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#### Flashcard 1425412853004

Tags
#rules-of-formulating-knowledge
Question

[...] works like cloze deletion but instead of a missing phrase it uses a missing image component.

Answer
Graphic deletion

For example, when learning anatomy, you might present a complex illustration. Only a small part of it would be missing. The student's job is to name the missing area. The same illustration can be used to formulate 10-20 items! Each item can ask about a specific subcomponent of the image. Graphic deletion works great in learning geography!

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8. Graphic deletion is as good as cloze deletion
Graphic deletion works like cloze deletion but instead of a missing phrase it uses a missing image component. For example, when learning anatomy, you might present a complex illustration. Only a small p

#### Annotation 1429270564108

 #connections-are-key-to-memory #six-tips-for-working-with-the-brain Tip #3: Connections are the key to memory As soon as the hippocampus captures learning, it first moves that learning into short-term memory and then eventually to long-term memory. Again, our knowledge of the brain can help us tap into the body's natural process for doing this. Studies have shown that learning is the most likely to be retained and remembered when it can be connected to something we already know. Knowledge is stored in the brain as schemas, which are built up over time through experience. For example, think of bananas and you will recall instantly their color, shape, taste, smell, and whether you like them. Schemas are neural networks and they get bigger and stronger as we add to them. Because I traveled in Venezuela, my schema for bananas includes the smaller, sweeter cambur, along with fond memories of baking with family. Talent development professionals can take advantage of this natural process by attaching new learning to schemas that already exist in the learner's brain. The best teachers instinctively do this. Whether they are teaching calculus, software, or leadership, they explain the abstract in concrete ways that connect to learners' existing schemas. Having been a dean at a major research university, I noticed that this was what distinguished the best math and science instructors from the rest. They were gifted at connecting to schemas that existed in the minds of young adults in a way that made the complex not only accessible, but even easy. So how do you activate your learners' schemas? First, you must step into the perspective of your learners. Knowing your audience will help you know what is there to play with. Many of us have faced this with multigenerational groups when an example that works for Boomers generated blank stares with Millennials. Any learning design or facilitation should start with asking yourself, "Who is in the room and how can I make meaningful connections to something they already know?" Another shift I have made is to share a few different models or examples instead of just one. This broad approach allows me to activate the schemas of more people in the room because I know that at least one is likely to hit the target. And this approach creates the added benefit of connecting the dots between those models. For example, when I teach change management, I share a model of organizational development, research on how humans respond psychologically to change (known as the change curve), and Brené Brown's work on vulnerability. Together, these models provide the why and how change is both inevitable and difficult. It also shows the complex intersections that are at play, which provides insight about how to navigate them successfully. I ask my learners to remember two times they experienced change, one that went smoothly and one that was difficult. This activates not only those specific memories, but also their individual schemas of change. When I pair this with hands-on activities for leading change effectively, the result is powerful and lasting.
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ehavior change. Learning is not the only activity that benefits from focus. Daniel Goleman's latest book, Focus: The Hidden Ingredient in Excellence, details the positive impact focusing has on leadership, decision making, and creativity. <span>Tip #3: Connections are the key to memory As soon as the hippocampus captures learning, it first moves that learning into short-term memory and then eventually to long-term memory. Again, our knowledge of the brain can help us tap into the body's natural process for doing this. Studies have shown that learning is the most likely to be retained and remembered when it can be connected to something we already know. Knowledge is stored in the brain as schemas, which are built up over time through experience. For example, think of bananas and you will recall instantly their color, shape, taste, smell, and whether you like them. Schemas are neural networks and they get bigger and stronger as we add to them. Because I traveled in Venezuela, my schema for bananas includes the smaller, sweeter cambur, along with fond memories of baking with family. Talent development professionals can take advantage of this natural process by attaching new learning to schemas that already exist in the learner's brain. The best teachers instinctively do this. Whether they are teaching calculus, software, or leadership, they explain the abstract in concrete ways that connect to learners' existing schemas. Having been a dean at a major research university, I noticed that this was what distinguished the best math and science instructors from the rest. They were gifted at connecting to schemas that existed in the minds of young adults in a way that made the complex not only accessible, but even easy. So how do you activate your learners' schemas? First, you must step into the perspective of your learners. Knowing your audience will help you know what is there to play with. Many of us have faced this with multigenerational groups when an example that works for Boomers generated blank stares with Millennials. Any learning design or facilitation should start with asking yourself, "Who is in the room and how can I make meaningful connections to something they already know?" Another shift I have made is to share a few different models or examples instead of just one. This broad approach allows me to activate the schemas of more people in the room because I know that at least one is likely to hit the target. And this approach creates the added benefit of connecting the dots between those models. For example, when I teach change management, I share a model of organizational development, research on how humans respond psychologically to change (known as the change curve), and Brené Brown's work on vulnerability. Together, these models provide the why and how change is both inevitable and difficult. It also shows the complex intersections that are at play, which provides insight about how to navigate them successfully. I ask my learners to remember two times they experienced change, one that went smoothly and one that was difficult. This activates not only those specific memories, but also their individual schemas of change. When I pair this with hands-on activities for leading change effectively, the result is powerful and lasting. Advertisement Tip #4: Aim for three retrievals One of the biggest insights from brain science has to do with how our memories are made. For conceptual learning, th

#### Annotation 1429273709836

 Tip #5: Build in sleep between learning #build-in-sleep #six-tips-for-working-with-the-brain It turns out that the sleeping brain plays a large role in how long-term memories are formed. While we sleep, the brain pushes information that we learned that day from our short-term memory into our long-term memory. It's when we sleep that our brain adds the day's learning onto existing schemas, and physically builds and strengthens neural pathways. It also does a little housecleaning. Every day, we take in thousands of bits of information and it is during sleep that our brain chooses which of those bits is worthy of being retained. It even revisits items already in long-term memory and deletes the information that has not been activated in a while. The animated movie Inside Out does a great job of depicting this process. While Riley is sleeping, the minion-like workers in her brain decide to vacuum out most of the names of the U.S. presidents. So how can we use sleep to enhance our learning events? Flip the classroom and use blended learning. I now have learners do some pre-learning a few days prior, then we take a deeper dive in the classroom through hands-on application. I extend their learning with post-event opportunities and resources. For example, when I design leadership training, learners are asked to watch a corresponding online course at lynda.com. They can do this at their own pace and it frees me up from teaching some of that content so that I can use our in-person time for more focused work. When we come together, we do in-depth hands-on practice of the skills I want them to use. And after the event, I provide them with additional learning materials such as links to TED Talks, articles, and assignments to further hone their skills. This blended approach allows me to create three retrievals spaced with sleep, and it also starts to build the habits of the behaviors I am trying to cultivate.
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Unknown title
benefit seems to be better at three, so I focus on that number of retrievals in my own learning design. You can certainly build three retrievals into one learning event, but retention will be even more powerful if you add sleep to the mix. <span>Tip #5: Build in sleep between learning It turns out that the sleeping brain plays a large role in how long-term memories are formed. While we sleep, the brain pushes information that we learned that day from our short-term memory into our long-term memory. It's when we sleep that our brain adds the day's learning onto existing schemas, and physically builds and strengthens neural pathways. It also does a little housecleaning. Every day, we take in thousands of bits of information and it is during sleep that our brain chooses which of those bits is worthy of being retained. It even revisits items already in long-term memory and deletes the information that has not been activated in a while. The animated movie Inside Out does a great job of depicting this process. While Riley is sleeping, the minion-like workers in her brain decide to vacuum out most of the names of the U.S. presidents. So how can we use sleep to enhance our learning events? Flip the classroom and use blended learning. I now have learners do some pre-learning a few days prior, then we take a deeper dive in the classroom through hands-on application. I extend their learning with post-event opportunities and resources. For example, when I design leadership training, learners are asked to watch a corresponding online course at lynda.com. They can do this at their own pace and it frees me up from teaching some of that content so that I can use our in-person time for more focused work. When we come together, we do in-depth hands-on practice of the skills I want them to use. And after the event, I provide them with additional learning materials such as links to TED Talks, articles, and assignments to further hone their skills. This blended approach allows me to create three retrievals spaced with sleep, and it also starts to build the habits of the behaviors I am trying to cultivate. Tip #6: Be a habit designer Ultimately, the goal of most learning activities is behavior change. No matter the topic, we are trying to elicit new and better behaviors in the learner

#### Flashcard 1432396893452

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
The word conjugation is also used to mean the regular patterns of verbs ending in [...] , [...] , [...] to which verbs belong.
Answer
-are, -ere, -ire

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

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(io) vado ‘I go’; (noi) andremo ‘we will go’; le ragazze sono andate ‘the girls went’; voleva che io andassi a casa sua ‘he wanted me to go to his house’; etc. The word conjugation is also used to mean the regular patterns of verbs ending in <span>-are, -ere, -ire to which verbs belong.<span><body><html>

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#### Flashcard 1432400301324

Tags
#conjunction #italian #italian-grammar
Question
What is a conjunction
Answer
A linking or joining word, usually linking two words, phrases or clauses within a sentence.

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

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A linking or joining word, usually linking two words, phrases or clauses within a sentence: Marco e Davide ‘Marco and Davide’; con amore ma con disciplina ‘with love but with discipline’; sono andata a letto perché ero stanca ‘I went to bed because I was tired’; i giudici dicono che bisogna

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#### Flashcard 1432414457100

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
A demonstrative [...] or [...] is one which demonstrates or indicates the person or object being talked about.
Answer
adjective or a pronoun

questo carrello ‘this trolley’; quel professore ‘that teacher’; quelle tagliatelle ‘those tagliatelle’.

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

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A demonstrative adjective or a pronoun is one which demonstrates or indicates the person or object being talked about: questo carrello ‘this trolley’; quel professore ‘that teacher’; quelle tagliatelle ‘those tagliatelle’.</

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#### Flashcard 1438025911564

Tags
#citychef #munchery
Question
The company is in [...] cities
Answer
four

—San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York, and Seattle—operating industrial kitchens in each.

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

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The company is in four cities—San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York, and Seattle—operating industrial kitchens in each.

#### Original toplevel document

How an immigrant motherfucker made munchery
ct Internet users with restaurants and their takeout menus. Critics derisively call the proliferation of these businesses the “lazy food economy,” but Munchery is different. It cooks and delivers its own rela-tively healthy fare. <span>The company is in four cities—San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York, and Seattle—operating industrial kitchens in each. One recent afternoon in San Francisco, chefs and their assistants, wearing white caps and long-sleeved smocks, toiled over trays of grilled salmon atop brown rice with edamame and sweet

#### Flashcard 1438404971788

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
Invariable nouns are nouns that have the same form for [...)
Answer
both singular and plural

un film, dei film ‘a film, some films’, or for both masculine and feminine, un artista, un’artista ‘an artist’.

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Invariable nouns are nouns that have the same form for both singular and plural, un film, dei film ‘a film, some films’, or for both masculine and feminine, un artista, un’artista ‘an artist’. An invariable adjective is one that does not change form to agree with t

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#### Flashcard 1438407331084

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
An invariable adjective is one that [...], whether masculine or feminine, singular or plural
Answer
does not change form to agree with the noun

un vestito rosa ‘a pink dress’, una giacca rosa ‘a pink jacket’; dei pantaloni rosa ‘some pink trousers’; delle calze rosa ‘some pink stockings’.

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

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y>Invariable nouns are nouns that have the same form for both singular and plural, un film, dei film ‘a film, some films’, or for both masculine and feminine, un artista, un’artista ‘an artist’. An invariable adjective is one that does not change form to agree with the noun, whether masculine or feminine, singular or plural: un vestito rosa ‘a pink dress’, una giacca rosa ‘a pink jacket’; dei pantaloni rosa ‘some pink trousers’; delle calze rosa ‘some pink

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#### Flashcard 1438555704588

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #introduction #reading-35-capital-budgeting
Question
In monitoring and post-auditing decision-makers can:​

Improve forecasts (based on which good [...]).

Answer

capital budgeting decisions can be made

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

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he post-audit is a follow-up of capital budgeting decisions. It is a key element of capital budgeting. By comparing actual results with predicted results and then determining why differences occurred, decision-makers can: <span>Improve forecasts (based on which good capital budgeting decisions can be made). Otherwise, you will have the GIGO (garbage in, garbage out) problem. Improve operations, thus making capital decisions well-implemented. <span><body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

Subject 1. Capital Budgeting: Introduction
include in the capital budget. "Capital" refers to long-term assets. The "budget" is a plan which details projected cash inflows and outflows during a future period. <span>The typical steps in the capital budgeting process: Generating good investment ideas to consider. Analyzing individual proposals (forecasting cash flows, evaluating profitability, etc.). Planning the capital budget. How does the project fit within the company's overall strategies? What's the timeline and priority? Monitoring and post-auditing. The post-audit is a follow-up of capital budgeting decisions. It is a key element of capital budgeting. By comparing actual results with predicted results and then determining why differences occurred, decision-makers can: Improve forecasts (based on which good capital budgeting decisions can be made). Otherwise, you will have the GIGO (garbage in, garbage out) problem. Improve operations, thus making capital decisions well-implemented. Project classifications: Replacement projects. There are two types of replacement d

#### Annotation 1438637231372

 Regulatory, safety, and environmental projects. #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 Regulatory, safety, and environmental projects are often required by a governmental agency, an insurance company, or some other external party.
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2. THE CAPITAL BUDGETING PROCESS
New products and services. These investments expose the company to even more uncertainties than expansion projects. These decisions are more complex and will involve more people in the decision-making process. <span>Regulatory, safety, and environmental projects. These projects are frequently required by a governmental agency, an insurance company, or some other external party. They may generate no revenue and might not be undertaken by a company maximizing its own private interests. Often, the company will accept the required investment and continue to operate. Occasionally, however, the cost of the regulatory/safety/environmental project is sufficiently high that the company would do better to cease operating altogether or to shut down any part of the business that is related to the project. Other. The projects above are all susceptible to capital budgeting analysis, and they can be accepted or rejected using the net present value (NPV) or some other criteri

#### Flashcard 1439231773964

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
A subordinate clause is one that [...]
Answer
depends on another clause

usually the main clause in a sentence.

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

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A subordinate clause is one that depends on another clause, usually the main clause in a sentence. It can be introduced by a conjunction such as che ‘what’ or perché ‘because’, or a relative pronoun such as che ‘who, which’. See Clauses.

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#### Flashcard 1439266639116

Tags
#eximbank #octopus #usa
Question
Ex-Im Bank does not compete with commercial lenders but provides products that fill gaps in trade financing by assuming [...] that the private sector is unable or unwilling to accept.
Answer
country and credit risks

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Ex-Im Bank does not compete with commercial lenders but provides products that fill gaps in trade financing by assuming country and credit risks that the private sector is unable or unwilling to accept.

#### Original toplevel document

Government-Assisted Foreign Buyer Financing (Eximbank USA)
Bank (Ex-Im Bank). As the official U.S. export credit agency, Ex-Im Bank supports the purchases of U.S. goods and services by creditworthy foreign buyers who are unable to obtain the financing they need through traditional commercial sources. <span>Ex-Im Bank does not compete with commercial lenders but provides products that fill gaps in trade financing by assuming country and credit risks that the private sector is unable or unwilling to accept. With Ex-Im Bank’s foreign buyer financing, U.S. exporters can turn their business opportunities into real transactions and get paid cash on delivery and acceptance of the goods or servi

#### Flashcard 1439277124876

Tags
#eximbank #fees #octopus #usa
Question

Letter of interest

[...]

Guarantee commitment

[...]

Exposure fee

Answer
Preliminary commitment

Direct loan commitment

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#### Flashcard 1439300979980

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 #subject-3-investment-criteria
Question
Which of the following amounts is closest to the net present value of a project that contributes $5,000 at the end of the first year and$8,000 at the end of the second year? The initial cost is $3,000. The appropriate interest rate is 8% for the first year and 9% for the second year. A.$8,585
B. $8,426 C.$8,363
Answer
Correct Answer: B

NPV = -3000 + (5000/1.08) + 8000/[(1.08)(1.09)] = $8,425.52 status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 #### Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it dy>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk.<body><html> #### Original toplevel document Subject 3. Investment Decision Criteria on that capital. If a firm takes on a project with a positive NPV, the position of the stockholders is improved. Decision rules: The higher the NPV, the better. Reject if NPV is less than or equal to 0. <span>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk. Assuming the cost of capital for the firm is 10%, calculate each cash flow by dividing the cash flow by (1 + k) t where k is the cost of capital and t is the year number. #### Flashcard 1439304649996 Tags #analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 #subject-3-investment-criteria Question Tom and Erdal are planning on forming the Top-Torque Company. The company is to specialize in diesel engine rebuilding for extractive industries. The investment cost is expected to be$1.5 million and have after-tax cash flows of $100,000 in year 1,$250,000 in year 2, and $300,000 thereafter indefinitely. The two owners estimate that this is a risky venture and requires a 17% rate of return. What is the value of Top-Torque, and should the investment be made? A.$57,240; yes
B. $1,557,240; yes C. -$57,240; no
Answer
Correct Answer: A

NPV = -1,500,000 + 100,000/1.17 + 250,000/1.172 + (300,000/.17)/1.172 = -1,500,000 + 1,557,240.04 = $57,240.04 status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 #### Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it dy>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk.<body><html> #### Original toplevel document Subject 3. Investment Decision Criteria on that capital. If a firm takes on a project with a positive NPV, the position of the stockholders is improved. Decision rules: The higher the NPV, the better. Reject if NPV is less than or equal to 0. <span>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk. Assuming the cost of capital for the firm is 10%, calculate each cash flow by dividing the cash flow by (1 + k) t where k is the cost of capital and t is the year number. #### Flashcard 1439308844300 Tags #analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 #subject-3-investment-criteria Question An investment with an initial cost of$16,000 produces cash flows of $5000 annually. If the cash flow is evenly spread out over the year and the firm can borrow at 10%, the payback period is ______ years. A. 3.20 B. 2.91 C. 3.33 Answer Correct Answer: A PP = 16000/5000 = 3.20 status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 #### Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it dy>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk.<body><html> #### Original toplevel document Subject 3. Investment Decision Criteria on that capital. If a firm takes on a project with a positive NPV, the position of the stockholders is improved. Decision rules: The higher the NPV, the better. Reject if NPV is less than or equal to 0. <span>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk. Assuming the cost of capital for the firm is 10%, calculate each cash flow by dividing the cash flow by (1 + k) t where k is the cost of capital and t is the year number. #### Flashcard 1439311203596 Tags #python #sicp Question An important feature of lexically scoped programming languages is that [locally defined functions maintain...environment] when they are returned. Answer locally defined functions maintain their parent environment status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 #### Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it An important feature of lexically scoped programming languages is that locally defined functions maintain their parent environment when they are returned. #### Original toplevel document 1.6 Higher-Order Functions ocally defined functions are often called closures. 1.6.4 Functions as Returned Values Video: Show Hide We can achieve even more expressive power in our programs by creating functions whose returned values are themselves functions. <span>An important feature of lexically scoped programming languages is that locally defined functions maintain their parent environment when they are returned. The following example illustrates the utility of this feature. Once many simple functions are defined, function composition is a natural method of combination to include in our progr #### Flashcard 1439323262220 Tags #analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 #subject-3-investment-criteria Question An investment costs$77,500 and pays $27,500 a year for four years. What is the IRR of this investment? A. 22.3% B. 24.4% C. 15.6% Answer Correct Answer: C status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 #### Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it dy>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk.<body><html> #### Original toplevel document Subject 3. Investment Decision Criteria on that capital. If a firm takes on a project with a positive NPV, the position of the stockholders is improved. Decision rules: The higher the NPV, the better. Reject if NPV is less than or equal to 0. <span>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk. Assuming the cost of capital for the firm is 10%, calculate each cash flow by dividing the cash flow by (1 + k) t where k is the cost of capital and t is the year number. #### Flashcard 1439325097228 Tags #analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 #subject-3-investment-criteria Question Michael undertakes an investment with an initial investment of$10,000, and he expects to receive $3,500 a year for the next four years. If the required return is 15%, what is the NPV? A.$5.49
B. $4.63 C. -$7.58
Answer
Correct Answer: C

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

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dy>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk.<body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

Subject 3. Investment Decision Criteria
on that capital. If a firm takes on a project with a positive NPV, the position of the stockholders is improved. Decision rules: The higher the NPV, the better. Reject if NPV is less than or equal to 0. <span>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk. Assuming the cost of capital for the firm is 10%, calculate each cash flow by dividing the cash flow by (1 + k) t where k is the cost of capital and t is the year number.

#### Flashcard 1439339777292

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 #subject-3-investment-criteria
Question
Saline Company is considering investing in a new project. The project will need an initial investment of $1,200,000 and will generate$600,000 (after-tax) cash flows for three years. Calculate the IRR for the project.

A. 14.5%
B. 18.6%
C. 23.4%
Answer
Correct Answer: C

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

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dy>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk.<body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

Subject 3. Investment Decision Criteria
on that capital. If a firm takes on a project with a positive NPV, the position of the stockholders is improved. Decision rules: The higher the NPV, the better. Reject if NPV is less than or equal to 0. <span>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk. Assuming the cost of capital for the firm is 10%, calculate each cash flow by dividing the cash flow by (1 + k) t where k is the cost of capital and t is the year number.

#### Flashcard 1439350787340

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 #subject-3-investment-criteria
Question
You have been asked to evaluate two machines. The benefits from ownership are identical. Machine A costs $150 to buy and install, lasts for 5 years, and costs$80 per year to operate. Machine B costs $250, lasts for 7 years, and costs$60 per year to operate. Both machines have zero salvage value. Assuming that this is a one-time acquisition, which machine do you recommend if the cost of capital is 10%?

A. Machine A, because the PV of its costs is $88.85 less than Machine B. B. Machine B, because the PV of its costs is$20 less than Machine A.
C. Machine A, even though the PV of its costs is equal to that of Machine B.
Answer
Correct Answer: A

PVA = 150 + 80(3.7908) = 150 + 303.26 = 453.26
PVB = 250 + 60(4.8684) = 250 + 292.10 = 542.10
PVB > PVA

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dy>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk.<body><html>

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Subject 3. Investment Decision Criteria
on that capital. If a firm takes on a project with a positive NPV, the position of the stockholders is improved. Decision rules: The higher the NPV, the better. Reject if NPV is less than or equal to 0. <span>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk. Assuming the cost of capital for the firm is 10%, calculate each cash flow by dividing the cash flow by (1 + k) t where k is the cost of capital and t is the year number.

#### Flashcard 1439356030220

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 #subject-3-investment-criteria
Question
HC Ltd. purchased a machine 4 years ago at a cost of $100,000. The machine had an expected life of 10 years at the time of the purchase and an expected market value of$5,000 at the end of the 10 years. It is being depreciated by the straight-line method toward a salvage value of $25,000; that is, depreciation is$7,500 per year. The machine can be sold now for $25,000. A new machine can be purchased for$150,000 including installation costs. During its 6-year life, it will reduce pre-tax cash operating expenses by $30,000 per year. Sales are not expected to change. At the end of its useful life, this machine is estimated to be worth$50,000. Straight-line depreciation will be used to depreciate the machine to a salvage value of $30,000; that is depreciation is$20,000 per year. The firm's tax rate is 30%. The appropriate discount rate is 13%.

What is the NPV of the investment?

A. $1,892 B.$2,573

#### Flashcard 1441827261708

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
If cash flows change signs once, the pattern is [...]. If cash flows change signs two or more times, the pattern is [...]
Answer
conventional

nonconventional.

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If cash flows change signs once, the pattern is conventional. If cash flows change signs two or more times, the pattern is nonconventional.

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3. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CAPITAL BUDGETING
to negative again (or even change signs several times). An investment that involved outlays (negative cash flows) for the first couple of years that were then followed by positive cash flows would be considered to have a conventional pattern. <span>If cash flows change signs once, the pattern is conventional. If cash flows change signs two or more times, the pattern is nonconventional. Several types of project interactions make the incremental cash flow analysis challenging. The following are some of these interactions: Indepe

#### Flashcard 1441829621004

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
An [...] environment assumes that the company can raise the funds it wants for all profitable projects simply by paying the required rate of return.
Answer
unlimited funds

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An unlimited funds environment assumes that the company can raise the funds it wants for all profitable projects simply by paying the required rate of return.

#### Original toplevel document

3. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CAPITAL BUDGETING
the first project or new economic conditions are favorable. If the results of the first project or new economic conditions are not favorable, you do not invest in the second project. Unlimited funds versus capital rationing —<span>An unlimited funds environment assumes that the company can raise the funds it wants for all profitable projects simply by paying the required rate of return. Capital rationing exists when the company has a fixed amount of funds to invest. If the company has more profitable projects than it has funds for, it must allocate the funds to achieve

#### Flashcard 1441831193868

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the [...] of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information.
Answer
rate of return

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NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested cap

#### Original toplevel document

Subject 3. Investment Decision Criteria
on that capital. If a firm takes on a project with a positive NPV, the position of the stockholders is improved. Decision rules: The higher the NPV, the better. Reject if NPV is less than or equal to 0. <span>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk. Assuming the cost of capital for the firm is 10%, calculate each cash flow by dividing the cash flow by (1 + k) t where k is the cost of capital and t is the year number.

#### Annotation 1441833553164

 #analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk.
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NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk.

#### Original toplevel document

Subject 3. Investment Decision Criteria
on that capital. If a firm takes on a project with a positive NPV, the position of the stockholders is improved. Decision rules: The higher the NPV, the better. Reject if NPV is less than or equal to 0. <span>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk. Assuming the cost of capital for the firm is 10%, calculate each cash flow by dividing the cash flow by (1 + k) t where k is the cost of capital and t is the year number.

#### Flashcard 1441835126028

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
Safety margin refers to how much the [...] before the invested capital is at risk.
Answer
project return could fall in percentage terms

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Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk.

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Subject 3. Investment Decision Criteria
on that capital. If a firm takes on a project with a positive NPV, the position of the stockholders is improved. Decision rules: The higher the NPV, the better. Reject if NPV is less than or equal to 0. <span>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk. Assuming the cost of capital for the firm is 10%, calculate each cash flow by dividing the cash flow by (1 + k) t where k is the cost of capital and t is the year number.

#### Annotation 1441836698892

 #rules-of-formulating-knowledge For more on boosting creativity and intelligence read: Roots of genius and creativity, as well as more specific: Derivation, reasoning and intelligence
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ems to solve, memorizing individual derivation steps is always highly recommended (e.g. solving complex mathematical problems). It is not cramming! It is making sure that the brain can always follow the fastest path while solving the problem. <span>For more on boosting creativity and intelligence read: Roots of genius and creativity, as well as more specific: Derivation, reasoning and intelligence<span><body><html>

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17. Redundancy does not contradict minimum information principle
ly follow the reasoning steps (e.g. solve a simple mathematical equation) and generate the answer. In such a case, providing the hint on the reasoning steps in the answer will only serve helping you always follow the right path at repetitions <span>derivation steps : in more complex problems to solve, memorizing individual derivation steps is always highly recommended (e.g. solving complex mathematical problems). It is not cramming! It is making sure that the brain can always follow the fastest path while solving the problem. For more on boosting creativity and intelligence read: Roots of genius and creativity, as well as more specific: Derivation, reasoning and intelligence multiple semantic representation : very often the same knowledge can be represented and viewed from different angles. Memorizing different representations of the same fact or rule is re

#### Annotation 1441838271756

 #rules-of-formulating-knowledge derivation steps: in more complex problems to solve, memorizing individual derivation steps is always highly recommended (e.g. solving complex mathematical problems). It is not cramming! It is making sure that the brain can always follow the fastest path while solving the problem.
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derivation steps : in more complex problems to solve, memorizing individual derivation steps is always highly recommended (e.g. solving complex mathematical problems). It is not cramming! It is making sure that the brain can always follow the fastest path while solving the problem. For more on boosting creativity and intelligence read: Roots of genius and creativity, as well as more specific: Derivation, reasoning and intelligence

#### Original toplevel document

17. Redundancy does not contradict minimum information principle
ly follow the reasoning steps (e.g. solve a simple mathematical equation) and generate the answer. In such a case, providing the hint on the reasoning steps in the answer will only serve helping you always follow the right path at repetitions <span>derivation steps : in more complex problems to solve, memorizing individual derivation steps is always highly recommended (e.g. solving complex mathematical problems). It is not cramming! It is making sure that the brain can always follow the fastest path while solving the problem. For more on boosting creativity and intelligence read: Roots of genius and creativity, as well as more specific: Derivation, reasoning and intelligence multiple semantic representation : very often the same knowledge can be represented and viewed from different angles. Memorizing different representations of the same fact or rule is re

#### Flashcard 1441840631052

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
Payback occurs when [...]
Answer
the cumulative net cash flow equals 0.

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Payback occurs when the cumulative net cash flow equals 0.

#### Original toplevel document

Subject 3. Investment Decision Criteria
ancial calculator is needed to solve for IRR. The IRR for Project A is 18.32% and for Project B is 15.03%. Payback Period This is the expected number of years required to recover the original investment. <span>Payback occurs when the cumulative net cash flow equals 0. Decision rules: The shorter the payback period, the better. A firm should establish a benchmark payback period. Reject if payback is greater than benchmark. &#

#### Flashcard 1441842466060

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
The point where a project's net present value profile crosses the horizontal axis indicates a project's

[...]
Answer
internal rate of return.

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The point where a project's net present value profile crosses the horizontal axis indicates a project's internal rate of return.

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Subject 4. NPV Profiles
A NPV profile is a graph showing the relationship between a project's NPV and the firm's cost of capital. The point where a project's net present value profile crosses the horizontal axis indicates a project's internal rate of return. Some observations: The IRR is the discount rate that sets the NPV to 0. The NPV profile declines as the discount rate increases. Project A

#### Flashcard 1441844563212

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
Capital budgeting decisions are based on [...]
Answer
incremental after-tax cash flows discounted at the opportunity cost of capital.

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Capital budgeting decisions are based on incremental after-tax cash flows discounted at the opportunity cost of capital.

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Subject 2. Basic Principles of Capital Budgeting
Capital budgeting decisions are based on incremental after-tax cash flows discounted at the opportunity cost of capital. Assumptions of capital budgeting are: Capital budgeting decisions must be based on cash flows, not accounting income. Accounting profits only measure the return on t

#### Flashcard 1441846136076

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
An investment that involved outlays (negative cash flows) for the first couple of years that were then followed by positive cash flows would be considered to have [...]
Answer
a conventional pattern

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An investment that involved outlays (negative cash flows) for the first couple of years that were then followed by positive cash flows would be considered to have a conventional pattern

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3. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CAPITAL BUDGETING
an initial outflow followed by a series of inflows. In a nonconventional cash flow pattern, the initial outflow is not followed by inflows only, but the cash flows can flip from positive to negative again (or even change signs several times). <span>An investment that involved outlays (negative cash flows) for the first couple of years that were then followed by positive cash flows would be considered to have a conventional pattern. If cash flows change signs once, the pattern is conventional. If cash flows change signs two or more times, the pattern is nonconventional. Several types of projec

#### Flashcard 1441884671244

Tags
#matter-and-form #nature-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
What is the matter in water?
Answer
hydrogen and oxygen

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In water, the matter consists of hydrogen and oxygen; the form is the precise mode of their union in a molecule of water and may be expressed by the chemical formula H 2 O.

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs

#### Flashcard 1441886506252

Tags
#matter-and-form #nature-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
What is the form in water?
Answer
the precise mode of their union in a molecule of water and may be expressed by the chemical formula H 2 O.

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In water, the matter consists of hydrogen and oxygen; the form is the precise mode of their union in a molecule of water and may be expressed by the chemical formula H 2 O.

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

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#### Flashcard 1441919798540

Tags
#python #scip
Question
What is an "enviroment?"
Answer
memory that keeps track of the names, values, and bindings.

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memory that keeps track of the names, values, and bindings. This memory is called an environment.

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1.2 Elements of Programming
x programs are constructed by building, step by step, computational objects of increasing complexity. The possibility of binding names to values and later retrieving those values by name means that the interpreter must maintain some sort of <span>memory that keeps track of the names, values, and bindings. This memory is called an environment. Names can also be bound to functions. For instance, the name max is bound to the max function we have been using. Functions, unlike numbers, are tricky to render as text, so Python

#### Flashcard 1441922157836

Tags
#python #scip
Question
If a value has been given a name, we say that the name [...] to the value
Answer
binds

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If a value has been given a name, we say that the name binds to the value

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1.2 Elements of Programming
y, this documentation will become a valuable reference source. 1.2.4 Names and the Environment Video: Show Hide A critical aspect of a programming language is the means it provides for using names to refer to computational objects. <span>If a value has been given a name, we say that the name binds to the value. In Python, we can establish new bindings using the assignment statement, which contains a name to the left of = and a value to the right: >>> radius = 10 >>> ra

#### Flashcard 1441923992844

Tags
#python #scip
Question
the [...] is an expression that precedes parentheses, which enclose a comma-delimited list of operand expressions.
Answer
operator

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the operator is an expression that precedes parentheses, which enclose a comma-delimited list of operand expressions.

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1.2 Elements of Programming
s inputs to a single output, which is the largest of the inputs. The way in which Python expresses function application is the same as in conventional mathematics. >>> max(7.5, 9.5) 9.5 This call expression has subexpressions: <span>the operator is an expression that precedes parentheses, which enclose a comma-delimited list of operand expressions. The operator specifies a function. When this call expression is evaluated, we say that the function max is called with arguments 7.5 and 9.5, and returns a value of 9.5. The

#### Flashcard 1441925565708

Tags
#python #scip
Question
the operator is an expression that precedes parentheses, which enclose a comma-delimited list of [...] expressions.
Answer
operand

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the operator is an expression that precedes parentheses, which enclose a comma-delimited list of operand expressions.

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1.2 Elements of Programming
s inputs to a single output, which is the largest of the inputs. The way in which Python expresses function application is the same as in conventional mathematics. >>> max(7.5, 9.5) 9.5 This call expression has subexpressions: <span>the operator is an expression that precedes parentheses, which enclose a comma-delimited list of operand expressions. The operator specifies a function. When this call expression is evaluated, we say that the function max is called with arguments 7.5 and 9.5, and returns a value of 9.5. The

#### Flashcard 1441927138572

Tags
#python #scip
Question
The most important kind of compound expression is a [...] which applies a function to some arguments.
Answer
call expression,

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The most important kind of compound expression is a call expression, which applies a function to some arguments.

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1.2 Elements of Programming
ways to form compound expressions. Rather than attempt to enumerate them all immediately, we will introduce new expression forms as we go, along with the language features that they support. 1.2.2 Call Expressions Video: Show Hide <span>The most important kind of compound expression is a call expression, which applies a function to some arguments. Recall from algebra that the mathematical notion of a function is a mapping from some input arguments to an output value. For instance, the max function maps its inputs to a single ou

#### Flashcard 1441928711436

Tags
#python #scip
Question
What do primitives (expressions and elements) do? What is their purpose?
Answer
represent the simplest building blocks that the language provides,

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Every powerful language has three such mechanisms: primitive expressions and statements , which represent the simplest building blocks that the language provides, means of combination , by which compound elements are built from simpler ones, and means of abstraction , by which compound elements can be named and manipulated as units.

#### Original toplevel document

1.2 Elements of Programming
ust be written for people to read, and only incidentally for machines to execute. When we describe a language, we should pay particular attention to the means that the language provides for combining simple ideas to form more complex ideas. <span>Every powerful language has three such mechanisms: primitive expressions and statements , which represent the simplest building blocks that the language provides, means of combination , by which compound elements are built from simpler ones, and means of abstraction , by which compound elements can be named and manipulated as units. In programming, we deal with two kinds of elements: functions and data. (Soon we will discover that they are really not so distinct.) Informally, data is stuff that we want to manipul

#### Flashcard 1441931070732

Tags
#python #scip
Question
What are "means of combination?"
Answer
A term for how compound elements are built from simpler ones

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Every powerful language has three such mechanisms: primitive expressions and statements , which represent the simplest building blocks that the language provides, means of combination , by which compound elements are built from simpler ones, and means of abstraction , by which compound elements can be named and manipulated as units.

#### Original toplevel document

1.2 Elements of Programming
ust be written for people to read, and only incidentally for machines to execute. When we describe a language, we should pay particular attention to the means that the language provides for combining simple ideas to form more complex ideas. <span>Every powerful language has three such mechanisms: primitive expressions and statements , which represent the simplest building blocks that the language provides, means of combination , by which compound elements are built from simpler ones, and means of abstraction , by which compound elements can be named and manipulated as units. In programming, we deal with two kinds of elements: functions and data. (Soon we will discover that they are really not so distinct.) Informally, data is stuff that we want to manipul

#### Flashcard 1441933430028

Tags
#python #scip
Question
What is meant by "means of abstraction?"
Answer
compound elements can be named and manipulated as units.

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h mechanisms: primitive expressions and statements , which represent the simplest building blocks that the language provides, means of combination , by which compound elements are built from simpler ones, and means of abstraction , by which <span>compound elements can be named and manipulated as units.<span><body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

1.2 Elements of Programming
ust be written for people to read, and only incidentally for machines to execute. When we describe a language, we should pay particular attention to the means that the language provides for combining simple ideas to form more complex ideas. <span>Every powerful language has three such mechanisms: primitive expressions and statements , which represent the simplest building blocks that the language provides, means of combination , by which compound elements are built from simpler ones, and means of abstraction , by which compound elements can be named and manipulated as units. In programming, we deal with two kinds of elements: functions and data. (Soon we will discover that they are really not so distinct.) Informally, data is stuff that we want to manipul

#### Flashcard 1441936051468

Tags
#biochem
Question
When was myoglobin (the first protein) discovered?
Answer
In 1958, fi ve years after the discovery of the structure of DNA, the fi rst three-dimen- sional structure of a protein was determined—that of myoglobin, an oxygen-bind- ing protein

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In 1958, fi ve years after the discovery of the structure of DNA, the fi rst three-dimen- sional structure of a protein was determined—that of myoglobin, an oxygen-bind- ing protein

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

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#### Flashcard 1441938410764

Tags
#biochem
Question
Not all water-soluble proteins have a hydrophobic core (T/F)?
Answer
All water-soluble proteins, have a hydrophobic core

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All water-soluble proteins, not just myoglobin, have a hydrophobic core

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#### Flashcard 1441941032204

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
An environment in which an expression is evaluated consists of
Answer
a sequence of frames

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An environment in which an expression is evaluated consists of a sequence of frames, depicted as boxes. Each frame contains bindings, each of which associates a name with its corresponding value. There is a single global frame. Assignment and impor

#### Original toplevel document

1.3 Defining New Functions
gh that the meaning of programs is non-obvious. What if a formal parameter has the same name as a built-in function? Can two functions share names without confusion? To resolve such questions, we must describe environments in more detail. <span>An environment in which an expression is evaluated consists of a sequence of frames, depicted as boxes. Each frame contains bindings, each of which associates a name with its corresponding value. There is a single global frame. Assignment and import statements add entries to the first frame of the current environment. So far, our environment consists only of the global frame. 1 from math import pi 2 tau = 2 * pi Edit code in Online Python Tutor

#### Flashcard 1441943391500

Question
Each frame contains [...], each of which associates a name with its corresponding value.
Answer
bindings

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An environment in which an expression is evaluated consists of a sequence of frames, depicted as boxes. Each frame contains bindings, each of which associates a name with its corresponding value. There is a single global frame. Assignment and import statements add entries to the first frame of the current environment

#### Original toplevel document

1.3 Defining New Functions
gh that the meaning of programs is non-obvious. What if a formal parameter has the same name as a built-in function? Can two functions share names without confusion? To resolve such questions, we must describe environments in more detail. <span>An environment in which an expression is evaluated consists of a sequence of frames, depicted as boxes. Each frame contains bindings, each of which associates a name with its corresponding value. There is a single global frame. Assignment and import statements add entries to the first frame of the current environment. So far, our environment consists only of the global frame. 1 from math import pi 2 tau = 2 * pi Edit code in Online Python Tutor

#### Flashcard 1441949158668

Question

We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language:

1. [...] operations are primitive built-in data values and functions.
2. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations.
3. Binding names to values provides a limited means of abstraction.
Answer
Numbers and arithmetic

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We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language: Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations. Binding names to values provides a limited means of ab

#### Original toplevel document

1.3 Defining New Functions
1.7.1 The Anatomy of Recursive Functions 1.7.2 Mutual Recursion 1.7.3 Printing in Recursive Functions 1.7.4 Tree Recursion 1.7.5 Example: Partitions 1.3 Defining New Functions Video: Show Hide <span>We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language: Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations. Binding names to values provides a limited means of abstraction. Now we will learn about function definitions, a much more powerful abstraction technique by which a name can be bound to compound operation, which can then be referred to as a unit.

#### Flashcard 1441950993676

Question

We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language:

1. Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions.
2. [...] provides a means of combining operations.
3. Binding names to values provides a limited means of abstraction.
Answer
Nested function application

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We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language: Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations. Binding names to values provides a limited means of abstraction.

#### Original toplevel document

1.3 Defining New Functions
1.7.1 The Anatomy of Recursive Functions 1.7.2 Mutual Recursion 1.7.3 Printing in Recursive Functions 1.7.4 Tree Recursion 1.7.5 Example: Partitions 1.3 Defining New Functions Video: Show Hide <span>We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language: Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations. Binding names to values provides a limited means of abstraction. Now we will learn about function definitions, a much more powerful abstraction technique by which a name can be bound to compound operation, which can then be referred to as a unit.

#### Flashcard 1441953090828

Question

We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language:

1. Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions.
2. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations.
3. [...] provides a limited means of abstraction.
Answer
Binding names to values

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in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language: Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations. <span>Binding names to values provides a limited means of abstraction.<span><body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

1.3 Defining New Functions
1.7.1 The Anatomy of Recursive Functions 1.7.2 Mutual Recursion 1.7.3 Printing in Recursive Functions 1.7.4 Tree Recursion 1.7.5 Example: Partitions 1.3 Defining New Functions Video: Show Hide <span>We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language: Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations. Binding names to values provides a limited means of abstraction. Now we will learn about function definitions, a much more powerful abstraction technique by which a name can be bound to compound operation, which can then be referred to as a unit.

#### Flashcard 1441954663692

Question

We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language:

1. Numbers and arithmetic operations are [...] built-in data values and functions.
2. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations.
3. Binding names to values provides a limited means of abstraction.
Answer
primitive

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We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language: Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations. Binding names to values provides a limited means of abstraction.<

#### Original toplevel document

1.3 Defining New Functions
1.7.1 The Anatomy of Recursive Functions 1.7.2 Mutual Recursion 1.7.3 Printing in Recursive Functions 1.7.4 Tree Recursion 1.7.5 Example: Partitions 1.3 Defining New Functions Video: Show Hide <span>We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language: Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations. Binding names to values provides a limited means of abstraction. Now we will learn about function definitions, a much more powerful abstraction technique by which a name can be bound to compound operation, which can then be referred to as a unit.

#### Flashcard 1441956236556

Question

We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language:

1. Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions.
2. Nested function application provides a [...].
3. Binding names to values provides a limited means of abstraction.
Answer
means of combining operations

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>We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language: Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations. Binding names to values provides a limited means of abstraction.<body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

1.3 Defining New Functions
1.7.1 The Anatomy of Recursive Functions 1.7.2 Mutual Recursion 1.7.3 Printing in Recursive Functions 1.7.4 Tree Recursion 1.7.5 Example: Partitions 1.3 Defining New Functions Video: Show Hide <span>We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language: Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations. Binding names to values provides a limited means of abstraction. Now we will learn about function definitions, a much more powerful abstraction technique by which a name can be bound to compound operation, which can then be referred to as a unit.

#### Flashcard 1441957809420

Question

We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language:

1. Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions.
2. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations.
3. Binding names to values provides a limited [...].
Answer
means of abstraction

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ppear in any powerful programming language: Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations. Binding names to values provides a limited <span>means of abstraction.<span><body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

1.3 Defining New Functions
1.7.1 The Anatomy of Recursive Functions 1.7.2 Mutual Recursion 1.7.3 Printing in Recursive Functions 1.7.4 Tree Recursion 1.7.5 Example: Partitions 1.3 Defining New Functions Video: Show Hide <span>We have identified in Python some of the elements that must appear in any powerful programming language: Numbers and arithmetic operations are primitive built-in data values and functions. Nested function application provides a means of combining operations. Binding names to values provides a limited means of abstraction. Now we will learn about function definitions, a much more powerful abstraction technique by which a name can be bound to compound operation, which can then be referred to as a unit.

#### Flashcard 1441959906572

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#python #scip
Question
What is a concurrent program?
Answer
A program in which multiple call expressions may be evaluated simultaneously.

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Third, Chapter 4 will illustrate that pure functions are essential for writing concurrent programs, in which multiple call expressions may be evaluated simultaneously.

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1.2 Elements of Programming
expressions. Second, pure functions tend to be simpler to test. A list of arguments will always lead to the same return value, which can be compared to the expected return value. Testing is discussed in more detail later in this chapter. <span>Third, Chapter 4 will illustrate that pure functions are essential for writing concurrent programs, in which multiple call expressions may be evaluated simultaneously. By contrast, Chapter 2 investigates a range of non-pure functions and describes their uses. For these reasons, we concentrate heavily on creating and using pure functions in the rem

#### Flashcard 1441963052300

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#python #scip
Question
What are ways that pure functions are restricted?
Answer
Pure functions are restricted in that they cannot have side effects or change behavior over time.

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Pure functions are restricted in that they cannot have side effects or change behavior over time.

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1.2 Elements of Programming
this expression produces this peculiar output. Be careful with print ! The fact that it returns None means that it should not be the expression in an assignment statement. >>> two = print(2) 2 >>> print(two) None <span>Pure functions are restricted in that they cannot have side effects or change behavior over time. Imposing these restrictions yields substantial benefits. First, pure functions can be composed more reliably into compound call expressions. We can see in the non-pure function example

#### Flashcard 1441966722316

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#python #scip
Question
Non-pure functions. In addition to returning a value, applying a non-pure function can generate [...], which make some change to the state of the interpreter or computer.
Answer
side effects

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Non-pure functions. In addition to returning a value, applying a non-pure function can generate side effects, which make some change to the state of the interpreter or computer. A common side effect is to generate additional output beyond the return value, using the print function.</spa

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1.2 Elements of Programming
s output. The function abs is pure. Pure functions have the property that applying them has no effects beyond returning a value. Moreover, a pure function must always return the same value when called twice with the same arguments. <span>Non-pure functions. In addition to returning a value, applying a non-pure function can generate side effects, which make some change to the state of the interpreter or computer. A common side effect is to generate additional output beyond the return value, using the print function. >>> print(1, 2, 3) 1 2 3 While print and abs may appear to be similar in these examples, they work in fundamentally different ways. The value that print returns is

#### Flashcard 1441969868044

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#python #scip
Question
Pure functions have the property that applying them has [...]. Moreover, a pure function must always return the same value when called twice with the same arguments.
Answer
no effects beyond returning a value

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Pure functions have the property that applying them has no effects beyond returning a value. Moreover, a pure function must always return the same value when called twice with the same arguments.

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1.2 Elements of Programming
some input (their arguments) and return some output (the result of applying them). The built-in function >>> abs(-2) 2 can be depicted as a small machine that takes input and produces output. The function abs is pure. <span>Pure functions have the property that applying them has no effects beyond returning a value. Moreover, a pure function must always return the same value when called twice with the same arguments. Non-pure functions. In addition to returning a value, applying a non-pure function can generate side effects, which make some change to the state of the interpreter or computer. A co

#### Flashcard 1441971440908

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#python #scip
Question
Pure functions have the property that applying them has no effects beyond returning a value. Moreover, a pure function must always [...] when called twice with the same arguments.
Answer
return the same value

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Pure functions have the property that applying them has no effects beyond returning a value. Moreover, a pure function must always return the same value when called twice with the same arguments.

#### Original toplevel document

1.2 Elements of Programming
some input (their arguments) and return some output (the result of applying them). The built-in function >>> abs(-2) 2 can be depicted as a small machine that takes input and produces output. The function abs is pure. <span>Pure functions have the property that applying them has no effects beyond returning a value. Moreover, a pure function must always return the same value when called twice with the same arguments. Non-pure functions. In addition to returning a value, applying a non-pure function can generate side effects, which make some change to the state of the interpreter or computer. A co

#### Flashcard 1441974062348

Tags
#python #scip
Question

To evaluate a call expression, Python will do the following:

1. [...]
Answer
Evaluate the operator and operand subexpressions, thenApply the function that is the value of the operator subexpression to the arguments that are the values of the operand subexpressions.

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To evaluate a call expression, Python will do the following: Evaluate the operator and operand subexpressions, then Apply the function that is the value of the operator subexpression to the arguments that are the values of the operand subexpressions.

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1.2 Elements of Programming
uating Nested Expressions One of our goals in this chapter is to isolate issues about thinking procedurally. As a case in point, let us consider that, in evaluating nested call expressions, the interpreter is itself following a procedure. <span>To evaluate a call expression, Python will do the following: Evaluate the operator and operand subexpressions, then Apply the function that is the value of the operator subexpression to the arguments that are the values of the operand subexpressions. Even this simple procedure illustrates some important points about processes in general. The first step dictates that in order to accomplish the evaluation process for a call expressi

#### Flashcard 1441975635212

Tags
#biochem
Question
Water and ions can weaken electrostatic interactions, reducing both their strength and the distance over which they operate. If the same two ions are separated by [...] in water, the interaction energy is reduced by a factor of 80, to about −6 kJ•mol −1
Answer
3 Å

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Water and ions can weaken electrostatic interactions, reducing both their strength and the distance over which they operate. If the same two ions are separated by 3 Å in water, the interaction energy is reduced by a factor of 80, to about −6 kJ•mol −1

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#### Flashcard 1441977208076

Tags
#biochem
Question
Water and ions can weaken electrostatic interactions, reducing both their strength and the distance over which they operate. If the same two ions are separated by 3 Å in water, the interaction energy is reduced by a factor of [...], to about −6 kJ•mol −1
Answer
80

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y>Water and ions can weaken electrostatic interactions, reducing both their strength and the distance over which they operate. If the same two ions are separated by 3 Å in water, the interaction energy is reduced by a factor of 80, to about −6 kJ•mol −1<body><html>

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#### Flashcard 1441978780940

Tags
#biochem
Question
Water and ions can weaken electrostatic interactions, reducing both their strength and the distance over which they operate. If the same two ions are separated by 3 Å in water, the interaction energy is reduced by a factor of 80, to about [...] kJ•mol −1
Answer
−6

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>Water and ions can weaken electrostatic interactions, reducing both their strength and the distance over which they operate. If the same two ions are separated by 3 Å in water, the interaction energy is reduced by a factor of 80, to about <span>−6 kJ•mol −1<span><body><html>

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#### Flashcard 1441980353804

Tags
#biochem
Question
two charges separated by 3 Å in the interior of a protein can be very large, reduced by only a factor of [...] compared with the energy in vacuum
Answer
two

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two charges separated by 3 Å in the interior of a protein can be very large, reduced by only a factor of two compared with the energy in vacuum

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#### Flashcard 1441981926668

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#biochem
Question
Why are charged groups so rarely found in the interior of proteins?
Answer
because there is an energetic penalty associated with separating them from strongly bound water molecules

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however, that fully charged groups are very rarely found in the interior of proteins because there is an energetic penalty associated with separating them from strongly bound water molecules

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#### Flashcard 1441984285964

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th e interaction energy depends on the extent to which they are exposed to water and, for a 3 Å separation, is expected to be in the range of [...] kJ•mol −1 .
Answer
−6 to −20

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Th e interaction energy depends on the extent to which they are exposed to water and, for a 3 Å separation, is expected to be in the range of −6 to −20 kJ•mol −1 .

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#### Flashcard 1441986120972

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#biochem
Question
Hydrogen bonds between polar groups that are net neutral are typically [...] stronger than van der Waals attractions, after accounting for attenuation by water
Answer
5–20 times

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Hydrogen bonds between polar groups that are net neutral are typically 5–20 times stronger than van der Waals attractions, after accounting for attenuation by water

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#### Flashcard 1441987693836

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#biochem
Question
a nucleotide consists of a [...] covalently bonded to a phosphate group and to a heterocyclic aromatic ring system.
Answer
sugar

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a nucleotide consists of a sugar covalently bonded to a phosphate group and to a heterocyclic aromatic ring system.

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#### Flashcard 1441989266700

Tags
#biochem
Question
a nucleotide consists of a sugar [...] bonded to a phosphate group and to a heterocyclic aromatic ring system.
Answer
covalently

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a nucleotide consists of a sugar covalently bonded to a phosphate group and to a heterocyclic aromatic ring system.

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#### Flashcard 1441990839564

Tags
#biochem
Question
a nucleotide consists of a sugar covalently bonded to a [...] and to a heterocyclic aromatic ring system.
Answer
phosphate group

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a nucleotide consists of a sugar covalently bonded to a phosphate group and to a heterocyclic aromatic ring system.

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#### Flashcard 1441992412428

Tags
#biochem
Question
a nucleotide consists of a sugar covalently bonded to a phosphate group and to a [...]
Answer
heterocyclic aromatic ring system.

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a nucleotide consists of a sugar covalently bonded to a phosphate group and to a heterocyclic aromatic ring system.

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#### Flashcard 1441993985292

Tags
#biochem
Question
Why is DNA more chemically stable than RNA?
Answer
Th e 2ʹ-OH group in an RNA nucleotide can attack and break the phosphodiester linkage at the 3ʹ position. DNA lacks the 2ʹ-OH group,

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Th e 2ʹ-OH group in an RNA nucleotide can attack and break the phosphodiester linkage at the 3ʹ position, as shown in Figure 1.26. DNA lacks the 2ʹ-OH group, and so DNA is more chemically stable

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#### Flashcard 1441996606732

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
The [...] of a function is the set of arguments it can take.
Answer
domain

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Aspects of a functional abstraction. To master the use of a functional abstraction, it is often useful to consider its three core attributes. The domain of a function is the set of arguments it can take. The range of a function is the set of values it can return. The intent of a function is the relationship it computes between inputs an

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1.3 Defining New Functions
uot;black box". A programmer should not need to know how the function is implemented in order to use it. The Python Library has this property. Many developers use the functions defined there, but few ever inspect their implementation. <span>Aspects of a functional abstraction. To master the use of a functional abstraction, it is often useful to consider its three core attributes. The domain of a function is the set of arguments it can take. The range of a function is the set of values it can return. The intent of a function is the relationship it computes between inputs and output (as well as any side effects it might generate). Understanding functional abstractions via their domain, range, and intent is critical to using them correctly in a complex program. For example, any square function that we use to i

#### Flashcard 1441998966028

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#python #sicp
Question
The [...] of a function is the set of values it can return.
Answer
range

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ml>Aspects of a functional abstraction. To master the use of a functional abstraction, it is often useful to consider its three core attributes. The domain of a function is the set of arguments it can take. The range of a function is the set of values it can return. The intent of a function is the relationship it computes between inputs and output (as well as any side effects it might generate).</sp

#### Original toplevel document

1.3 Defining New Functions
uot;black box". A programmer should not need to know how the function is implemented in order to use it. The Python Library has this property. Many developers use the functions defined there, but few ever inspect their implementation. <span>Aspects of a functional abstraction. To master the use of a functional abstraction, it is often useful to consider its three core attributes. The domain of a function is the set of arguments it can take. The range of a function is the set of values it can return. The intent of a function is the relationship it computes between inputs and output (as well as any side effects it might generate). Understanding functional abstractions via their domain, range, and intent is critical to using them correctly in a complex program. For example, any square function that we use to i

#### Flashcard 1442001325324

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#python #sicp
Question
The [...] of a function is the relationship it computes between inputs and output (as well as any side effects it might generate).
Answer
intent

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straction. To master the use of a functional abstraction, it is often useful to consider its three core attributes. The domain of a function is the set of arguments it can take. The range of a function is the set of values it can return. The <span>intent of a function is the relationship it computes between inputs and output (as well as any side effects it might generate).<span><body><html>

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1.3 Defining New Functions
uot;black box". A programmer should not need to know how the function is implemented in order to use it. The Python Library has this property. Many developers use the functions defined there, but few ever inspect their implementation. <span>Aspects of a functional abstraction. To master the use of a functional abstraction, it is often useful to consider its three core attributes. The domain of a function is the set of arguments it can take. The range of a function is the set of values it can return. The intent of a function is the relationship it computes between inputs and output (as well as any side effects it might generate). Understanding functional abstractions via their domain, range, and intent is critical to using them correctly in a complex program. For example, any square function that we use to i

#### Flashcard 1442003684620

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#python #sicp
Question
The domain of a function is the [...].
Answer
set of arguments it can take

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Aspects of a functional abstraction. To master the use of a functional abstraction, it is often useful to consider its three core attributes. The domain of a function is the set of arguments it can take. The range of a function is the set of values it can return. The intent of a function is the relationship it computes between inputs and output (as well as any side effects it might gen

#### Original toplevel document

1.3 Defining New Functions
uot;black box". A programmer should not need to know how the function is implemented in order to use it. The Python Library has this property. Many developers use the functions defined there, but few ever inspect their implementation. <span>Aspects of a functional abstraction. To master the use of a functional abstraction, it is often useful to consider its three core attributes. The domain of a function is the set of arguments it can take. The range of a function is the set of values it can return. The intent of a function is the relationship it computes between inputs and output (as well as any side effects it might generate). Understanding functional abstractions via their domain, range, and intent is critical to using them correctly in a complex program. For example, any square function that we use to i

#### Flashcard 1442006043916

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#python #sicp
Question
The range of a function is the [...].
Answer
set of values it can return

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>Aspects of a functional abstraction. To master the use of a functional abstraction, it is often useful to consider its three core attributes. The domain of a function is the set of arguments it can take. The range of a function is the set of values it can return. The intent of a function is the relationship it computes between inputs and output (as well as any side effects it might generate).<span><body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

1.3 Defining New Functions
uot;black box". A programmer should not need to know how the function is implemented in order to use it. The Python Library has this property. Many developers use the functions defined there, but few ever inspect their implementation. <span>Aspects of a functional abstraction. To master the use of a functional abstraction, it is often useful to consider its three core attributes. The domain of a function is the set of arguments it can take. The range of a function is the set of values it can return. The intent of a function is the relationship it computes between inputs and output (as well as any side effects it might generate). Understanding functional abstractions via their domain, range, and intent is critical to using them correctly in a complex program. For example, any square function that we use to i

#### Flashcard 1442008403212

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#python #sicp
Question
The intent of a function is the [...]
Answer
relationship it computes between inputs and output (as well as any side effects it might generate).

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e of a functional abstraction, it is often useful to consider its three core attributes. The domain of a function is the set of arguments it can take. The range of a function is the set of values it can return. The intent of a function is the <span>relationship it computes between inputs and output (as well as any side effects it might generate).<span><body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

1.3 Defining New Functions
uot;black box". A programmer should not need to know how the function is implemented in order to use it. The Python Library has this property. Many developers use the functions defined there, but few ever inspect their implementation. <span>Aspects of a functional abstraction. To master the use of a functional abstraction, it is often useful to consider its three core attributes. The domain of a function is the set of arguments it can take. The range of a function is the set of values it can return. The intent of a function is the relationship it computes between inputs and output (as well as any side effects it might generate). Understanding functional abstractions via their domain, range, and intent is critical to using them correctly in a complex program. For example, any square function that we use to i

#### Flashcard 1442011024652

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#python #sicp
Question
What does it mean to be "out of scope"?
Answer
the scope of a local name is limited to the body of the user-defined function that defines it. When a name is no longer accessible, it is out of scope.

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the scope of a local name is limited to the body of the user-defined function that defines it. When a name is no longer accessible, it is out of scope.

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1.3 Defining New Functions
ould be confused with the parameter x in sum_squares . Critically, this is not the case: the binding for x in different local frames are unrelated. The model of computation is carefully designed to ensure this independence. We say that <span>the scope of a local name is limited to the body of the user-defined function that defines it. When a name is no longer accessible, it is out of scope. This scoping behavior isn't a new fact about our model; it is a consequence of the way environments work. 1.3.5 Choosing Names The interchangeability of names does not imply t

#### Flashcard 1442013383948

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#python #sicp
Question
Why can the parameter names of a function be something outside the environment of the function?
Answer
the meaning of a function should be independent of the parameter names chosen by its author

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This principle -- that the meaning of a function should be independent of the parameter names chosen by its author -- has important consequences for programming languages. The simplest consequence is that the parameter names of a function must remain local to the body of the function.<

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1.3 Defining New Functions
mplementer's choice of names for the function's formal parameters. Thus, the following functions should provide the same behavior: >>> def square(x): return mul(x, x) >>> def square(y): return mul(y, y) <span>This principle -- that the meaning of a function should be independent of the parameter names chosen by its author -- has important consequences for programming languages. The simplest consequence is that the parameter names of a function must remain local to the body of the function. If the parameters were not local to the bodies of their respective functions, then the parameter x in square could be confused with the parameter x in sum_squares . Critically,

#### Flashcard 1442015743244

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#python #sicp
Question
What is the difference between an intrinsic and bound name of a function?
Answer
different bound names may refer to the same function, but that function itself has only one intrinsic name.

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The name of a function is repeated twice, once in the frame and again as part of the function itself. The name appearing in the function is called the intrinsic name. The name in a frame is a bound name. There is a difference between the two: <span>different names may refer to the same function, but that function itself has only one intrinsic name.<span><body><html>

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1.3 Defining New Functions
nc square(x) Each function is a line that starts with func , followed by the function name and formal parameters. Built-in functions such as mul do not have formal parameter names, and so ... is always used instead. <span>The name of a function is repeated twice, once in the frame and again as part of the function itself. The name appearing in the function is called the intrinsic name. The name in a frame is a bound name. There is a difference between the two: different names may refer to the same function, but that function itself has only one intrinsic name. The name bound to a function in a frame is the one used during evaluation. The intrinsic name of a function does not play a role in evaluation. Step through the example below using th

#### Flashcard 1442019413260

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#biochem
Question
For the atoms commonly found in biological molecules, van der Waals attractions are optimal at distances between [...] Å. Th ey are of negligible strength beyond 5 Å
Answer
3 and 4

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For the atoms commonly found in biological molecules, van der Waals attractions are optimal at distances between 3 and 4 Å. Th ey are of negligible strength beyond 5 Å

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#### Flashcard 1442020986124

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Question
For the atoms commonly found in biological molecules, van der Waals attractions are optimal at distances between 3 and 4 Å. Th ey are of negligible strength beyond [...]
Answer
5 Å

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For the atoms commonly found in biological molecules, van der Waals attractions are optimal at distances between 3 and 4 Å. Th ey are of negligible strength beyond 5 Å

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#### Flashcard 1442022821132

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Question
What is the van der Waals radius?
Answer
The van der Waals radius is a measure of the size of an atom.

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The van der Waals radius is a measure of the size of an atom. The energy due to the van der Waals attraction between two atoms is optimal when they are separated from each other by the sum of their van der Waals radii. If they move closer, t

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#### Flashcard 1442025704716

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#biochem
Question
The energy due to the van der Waals attraction between two atoms is optimal when they are separated from each other by the [qualitative notion not quantatiive]. If they move closer, the energy increases sharply
Answer
sum of their van der Waals radii

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The van der Waals radius is a measure of the size of an atom. The energy due to the van der Waals attraction between two atoms is optimal when they are separated from each other by the sum of their van der Waals radii. If they move closer, the energy increases sharply

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#### Flashcard 1442028588300

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Question
when two atoms are in van der Waals contact, the stabilization energy is about [...] kJ•mol −1 .
Answer
−1

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when two atoms are in van der Waals contact, the stabilization energy is about −1 kJ•mol −1 . Th e stabilization energy is the amount by which the energy at the optimal distance is lower than when the atoms are far apart

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#### Flashcard 1442031209740

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#biochem
Question
when two atoms are in van der Waals contact, the stabilization energy is about −1 kJ•mol −1 . Th e stabilization energy is the [...]
Answer
amount by which the energy at the optimal distance is lower than when the atoms are far apart

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when two atoms are in van der Waals contact, the stabilization energy is about −1 kJ•mol −1 . Th e stabilization energy is the amount by which the energy at the optimal distance is lower than when the atoms are far apart

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