on 13-Nov-2016 (Sun)

Flashcard 1409833897228

Tags
#obgyn
Question
-decreased [...] with advancing maternal age
-increased risk of spontaneous abortion & increased risk of chromosomal abnormality with advancing maternal age
fertility

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Preconception - Targeted Review - Age
What to ask about 'Age' in a preconception review: -decreased fertility -increased risk of spontaneous abortion & increased risk of chromosomal abnormality with advancing maternal age

Flashcard 1409837042956

Tags
#obgyn
Question
-increased risk of spontaneous abortion & increased risk of [...] with advancing maternal age
chromosomal abnormality

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Preconception - Targeted Review - Age
What to ask about 'Age' in a preconception review: -decreased fertility -increased risk of spontaneous abortion & increased risk of chromosomal abnormality with advancing maternal age

Annotation 1409848839436

 #rhetoric productive arguments use [...] tense, the language of choices and decisions.

Flashcard 1419515661580

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the fetal 'position'? What are the parts? How is it determined?
how presenting fetus part relates to pelvis
- occiput (vertex presentation)
- sacrum (breech ")
- mentum (face ")
e.g. LOA if vertex

determined via vag exam (location of sagittal suture & fontanelles)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419517496588

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the fetal 'station'?
level of presenting part in relation to ischial spines

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419519331596

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What are the 7 mechanisms/movements of labour?
1. engagement (BPD of fetal head passes through pelvic inlet)
2. descent
4. internal rotation (rotation of fetal head to occipitoant/post position)
5. extension
6. ext rotation (restitution; head aligns with shoulders)
7. expulsion (ant shoulder delivery followed by rest of body)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419521166604

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What should be done in the initial assessment of labour?
- vital signs (reassuring FHR)
- Hx (from pt + antenatal records for risk stratification, GA, parity, GBS status, etc)
- Px
o strength, timing, duration of contractions
o deg of maternal distress
o membrane status, quality of fluid if ruptured
o fetal lie & presentation
o presence of show
o speculum exam if needed
o vag exam for dilation, effacement, station, position of cervix
- Lab (G&S, urinalysis & b/w if other conditions like UTI/HTN)
- admission (for active labour or conditions needing in-pt observation)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Annotation 1419521953036

 Te demand curve #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction The demand function represents buyers' behavior. Prices influence consumers' purchase decisions. The demand function can be depicted as a negatively sloped demand curve. If all other factors are equal, as the price of a good rises, consumer demand falls. This is mainly due to the availability of substitutes, which are goods that perform similar functions.As the price of a good falls, consumer demand rises. Therefore, there is an inverse relationship between the price of a good and the amount that consumers are willing to buy. The demand curve normally slopes downward. It tells the analyst the quantity that consumers are willing to buy for each possible price when all other influences on consumers' planned purchases remain the same. Example 1 Refer to the graph below. What is the quantity of cassettes demanded when their price is $4.00 per week? Answer: Two cassettes per week. The demand curve tells how much is demanded at each price. To determine the quantity demanded, find$4.00 on the vertical axis and read across until you meet the demand curve. Then read the quantity from the horizontal axis.

Subject 2. Basic Principles and Concepts
The Demand Function and the Demand Curve The demand function represents buyers' behavior. Prices influence consumers' purchase decisions. The demand function can be depicted as a negatively sloped demand curve. If all other factors are equal, as the price of a good rises, consumer demand falls. This is mainly due to the availability of substitutes, which are goods that perform similar functions. As the price of a good falls, consumer demand rises. Therefore, there is an inverse relationship between the price of a good and the amount that consumers are willing to buy. The demand curve normally slopes downward. It tells the analyst the quantity that consumers are willing to buy for each possible price when all other influences on consumers' planned purchases remain the same. Example 1 Refer to the graph below. What is the quantity of cassettes demanded when their price is $4.00 per week? Answer: Two cassettes per week. The demand curve tells how much is demanded at each price. To determine the quantity demanded, find$4.00 on the vertical axis and read across until you meet the demand curve. Then read the quantity from the horizontal axis. When any factor that influences buying plans, other than the price of the good, changes, there is a change in demand for that good. When the quantity of the good tha

Annotation 1419524312332

 Demand curve shifts #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction When any factor that influences buying plans, other than the price of the good, changes, there is a change in demand for that good. When the quantity of the good that people plan to buy changes at each and every price, there is a new demand curve. These factors include changes in income, number of consumers in the market, changes in the price of a related good, etc. Example 2 Assume the graph below reflects demand in the automobile market. Which arrow best captures the impact of increased consumer income on the automobile market? Answer: D. Income is a shift factor of demand. An increase in income increases the number of automobiles demanded at each price. Therefore demand has shifted to the right. When demand increases, the quantity that people plan to buy increases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts rightward.When demand decreases, the quantity that people plan to buy decreases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts leftward.

Subject 2. Basic Principles and Concepts
e demand curve tells how much is demanded at each price. To determine the quantity demanded, find $4.00 on the vertical axis and read across until you meet the demand curve. Then read the quantity from the horizontal axis. <span>When any factor that influences buying plans, other than the price of the good, changes, there is a change in demand for that good. When the quantity of the good that people plan to buy changes at each and every price, there is a new demand curve. These factors include changes in income, number of consumers in the market, changes in the price of a related good, etc. Example 2 Assume the graph below reflects demand in the automobile market. Which arrow best captures the impact of increased consumer income on the automobile market? Answer: D. Income is a shift factor of demand. An increase in income increases the number of automobiles demanded at each price. Therefore demand has shifted to the right. When demand increases, the quantity that people plan to buy increases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts rightward. When demand decreases, the quantity that people plan to buy decreases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts leftward. A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand The demand curve isolates the impact of price on the amount of a product purchased.& Flashcard 1419527195916 Tags #obgyn Question What are indirect measures of fetal health? Answer - presence of mec/blood in amniotic fluid - mat temp status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Flashcard 1419529817356 Tags #obgyn Question What are the methods of FHR monitoring? Answer 1. intermittent ausc w/ doppler (q15-30min for 1 min following a contraction in active phase of 1st stage; q5min during 2nd stage when pushing) If non-reassuring IA, 2. EFM (continuous) status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Annotation 1419530341644  A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction The demand curve isolates the impact of price on the amount of a product purchased. A change in quantity demanded (caused by price change ONLY) is a movement along a demand curve from one point to another.Changes in other factors (anything other than price), such as income, tastes, expectations, and the prices of closely related goods, will shift the entire demand curve inwards or outwards. This is referred to as change in demand. Example 3 Refer to the graph below. Consumers began purchasing more of a product due to a decrease in price. Which arrow best represents this statement? Answer: C. A change in price causes a movement along the demand curve. When price falls, the movement is downward and to the right. status not read Subject 2. Basic Principles and Concepts ople plan to buy increases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts rightward. When demand decreases, the quantity that people plan to buy decreases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts leftward. <span>A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand The demand curve isolates the impact of price on the amount of a product purchased. A change in quantity demanded (caused by price change ONLY) is a movement along a demand curve from one point to another. Changes in other factors (anything other than price), such as income, tastes, expectations, and the prices of closely related goods, will shift the entire demand curve inwards or outwards. This is referred to as change in demand. Example 3 Refer to the graph below. Consumers began purchasing more of a product due to a decrease in price. Which arrow best represents this statement? Answer: C. A change in price causes a movement along the demand curve. When price falls, the movement is downward and to the right. The Supply Function and the Supply Curve Resources and technology determine what it is possible to produce. Supply reflects a decision about whic Flashcard 1419534798092 Tags #obgyn Question Contractions in active labour should be: Answer mod-strong, last ~45 sec, q2-3min status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Annotation 1419535322380  #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction The Supply Function and the Supply Curve Resources and technology determine what it is possible to produce. Supply reflects a decision about which technologically feasible items are best to produce. The supply function represents sellers' behavior. Prices influence producers' supply decisions. The supply function can be depicted as a positively sloped supply curve. If all other factors are equal, a higher price will increase the producer's incentive to supply the good. Higher prices increase the producer's profit, which is the excess of sales revenue over the cost of production.As the price of a good falls, its supply falls as well. Therefore, there is a direct relationship between the price of a good and the amount of that good that will be supplied. The supply curve slopes upward. It tells the analyst the quantity that producers are willing to supply for each price when all other influences on producers' planned sales remain the same. Example 4 The graph below displays the quantity associated with price in a supply table. To find the quantity supplied at a price of$1, extend a horizontal line from $1 to the supply curve and drop a vertical line down to the quantity axis. These lines will intersect at 0. This is the quantity that will be associated with a price of$1 on a supply table. The law of supply results from the general tendency for the marginal cost of producing a good or service to increase as the quantity produced increases. A supply curve is also a minimum-supply-price curve. The greater the quantity produced, the higher the price a firm must be offered to be willing to produce that quantity.

Subject 2. Basic Principles and Concepts

Flashcard 1419618422028

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the most commonly transmitted STI worldwide?
HPV

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419620257036

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What are 3 clinical outcomes following an HPV infection?
- asx/subclinical (majority)
- anogenital warts (HPV 6, 11)
- genital tract neoplasia (HPV 16, 18, 45, 31, and more)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Annotation 1419623927052

 #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction Consumer Surplus Consumer surplus is the area below the demand curve but above the actual price paid. It is the difference between the amount consumers are willing to pay and the amount they have to pay for a good. Consider the market for a good. If the market price is $100, then the 30th unit will not sell because those who demand it are only willing to pay$60 for the good.At $100, the 17th unit will sell because those who demand it are willing to pay up to$100 for the good.At $100, the 5th unit will sell because those who demand it are willing to pay up to$133 for the good. For all those goods under 17 units, people are willing to pay more than $100.The area represented by the distance above the actual price paid and below the demand curve is called consumer surplus.This area represents the net gains to buyers from market exchange. Lower market prices increase the amount of consumer surplus in the market. status not read Subject 5. Consumer Surplus, Producer Surplus, and Total Surplus Consumer Surplus Consumer surplus is the area below the demand curve but above the actual price paid. It is the difference between the amount consumers are willing to pay and the amount they have to pay for a good. Consider the market for a good. If the market price is$100, then the 30th unit will not sell because those who demand it are only willing to pay $60 for the good. At$100, the 17th unit will sell because those who demand it are willing to pay up to $100 for the good. At$100, the 5th unit will sell because those who demand it are willing to pay up to $133 for the good. For all those goods under 17 units, people are willing to pay more than$100. The area represented by the distance above the actual price paid and below the demand curve is called consumer surplus. This area represents the net gains to buyers from market exchange. Lower market prices increase the amount of consumer surplus in the market. Producer Surplus Producer surplus is the difference between the minimum supply price, represented by the supply curve, and the actual sales price

Annotation 1419625499916

 Consumer Surplus (Superávit de consumo) #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction Es el exedente en precio que unas personas están dispuestas a pagar por sobre el precio de equilibrio.

Subject 5. Consumer Surplus, Producer Surplus, and Total Surplus
Consumer Surplus Consumer surplus is the area below the demand curve but above the actual price paid. It is the difference between the amount consumers are willing to pay and the amount th

Annotation 1419627859212

 #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction Producer Surplus Producer surplus is the difference between the minimum supply price, represented by the supply curve, and the actual sales price. It is measured by the area below the price and above the supply curve, up to the quantity sold.It accrues to owners of firms and resource suppliers. Example The actual selling price of bananas is $9 per kg. Now imagine that there are only 10,000 kg bananas being supplied at the moment. The marginal cost per kg is only$3 but the selling price is $9. So there is an additional$6 per kg being raised. This is the producer surplus per kg. The total producer surplus when 10,000 kg are produced is thus $60,000. Due to the surplus, more producers enter the market and another 10,000 kg are produced, so there are now 20,000 kg of bananas on the market. The marginal costs of producing this additional 10,000 kg have risen to$4. Producer surplus is not the same as profit. Remember that profit is the return that accrues to owners of a firm and is the difference between sales revenue and total (not marginal) costs of production. Total Surplus The following figure shows that a competitive market creates an efficient allocation of resources at equilibrium. In equilibrium, the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied.At the equilibrium quantity, marginal benefit equals marginal cost, so the quantity is the efficient quantity.The sum of consumer and producer surplus is maximized at this efficient level of output. It is here that all potential gains from production and exchange are realized.

Subject 5. Consumer Surplus, Producer Surplus, and Total Surplus
paid and below the demand curve is called consumer surplus. This area represents the net gains to buyers from market exchange. Lower market prices increase the amount of consumer surplus in the market. <span>Producer Surplus Producer surplus is the difference between the minimum supply price, represented by the supply curve, and the actual sales price. It is measured by the area below the price and above the supply curve, up to the quantity sold. It accrues to owners of firms and resource suppliers. Example The actual selling price of bananas is $9 per kg. Now imagine that there are only 10,000 kg bananas being supplied at the moment. The marginal cost per kg is only$3 but the selling price is $9. So there is an additional$6 per kg being raised. This is the producer surplus per kg. The total producer surplus when 10,000 kg are produced is thus $60,000. Due to the surplus, more producers enter the market and another 10,000 kg are produced, so there are now 20,000 kg of bananas on the market. The marginal costs of producing this additional 10,000 kg have risen to$4. Producer surplus is not the same as profit. Remember that profit is the return that accrues to owners of a firm and is the difference between sales revenue and total (not marginal) costs of production. Total Surplus The following figure shows that a competitive market creates an efficient allocation of resources at equilibrium. In equilibrium, the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied. At the equilibrium quantity, marginal benefit equals marginal cost, so the quantity is the efficient quantity. The sum of consumer and producer surplus is maximized at this efficient level of output. It is here that all potential gains from production and exchange are realized. <span><body><html>

Annotation 1419629432076

 Total Surplus #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction The following figure shows that a competitive market creates an efficient allocation of resources at equilibrium. In equilibrium, the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied.At the equilibrium quantity, marginal benefit equals marginal cost, so the quantity is the efficient quantity.The sum of consumer and producer surplus is maximized at this efficient level of output. It is here that all potential gains from production and exchange are realized.

Subject 5. Consumer Surplus, Producer Surplus, and Total Surplus
Producer surplus is not the same as profit. Remember that profit is the return that accrues to owners of a firm and is the difference between sales revenue and total (not marginal) costs of production. <span>Total Surplus The following figure shows that a competitive market creates an efficient allocation of resources at equilibrium. In equilibrium, the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied. At the equilibrium quantity, marginal benefit equals marginal cost, so the quantity is the efficient quantity. The sum of consumer and producer surplus is maximized at this efficient level of output. It is here that all potential gains from production and exchange are realized. <span><body><html>

Annotation 1419632315660

 Cambios en la curva de la demanda #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction Cuando un factor, que no sea el precio, influencia los planes de compra, existe un cambio en la demanda de ese bien. Cuando la cantidad demandada cambia a cada uno de los presios, existe una nueva curva de la demanda. Los factores que la cambian pueden ser ingresos, número de consumidores, cambio en el precio de productos relacionados, etc. Example 2 Assume the graph below reflects demand in the automobile market. Which arrow best captures the impact of increased consumer income on the automobile market? Answer: D. Income is a shift factor of demand. An increase in income increases the number of automobiles demanded at each price. Therefore demand has shifted to the right. When demand increases, the quantity that people plan to buy increases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts rightward.When demand decreases, the quantity that people plan to buy decreases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts leftward.

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
When any factor that influences buying plans, other than the price of the good, changes, there is a change in demand for that good. When the quantity of the good that people plan to buy changes at each and every price, there is a new demand curve. These factors include changes in income, number of consumers in the market, changes in the price of a related good, etc. Example 2 Assume the graph below reflects demand in the automobile market. Which arrow best captures the impact of increased consumer income on the automobile market? Answer: D. Income is a shift factor of demand. An increase in income increases the number of automobiles demanded at each price. Therefore demand has shifted to the right. When demand increases, the quantity that people plan to buy increases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts rightward. When demand decreases, the quantity that people plan to buy decreases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts leftward.

Original toplevel document

Subject 2. Basic Principles and Concepts
e demand curve tells how much is demanded at each price. To determine the quantity demanded, find $4.00 on the vertical axis and read across until you meet the demand curve. Then read the quantity from the horizontal axis. <span>When any factor that influences buying plans, other than the price of the good, changes, there is a change in demand for that good. When the quantity of the good that people plan to buy changes at each and every price, there is a new demand curve. These factors include changes in income, number of consumers in the market, changes in the price of a related good, etc. Example 2 Assume the graph below reflects demand in the automobile market. Which arrow best captures the impact of increased consumer income on the automobile market? Answer: D. Income is a shift factor of demand. An increase in income increases the number of automobiles demanded at each price. Therefore demand has shifted to the right. When demand increases, the quantity that people plan to buy increases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts rightward. When demand decreases, the quantity that people plan to buy decreases at each and every price, so the demand curve shifts leftward. A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand The demand curve isolates the impact of price on the amount of a product purchased.& Flashcard 1419635461388 Tags #obgyn Question HPV warts tend to congregate around [...] ​ and will eventually go away. Due to HPV [...] Answer introitus & often near anus (due to gravity); 6 & 11 status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Annotation 1419637558540  #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction A price control is a government-mandated price that may either be greater or less than the market equilibrium price. status not read Subject 6. Market Interference: The Negative Impact on Total Surplus market mechanism is often deemed to be unfair: buyers complain that the price is too high, while sellers believe that it is too low. In such cases, the government may regulate the price of the good or service. This is known as price control. <span>A price control is a government-mandated price that may either be greater or less than the market equilibrium price. Price ceilings and floors are two types of price controls. A Price Ceiling A price ceiling is a legal restriction that prohibits exchanges at prices gr Annotation 1419641228556  #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction A Price Ceiling A price ceiling is a legal restriction that prohibits exchanges at prices greater than a designated price: the ceiling price. Price ceilings are usually imposed when the equilibrium price is considered too high to be fair. A typical price ceiling results in a lower price than market forces would produce. A shortage will result in a situation in which the quantity demanded by consumers exceeds the quantity supplied by producers at the existing price. A typical example of a price ceiling is a "rent ceiling," implemented by over 200 U.S. cities. If the rent ceiling is set above the equilibrium rent, it has no effect. The market works as if there were no ceiling. But if the rent ceiling is set below the equilibrium rent, it has powerful effects. If a rent ceiling is set below the equilibrium price P0, for example, at P1, there is a reduction in the quantity that producers are willing to supply qs and an increase in the quantity that consumers demand qd relative to the original equilibrium quantity q. Because the legal price cannot eliminate the shortage, other mechanisms operate. For example, a black market is an illegal market that operates alongside a legal market in which a price ceiling or other restriction has been imposed. A shortage of housing creates a black market in housing. Illegal arrangements are made between renters and landlords at rents above the rent ceiling - and generally above what the rent would have been in an unregulated market. A rent ceiling leads to an inefficient use of resources. The quantity of rental housing is less than the efficient quantity and there is a deadweight loss. A rent ceiling decreases the quantity of rental housing, shrinks the total producer and consumer surplus by using resources such as search activity, and creates a deadweight loss. It also transfers part of the producer surplus from producers to consumers. The consumer surplus becomes the green area + the pink area. status not read Subject 6. Market Interference: The Negative Impact on Total Surplus the good or service. This is known as price control. A price control is a government-mandated price that may either be greater or less than the market equilibrium price. Price ceilings and floors are two types of price controls. <span>A Price Ceiling A price ceiling is a legal restriction that prohibits exchanges at prices greater than a designated price: the ceiling price. Price ceilings are usually imposed when the equilibrium price is considered too high to be fair. A typical price ceiling results in a lower price than market forces would produce. A shortage will result in a situation in which the quantity demanded by consumers exceeds the quantity supplied by producers at the existing price. A typical example of a price ceiling is a "rent ceiling," implemented by over 200 U.S. cities. If the rent ceiling is set above the equilibrium rent, it has no effect. The market works as if there were no ceiling. But if the rent ceiling is set below the equilibrium rent, it has powerful effects. If a rent ceiling is set below the equilibrium price P 0 , for example, at P 1 , there is a reduction in the quantity that producers are willing to supply qs and an increase in the quantity that consumers demand q d relative to the original equilibrium quantity q. Because the legal price cannot eliminate the shortage, other mechanisms operate. For example, a black market is an illegal market that operates alongside a legal market in which a price ceiling or other restriction has been imposed. A shortage of housing creates a black market in housing. Illegal arrangements are made between renters and landlords at rents above the rent ceiling - and generally above what the rent would have been in an unregulated market. A rent ceiling leads to an inefficient use of resources. The quantity of rental housing is less than the efficient quantity and there is a deadweight loss. A rent ceiling decreases the quantity of rental housing, shrinks the total producer and consumer surplus by using resources such as search activity, and creates a deadweight loss. It also transfers part of the producer surplus from producers to consumers. The consumer surplus becomes the green area + the pink area. A Price Floor A price floor is a minimum price that can be legally charged. It usually fixes the price of a good or resource above the market equ Annotation 1419643063564  #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction A Price Floor A price floor is a minimum price that can be legally charged. It usually fixes the price of a good or resource above the market equilibrium level. Price floors are usually imposed when the equilibrium price is considered too low to be fair. Agricultural price supports and minimum wage legislation are examples of price floors. If a price floor is set above the equilibrium price, p0, for example, at p1, there is a reduction in quantity demanded from q0 to qd, whilst the quantity supplied increases from q0 to qs. The result is a surplus of qs-qd. Example 1 Refer to the graph below. A price floor set by the government would be binding and cause the greatest distortion in the market if it were established at what price? Answer:$3.00. Given the supply and demand curves in the graph, the equilibrium price is $2.25. A price floor will be binding only if it is above the equilibrium price. So a price floor of$1.50 would not distort the market. The higher the floor above equilibrium price, the greater the market distortion (surplus). A price floor at $3.00 would create a larger surplus than a price floor at$2.50. It creates a deadweight loss. Note that a surplus does not mean the good is no longer scarce: people just desire less of the good at the current price than sellers desire to bring to the market. A decline in price would eliminate the surplus but not the scarcity of the item.

Subject 6. Market Interference: The Negative Impact on Total Surplus
er surplus by using resources such as search activity, and creates a deadweight loss. It also transfers part of the producer surplus from producers to consumers. The consumer surplus becomes the green area + the pink area. <span>A Price Floor A price floor is a minimum price that can be legally charged. It usually fixes the price of a good or resource above the market equilibrium level. Price floors are usually imposed when the equilibrium price is considered too low to be fair. Agricultural price supports and minimum wage legislation are examples of price floors. If a price floor is set above the equilibrium price, p0, for example, at p1, there is a reduction in quantity demanded from q0 to qd, whilst the quantity supplied increases from q0 to qs. The result is a surplus of qs-qd. Example 1 Refer to the graph below. A price floor set by the government would be binding and cause the greatest distortion in the market if it were established at what price? Answer: $3.00. Given the supply and demand curves in the graph, the equilibrium price is$2.25. A price floor will be binding only if it is above the equilibrium price. So a price floor of $1.50 would not distort the market. The higher the floor above equilibrium price, the greater the market distortion (surplus). A price floor at$3.00 would create a larger surplus than a price floor at $2.50. It creates a deadweight loss. Note that a surplus does not mean the good is no longer scarce: people just desire less of the good at the current price than sellers desire to bring to the market. A decline in price would eliminate the surplus but not the scarcity of the item. Taxes When a tax is imposed, the government can make either the buyer or the seller legally responsible for payment of the tax. However, the pers Annotation 1419644636428  #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction Taxes When a tax is imposed, the government can make either the buyer or the seller legally responsible for payment of the tax. However, the person who writes the check to the government is not necessarily the one who bears the tax burden. Example 2 The following graph illustrates how a$1,000 tax placed on the sale of used cars would affect the market. Assumption: all used cars are identical. Before the imposition of the tax, used cars sold for a price of $7,000 (point A).The tax has statutorily been placed on the seller, shifting the supply curve upward by exactly the amount of tax ($1,000).Now the price will rise to $7,400 (point B). Therefore, despite the tax being statutorily imposed on sellers, the higher price shifts some of the tax burden to buyers. A buyer will now pay$400 more for a used car.A seller now receives $7,400 from the sale of a used car, but after sending the tax of$1,000 to the government, the seller retains only $6,400. This is exactly$600 less than the seller would have received had the tax not been imposed.In this case, each $1,000 of tax revenue transferred to the government imposes a burden of$400 on the buyer and a $600 burden on the seller. As the example shows, the imposition of the$1,000 tax on used cars causes the number of units exchanged to fall from 750 to 500. As trade results in mutual gains for both buyers and sellers, the loss of mutual benefits that would have been derived had the tax not eliminated 250 units of exchange also imposes a cost on buyers and sellers. The loss is referred to as the deadweight loss of taxation. In the graph, the triangle ABC measures the size of the deadweight loss. It generates neither revenue for the government nor gains for any other party. The effects of a tax depend on the responsiveness of buyers and of sellers to a change in price. It tends to fall more heavily on whichever side of the market has the least attractive options elsewhere and thus is less sensitive to price changes. This is because an inelastic curve indicates there are few substitutes available. When demand is relatively inelastic and supply elastic, the primary burden of a tax will fall on buyers. Initially, gas costs 50 cents per liter and 1,000 liters are sold per day. The demand curve is relatively inelastic, indicating there are few alternatives to gas. A 20c tax per liter on suppliers shifts the supply curve up by 20c, establishing a new equilibrium price (65c) and quantity (950 liters). Consumers pay 15c more - meaning they have paid 15c of the 20c tax. Suppliers receive 65c from consumers, pay 20c to the government and are left with 45c - 5c less than before. Suppliers have thus paid 5c towards the tax. The tax burden is thus: Consumers: 15cSuppliers: 5c Consumers pay more because their demand curve was relatively more inelastic than the supply curve. When demand is relatively elastic compared to supply, sellers will bear the larger share of the tax burden. Consider the diagram below. Here demand is relatively elastic and supply relatively inelastic. The demand for luxury boats is relatively elastic as rich people have many alternatives as to how to spend their money. A $25,000 tax on the sale of these boats thus causes a large reduction in the quantity demanded (10 thousand to 5 thousand). As the selling price only rises from$100,000 to $105,000, buyers have only paid only$5,000 of the tax. Sellers have thus p...

Subject 6. Market Interference: The Negative Impact on Total Surplus

Annotation 1419654335756

 #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #subject-7-demand-elasticities Impact on Total Expenditure Consumers' total expenditure is the same as total revenues from the suppliers' point of view. One of the most important applications of price elasticity is determining how total consumer expenditure on a product changes when the price changes. Total Revenues = Total Expenditures = Price x Quantity According to the law of demand, price and quantity move in opposite directions. When the price changes, total revenue also changes. But a rise in price doesn't always increase total revenue. The change in total expenditures depends on whether the effect of the changes in price or the effect of the changes in quantity is greater. When demand is inelastic, a change in price will cause total expenditures to change in the same direction.When demand is elastic, a change in price will cause total expenditures to move in the opposite direction.When demand elasticity is unitary, total expenditures will remain unchanged as price changes. Because of the relationship between price and quantity sold, a firm's total revenue can rise, fall or stay the same in response to a change in price. The outcome is determined by the price elasticity of demand. This conclusion is similar to that of total expenditures. Note that firms attempt to maximize profit (total revenue minus total cost), not revenue.

Subject 7. Demand Elasticities
demand for most products will be more elastic in the long run than in the short run. This relationship between the elasticity coefficient and the length of the adjustment period is referred to as the second law of demand. <span>Impact on Total Expenditure Consumers' total expenditure is the same as total revenues from the suppliers' point of view. One of the most important applications of price elasticity is determining how total consumer expenditure on a product changes when the price changes. Total Revenues = Total Expenditures = Price x Quantity According to the law of demand, price and quantity move in opposite directions. When the price changes, total revenue also changes. But a rise in price doesn't always increase total revenue. The change in total expenditures depends on whether the effect of the changes in price or the effect of the changes in quantity is greater. When demand is inelastic, a change in price will cause total expenditures to change in the same direction. When demand is elastic, a change in price will cause total expenditures to move in the opposite direction. When demand elasticity is unitary, total expenditures will remain unchanged as price changes. Because of the relationship between price and quantity sold, a firm's total revenue can rise, fall or stay the same in response to a change in price. The outcome is determined by the price elasticity of demand. This conclusion is similar to that of total expenditures. Note that firms attempt to maximize profit (total revenue minus total cost), not revenue. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods Definition: The percentage change in the quantity of a product demanded divided by the per

Flashcard 1419657481484

Tags
#obgyn
Question
How are genital warts usually dx?
visually

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419659316492

Tags
#obgyn
Question
It takes ~ [...] ​years for HPV to clear on its own
2

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419661151500

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What treatment modalities exist for HPV?
Patient-applied
- imiquimod 5% cream (Aldara)
- podofilox 5% solution

- podophyllin
- trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or bichloroacetic acid (BCA) 80-90%
- cryotherapy (liquid nitrogen or cryoprobe)
- surgical removal (excision, laser)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419662986508

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is imiquimod? (HPV therapy) how is it applied?
immune enhancer to make WBCs fight it off; things can get red and it's the med working, not an allergic rxn;

applied at bedtime x3 per week up to 16 weeks; most common s/e is local skin irritation

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419664821516

Tags
#obgyn
Question
How is podofilox solution applied? (HPV tx)
x2 daily for 3 consec days in one week, and repeat for up to 4 weeks

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Annotation 1419666656524

 V2 receptor (V2R) differs from V1R primarily in the number of sites susceptible to N-linked glycosylation; the V1R has sites at both the amino-terminus and at the extracellular loop, whereas the V2R has a single site at the extracellular amino-terminus.[1] The well known antidiuretic effect of vasopressin occurs via activation of V2R.[1] Vasopressin regulates water excretion from the kidney by increasing the osmotic water permeability of the renal collecting duct – an effect that is explained by coupling of the V2R with the Gs signaling pathway, which activates cAMP. Interestingly, the V2R continues to activate Gs after being internalized by β-arrestin rather than being desensitized. This internalized Gs signaling by V2R is explained by the receptors ability to form "mega-complexes" consisting of a single V2R, β-arrestin, and heterotrimeric Gs.[3] The increased intracellular cAMP in the kidney in turn triggers fusion of aquaporin-2-bearing vesicles with the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct principal cells, increasing water reabsorption.[1]

Vasopressin receptor - Wikipedia
luminal membrane of the collecting duct limit the antidiuretic action of vasopressin. Additionally, vasopressin selectively contracts efferent arterioles probably through the V 1 R, but not the afferent arteriole. [1] V 2 receptor <span>V 2 receptor (V 2 R) differs from V 1 R primarily in the number of sites susceptible to N-linked glycosylation; the V 1 R has sites at both the amino-terminus and at the extracellular loop, whereas the V 2 R has a single site at the extracellular amino-terminus. [1] The well known antidiuretic effect of vasopressin occurs via activation of V 2 R. [1] Vasopressin regulates water excretion from the kidney by increasing the osmotic water permeability of the renal collecting duct – an effect that is explained by coupling of the V 2 R with the G s signaling pathway, which activates cAMP. Interestingly, the V 2 R continues to activate G s after being internalized by β-arrestin rather than being desensitized. This internalized G s signaling by V 2 R is explained by the receptors ability to form "mega-complexes" consisting of a single V 2 R, β-arrestin, and heterotrimeric G s . [3] The increased intracellular cAMP in the kidney in turn triggers fusion of aquaporin-2-bearing vesicles with the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct principal cells, increasing water reabsorption. [1] V 3 receptor The human V 3 receptor (V 3 R, previously known as V 1B R) is a G-protein-coupled pituitary receptor that, because of its scarcity, was only recently characteri

Annotation 1419669015820

 V1 receptors (V1Rs) are found in high density on vascular smooth muscle and cause vasoconstriction by an increase in intracellular calcium via the phosphatidyl–inositol-bisphosphonate cascade.[1] Cardiac myocytes also possess V1R. Additionally V1R are located in brain, testis, superior cervical ganglion, liver, blood vessels, and renal medulla.[1] V1R is present on platelets, which upon stimulation induces an increase in intracellular calcium, facilitating thrombosis. Studies have indicated that due to polymorphism of platelet V1R there is significant heterogeneity in the aggregation response of normal human platelets to vasopressin.[1] V1Rs are found in kidney, where they occur in high density on medullary interstitial cells, vasa recta, and epithelial cells of the collecting duct.[1] Vasopressin acts on medullary vasculature through V1R to reduce blood flow to inner medulla without affecting blood flow to outer medulla. V1Rs on the luminal membrane of the collecting duct limit the antidiuretic action of vasopressin. Additionally, vasopressin selectively contracts efferent arterioles probably through the V1R, but not the afferent arteriole.[1]

Vasopressin receptor - Wikipedia
f collecting duct, vascular endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cell insertion of AQP-2 water channels into apical membrane, induction of AQP-2 synthesis, releases von Willebrand factor and factor VIII, vasodilation V 1 receptor <span>V 1 receptors (V 1 Rs) are found in high density on vascular smooth muscle and cause vasoconstriction by an increase in intracellular calcium via the phosphatidyl–inositol-bisphosphonate cascade. [1] Cardiac myocytes also possess V 1 R. Additionally V 1 R are located in brain, testis, superior cervical ganglion, liver, blood vessels, and renal medulla. [1] V 1 R is present on platelets, which upon stimulation induces an increase in intracellular calcium, facilitating thrombosis. Studies have indicated that due to polymorphism of platelet V 1 R there is significant heterogeneity in the aggregation response of normal human platelets to vasopressin. [1] V 1 Rs are found in kidney, where they occur in high density on medullary interstitial cells, vasa recta, and epithelial cells of the collecting duct. [1] Vasopressin acts on medullary vasculature through V 1 R to reduce blood flow to inner medulla without affecting blood flow to outer medulla. V 1 Rs on the luminal membrane of the collecting duct limit the antidiuretic action of vasopressin. Additionally, vasopressin selectively contracts efferent arterioles probably through the V 1 R, but not the afferent arteriole. [1] V 2 receptor V 2 receptor (V 2 R) differs from V 1 R primarily in the number of sites susceptible to N-linked glycosylation; the V 1 R has sites at both the amino-terminus a

Flashcard 1419672161548

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What provider administered HPV tx is contraindicated in pregnancy?
podophyllin

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419673996556

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What provider-administered HPV tx is safe in pregnancy?
trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or bichloroacetic acid (BCA)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419675831564

Tags
#obgyn
Question
Why is podophyllin contraindicated in pregnancy?
attacks rapidly-dividing cells

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419677666572

Tags
#obgyn
Question
the bivalent HPV vaccine covers [...]
16 & 18

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419679501580

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What does the quadrivalent HPV vaccine cover?
6, 11, 16, 18

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419681336588

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What does the 9-valent HPV vaccine cover?
6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419683171596

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the most common cause of vulvar ulcers?
HSV

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419685006604

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What investigations do you do for HSV?
- viral culture (sensitivity declines as lesion heals)
- HSV DNA PCR
- serologic type-specific tests for ab's to HSV 1 & 2

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419686841612

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the tx for first episode genital herpes?
- acyclovir 200 mg po 5x daily (or 400 mg po tid)
OR
- famciclovir 250 mg po tid
OR
- valacyclovir 1 g po bid

everything for 5 - 10 days

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419688676620

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the episodic therapy for recurrent genital herpes?
- acyclovir 200 mg po 5x daily for 5 days (or 800 mg po tid x2 days)
OR
- famciclovir 125 mg po bid for 5 days
OR
- valacyclovir 500 mg po bid (or 1 g po daily) for 3 days

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419690511628

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the daily suppressive therapy to prevent outbreaks in recurrent genital herpes?
- consider for pts w/ freq (6+) recurrences per year or if outbreaks very bothersome
- acyclovir 200 mg po tid (or 400 mg po bid)
OR
- famciclovir 250 mg po bid
OR
- valacyclovir 500 mg po daily (or 1 g po daily)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419692608780

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the daily suppressive therapy to prevent sexual transmission to partners in recurrent genital herpes?
valacyclovir 500 mg po daily

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419694443788

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the clinical presentation for primary syphilis?
local infection, painless chancre (ulcer), heals in 3-6 weeks

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419696278796

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the clinical presentation for secondary syphilis?
systemic infection, flu-like illness w/ rash (palms & soles)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419698113804

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the clinical presentation for latent syphilis?
no clinically active dz, can last for many years, many pts stay in this stage & never progress beyond

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419699948812

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the clinical presentation for​ tertiary/late syphilis?
end organ dz, neurosyphilis, CV dz, gummas (granuloma, non-cancerous growth)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419701783820

Tags
#obgyn
Question
what is the clinical presentation of lichen sclerosus?
intense vulvar itching & burning
- on exam, whitish figure 8 distribution around vulva & anus

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419703618828

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the tx for syphilis?
penicillin

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419705453836

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the tx for lichen sclerosus?
1st line = high potency local steroid cream (clobetasol)
-long term tx

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419707288844

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the clinical presentation of lichen simplex chronicus?
itching & burning, esp at night, leading to chr irritation
- on exam, leathery skin appearance, esp on labia majora
- also known as sq cell hyperplasia

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419709123852

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the tx for lichen simplex chronicus?
short course high/medium potency local steroid cream; antihistamine may be helpful for itching at night

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419710958860

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the clinical presentation for lichen planus?
plaques on genital skin w/ erosion of vestibule & extension into vagina
- loss of normal vaginal structure & erosion of vaginal walls
- may also have oral lesions

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419712793868

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the tx for lichen planus?
local steroid creams/foams intravaginally

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419714628876

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is presentation of Bartholin's gland dz?
-cysts from obstruction of bartholin's duct in posterior third of vestibule (lower vagina)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419716463884

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the tx for bartholin's gland dz?
incision & drainage through vestibular area, not skin surface, followed by insertion of Word catheter to keep cyst cavity open

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419718298892

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What's the presentation of vulvodynia?
painful vulvar area w/ no visible lesions or evident cause; generalized vulvar discomfort

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419720133900

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the tx for vulvodynia?
- pt support
- local moisturizers & barrier creams
- cold compresses
- xylocaine jelly
- systemic nerve blocking w/ meds

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419721968908

Tags
#obgyn
Question
List 5 physiologic causes of vag dz
- excessive physiologic secretions
- hypersensitivity (latex condoms, spermicides, vag douches, soaps, bath oils)
- derm conditions (eczema, lichen sclerosus, lichen planus, psoriasis)
- homorne-related (cyclic, menarche, menopause, pregnancy, exogenous - OCP/HRT)
- genital atrophy
- foreign body
- trauma
- lack of proper lubrication during intercourse

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Annotation 1419722493196

 #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #subject-7-demand-elasticities Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods Definition: The percentage change in the quantity of a product demanded divided by the percentage change in consumer income causing the change in quantity demanded. Since increases in consumer income will increase the demand for most goods, income elasticity measures the responsiveness of a demand for a good to a change in income. Specifically, it tells the analyst the percentage change in the quantity demanded for a good caused by a 1% increase in consumer income. Calculation: The type of product is the primary determinant of income elasticity of demand. Most products have positive income elasticity; normal goods have positive income elasticity. Necessities have low income elasticities (between 0 and 1); when income rises by 1%, the quantity demanded for necessities will increase by less than 1%.Luxuries have high income elasticities (greater than 1). A few commodities (inferior goods) have negative income elasticity; as income expands, the demand for them will decline. Examples of inferior goods are margarine, junk food, etc. Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand: Substitutes and Complements The cross elasticity of demand is a measure of the responsiveness of demand for a good to a change in the price of a substitute or a complement, other factors remaining the same. The formula for calculating the cross elasticity is: The cross elasticity of demand for a substitute is positive.The cross elasticity of demand for a complement is negative. The following figure shows the increase in the quantity of pizza demanded when the price of a burger (a substitute for pizza) rises. The figure also shows the decrease in the quantity of pizza demanded when the price of a soft drink (a complement of pizza) rises.

Subject 7. Demand Elasticities
tcome is determined by the price elasticity of demand. This conclusion is similar to that of total expenditures. Note that firms attempt to maximize profit (total revenue minus total cost), not revenue. <span>Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods Definition: The percentage change in the quantity of a product demanded divided by the percentage change in consumer income causing the change in quantity demanded. Since increases in consumer income will increase the demand for most goods, income elasticity measures the responsiveness of a demand for a good to a change in income. Specifically, it tells the analyst the percentage change in the quantity demanded for a good caused by a 1% increase in consumer income. Calculation: The type of product is the primary determinant of income elasticity of demand. Most products have positive income elasticity; normal goods have positive income elasticity. Necessities have low income elasticities (between 0 and 1); when income rises by 1%, the quantity demanded for necessities will increase by less than 1%. Luxuries have high income elasticities (greater than 1). A few commodities (inferior goods) have negative income elasticity; as income expands, the demand for them will decline. Examples of inferior goods are margarine, junk food, etc. Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand: Substitutes and Complements The cross elasticity of demand is a measure of the responsiveness of demand for a good to a change in the price of a substitute or a complement, other factors remaining the same. The formula for calculating the cross elasticity is: The cross elasticity of demand for a substitute is positive. The cross elasticity of demand for a complement is negative. The following figure shows the increase in the quantity of pizza demanded when the price of a burger (a substitute for pizza) rises. The figure also shows the decrease in the quantity of pizza demanded when the price of a soft drink (a complement of pizza) rises. <span><body><html>

Flashcard 1419725376780

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What are important points to ask on hx for vag discharge?
1. duration of sx's
2. presence/absence of vag discharge (colour, amount, nature - thin/thick, runny, watery, clumpy, frothy)
3. presence/absence of odour
4. irritative sx's - itching/pruritus, burning, pain
5. dysuria, dyspareunia
6. assc skin changes/lesions - erythema, vesicles, ulcers, bleeding points
7. temporal assc w/ menstrual cycle or intercourse
8. product use in vaginal/vulvar area (soaps, etc)
9. sexually active? sx's in sexual partners?
10. past hx of vag inf's (culture proven?) & tx used (effective?)
11. current meds

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419727211788

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What's important to do on physical exam for vag discharge?
1. inspect ext genitalia - skin colour, texture, erythema, excoriations, vesicles, ulcers
2. inspect vagina & cervix - discharge, edema, colour, lesions
3. pH test of vag secretions
4. wet mount slide (KOH)
5. KOH whiff test
6. bimanual exam - cervical motion tenderness, uterine size/shape/orientation/tenderness/mobility, adnexal masses/tenderness/mobility

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419729046796

Tags
#obgyn
Question
vaginal pH with yeast inf is [...] and with bacterial vaginosis or trichomonas vaginalis is [...]
≤ 4.5 ; > 4.5

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419730881804

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is normal vag pH?
3.8-4.2

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419732716812

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is normal vag discharge?
white, clear, flocculent

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419734551820

Tags
#obgyn
Question
Normal vag secretion is amine odour (whiff) test [...]
negative

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419736386828

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What are primary symptoms of a normal vagina?
none

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419738221836

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What's seen in microscopy of normal vag secretions?
lactobacilli, epithelial cells

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419740056844

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the vag pH of bacterial vaginosis?
> 4.5

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419741891852

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the discharge like in bacterial vaginosis?
thin, homogenous, white, grey, adherent, often increased

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419743726860

Tags
#obgyn
Question
Bacterial vaginosis is [...] ​ on whiff test
fishy

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419745561868

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What are primary sx's of bact vaginosis?
discharge, bad odour (may be worse after intercourse)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419747396876

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What's seen on bact vaginosis microscopy?
clue cells (epithelial cells covered in bact) w/ adherent coccoid bact, no WBCs

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419749231884

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is trichomonas vaginitis vag pH?
>4.5

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419751066892

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the discharge like in trichomonas vaginitis?

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419752901900

Tags
#has-images #obgyn
Question
You may see a [...] ​cervix with trichomonas vaginitis
strawberry

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419757096204

Tags
#obgyn
Question
whiff test is [...] in trichomonas vaginitis
may be present (fishy)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419758931212

Tags
#obgyn
Question
primary sx's of trichomonas vaginitis
frothy discharge, bad odour, vulvar pruritus, dysuria

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419761552652

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What's seen in trichomonas vaginitis microscopy?

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419763387660

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What's the vag pH in candida vulvovaginitis?
usually ≤ 4.5

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419765222668

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is candida discharge like?
white, curdy, cottage cheese-like, sometimes increased, can be yellow/green

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419767057676

Tags
#obgyn
Question
whiff test is [...] in candida vulvovaginitis
absent

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419768892684

Tags
#obgyn
Question
primary sx's of candida vulvovaginitis
itching (1st thing to think is yeast when complains of itching!), burning, discharge

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419770727692

Tags
#obgyn
Question
[...] and [...] can create enviro for yeast to flourish
steroids & abx

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419772562700

Tags
#obgyn
Question
what's seen on candida microscopy?
budding yeast, hyphae, pseudohyphae

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419774659852

Tags
#obgyn
Question
vag discharge investigations
- pH test, wet mount, KOH whiff test
- gram stain
- culture

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419776757004

Tags
#obgyn
Question
bacterial vaginosis tx
- preferred = metronidazole 500 mg po bid x7 days
- can also use probiotic capsules
- no tx for male partner

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419778592012

Tags
#obgyn
Question
trichomonas vaginitis tx
preferred = metronidazole 2g oral single dose
- tx male partner

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419780427020

Tags
#obgyn
Question
yeast vaginitis tx
- intravag preps (ovules & creams) for 1/3/7 days (1 more concentrated, 7 more diluted)
- topical azole drugs (miconazole (monistat - more irritating), clotrimazole (canesten))
- oral therapy (fluconazole 150 mg po single dose)
- no male tx unless yeast balanitis

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419782524172

Tags
#obgyn
Question
investigations for atrophic vaginitis
visual
- thinning of tissues, erythema, petechiae, bleeding points, dryness

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419784359180

Tags
#obgyn
Question
atrophic vaginitis tx
- estrogen vag cream (premarin most common)
- vag estrogen tabs (vagifem) or ring (estring)
- consider oral estrogen
- water-based lubes & moisturizers

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419786194188

Tags
#obgyn
Question
causes of prepubertal vulvovaginitis
infectious agents, foreign body (most common), trauma

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419788029196

Tags
#obgyn
Question
investigations for prepubertal vulvovaginitis
- avoid spec exam unless unexplained bleeding
- exclude presence of foreign body
- after excluding, vag swabs (not cervical) for gram stain, cultures, wet mount

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419789864204

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is mucopurulent cervicitis?
presence of mucopurulent discharge from endocervix, erythema, edema, friable cervix
- grossly purulent cervical mucus indicates high [WBC]

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419791699212

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What are the 2 major causes of mucopurulent cervicitis?
N gonorrhea & chlamydia trachomatis

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419793534220

Tags
#obgyn
Question
Tx for n gonorrhea
- co-treat for chlamydia
- ceftriaxone 250mg IM (1st choice) OR cefixime 800mg po (alternative) - all single dose
- use cephalosporin (avoid quinolones) in pregnancy
- test & tx partners
- f/u re-screen 6mo after tx

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419795369228

Tags
#obgyn
Question
C trachomatis tx (normal & pregnancy)
- azithromycin 1g po single dose OR doxycycline 100 mg po bid x7 days (both are equal effectiveness)
- test of cure needed in preg women 3w after therapy
- recommended for pregnancy: azithromycin same OR amoxicillin 500 mg po tid x7 days OR erythromycin 2g/day po in divided doses x7 days OR erythromycin 1g/day po divided dose x14 days
- test & tx partners
- f/u re-screen 6mo after tx

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419797204236

Tags
#obgyn
Question
pelvic pain can be classified as [...] ​, [...] ​, or [...]
acute, cyclical (menstrual), chronic

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419799039244

Tags
#obgyn
Question
accepted def'n of chr pelvic pain
non-menstrual pelvic pain persistent for >6 mo

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419800874252

Tags
#obgyn
Question
what is dysmenorrhea?
recurrent, severe, painful abdo cramping occuring immediately prior to or during menses
- may be assc w/ systemic sx's (sweating, tachycardia, h/a, n&v, diarrhea, tremulousness)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419802709260

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is primary dysmenorrhea?
no obv pelvic dz found (likely d/t increased prostaglandin production)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419804544268

Tags
#obgyn
Question
what is 2ndary dysmenorrhea?
assc w/ various pelvic conditions i.e. endometriosis, adenomyosis, chr PID, cervical stenosis

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419806379276

Tags
#obgyn
Question
what is the common approach to chr pelvic pain?
contemplate gyne causes first, then r/o possible non-gyne causes

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419808214284

Tags
#obgyn
Question
list 4 gyne causes of chr pelvic pain
1. endometriosis
2. chr PID

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419810049292

Tags
#obgyn
Question
list 4 non-gyne causes of chr pelvic pain
1. GI
2. GU
3. MSK & neuro
4. psych

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419811884300

Tags
#obgyn
Question
in pts undergoing laparoscopy for CPP, [...] ​ is the most commonly made dx
endometriosis

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419813719308

Tags
#obgyn
Question
pelvic pain in endometriosis may be [...] ​and/or have [...]
continuous; premenstrual exacerbations

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419815554316

Tags
#obgyn
Question
pelvic pain in endometriosis may be assc w/ [...] ​, [...] ​, and [...]
dysmenorrhea; dyspareunia; dyschezia

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419817389324

Tags
#obgyn
Question
acute PID is caused by inf in the [...] ​, most commonly by [...] ​ & [...]
upper genital tract; N gonorrhea & C trachomatis

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419819224332

Tags
#obgyn
Question
some women dx w/ PID will eventually develop [...]
CPP

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419821059340

Tags
#obgyn
Question
the assc b/w pelvic adhesions & CPP is [...]
controversial

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419822894348

Tags
#obgyn
Question
adenomyosis often coexists w/ [...] ​ and [...]
endometriosis; uterine fibroids

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419824729356

Tags
#obgyn
Question
many pts w/ adenomyosis are [...]
asx

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419826564364

Tags
#obgyn
Question
what are typical sx's of adenomyosis in women > 40y/o?
heavy and/or prolonged menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhea

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419828399372

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What is the GI cause for CPP?
IBS (functional bowel disorder)
- many women w/ CPP will have sx's suggestive of IBS i.e. pain relieved w/ defecation, change in stool freq & form

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419830234380

Tags
#obgyn
Question
what is the GU cause for CPP? what is the presentation?
interstitial cystitis (chr inflm condition of bladder)
- may present w/ pelvic pain, urinary urgency & freq

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419832069388

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What are msk/neuro causes for CPP?
nerve entrapment, myofascial pain, low back pain

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419833904396

Tags
#obgyn
Question
psych conditions such as [...] ​, [...] ​, [...] ​, and [...] ​ may cause or exacerbate pelvic pain
depression; anxiety; personality disorders; psychosomatic disorders

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419835739404

Tags
#obgyn
Question
particular attention should be directed to [...] ​ exams on a physical for CPP (5 exams)
abdo, pelvic, vulvar, vag, rectovag

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419837574412

Tags
#obgyn
Question
what may be noted on a physical in pts with endometriosis
nodularity of uterosacral ligaments w/ fixed, retroverted uterus or ovarian enlargement

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419839409420

Tags
#obgyn
Question
[...] ​is suggestive of adenomyosis (on p/e)
diffusely enlarged uterus

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419841244428

Tags
#obgyn
Question
for CPP, abdopelvic US or MRI may be helpful in dx gyne conditions (particularly [...] ​and [...] ​) and [...] ​conditions

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419843079436

Tags
#obgyn
Question
what are characteristic findings of endometriosis at laparoscopy?
powder-burn lesions (black/brown/bluish nodules), red implants, vesicles, white plaques on peritoneum, adhesions

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419844914444

Tags
#obgyn
Question
what is the primary site of endometriosis?
ovaries

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419846749452

Tags
#obgyn
Question
in pt w/ CPP and clinical findings suggestive of endometriosis, many gyne's will propose [...] and consider [...] only if the initial fails
beginning empirical therapy (NSAIDs & hormonal contraceptives); proceeding w/ laparoscopy

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419848584460

Tags
#obgyn
Question
[...] ​are often prescribed in pts w/ endometriosis who fails 1st line med therapy
GnRH-analogues

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419850419468

Tags
#obgyn
Question
what is mainstay tx for pts w/ primary dysmenorrhea?
NSAIDs & hormonal contraceptives
- take NSAIDs continuously beginning in premenstrual phase until second/third day of menses

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419852254476

Tags
#obgyn
Question
When can you make a presumptive dx of adenomyosis?
in women w/ dysmenorrhea b/w 35-50 y w/ diffuse uterine enlargement & neg pregnancy test

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 1419854351628

Tags
#obgyn
Question
adenomyosis may be initially managed w/ what med tx's? how is complete relief of sx's achieved?