th




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Producer Surplus

Producer surplus is the difference between the minimum supply price, represented by the supply curve, and the actual sales price.

  • It is measured by the area below the price and above the supply curve, up to the quantity sold.
  • It accrues to owners of firms and resource suppliers.

Example

The actual selling price of bananas is $9 per kg.

Now imagine that there are only 10,000 kg bananas being supplied at the moment. The marginal cost per kg is only $3 but the selling price is $9. So there is an additional $6 per kg being raised. This is the producer surplus per kg. The total producer surplus when 10,000 kg are produced is thus $60,000.

Due to the surplus, more producers enter the market and another 10,000 kg are produced, so there are now 20,000 kg of bananas on the market. The marginal costs of producing this additional 10,000 kg have risen to $4.

Producer surplus is not the same as profit. Remember that profit is the return that accrues to owners of a firm and is the difference between sales revenue and total (not marginal) costs of production.

Total Surplus

The following figure shows that a competitive market creates an efficient allocation of resources at equilibrium.

  • In equilibrium, the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied.
  • At the equilibrium quantity, marginal benefit equals marginal cost, so the quantity is the efficient quantity.
  • The sum of consumer and producer surplus is maximized at this efficient level of output. It is here that all potential gains from production and exchange are realized.

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Subject 5. Consumer Surplus, Producer Surplus, and Total Surplus
paid and below the demand curve is called consumer surplus. This area represents the net gains to buyers from market exchange. Lower market prices increase the amount of consumer surplus in the market. <span>Producer Surplus Producer surplus is the difference between the minimum supply price, represented by the supply curve, and the actual sales price. It is measured by the area below the price and above the supply curve, up to the quantity sold. It accrues to owners of firms and resource suppliers. Example The actual selling price of bananas is $9 per kg. Now imagine that there are only 10,000 kg bananas being supplied at the moment. The marginal cost per kg is only $3 but the selling price is $9. So there is an additional $6 per kg being raised. This is the producer surplus per kg. The total producer surplus when 10,000 kg are produced is thus $60,000. Due to the surplus, more producers enter the market and another 10,000 kg are produced, so there are now 20,000 kg of bananas on the market. The marginal costs of producing this additional 10,000 kg have risen to $4. Producer surplus is not the same as profit. Remember that profit is the return that accrues to owners of a firm and is the difference between sales revenue and total (not marginal) costs of production. Total Surplus The following figure shows that a competitive market creates an efficient allocation of resources at equilibrium. In equilibrium, the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied. At the equilibrium quantity, marginal benefit equals marginal cost, so the quantity is the efficient quantity. The sum of consumer and producer surplus is maximized at this efficient level of output. It is here that all potential gains from production and exchange are realized. <span><body><html>




Total Surplus
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The following figure shows that a competitive market creates an efficient allocation of resources at equilibrium.

  • In equilibrium, the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied.
  • At the equilibrium quantity, marginal benefit equals marginal cost, so the quantity is the efficient quantity.
  • The sum of consumer and producer surplus is maximized at this efficient level of output. It is here that all potential gains from production and exchange are realized.

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Subject 5. Consumer Surplus, Producer Surplus, and Total Surplus
Producer surplus is not the same as profit. Remember that profit is the return that accrues to owners of a firm and is the difference between sales revenue and total (not marginal) costs of production. <span>Total Surplus The following figure shows that a competitive market creates an efficient allocation of resources at equilibrium. In equilibrium, the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied. At the equilibrium quantity, marginal benefit equals marginal cost, so the quantity is the efficient quantity. The sum of consumer and producer surplus is maximized at this efficient level of output. It is here that all potential gains from production and exchange are realized. <span><body><html>




Cambios en la curva de la demanda
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Cuando un factor, que no sea el precio, influencia los planes de compra, existe un cambio en la demanda de ese bien.

Cuando la cantidad demandada cambia a cada uno de los presios, existe una nueva curva de la demanda.

Los factores que la cambian pueden ser ingresos, número de consumidores, cambio en el precio de productos relacionados, etc.

Example 2

Assume the graph below reflects demand in the automobile market. Which arrow best captures the impact of increased consumer income on the automobile market?

Answer: D. Income is a shift factor of demand. An increase in income increases the number of automobiles demanded at each price. Therefore demand has shifted to the right.

  • When demand increases, the quantity that people plan to buy increases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts rightward.
  • When demand decreases, the quantity that people plan to buy decreases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts leftward.

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Parent (intermediate) annotation

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When any factor that influences buying plans, other than the price of the good, changes, there is a change in demand for that good. When the quantity of the good that people plan to buy changes at each and every price, there is a new demand curve. These factors include changes in income, number of consumers in the market, changes in the price of a related good, etc. Example 2 Assume the graph below reflects demand in the automobile market. Which arrow best captures the impact of increased consumer income on the automobile market? Answer: D. Income is a shift factor of demand. An increase in income increases the number of automobiles demanded at each price. Therefore demand has shifted to the right. When demand increases, the quantity that people plan to buy increases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts rightward. When demand decreases, the quantity that people plan to buy decreases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts leftward.

Original toplevel document

Subject 2. Basic Principles and Concepts
e demand curve tells how much is demanded at each price. To determine the quantity demanded, find $4.00 on the vertical axis and read across until you meet the demand curve. Then read the quantity from the horizontal axis. <span>When any factor that influences buying plans, other than the price of the good, changes, there is a change in demand for that good. When the quantity of the good that people plan to buy changes at each and every price, there is a new demand curve. These factors include changes in income, number of consumers in the market, changes in the price of a related good, etc. Example 2 Assume the graph below reflects demand in the automobile market. Which arrow best captures the impact of increased consumer income on the automobile market? Answer: D. Income is a shift factor of demand. An increase in income increases the number of automobiles demanded at each price. Therefore demand has shifted to the right. When demand increases, the quantity that people plan to buy increases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts rightward. When demand decreases, the quantity that people plan to buy decreases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts leftward. A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand The demand curve isolates the impact of price on the amount of a product purchased.&




Flashcard 1419635461388

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HPV warts tend to congregate around [...] ​ and will eventually go away. Due to HPV [...]
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introitus & often near anus (due to gravity); 6 & 11


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A price control is a government-mandated price that may either be greater or less than the market equilibrium price.

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Subject 6. Market Interference: The Negative Impact on Total Surplus
market mechanism is often deemed to be unfair: buyers complain that the price is too high, while sellers believe that it is too low. In such cases, the government may regulate the price of the good or service. This is known as price control. <span>A price control is a government-mandated price that may either be greater or less than the market equilibrium price. Price ceilings and floors are two types of price controls. A Price Ceiling A price ceiling is a legal restriction that prohibits exchanges at prices gr




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A Price Ceiling

A price ceiling is a legal restriction that prohibits exchanges at prices greater than a designated price: the ceiling price. Price ceilings are usually imposed when the equilibrium price is considered too high to be fair. A typical price ceiling results in a lower price than market forces would produce. A shortage will result in a situation in which the quantity demanded by consumers exceeds the quantity supplied by producers at the existing price.

A typical example of a price ceiling is a "rent ceiling," implemented by over 200 U.S. cities. If the rent ceiling is set above the equilibrium rent, it has no effect. The market works as if there were no ceiling. But if the rent ceiling is set below the equilibrium rent, it has powerful effects.

If a rent ceiling is set below the equilibrium price P0, for example, at P1, there is a reduction in the quantity that producers are willing to supply qs and an increase in the quantity that consumers demand qd relative to the original equilibrium quantity q.

Because the legal price cannot eliminate the shortage, other mechanisms operate. For example, a black market is an illegal market that operates alongside a legal market in which a price ceiling or other restriction has been imposed. A shortage of housing creates a black market in housing. Illegal arrangements are made between renters and landlords at rents above the rent ceiling - and generally above what the rent would have been in an unregulated market.

A rent ceiling leads to an inefficient use of resources. The quantity of rental housing is less than the efficient quantity and there is a deadweight loss.

A rent ceiling decreases the quantity of rental housing, shrinks the total producer and consumer surplus by using resources such as search activity, and creates a deadweight loss. It also transfers part of the producer surplus from producers to consumers. The consumer surplus becomes the green area + the pink area.

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Subject 6. Market Interference: The Negative Impact on Total Surplus
the good or service. This is known as price control. A price control is a government-mandated price that may either be greater or less than the market equilibrium price. Price ceilings and floors are two types of price controls. <span>A Price Ceiling A price ceiling is a legal restriction that prohibits exchanges at prices greater than a designated price: the ceiling price. Price ceilings are usually imposed when the equilibrium price is considered too high to be fair. A typical price ceiling results in a lower price than market forces would produce. A shortage will result in a situation in which the quantity demanded by consumers exceeds the quantity supplied by producers at the existing price. A typical example of a price ceiling is a "rent ceiling," implemented by over 200 U.S. cities. If the rent ceiling is set above the equilibrium rent, it has no effect. The market works as if there were no ceiling. But if the rent ceiling is set below the equilibrium rent, it has powerful effects. If a rent ceiling is set below the equilibrium price P 0 , for example, at P 1 , there is a reduction in the quantity that producers are willing to supply qs and an increase in the quantity that consumers demand q d relative to the original equilibrium quantity q. Because the legal price cannot eliminate the shortage, other mechanisms operate. For example, a black market is an illegal market that operates alongside a legal market in which a price ceiling or other restriction has been imposed. A shortage of housing creates a black market in housing. Illegal arrangements are made between renters and landlords at rents above the rent ceiling - and generally above what the rent would have been in an unregulated market. A rent ceiling leads to an inefficient use of resources. The quantity of rental housing is less than the efficient quantity and there is a deadweight loss. A rent ceiling decreases the quantity of rental housing, shrinks the total producer and consumer surplus by using resources such as search activity, and creates a deadweight loss. It also transfers part of the producer surplus from producers to consumers. The consumer surplus becomes the green area + the pink area. A Price Floor A price floor is a minimum price that can be legally charged. It usually fixes the price of a good or resource above the market equ




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A Price Floor

A price floor is a minimum price that can be legally charged. It usually fixes the price of a good or resource above the market equilibrium level. Price floors are usually imposed when the equilibrium price is considered too low to be fair. Agricultural price supports and minimum wage legislation are examples of price floors.

If a price floor is set above the equilibrium price, p0, for example, at p1, there is a reduction in quantity demanded from q0 to qd, whilst the quantity supplied increases from q0 to qs. The result is a surplus of qs-qd.

Example 1

Refer to the graph below. A price floor set by the government would be binding and cause the greatest distortion in the market if it were established at what price?

Answer: $3.00.

Given the supply and demand curves in the graph, the equilibrium price is $2.25. A price floor will be binding only if it is above the equilibrium price. So a price floor of $1.50 would not distort the market. The higher the floor above equilibrium price, the greater the market distortion (surplus). A price floor at $3.00 would create a larger surplus than a price floor at $2.50.

It creates a deadweight loss.

Note that a surplus does not mean the good is no longer scarce: people just desire less of the good at the current price than sellers desire to bring to the market. A decline in price would eliminate the surplus but not the scarcity of the item.

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Subject 6. Market Interference: The Negative Impact on Total Surplus
er surplus by using resources such as search activity, and creates a deadweight loss. It also transfers part of the producer surplus from producers to consumers. The consumer surplus becomes the green area + the pink area. <span>A Price Floor A price floor is a minimum price that can be legally charged. It usually fixes the price of a good or resource above the market equilibrium level. Price floors are usually imposed when the equilibrium price is considered too low to be fair. Agricultural price supports and minimum wage legislation are examples of price floors. If a price floor is set above the equilibrium price, p0, for example, at p1, there is a reduction in quantity demanded from q0 to qd, whilst the quantity supplied increases from q0 to qs. The result is a surplus of qs-qd. Example 1 Refer to the graph below. A price floor set by the government would be binding and cause the greatest distortion in the market if it were established at what price? Answer: $3.00. Given the supply and demand curves in the graph, the equilibrium price is $2.25. A price floor will be binding only if it is above the equilibrium price. So a price floor of $1.50 would not distort the market. The higher the floor above equilibrium price, the greater the market distortion (surplus). A price floor at $3.00 would create a larger surplus than a price floor at $2.50. It creates a deadweight loss. Note that a surplus does not mean the good is no longer scarce: people just desire less of the good at the current price than sellers desire to bring to the market. A decline in price would eliminate the surplus but not the scarcity of the item. Taxes When a tax is imposed, the government can make either the buyer or the seller legally responsible for payment of the tax. However, the pers




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Taxes

When a tax is imposed, the government can make either the buyer or the seller legally responsible for payment of the tax. However, the person who writes the check to the government is not necessarily the one who bears the tax burden.

Example 2

The following graph illustrates how a $1,000 tax placed on the sale of used cars would affect the market. Assumption: all used cars are identical.

  • Before the imposition of the tax, used cars sold for a price of $7,000 (point A).
  • The tax has statutorily been placed on the seller, shifting the supply curve upward by exactly the amount of tax ($1,000).
  • Now the price will rise to $7,400 (point B). Therefore, despite the tax being statutorily imposed on sellers, the higher price shifts some of the tax burden to buyers.

    • A buyer will now pay $400 more for a used car.
    • A seller now receives $7,400 from the sale of a used car, but after sending the tax of $1,000 to the government, the seller retains only $6,400. This is exactly $600 less than the seller would have received had the tax not been imposed.
    • In this case, each $1,000 of tax revenue transferred to the government imposes a burden of $400 on the buyer and a $600 burden on the seller.

  • As the example shows, the imposition of the $1,000 tax on used cars causes the number of units exchanged to fall from 750 to 500. As trade results in mutual gains for both buyers and sellers, the loss of mutual benefits that would have been derived had the tax not eliminated 250 units of exchange also imposes a cost on buyers and sellers. The loss is referred to as the deadweight loss of taxation. In the graph, the triangle ABC measures the size of the deadweight loss. It generates neither revenue for the government nor gains for any other party.

The effects of a tax depend on the responsiveness of buyers and of sellers to a change in price. It tends to fall more heavily on whichever side of the market has the least attractive options elsewhere and thus is less sensitive to price changes. This is because an inelastic curve indicates there are few substitutes available.

  • When demand is relatively inelastic and supply elastic, the primary burden of a tax will fall on buyers.

    Initially, gas costs 50 cents per liter and 1,000 liters are sold per day. The demand curve is relatively inelastic, indicating there are few alternatives to gas.

    A 20c tax per liter on suppliers shifts the supply curve up by 20c, establishing a new equilibrium price (65c) and quantity (950 liters). Consumers pay 15c more - meaning they have paid 15c of the 20c tax. Suppliers receive 65c from consumers, pay 20c to the government and are left with 45c - 5c less than before. Suppliers have thus paid 5c towards the tax.

    The tax burden is thus:

    • Consumers: 15c
    • Suppliers: 5c

    Consumers pay more because their demand curve was relatively more inelastic than the supply curve.

  • When demand is relatively elastic compared to supply, sellers will bear the larger share of the tax burden.

    Consider the diagram below. Here demand is relatively elastic and supply relatively inelastic.

    The demand for luxury boats is relatively elastic as rich people have many alternatives as to how to spend their money. A $25,000 tax on the sale of these boats thus causes a large reduction in the quantity demanded (10 thousand to 5 thousand).

    As the selling price only rises from $100,000 to $105,000, buyers have only paid only $5,000 of the tax. Sellers have thus p
...

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Subject 6. Market Interference: The Negative Impact on Total Surplus
s not mean the good is no longer scarce: people just desire less of the good at the current price than sellers desire to bring to the market. A decline in price would eliminate the surplus but not the scarcity of the item. <span>Taxes When a tax is imposed, the government can make either the buyer or the seller legally responsible for payment of the tax. However, the person who writes the check to the government is not necessarily the one who bears the tax burden. Example 2 The following graph illustrates how a $1,000 tax placed on the sale of used cars would affect the market. Assumption: all used cars are identical. Before the imposition of the tax, used cars sold for a price of $7,000 (point A). The tax has statutorily been placed on the seller, shifting the supply curve upward by exactly the amount of tax ($1,000). Now the price will rise to $7,400 (point B). Therefore, despite the tax being statutorily imposed on sellers, the higher price shifts some of the tax burden to buyers. A buyer will now pay $400 more for a used car. A seller now receives $7,400 from the sale of a used car, but after sending the tax of $1,000 to the government, the seller retains only $6,400. This is exactly $600 less than the seller would have received had the tax not been imposed. In this case, each $1,000 of tax revenue transferred to the government imposes a burden of $400 on the buyer and a $600 burden on the seller. As the example shows, the imposition of the $1,000 tax on used cars causes the number of units exchanged to fall from 750 to 500. As trade results in mutual gains for both buyers and sellers, the loss of mutual benefits that would have been derived had the tax not eliminated 250 units of exchange also imposes a cost on buyers and sellers. The loss is referred to as the deadweight loss of taxation. In the graph, the triangle ABC measures the size of the deadweight loss. It generates neither revenue for the government nor gains for any other party. The effects of a tax depend on the responsiveness of buyers and of sellers to a change in price. It tends to fall more heavily on whichever side of the market has the least attractive options elsewhere and thus is less sensitive to price changes. This is because an inelastic curve indicates there are few substitutes available. When demand is relatively inelastic and supply elastic, the primary burden of a tax will fall on buyers. Initially, gas costs 50 cents per liter and 1,000 liters are sold per day. The demand curve is relatively inelastic, indicating there are few alternatives to gas. A 20c tax per liter on suppliers shifts the supply curve up by 20c, establishing a new equilibrium price (65c) and quantity (950 liters). Consumers pay 15c more - meaning they have paid 15c of the 20c tax. Suppliers receive 65c from consumers, pay 20c to the government and are left with 45c - 5c less than before. Suppliers have thus paid 5c towards the tax. The tax burden is thus: Consumers: 15c Suppliers: 5c Consumers pay more because their demand curve was relatively more inelastic than the supply curve. When demand is relatively elastic compared to supply, sellers will bear the larger share of the tax burden. Consider the diagram below. Here demand is relatively elastic and supply relatively inelastic. The demand for luxury boats is relatively elastic as rich people have many alternatives as to how to spend their money. A $25,000 tax on the sale of these boats thus causes a large reduction in the quantity demanded (10 thousand to 5 thousand). As the selling price only rises from $100,000 to $105,000, buyers have only paid only $5,000 of the tax. Sellers have thus paid $20,000 and received only $80,000 per yacht sold. The deadweight loss is reduced if the elasticity of either demand or supply is reduced (i.e., its curve becomes steeper). Except in the extreme cases of perfectly inelastic demand or supply when the quantity remains the same, imposing a tax creates inefficiency. In practice, taxes usually are levied on goods and services with an inelastic demand or an inelastic supply. Alcohol, tobacco, and gasoline have inelastic demand, so the buyers of these items pay most of the tax on them. Labor has a low elasticity of supply, so the seller - the worker - pays most of the income tax and most of the Social Security tax.<span><body><html>




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Elasticity means "responsiveness." The elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a product to changes in any of the factors that affect demand. Analysts are interested in knowing how much the quantity demanded will rise or fall for a given change in price or income.

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Subject 7. Demand Elasticities
Elasticity means "responsiveness." The elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a product to changes in any of the factors that affect demand. Analysts are interested in knowing how much the quantity demanded will rise or fall for a given change in price or income. Price elasticity of demand is the percentage change in the quantity of a product demanded divided by the percentage change in the price causing the change in quantity. It




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Price elasticity of demand is the percentage change in the quantity of a product demanded divided by the percentage change in the price causing the change in quantity. It indicates the degree of consumer response to variation in price. Specifically, it tells the analyst the percentage change in the quantity demanded for a good caused by a 1% increase in the price of that good.

The change in price is expressed as a percentage of the average price - the average of the initial and new price, and the change in the quantity demanded is expressed as a percentage of the average quantity demanded - the average of the initial and new quantity. Using the average price and average quantity, the same elasticity value is obtained regardless of whether the price rises or falls.

The measure is units-free because it is a ratio of two percentage changes and the percentages cancel each other out. Changing the units of measurement of price or quantity leave the elasticity value the same.

Because a change in price causes the quantity demanded to change in the opposite direction, this ratio is always negative, although economists always ignore the sign and simply use the absolute value. It is the magnitude, or absolute value, of the measure that reveals how responsive the quantity change has been to a price change.

Example 1

A Pizza Hut store can sell 50 pizzas per day at $7 each or 70 pizzas per day at $6 each. The price elasticity is: [(50 - 70)/60] / [(7 - 6) / 6.5] = -2.17.

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Subject 7. Demand Elasticities
responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a product to changes in any of the factors that affect demand. Analysts are interested in knowing how much the quantity demanded will rise or fall for a given change in price or income. <span>Price elasticity of demand is the percentage change in the quantity of a product demanded divided by the percentage change in the price causing the change in quantity. It indicates the degree of consumer response to variation in price. Specifically, it tells the analyst the percentage change in the quantity demanded for a good caused by a 1% increase in the price of that good. The change in price is expressed as a percentage of the average price - the average of the initial and new price, and the change in the quantity demanded is expressed as a percentage of the average quantity demanded - the average of the initial and new quantity. Using the average price and average quantity, the same elasticity value is obtained regardless of whether the price rises or falls. The measure is units-free because it is a ratio of two percentage changes and the percentages cancel each other out. Changing the units of measurement of price or quantity leave the elasticity value the same. Because a change in price causes the quantity demanded to change in the opposite direction, this ratio is always negative, although economists always ignore the sign and simply use the absolute value. It is the magnitude, or absolute value, of the measure that reveals how responsive the quantity change has been to a price change. Example 1 A Pizza Hut store can sell 50 pizzas per day at $7 each or 70 pizzas per day at $6 each. The price elasticity is: [(50 - 70)/60] / [(7 - 6) / 6.5] = -2.17. Own-Price Elasticity of Demand Demand can be inelastic, unit elastic, or elastic, and can range from zero to infinity. (Note: the negative sign i




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Own-Price Elasticity of Demand

Demand can be inelastic, unit elastic, or elastic, and can range from zero to infinity. (Note: the negative sign is ignored.)

  • If the elasticity coefficient is greater than 1, demand is elastic. A small price change leads to a large change in the quantity demanded. The more elastic the demand, the flatter the demand curve over any specific range. Demands for goods with many substitutes (e.g., juice) are relatively elastic. If the demand curve of a good is completely horizontal, the demand is perfectly elastic. Consumers will buy all of that good at the market price.
  • When the elasticity coefficient is less than 1, demand is inelastic. The more inelastic the demand, the steeper the demand curve. Demands for goods with few substitutes (e.g., cigarettes) are relatively inelastic.
  • When the elasticity coefficient is equal to 1, demand is said to be unitary elastic.

Because elasticity is a relative concept, the elasticity of a straight-line demand curve will differ at each point along the demand curve. Specifically, a straight-line demand curve is more elastic when price is high. Note that the elasticity is not the slope of the demand curve. Elasticity is used since it is independent of the units of measure.

Example 2

Refer to the graph below. Which of the following is true?

A. Areas C and E are smaller than area A, so demand must be elastic between $10 and $30.
B. Areas C and E are smaller than area A, so demand must be inelastic between $10 and $30.
C. Area F is smaller than areas B and C, so demand must be inelastic between $10 and $30.

Answer: C. Since at $30 the demand is unit elastic, at prices below $30 demand is inelastic. This is because when price rises from $10 to $30, the revenue gained is greater than the revenue lost.

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Subject 7. Demand Elasticities
a price change. Example 1 A Pizza Hut store can sell 50 pizzas per day at $7 each or 70 pizzas per day at $6 each. The price elasticity is: [(50 - 70)/60] / [(7 - 6) / 6.5] = -2.17. <span>Own-Price Elasticity of Demand Demand can be inelastic, unit elastic, or elastic, and can range from zero to infinity. (Note: the negative sign is ignored.) If the elasticity coefficient is greater than 1, demand is elastic. A small price change leads to a large change in the quantity demanded. The more elastic the demand, the flatter the demand curve over any specific range. Demands for goods with many substitutes (e.g., juice) are relatively elastic. If the demand curve of a good is completely horizontal, the demand is perfectly elastic. Consumers will buy all of that good at the market price. When the elasticity coefficient is less than 1, demand is inelastic. The more inelastic the demand, the steeper the demand curve. Demands for goods with few substitutes (e.g., cigarettes) are relatively inelastic. When the elasticity coefficient is equal to 1, demand is said to be unitary elastic. Because elasticity is a relative concept, the elasticity of a straight-line demand curve will differ at each point along the demand curve. Specifically, a straight-line demand curve is more elastic when price is high. Note that the elasticity is not the slope of the demand curve. Elasticity is used since it is independent of the units of measure. Example 2 Refer to the graph below. Which of the following is true? A. Areas C and E are smaller than area A, so demand must be elastic between $10 and $30. B. Areas C and E are smaller than area A, so demand must be inelastic between $10 and $30. C. Area F is smaller than areas B and C, so demand must be inelastic between $10 and $30. Answer: C. Since at $30 the demand is unit elastic, at prices below $30 demand is inelastic. This is because when price rises from $10 to $30, the revenue gained is greater than the revenue lost. The Factors that Influence the Elasticity of Demand The elasticity of demand among products varies substantially. The determinants of price and i




The Factors that Influence the Elasticity of Demand
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The elasticity of demand among products varies substantially. The determinants of price and income elasticity of demand are:

  • The closeness of substitutes. The most important determinant is the availability of substitutes. The closer the substitutes for a good or service, the more elastic the demand for it.

    • Necessities, such as food or housing, generally have inelastic demand.
    • Luxuries, such as exotic vacations, generally have elastic demand.

    When good substitutes for a product are available, a price rise induces many consumers to switch to other products. For example, when the price of apples rises, many consumers simply switch to oranges or other fruits. However, when the price of gasoline rises, most consumers can only slightly cut back their consumption of gasoline, since there is no good substitute for gasoline.

  • The proportion of income spent on the good. If expenditures on a product are quite small relative to a consumer's budget, the income effect will be small even if there is a substantial increase in the price of the product. This will make the demand less elastic. For example, if the price of matches triples, consumers would not bother to find substitutes, since they only spend a few bucks on matches each year.

  • The time elapsed since a price change. The more time consumers have to adjust to a price change, or the longer a good can be stored without losing its value, the more elastic the demand for that good. In general, when the price of a product increases, consumers will reduce their consumption by a larger amount in the long run than in the short-run. Therefore, the demand for most products will be more elastic in the long run than in the short run.

The price elasticity of demand tends to increase in the long run.

As changing market conditions raise or lower the price of a product, both consumers and producers will respond. However, their response will not be instantaneous, and it is likely to become larger over time. In general, when the price of a product increases, consumers will reduce their consumption by a larger amount in the long run than in the short run. Thus, the demand for most products will be more elastic in the long run than in the short run. This relationship between the elasticity coefficient and the length of the adjustment period is referred to as the second law of demand.

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Subject 7. Demand Elasticities
$10 and $30. Answer: C. Since at $30 the demand is unit elastic, at prices below $30 demand is inelastic. This is because when price rises from $10 to $30, the revenue gained is greater than the revenue lost. <span>The Factors that Influence the Elasticity of Demand The elasticity of demand among products varies substantially. The determinants of price and income elasticity of demand are: The closeness of substitutes. The most important determinant is the availability of substitutes. The closer the substitutes for a good or service, the more elastic the demand for it. Necessities, such as food or housing, generally have inelastic demand. Luxuries, such as exotic vacations, generally have elastic demand. When good substitutes for a product are available, a price rise induces many consumers to switch to other products. For example, when the price of apples rises, many consumers simply switch to oranges or other fruits. However, when the price of gasoline rises, most consumers can only slightly cut back their consumption of gasoline, since there is no good substitute for gasoline. The proportion of income spent on the good. If expenditures on a product are quite small relative to a consumer's budget, the income effect will be small even if there is a substantial increase in the price of the product. This will make the demand less elastic. For example, if the price of matches triples, consumers would not bother to find substitutes, since they only spend a few bucks on matches each year. The time elapsed since a price change. The more time consumers have to adjust to a price change, or the longer a good can be stored without losing its value, the more elastic the demand for that good. In general, when the price of a product increases, consumers will reduce their consumption by a larger amount in the long run than in the short-run. Therefore, the demand for most products will be more elastic in the long run than in the short run. The price elasticity of demand tends to increase in the long run. As changing market conditions raise or lower the price of a product, both consumers and producers will respond. However, their response will not be instantaneous, and it is likely to become larger over time. In general, when the price of a product increases, consumers will reduce their consumption by a larger amount in the long run than in the short run. Thus, the demand for most products will be more elastic in the long run than in the short run. This relationship between the elasticity coefficient and the length of the adjustment period is referred to as the second law of demand. Impact on Total Expenditure Consumers' total expenditure is the same as total revenues from the suppliers' point of view. One of the most importa




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Impact on Total Expenditure

Consumers' total expenditure is the same as total revenues from the suppliers' point of view. One of the most important applications of price elasticity is determining how total consumer expenditure on a product changes when the price changes.

Total Revenues = Total Expenditures = Price x Quantity

According to the law of demand, price and quantity move in opposite directions. When the price changes, total revenue also changes. But a rise in price doesn't always increase total revenue. The change in total expenditures depends on whether the effect of the changes in price or the effect of the changes in quantity is greater.

  • When demand is inelastic, a change in price will cause total expenditures to change in the same direction.
  • When demand is elastic, a change in price will cause total expenditures to move in the opposite direction.
  • When demand elasticity is unitary, total expenditures will remain unchanged as price changes.

Because of the relationship between price and quantity sold, a firm's total revenue can rise, fall or stay the same in response to a change in price. The outcome is determined by the price elasticity of demand. This conclusion is similar to that of total expenditures.

Note that firms attempt to maximize profit (total revenue minus total cost), not revenue.

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Subject 7. Demand Elasticities
demand for most products will be more elastic in the long run than in the short run. This relationship between the elasticity coefficient and the length of the adjustment period is referred to as the second law of demand. <span>Impact on Total Expenditure Consumers' total expenditure is the same as total revenues from the suppliers' point of view. One of the most important applications of price elasticity is determining how total consumer expenditure on a product changes when the price changes. Total Revenues = Total Expenditures = Price x Quantity According to the law of demand, price and quantity move in opposite directions. When the price changes, total revenue also changes. But a rise in price doesn't always increase total revenue. The change in total expenditures depends on whether the effect of the changes in price or the effect of the changes in quantity is greater. When demand is inelastic, a change in price will cause total expenditures to change in the same direction. When demand is elastic, a change in price will cause total expenditures to move in the opposite direction. When demand elasticity is unitary, total expenditures will remain unchanged as price changes. Because of the relationship between price and quantity sold, a firm's total revenue can rise, fall or stay the same in response to a change in price. The outcome is determined by the price elasticity of demand. This conclusion is similar to that of total expenditures. Note that firms attempt to maximize profit (total revenue minus total cost), not revenue. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods Definition: The percentage change in the quantity of a product demanded divided by the per




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How are genital warts usually dx?
Answer
visually


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It takes ~ [...] ​years for HPV to clear on its own
Answer
2


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What treatment modalities exist for HPV?
Answer
Patient-applied
- imiquimod 5% cream (Aldara)
- podofilox 5% solution

Provider-administered
- podophyllin
- trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or bichloroacetic acid (BCA) 80-90%
- cryotherapy (liquid nitrogen or cryoprobe)
- surgical removal (excision, laser)


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What is imiquimod? (HPV therapy) how is it applied?
Answer
immune enhancer to make WBCs fight it off; things can get red and it's the med working, not an allergic rxn;

applied at bedtime x3 per week up to 16 weeks; most common s/e is local skin irritation


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How is podofilox solution applied? (HPV tx)
Answer
x2 daily for 3 consec days in one week, and repeat for up to 4 weeks


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V2 receptor (V2R) differs from V1R primarily in the number of sites susceptible to N-linked glycosylation; the V1R has sites at both the amino-terminus and at the extracellular loop, whereas the V2R has a single site at the extracellular amino-terminus.[1]

The well known antidiuretic effect of vasopressin occurs via activation of V2R.[1] Vasopressin regulates water excretion from the kidney by increasing the osmotic water permeability of the renal collecting duct – an effect that is explained by coupling of the V2R with the Gs signaling pathway, which activates cAMP. Interestingly, the V2R continues to activate Gs after being internalized by β-arrestin rather than being desensitized. This internalized Gs signaling by V2R is explained by the receptors ability to form "mega-complexes" consisting of a single V2R, β-arrestin, and heterotrimeric Gs.[3] The increased intracellular cAMP in the kidney in turn triggers fusion of aquaporin-2-bearing vesicles with the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct principal cells, increasing water reabsorption.[1]

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Vasopressin receptor - Wikipedia
luminal membrane of the collecting duct limit the antidiuretic action of vasopressin. Additionally, vasopressin selectively contracts efferent arterioles probably through the V 1 R, but not the afferent arteriole. [1] V 2 receptor[edit] <span>V 2 receptor (V 2 R) differs from V 1 R primarily in the number of sites susceptible to N-linked glycosylation; the V 1 R has sites at both the amino-terminus and at the extracellular loop, whereas the V 2 R has a single site at the extracellular amino-terminus. [1] The well known antidiuretic effect of vasopressin occurs via activation of V 2 R. [1] Vasopressin regulates water excretion from the kidney by increasing the osmotic water permeability of the renal collecting duct – an effect that is explained by coupling of the V 2 R with the G s signaling pathway, which activates cAMP. Interestingly, the V 2 R continues to activate G s after being internalized by β-arrestin rather than being desensitized. This internalized G s signaling by V 2 R is explained by the receptors ability to form "mega-complexes" consisting of a single V 2 R, β-arrestin, and heterotrimeric G s . [3] The increased intracellular cAMP in the kidney in turn triggers fusion of aquaporin-2-bearing vesicles with the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct principal cells, increasing water reabsorption. [1] V 3 receptor[edit] The human V 3 receptor (V 3 R, previously known as V 1B R) is a G-protein-coupled pituitary receptor that, because of its scarcity, was only recently characteri




V1 receptors (V1Rs) are found in high density on vascular smooth muscle and cause vasoconstriction by an increase in intracellular calcium via the phosphatidyl–inositol-bisphosphonate cascade.[1] Cardiac myocytes also possess V1R. Additionally V1R are located in brain, testis, superior cervical ganglion, liver, blood vessels, and renal medulla.[1]

V1R is present on platelets, which upon stimulation induces an increase in intracellular calcium, facilitating thrombosis. Studies have indicated that due to polymorphism of platelet V1R there is significant heterogeneity in the aggregation response of normal human platelets to vasopressin.[1]

V1Rs are found in kidney, where they occur in high density on medullary interstitial cells, vasa recta, and epithelial cells of the collecting duct.[1] Vasopressin acts on medullary vasculature through V1R to reduce blood flow to inner medulla without affecting blood flow to outer medulla. V1Rs on the luminal membrane of the collecting duct limit the antidiuretic action of vasopressin. Additionally, vasopressin selectively contracts efferent arterioles probably through the V1R, but not the afferent arteriole.[1]

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Vasopressin receptor - Wikipedia
f collecting duct, vascular endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cell insertion of AQP-2 water channels into apical membrane, induction of AQP-2 synthesis, releases von Willebrand factor and factor VIII, vasodilation V 1 receptor[edit] <span>V 1 receptors (V 1 Rs) are found in high density on vascular smooth muscle and cause vasoconstriction by an increase in intracellular calcium via the phosphatidyl–inositol-bisphosphonate cascade. [1] Cardiac myocytes also possess V 1 R. Additionally V 1 R are located in brain, testis, superior cervical ganglion, liver, blood vessels, and renal medulla. [1] V 1 R is present on platelets, which upon stimulation induces an increase in intracellular calcium, facilitating thrombosis. Studies have indicated that due to polymorphism of platelet V 1 R there is significant heterogeneity in the aggregation response of normal human platelets to vasopressin. [1] V 1 Rs are found in kidney, where they occur in high density on medullary interstitial cells, vasa recta, and epithelial cells of the collecting duct. [1] Vasopressin acts on medullary vasculature through V 1 R to reduce blood flow to inner medulla without affecting blood flow to outer medulla. V 1 Rs on the luminal membrane of the collecting duct limit the antidiuretic action of vasopressin. Additionally, vasopressin selectively contracts efferent arterioles probably through the V 1 R, but not the afferent arteriole. [1] V 2 receptor[edit] V 2 receptor (V 2 R) differs from V 1 R primarily in the number of sites susceptible to N-linked glycosylation; the V 1 R has sites at both the amino-terminus a




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What provider administered HPV tx is contraindicated in pregnancy?
Answer
podophyllin


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What provider-administered HPV tx is safe in pregnancy?
Answer
trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or bichloroacetic acid (BCA)


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Why is podophyllin contraindicated in pregnancy?
Answer
attacks rapidly-dividing cells


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the bivalent HPV vaccine covers [...]
Answer
16 & 18


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What does the quadrivalent HPV vaccine cover?
Answer
6, 11, 16, 18


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What does the 9-valent HPV vaccine cover?
Answer
6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58)


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What is the most common cause of vulvar ulcers?
Answer
HSV


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What investigations do you do for HSV?
Answer
- viral culture (sensitivity declines as lesion heals)
- HSV DNA PCR
- serologic type-specific tests for ab's to HSV 1 & 2


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What is the tx for first episode genital herpes?
Answer
- acyclovir 200 mg po 5x daily (or 400 mg po tid)
OR
- famciclovir 250 mg po tid
OR
- valacyclovir 1 g po bid

everything for 5 - 10 days


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What is the episodic therapy for recurrent genital herpes?
Answer
- acyclovir 200 mg po 5x daily for 5 days (or 800 mg po tid x2 days)
OR
- famciclovir 125 mg po bid for 5 days
OR
- valacyclovir 500 mg po bid (or 1 g po daily) for 3 days


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What is the daily suppressive therapy to prevent outbreaks in recurrent genital herpes?
Answer
- consider for pts w/ freq (6+) recurrences per year or if outbreaks very bothersome
- acyclovir 200 mg po tid (or 400 mg po bid)
OR
- famciclovir 250 mg po bid
OR
- valacyclovir 500 mg po daily (or 1 g po daily)


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Question
What is the daily suppressive therapy to prevent sexual transmission to partners in recurrent genital herpes?
Answer
valacyclovir 500 mg po daily


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What is the clinical presentation for primary syphilis?
Answer
local infection, painless chancre (ulcer), heals in 3-6 weeks


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What is the clinical presentation for secondary syphilis?
Answer
systemic infection, flu-like illness w/ rash (palms & soles)


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What is the clinical presentation for latent syphilis?
Answer
no clinically active dz, can last for many years, many pts stay in this stage & never progress beyond


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What is the clinical presentation for​ tertiary/late syphilis?
Answer
end organ dz, neurosyphilis, CV dz, gummas (granuloma, non-cancerous growth)


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Question
what is the clinical presentation of lichen sclerosus?
Answer
intense vulvar itching & burning
- on exam, whitish figure 8 distribution around vulva & anus


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What is the tx for syphilis?
Answer
penicillin


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What is the tx for lichen sclerosus?
Answer
1st line = high potency local steroid cream (clobetasol)
-long term tx


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What is the clinical presentation of lichen simplex chronicus?
Answer
itching & burning, esp at night, leading to chr irritation
- on exam, leathery skin appearance, esp on labia majora
- also known as sq cell hyperplasia


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What is the tx for lichen simplex chronicus?
Answer
short course high/medium potency local steroid cream; antihistamine may be helpful for itching at night


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What is the clinical presentation for lichen planus?
Answer
plaques on genital skin w/ erosion of vestibule & extension into vagina
- loss of normal vaginal structure & erosion of vaginal walls
- may also have oral lesions


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What is the tx for lichen planus?
Answer
local steroid creams/foams intravaginally


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What is presentation of Bartholin's gland dz?
Answer
-cysts from obstruction of bartholin's duct in posterior third of vestibule (lower vagina)


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What is the tx for bartholin's gland dz?
Answer
incision & drainage through vestibular area, not skin surface, followed by insertion of Word catheter to keep cyst cavity open


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What's the presentation of vulvodynia?
Answer
painful vulvar area w/ no visible lesions or evident cause; generalized vulvar discomfort


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What is the tx for vulvodynia?
Answer
- pt support
- local moisturizers & barrier creams
- cold compresses
- xylocaine jelly
- systemic nerve blocking w/ meds


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Question
List 5 physiologic causes of vag dz
Answer
- excessive physiologic secretions
- hypersensitivity (latex condoms, spermicides, vag douches, soaps, bath oils)
- derm conditions (eczema, lichen sclerosus, lichen planus, psoriasis)
- homorne-related (cyclic, menarche, menopause, pregnancy, exogenous - OCP/HRT)
- genital atrophy
- foreign body
- trauma
- lack of proper lubrication during intercourse


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Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods

Definition: The percentage change in the quantity of a product demanded divided by the percentage change in consumer income causing the change in quantity demanded.

Since increases in consumer income will increase the demand for most goods, income elasticity measures the responsiveness of a demand for a good to a change in income. Specifically, it tells the analyst the percentage change in the quantity demanded for a good caused by a 1% increase in consumer income.

Calculation:

The type of product is the primary determinant of income elasticity of demand.

  • Most products have positive income elasticity; normal goods have positive income elasticity.

    • Necessities have low income elasticities (between 0 and 1); when income rises by 1%, the quantity demanded for necessities will increase by less than 1%.
    • Luxuries have high income elasticities (greater than 1).

  • A few commodities (inferior goods) have negative income elasticity; as income expands, the demand for them will decline. Examples of inferior goods are margarine, junk food, etc.

Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand: Substitutes and Complements

The cross elasticity of demand is a measure of the responsiveness of demand for a good to a change in the price of a substitute or a complement, other factors remaining the same. The formula for calculating the cross elasticity is:

  • The cross elasticity of demand for a substitute is positive.
  • The cross elasticity of demand for a complement is negative.

The following figure shows the increase in the quantity of pizza demanded when the price of a burger (a substitute for pizza) rises. The figure also shows the decrease in the quantity of pizza demanded when the price of a soft drink (a complement of pizza) rises.

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Subject 7. Demand Elasticities
tcome is determined by the price elasticity of demand. This conclusion is similar to that of total expenditures. Note that firms attempt to maximize profit (total revenue minus total cost), not revenue. <span>Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods Definition: The percentage change in the quantity of a product demanded divided by the percentage change in consumer income causing the change in quantity demanded. Since increases in consumer income will increase the demand for most goods, income elasticity measures the responsiveness of a demand for a good to a change in income. Specifically, it tells the analyst the percentage change in the quantity demanded for a good caused by a 1% increase in consumer income. Calculation: The type of product is the primary determinant of income elasticity of demand. Most products have positive income elasticity; normal goods have positive income elasticity. Necessities have low income elasticities (between 0 and 1); when income rises by 1%, the quantity demanded for necessities will increase by less than 1%. Luxuries have high income elasticities (greater than 1). A few commodities (inferior goods) have negative income elasticity; as income expands, the demand for them will decline. Examples of inferior goods are margarine, junk food, etc. Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand: Substitutes and Complements The cross elasticity of demand is a measure of the responsiveness of demand for a good to a change in the price of a substitute or a complement, other factors remaining the same. The formula for calculating the cross elasticity is: The cross elasticity of demand for a substitute is positive. The cross elasticity of demand for a complement is negative. The following figure shows the increase in the quantity of pizza demanded when the price of a burger (a substitute for pizza) rises. The figure also shows the decrease in the quantity of pizza demanded when the price of a soft drink (a complement of pizza) rises. <span><body><html>




Flashcard 1419725376780

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Question
What are important points to ask on hx for vag discharge?
Answer
1. duration of sx's
2. presence/absence of vag discharge (colour, amount, nature - thin/thick, runny, watery, clumpy, frothy)
3. presence/absence of odour
4. irritative sx's - itching/pruritus, burning, pain
5. dysuria, dyspareunia
6. assc skin changes/lesions - erythema, vesicles, ulcers, bleeding points
7. temporal assc w/ menstrual cycle or intercourse
8. product use in vaginal/vulvar area (soaps, etc)
9. sexually active? sx's in sexual partners?
10. past hx of vag inf's (culture proven?) & tx used (effective?)
11. current meds


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Flashcard 1419727211788

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Question
What's important to do on physical exam for vag discharge?
Answer
1. inspect ext genitalia - skin colour, texture, erythema, excoriations, vesicles, ulcers
2. inspect vagina & cervix - discharge, edema, colour, lesions
3. pH test of vag secretions
4. wet mount slide (KOH)
5. KOH whiff test
6. bimanual exam - cervical motion tenderness, uterine size/shape/orientation/tenderness/mobility, adnexal masses/tenderness/mobility


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Flashcard 1419729046796

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Question
vaginal pH with yeast inf is [...] and with bacterial vaginosis or trichomonas vaginalis is [...]
Answer
≤ 4.5 ; > 4.5


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Flashcard 1419730881804

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Question
What is normal vag pH?
Answer
3.8-4.2


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Flashcard 1419732716812

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Question
What is normal vag discharge?
Answer
white, clear, flocculent


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Flashcard 1419734551820

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Question
Normal vag secretion is amine odour (whiff) test [...]
Answer
negative


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Flashcard 1419736386828

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Question
What are primary symptoms of a normal vagina?
Answer
none


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Flashcard 1419738221836

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Question
What's seen in microscopy of normal vag secretions?
Answer
lactobacilli, epithelial cells


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Flashcard 1419740056844

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Question
What is the vag pH of bacterial vaginosis?
Answer
> 4.5


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Flashcard 1419741891852

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Question
What is the discharge like in bacterial vaginosis?
Answer
thin, homogenous, white, grey, adherent, often increased


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Flashcard 1419743726860

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Question
Bacterial vaginosis is [...] ​ on whiff test
Answer
fishy


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Flashcard 1419745561868

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Question
What are primary sx's of bact vaginosis?
Answer
discharge, bad odour (may be worse after intercourse)


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Flashcard 1419747396876

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Question
What's seen on bact vaginosis microscopy?
Answer
clue cells (epithelial cells covered in bact) w/ adherent coccoid bact, no WBCs


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Flashcard 1419749231884

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Question
What is trichomonas vaginitis vag pH?
Answer
>4.5


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Flashcard 1419751066892

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Question
What is the discharge like in trichomonas vaginitis?
Answer
yellow-green, frothy, adherent, increased


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Flashcard 1419752901900

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Question
You may see a [...] ​cervix with trichomonas vaginitis
Answer
strawberry


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Flashcard 1419757096204

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Question
whiff test is [...] in trichomonas vaginitis
Answer
may be present (fishy)


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Flashcard 1419758931212

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Question
primary sx's of trichomonas vaginitis
Answer
frothy discharge, bad odour, vulvar pruritus, dysuria


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Flashcard 1419761552652

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Question
What's seen in trichomonas vaginitis microscopy?
Answer
trichomonads (moves), WBCs >10/hpf


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Flashcard 1419763387660

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Question
What's the vag pH in candida vulvovaginitis?
Answer
usually ≤ 4.5


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Flashcard 1419765222668

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Question
What is candida discharge like?
Answer
white, curdy, cottage cheese-like, sometimes increased, can be yellow/green


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Flashcard 1419767057676

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Question
whiff test is [...] in candida vulvovaginitis
Answer
absent


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Flashcard 1419768892684

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Question
primary sx's of candida vulvovaginitis
Answer
itching (1st thing to think is yeast when complains of itching!), burning, discharge


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Flashcard 1419770727692

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Question
[...] and [...] can create enviro for yeast to flourish
Answer
steroids & abx


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Flashcard 1419772562700

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Question
what's seen on candida microscopy?
Answer
budding yeast, hyphae, pseudohyphae


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Flashcard 1419774659852

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Question
vag discharge investigations
Answer
- pH test, wet mount, KOH whiff test
- gram stain
- culture


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Flashcard 1419776757004

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Question
bacterial vaginosis tx
Answer
- preferred = metronidazole 500 mg po bid x7 days
- can also use probiotic capsules
- no tx for male partner


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Flashcard 1419778592012

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Question
trichomonas vaginitis tx
Answer
preferred = metronidazole 2g oral single dose
- tx male partner


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Flashcard 1419780427020

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Question
yeast vaginitis tx
Answer
- intravag preps (ovules & creams) for 1/3/7 days (1 more concentrated, 7 more diluted)
- topical azole drugs (miconazole (monistat - more irritating), clotrimazole (canesten))
- oral therapy (fluconazole 150 mg po single dose)
- no male tx unless yeast balanitis


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Flashcard 1419782524172

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Question
investigations for atrophic vaginitis
Answer
visual
- thinning of tissues, erythema, petechiae, bleeding points, dryness


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Flashcard 1419784359180

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atrophic vaginitis tx
Answer
- estrogen vag cream (premarin most common)
- vag estrogen tabs (vagifem) or ring (estring)
- consider oral estrogen
- water-based lubes & moisturizers


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Flashcard 1419786194188

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Question
causes of prepubertal vulvovaginitis
Answer
infectious agents, foreign body (most common), trauma


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Flashcard 1419788029196

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Question
investigations for prepubertal vulvovaginitis
Answer
- avoid spec exam unless unexplained bleeding
- exclude presence of foreign body
- after excluding, vag swabs (not cervical) for gram stain, cultures, wet mount


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Flashcard 1419789864204

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Question
What is mucopurulent cervicitis?
Answer
presence of mucopurulent discharge from endocervix, erythema, edema, friable cervix
- grossly purulent cervical mucus indicates high [WBC]


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Flashcard 1419791699212

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Question
What are the 2 major causes of mucopurulent cervicitis?
Answer
N gonorrhea & chlamydia trachomatis


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Flashcard 1419793534220

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Question
Tx for n gonorrhea
Answer
- co-treat for chlamydia
- ceftriaxone 250mg IM (1st choice) OR cefixime 800mg po (alternative) - all single dose
- use cephalosporin (avoid quinolones) in pregnancy
- test & tx partners
- f/u re-screen 6mo after tx


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Flashcard 1419795369228

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Question
C trachomatis tx (normal & pregnancy)
Answer
- azithromycin 1g po single dose OR doxycycline 100 mg po bid x7 days (both are equal effectiveness)
- test of cure needed in preg women 3w after therapy
- recommended for pregnancy: azithromycin same OR amoxicillin 500 mg po tid x7 days OR erythromycin 2g/day po in divided doses x7 days OR erythromycin 1g/day po divided dose x14 days
- test & tx partners
- f/u re-screen 6mo after tx


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Flashcard 1419797204236

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Question
pelvic pain can be classified as [...] ​, [...] ​, or [...]
Answer
acute, cyclical (menstrual), chronic


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Question
accepted def'n of chr pelvic pain
Answer
non-menstrual pelvic pain persistent for >6 mo


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Flashcard 1419800874252

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Question
what is dysmenorrhea?
Answer
recurrent, severe, painful abdo cramping occuring immediately prior to or during menses
- may be assc w/ systemic sx's (sweating, tachycardia, h/a, n&v, diarrhea, tremulousness)


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Flashcard 1419802709260

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Question
What is primary dysmenorrhea?
Answer
no obv pelvic dz found (likely d/t increased prostaglandin production)


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Flashcard 1419804544268

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Question
what is 2ndary dysmenorrhea?
Answer
assc w/ various pelvic conditions i.e. endometriosis, adenomyosis, chr PID, cervical stenosis


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Question
what is the common approach to chr pelvic pain?
Answer
contemplate gyne causes first, then r/o possible non-gyne causes


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Question
list 4 gyne causes of chr pelvic pain
Answer
1. endometriosis
2. chr PID
3. adhesions
4. adenomyosis


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Flashcard 1419810049292

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Question
list 4 non-gyne causes of chr pelvic pain
Answer
1. GI
2. GU
3. MSK & neuro
4. psych


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Flashcard 1419811884300

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Question
in pts undergoing laparoscopy for CPP, [...] ​ is the most commonly made dx
Answer
endometriosis


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Flashcard 1419813719308

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Question
pelvic pain in endometriosis may be [...] ​and/or have [...]
Answer
continuous; premenstrual exacerbations


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Flashcard 1419815554316

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Question
pelvic pain in endometriosis may be assc w/ [...] ​, [...] ​, and [...]
Answer
dysmenorrhea; dyspareunia; dyschezia


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Flashcard 1419817389324

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Question
acute PID is caused by inf in the [...] ​, most commonly by [...] ​ & [...]
Answer
upper genital tract; N gonorrhea & C trachomatis


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Flashcard 1419819224332

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Question
some women dx w/ PID will eventually develop [...]
Answer
CPP


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Flashcard 1419821059340

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Question
the assc b/w pelvic adhesions & CPP is [...]
Answer
controversial


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Question
adenomyosis often coexists w/ [...] ​ and [...]
Answer
endometriosis; uterine fibroids


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Question
many pts w/ adenomyosis are [...]
Answer
asx


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Question
what are typical sx's of adenomyosis in women > 40y/o?
Answer
heavy and/or prolonged menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhea


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Flashcard 1419828399372

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Question
What is the GI cause for CPP?
Answer
IBS (functional bowel disorder)
- many women w/ CPP will have sx's suggestive of IBS i.e. pain relieved w/ defecation, change in stool freq & form


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Flashcard 1419830234380

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Question
what is the GU cause for CPP? what is the presentation?
Answer
interstitial cystitis (chr inflm condition of bladder)
- may present w/ pelvic pain, urinary urgency & freq


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Flashcard 1419832069388

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Question
What are msk/neuro causes for CPP?
Answer
nerve entrapment, myofascial pain, low back pain


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Flashcard 1419833904396

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Question
psych conditions such as [...] ​, [...] ​, [...] ​, and [...] ​ may cause or exacerbate pelvic pain
Answer
depression; anxiety; personality disorders; psychosomatic disorders


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Flashcard 1419835739404

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Question
particular attention should be directed to [...] ​ exams on a physical for CPP (5 exams)
Answer
abdo, pelvic, vulvar, vag, rectovag


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Flashcard 1419837574412

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Question
what may be noted on a physical in pts with endometriosis
Answer
nodularity of uterosacral ligaments w/ fixed, retroverted uterus or ovarian enlargement


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Flashcard 1419839409420

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Question
[...] ​is suggestive of adenomyosis (on p/e)
Answer
diffusely enlarged uterus


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Flashcard 1419841244428

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Question
for CPP, abdopelvic US or MRI may be helpful in dx gyne conditions (particularly [...] ​and [...] ​) and [...] ​conditions
Answer
ovarian masses; adenomyosis; GI


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Flashcard 1419843079436

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Question
what are characteristic findings of endometriosis at laparoscopy?
Answer
powder-burn lesions (black/brown/bluish nodules), red implants, vesicles, white plaques on peritoneum, adhesions


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Flashcard 1419844914444

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Question
what is the primary site of endometriosis?
Answer
ovaries


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Flashcard 1419846749452

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#obgyn
Question
in pt w/ CPP and clinical findings suggestive of endometriosis, many gyne's will propose [...] and consider [...] only if the initial fails
Answer
beginning empirical therapy (NSAIDs & hormonal contraceptives); proceeding w/ laparoscopy


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Flashcard 1419848584460

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#obgyn
Question
[...] ​are often prescribed in pts w/ endometriosis who fails 1st line med therapy
Answer
GnRH-analogues


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Flashcard 1419850419468

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#obgyn
Question
what is mainstay tx for pts w/ primary dysmenorrhea?
Answer
NSAIDs & hormonal contraceptives
- take NSAIDs continuously beginning in premenstrual phase until second/third day of menses


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Flashcard 1419852254476

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#obgyn
Question
When can you make a presumptive dx of adenomyosis?
Answer
in women w/ dysmenorrhea b/w 35-50 y w/ diffuse uterine enlargement & neg pregnancy test


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Flashcard 1419854351628

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#obgyn
Question
adenomyosis may be initially managed w/ what med tx's? how is complete relief of sx's achieved?
Answer
initially w/ NSAIDs, hormonal contraceptives, mirena IUS

complete relief w/ hysterectomy


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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