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on 15-Jun-2016 (Wed)

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Flashcard 1333594295564

Tags
#urology
Question
With a [...] you can have initial retension of urine from detrusor areflexia due to spinal shock
Answer
With a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) you can have initial retension of urine from detrusor areflexia due to spinal shock

NB: CVA = stroke


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Flashcard 1333626539276

Tags
#urology
Question
Autonomic dysreflexia is secondary to exaggerated sympathetic outflow in response to stimuli below the SC lesion.
It occurs with SC injury above [what level] only.
Answer
T6

NB: stimuli = bladder distention, rectal manipulation, fracture, cystoscopy, etc


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Flashcard 1334241791244

Tags
#exam #nephrology
Question
What are complications of therapy for minimal change nephrotic syndrome in kids?
Answer
steroids, cytotoxic drugs, diuretics, etc

NB: what it said in the notes; not sure if means these cause complications


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Flashcard 1343678975244

Question
Other causes for mitral insufficiency include: Mitral annular calcification, Ischemic mitral regurgitation, Cardiac myxoma interfering with valve orifice, [...], Papillary muscle rupture
Answer
Endocarditis


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Other causes for mitral insufficiency include: Mitral annular calcification, Ischemic mitral regurgitation, Cardiac myxoma interfering with valve orifice, Endocarditis, Papillary muscle rupture

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343680548108

Question
Other causes for mitral insufficiency include: Mitral annular calcification, Ischemic mitral regurgitation, Cardiac myxoma interfering with valve orifice, Endocarditis, [...]
Answer
Papillary muscle rupture


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Other causes for mitral insufficiency include: Mitral annular calcification, Ischemic mitral regurgitation, Cardiac myxoma interfering with valve orifice, Endocarditis, Papillary muscle rupture

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343682907404

Question
Infectious Endocarditis: [...] -> abn functioning cusps (might get better with abx)
-even after healing, can end up with healed perforation
-septic vegetations can be very destructive
Answer
aortic valve vegetations


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Infectious Endocarditis: aortic valve vegetations -> abn functioning cusps (might get better with abx) -even after healing, can end up with healed perforation -septic vegetations can be very destructive

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343684480268

Question
Infectious Endocarditis: aortic valve vegetations -> [...] (might get better with abx)
-even after healing, can end up with healed perforation
-septic vegetations can be very destructive
Answer
abn functioning cusps


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Infectious Endocarditis: aortic valve vegetations -> abn functioning cusps (might get better with abx) -even after healing, can end up with healed perforation -septic vegetations can be very destructive

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343686053132

Question
Infectious Endocarditis: aortic valve vegetations -> abn functioning cusps ([...])
-even after healing, can end up with healed perforation
-septic vegetations can be very destructive
Answer
might get better with abx


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Infectious Endocarditis: aortic valve vegetations -> abn functioning cusps (might get better with abx) -even after healing, can end up with healed perforation -septic vegetations can be very destructive

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343687625996

Question
Infectious Endocarditis: aortic valve vegetations -> abn functioning cusps (might get better with abx)
-even after healing, can end up with [...]
-septic vegetations can be very destructive
Answer
healed perforation


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Infectious Endocarditis: aortic valve vegetations -> abn functioning cusps (might get better with abx) -even after healing, can end up with healed perforation -septic vegetations can be very destructive

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343689198860

Question
Infectious Endocarditis: aortic valve vegetations -> abn functioning cusps (might get better with abx)
-even after healing, can end up with healed perforation
-[...] can be very destructive
Answer
septic vegetations


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Infectious Endocarditis: aortic valve vegetations -> abn functioning cusps (might get better with abx) -even after healing, can end up with healed perforation -septic vegetations can be very destructive

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343691558156

Question
Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis ([...] endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or mucin secreting cancers or collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus – called Limban‐Sacks endocarditis)
Answer
marantic


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Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but o

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343693131020

Question
Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are [...] and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or mucin secreting cancers or collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus – called Limban‐Sacks endocarditis)
Answer
sterile


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Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or mucin

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343694703884

Question
Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and [...]. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or mucin secreting cancers or collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus – called Limban‐Sacks endocarditis)
Answer
non‐inflamed


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Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or mucin secreting cancer

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1343696276748

Question
Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are [...] and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or mucin secreting cancers or collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus – called Limban‐Sacks endocarditis)
Answer
smaller


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Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or mucin secreting cancers or collagen vascular dis

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1343697849612

Question
Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy [...]. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or mucin secreting cancers or collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus – called Limban‐Sacks endocarditis)
Answer
underlying structures


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Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or mucin secreting cancers or collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus – called Limban‐Sacks en

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1343699422476

Question
Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with [...] or mucin secreting cancers or collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus – called Limban‐Sacks endocarditis)
Answer
hypercoagulable state


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l thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with <span>hypercoagulable state or mucin secreting cancers or collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus – called Limban‐Sacks endocarditis)<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343700995340

Question
Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or [...] or collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus – called Limban‐Sacks endocarditis)
Answer
mucin secreting cancers


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(marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or <span>mucin secreting cancers or collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus – called Limban‐Sacks endocarditis)<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343704141068

Question
Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or mucin secreting cancers or [...]
Answer
collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus – called Limban‐Sacks endocarditis)


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itral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or mucin secreting cancers or <span>collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus – called Limban‐Sacks endocarditis)<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343705713932

Question
Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or mucin secreting cancers or collagen vascular disease (e.g. [...])
Answer
lupus – called Limban‐Sacks endocarditis


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ile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or mucin secreting cancers or collagen vascular disease (e.g. <span>lupus – called Limban‐Sacks endocarditis)<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343708073228

Question
mechanical valves generally put in [...] pt's because they're more prone to form fibrous tissue & calcium, which leads to acceleration of valve degeneration

pts will need significant anticoagulation with mechanical valves

most common = bi-leaflet
Answer
younger


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mechanical valves generally put in younger pt's because they're more prone to form fibrous tissue & calcium, which leads to acceleration of valve degeneration pts will need significant anticoagulation with mechanic

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343709646092

Question
mechanical valves generally put in younger pt's because they're more prone to form [...] tissue & calcium, which leads to acceleration of valve degeneration

pts will need significant anticoagulation with mechanical valves

most common = bi-leaflet
Answer
fibrous


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mechanical valves generally put in younger pt's because they're more prone to form fibrous tissue & calcium, which leads to acceleration of valve degeneration pts will need significant anticoagulation with mechanical valves most common = bi-leaflet</s

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343711218956

Question
mechanical valves generally put in younger pt's because they're more prone to form fibrous tissue & [...], which leads to acceleration of valve degeneration

pts will need significant anticoagulation with mechanical valves

most common = bi-leaflet
Answer
calcium


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mechanical valves generally put in younger pt's because they're more prone to form fibrous tissue & calcium, which leads to acceleration of valve degeneration pts will need significant anticoagulation with mechanical valves most common = bi-leaflet</

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343712791820

Question
mechanical valves generally put in younger pt's because they're more prone to form fibrous tissue & calcium, which leads to acceleration of
[...]
pts will need significant anticoagulation with mechanical valves

most common = bi-leaflet
Answer
valve degeneration


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mechanical valves generally put in younger pt's because they're more prone to form fibrous tissue & calcium, which leads to acceleration of valve degeneration pts will need significant anticoagulation with mechanical valves most common = bi-leaflet

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1343714364684

Question
mechanical valves generally put in younger pt's because they're more prone to form fibrous tissue & calcium, which leads to acceleration of valve degeneration

pts will need significant [...] with mechanical valves

most common = bi-leaflet
Answer
anticoagulation


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mechanical valves generally put in younger pt's because they're more prone to form fibrous tissue & calcium, which leads to acceleration of valve degeneration pts will need significant anticoagulation with mechanical valves most common = bi-leaflet

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343715937548

Question
mechanical valves generally put in younger pt's because they're more prone to form fibrous tissue & calcium, which leads to acceleration of valve degeneration

pts will need significant anticoagulation with mechanical valves

most common = [...]
Answer
bi-leaflet


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erally put in younger pt's because they're more prone to form fibrous tissue & calcium, which leads to acceleration of valve degeneration pts will need significant anticoagulation with mechanical valves most common = <span>bi-leaflet<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343718296844

Question
Prosthetic Valve Complications: [...] (if not properly anticoagulated), Pannus overgrowth (fibrous tissue) causing stenosis (slow reaction against foreign object)
Answer
Mechanical valve thrombosis


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Prosthetic Valve Complications: Mechanical valve thrombosis (if not properly anticoagulated), Pannus overgrowth (fibrous tissue) causing stenosis (slow reaction against foreign object)

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343719869708

Question
Prosthetic Valve Complications: Mechanical valve thrombosis ([...]), Pannus overgrowth (fibrous tissue) causing stenosis (slow reaction against foreign object)
Answer
if not properly anticoagulated


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Prosthetic Valve Complications: Mechanical valve thrombosis (if not properly anticoagulated), Pannus overgrowth (fibrous tissue) causing stenosis (slow reaction against foreign object)

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343721442572

Question
Prosthetic Valve Complications: Mechanical valve thrombosis (if not properly anticoagulated), [...] causing stenosis (slow reaction against foreign object)
Answer
Pannus overgrowth (fibrous tissue)


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Prosthetic Valve Complications: Mechanical valve thrombosis (if not properly anticoagulated), Pannus overgrowth (fibrous tissue) causing stenosis (slow reaction against foreign object)

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343723015436

Question
Prosthetic Valve Complications: Mechanical valve thrombosis (if not properly anticoagulated), Pannus overgrowth (fibrous tissue) causing [...] (slow reaction against foreign object)
Answer
stenosis


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Prosthetic Valve Complications: Mechanical valve thrombosis (if not properly anticoagulated), Pannus overgrowth (fibrous tissue) causing stenosis (slow reaction against foreign object)

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343724588300

Question
Prosthetic Valve Complications: Mechanical valve thrombosis (if not properly anticoagulated), Pannus overgrowth (fibrous tissue) causing stenosis ([...])
Answer
slow reaction against foreign object


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Prosthetic Valve Complications: Mechanical valve thrombosis (if not properly anticoagulated), Pannus overgrowth (fibrous tissue) causing stenosis (slow reaction against foreign object)

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343766269196

Question
Pathology of Aortic stenosis:
-[...]
-degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening)
  • calcific (wear & tear)
  • ​rheumatic
Answer
congenital bicuspid valve


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Pathology of Aortic stenosis: -congenital bicuspid valve -degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening) calcific (wear & tear) ​rheumatic

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343767842060

Question
Pathology of Aortic stenosis:
-congenital bicuspid valve
-[...]
  • calcific (wear & tear)
  • ​rheumatic
Answer
degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Pathology of Aortic stenosis: -congenital bicuspid valve -degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening) calcific (wear & tear) ​rheumatic

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343769414924

Question
Pathology of Aortic stenosis:
-congenital bicuspid valve
-degenerative ([...] restricts valve opening)
  • calcific (wear & tear)
  • ​rheumatic
Answer
Ca & fibrosis


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Pathology of Aortic stenosis: -congenital bicuspid valve -degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening) calcific (wear & tear) ​rheumatic

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343770987788

Question
Pathology of Aortic stenosis:
-congenital bicuspid valve
-degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening)
  • [...]
  • ​rheumatic
Answer
calcific (wear & tear)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Pathology of Aortic stenosis: -congenital bicuspid valve -degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening) calcific (wear & tear) ​rheumatic

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343772560652

Question
Pathology of Aortic stenosis:
-congenital bicuspid valve
-degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening)
  • calcific (wear & tear)
[...]
Answer
rheumatic


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Pathology of Aortic stenosis: -congenital bicuspid valve -degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening) calcific (wear & tear) ​rheumatic

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343774919948

Question
Progression of aortic stenosis:
-[...]% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient
-Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient
-Progression is variable between individuals
-Careful, frequent follow-up is important
Answer
50


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Progression of aortic stenosis: -50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient -Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient -Progression is variable between individuals

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343776492812

Question
Progression of aortic stenosis:
-50% reduction in [...] results in minimal pressure gradient
-Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient
-Progression is variable between individuals
-Careful, frequent follow-up is important
Answer
valve orifice


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Progression of aortic stenosis: -50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient -Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient -Progression is variable between individuals -Careful, frequent foll

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343778065676

Question
Progression of aortic stenosis:
-50% reduction in valve orifice results in [...]
-Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient
-Progression is variable between individuals
-Careful, frequent follow-up is important
Answer
minimal pressure gradient


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Progression of aortic stenosis: -50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient -Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient -Progression is variable between individuals -Careful, frequent follow-up is important</h

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343779638540

Question
Progression of aortic stenosis:
-50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient
-Increments beyond this produce [...] in gradient
-Progression is variable between individuals
-Careful, frequent follow-up is important
Answer
exponential increases


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Progression of aortic stenosis: -50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient -Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient -Progression is variable between individuals -Careful, frequent follow-up is important

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343781211404

Question
Progression of aortic stenosis:
-50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient
-Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient
-Progression is variable between individuals
-[...] is important
Answer
Careful, frequent follow-up


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pan>Progression of aortic stenosis: -50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient -Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient -Progression is variable between individuals -Careful, frequent follow-up is important<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343783570700

Question
Syncope:
-Classically [...]
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
exertional


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Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmi

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Flashcard 1343785143564

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is [...] and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
fixed


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Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---Tachycardia (vent

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Flashcard 1343786716428

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot [...] with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
rise


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Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---Tachycardia (ventricular or atria

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Flashcard 1343788289292

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---[...] occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
Vasodilation


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Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial) ---Bradycardia (heart block

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Flashcard 1343789862156

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → [...] & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
Blood pressure


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Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial) ---Bradycardia (heart block)

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Flashcard 1343791435020

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & [...] fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
cerebral perfusion


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Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial) ---Bradycardia (heart block)

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Flashcard 1343793007884

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from [...]
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
arrhythmia


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head>Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial) ---Bradycardia (heart block)<html>

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Flashcard 1343794580748

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---[...]
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)


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pan>Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---<span>Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial) ---Bradycardia (heart block)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343796153612

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---[...]
Answer
Bradycardia (heart block)


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3; ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial) ---<span>Bradycardia (heart block)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343800872204

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is [...]
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
basically non-existent


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-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent -Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increa

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Flashcard 1343802445068

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = [...] treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
mechanical


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-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent -Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to m

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Flashcard 1343804017932

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-[...] drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
Afterload-reducing


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-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent -Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosi

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Flashcard 1343805590796

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = [...] x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
CO


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-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent -Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis: ---Close follow up: history, exam,

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Flashcard 1343807163660

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x [...] (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
resistance


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-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent -Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis: ---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogr

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Flashcard 1343808736524

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will [...] b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
shoot down


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>-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent -Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis: ---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram ---Warn re: endocarditis risk -

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Flashcard 1343810309388

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't [...])
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
increase to compensate


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cal therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent -Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't <span>increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis: ---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram ---Warn re: endocarditis risk ---Treat associated atherosclerotic

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Flashcard 1343811882252

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: [3 things]
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
history, exam, echocardiogram


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ent -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis: ---Close follow up: <span>history, exam, echocardiogram ---Warn re: endocarditis risk ---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343814241548

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: [...]
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
endocarditis risk


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dicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis: ---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram ---Warn re: <span>endocarditis risk ---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343815814412

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated [...]
Answer
atherosclerotic risk factors


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ducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis: ---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram ---Warn re: endocarditis risk ---Treat associated <span>atherosclerotic risk factors<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343818173708

Question
[...] will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation


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Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fract

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Flashcard 1343819746572

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in [...] and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
left ventricular fibrosis


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Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

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Flashcard 1343821319436

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and
[...]
As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
systolic dysfunction


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Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output Irreversible structural

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Flashcard 1343822892300

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, [...] and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
wall tension


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Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of s

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Flashcard 1343824465164

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and [...] rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
filling pressure


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Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms -one of

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Flashcard 1343826038028

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

[...] falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
Ejection fraction


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tml>Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms -one of the insidious features of regurgit

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Flashcard 1343827610892

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing [...] and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
stroke volume


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>Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing <span>stroke volume and forward output Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms -one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's

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Flashcard 1343829183756

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and
[...]
Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
forward output


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rtic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and <span>forward output Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms -one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big

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Flashcard 1343831543052

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur [...] to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
prior


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is and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output Irreversible structural changes may occur <span>prior to the development of symptoms -one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343842028812

Question
Aortic stenosis → [...]
--“Concentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for symptoms

Aortic regurgitation → volume overload
--“Eccentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling
Answer
pressure overload


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Aortic stenosis → pressure overload --“Concentric hypertrophy” --Operate for symptoms Aortic regurgitation → volume overload --“Eccentric hypertrophy” --Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling<

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Flashcard 1343843601676

Question
Aortic stenosis → pressure overload
--“Concentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for symptoms

Aortic regurgitation → [...]
--“Eccentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling
Answer
volume overload


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Aortic stenosis → pressure overload --“Concentric hypertrophy” --Operate for symptoms Aortic regurgitation → volume overload --“Eccentric hypertrophy” --Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling

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Flashcard 1343845174540

Question
Aortic stenosis → pressure overload
--“[...] hypertrophy”
--Operate for symptoms

Aortic regurgitation → volume overload
--“Eccentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling
Answer
Concentric


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Aortic stenosis → pressure overload --“Concentric hypertrophy” --Operate for symptoms Aortic regurgitation → volume overload --“Eccentric hypertrophy” --Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling<

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Flashcard 1343846747404

Question
Aortic stenosis → pressure overload
--“Concentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for symptoms

Aortic regurgitation → volume overload
--“[...] hypertrophy”
--Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling
Answer
Eccentric


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Aortic stenosis → pressure overload --“Concentric hypertrophy” --Operate for symptoms Aortic regurgitation → volume overload --“Eccentric hypertrophy” --Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling

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Flashcard 1343848320268

Question
Aortic stenosis → pressure overload
--“Concentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for
[...]
Aortic regurgitation → volume overload
--“Eccentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling
Answer
symptoms


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Aortic stenosis → pressure overload --“Concentric hypertrophy” --Operate for symptoms Aortic regurgitation → volume overload --“Eccentric hypertrophy” --Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling

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Flashcard 1343849893132

Question
Aortic stenosis → pressure overload
--“Concentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for symptoms

Aortic regurgitation → volume overload
--“Eccentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for [...]
Answer
adverse ventricular remodeling


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Aortic stenosis → pressure overload --“Concentric hypertrophy” --Operate for symptoms Aortic regurgitation → volume overload --“Eccentric hypertrophy” --Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling

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Flashcard 1343870864652

Question
Etiology of mitral stenosis

Rare causes: [...], Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital
Answer
Calcified mitral annulus


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Etiology of mitral stenosis Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital

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Flashcard 1343872437516

Question
Etiology of mitral stenosis

Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, [...], Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital
Answer
Atrial myxoma


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Etiology of mitral stenosis Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital

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Flashcard 1343874010380

Question
Etiology of mitral stenosis

Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, [...], Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital
Answer
Endocarditis


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Etiology of mitral stenosis Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital

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Flashcard 1343875583244

Question
Etiology of mitral stenosis

Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, [...], Congenital
Answer
Carcinoid valvulopathy


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Etiology of mitral stenosis Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital

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Flashcard 1343877156108

Question
Etiology of mitral stenosis

Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, [...]
Answer
Congenital


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Etiology of mitral stenosis Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital

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Flashcard 1343887379724



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#has-images
Question
Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of [...] mmHg causes transudation of fluid into alveoli, resulting in dyspnea

-Increases in pulmonary venous and capillary pressures raise pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)
Answer
25


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Flashcard 1343889476876



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#has-images
Question
Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 25mmHg causes [...] into alveoli, resulting in dyspnea

-Increases in pulmonary venous and capillary pressures raise pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)
Answer
transudation of fluid


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Flashcard 1343892884748



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#has-images
Question
Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 25mmHg causes transudation of fluid into alveoli, resulting in [...]

-Increases in pulmonary venous and capillary pressures raise pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)
Answer
dyspnea


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Flashcard 1343899700492



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#has-images
Question
Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 25mmHg causes transudation of fluid into alveoli, resulting in dyspnea

-Increases in pulmonary venous and capillary pressures raise [...]
Answer
pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)


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Flashcard 1343901011212



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#has-images
Question
Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of [...] mmHg causes transudation of fluid into alveoli, resulting in dyspnea

-Increases in pulmonary venous and capillary pressures raise pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)
Answer
25


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Flashcard 1343903632652



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#has-images
Question
Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 25mmHg causes transudation of fluid into alveoli, resulting in dyspnea

-Increases in pulmonary venous and [...] raise pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)
Answer
capillary pressures


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Flashcard 1343906778380



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#has-images
Question
Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 25mmHg causes transudation of fluid into alveoli, resulting in dyspnea

-Increases in pulmonary venous and [...] raise pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)
Answer
capillary pressures


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Flashcard 1343909924108



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Question
What increases with mitral stenosis?


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Flashcard 1343914904844



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Question
What pressures are elevated as a result of mitral stenosis?


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Flashcard 1343920409868

Question
Complications of mitral stenosis:

-[...] & hemoptysis
-Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism
-Right heart failure
-Endocarditis
Answer
Pulmonary edema


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Complications of mitral stenosis: -Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis -Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism -Right heart failure -Endocarditis

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Flashcard 1343921982732

Question
Complications of mitral stenosis:

-Pulmonary edema & [...]
-Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism
-Right heart failure
-Endocarditis
Answer
hemoptysis


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Complications of mitral stenosis: -Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis -Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism -Right heart failure -Endocarditis

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Flashcard 1343923555596

Question
Complications of mitral stenosis:

-Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis
-[...] and cardioembolism
-Right heart failure
-Endocarditis
Answer
Atrial fibrillation


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Complications of mitral stenosis: -Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis -Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism -Right heart failure -Endocarditis

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Flashcard 1343925128460

Question
Complications of mitral stenosis:

-Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis
-Atrial fibrillation and [...]
-Right heart failure
-Endocarditis
Answer
cardioembolism


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Complications of mitral stenosis: -Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis -Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism -Right heart failure -Endocarditis

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Flashcard 1343926701324

Question
Complications of mitral stenosis:

-Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis
-Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism
-[...]
-Endocarditis
Answer
Right heart failure


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Complications of mitral stenosis: -Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis -Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism -Right heart failure -Endocarditis

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Flashcard 1343928274188

Question
Complications of mitral stenosis:

-Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis
-Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism
-Right heart failure
-[...]
Answer
Endocarditis


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Complications of mitral stenosis: -Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis -Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism -Right heart failure -Endocarditis

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Flashcard 1343930633484

Question
New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class:

I - [...]
II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity
III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity
IV - symptoms at rest or any activity
Answer
no limitation


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New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class: I - no limitation II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity IV - symptoms at rest or any activity</

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Flashcard 1343932206348

Question
New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class:

I - no limitation
II - [...]
III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity
IV - symptoms at rest or any activity
Answer
slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity


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New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class: I - no limitation II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity IV - symptoms at rest or any activity

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Flashcard 1343933779212

Question
New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class:

I - no limitation
II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity
III - [...]
IV - symptoms at rest or any activity
Answer
marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity


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New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class: I - no limitation II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity IV - symptoms at rest or any activity

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Flashcard 1343935352076

Question
New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class:

I - no limitation
II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity
III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity
IV - [...]
Answer
symptoms at rest or any activity


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>New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class: I - no limitation II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity IV - symptoms at rest or any activity<html>

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Flashcard 1343937711372

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA [...] & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
III-IV


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Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis: -Definite ---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2 -Very Probable ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) &

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Flashcard 1343939284236

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < [...] cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
1.5


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Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis: -Definite ---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2 -Very Probable ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

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Flashcard 1343941905676

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---severe [...] & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 )


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Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis: -Definite ---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2 -Very Probable ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II -Probable ---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis

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Flashcard 1343943478540

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe [...] & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg)


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Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis: -Definite ---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2 -Very Probable ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II -Probable ---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation

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Flashcard 1343945051404

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA
[...]
-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
I-II


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osis: -Definite ---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2 -Very Probable ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA <span>I-II -Probable ---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343948459276

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---[...] patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
Asymptomatic


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-NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2 -Very Probable ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II -Probable ---<span>Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343950032140

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with [...] mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
moderate or worse


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ea < 1.5 cm^2 -Very Probable ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II -Probable ---Asymptomatic patients with <span>moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343951605004

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< [...] cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
1.5


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le ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II -Probable ---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< <span>1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343953177868

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset [...]
Answer
atrial fibrillation


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tenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II -Probable ---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset <span>atrial fibrillation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343955537164

Question
Surgery for Mitral Stenosis

-Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves
---[...] vs. anti-coagulation

-Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year

- ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years

-mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher
Answer
durability


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Surgery for Mitral Stenosis -Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves ---durability vs. anti-coagulation -Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year - ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years -mitral prosthes

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Flashcard 1343957110028

Question
Surgery for Mitral Stenosis

-Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves
---durability vs.
[...]
-Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year

- ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years

-mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher
Answer
anti-coagulation


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Surgery for Mitral Stenosis -Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves ---durability vs. anti-coagulation -Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year - ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years -mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic

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Flashcard 1343958682892

Question
Surgery for Mitral Stenosis

-Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves
---durability vs. anti-coagulation

-Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate [...]%/year

- ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years

-mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher
Answer
~ 3


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Surgery for Mitral Stenosis -Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves ---durability vs. anti-coagulation -Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year - ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years -mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher</bod

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Flashcard 1343960255756

Question
Surgery for Mitral Stenosis

-Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves
---durability vs. anti-coagulation

-Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year

- [...]% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years

-mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher
Answer
~30


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Surgery for Mitral Stenosis -Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves ---durability vs. anti-coagulation -Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year - ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years -mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher

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Flashcard 1343961828620

Question
Surgery for Mitral Stenosis

-Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves
---durability vs. anti-coagulation

-Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year

- ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at [...] years

-mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher
Answer
10


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rgery for Mitral Stenosis -Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves ---durability vs. anti-coagulation -Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year - ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at <span>10 years -mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343963401484

Question
Surgery for Mitral Stenosis

-Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves
---durability vs. anti-coagulation

-Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year

- ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years

-mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c [...]
Answer
thrombotic rate is higher


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---durability vs. anti-coagulation -Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year - ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years -mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c <span>thrombotic rate is higher<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343966547212

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-[...]
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Leaflets/chordae


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Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papi

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Flashcard 1343968120076

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-[...]
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Annulus


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Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papillary muscles ---Ischemia or infarction

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Flashcard 1343969692940

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-[...]
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Papillary muscles


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Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -<span>Papillary muscles ---Ischemia or infarction<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343971265804

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---[...], Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy)


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Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papillary muscles ---Ischemia or infarction

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Flashcard 1343972838668

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), [...], Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Rheumatic


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Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papillary muscles ---Ischemia or infarction</sp

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Flashcard 1343974411532

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, [...], Congenital

-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Endocarditis (gets chewed up)


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Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papillary muscles ---Ischemia or infarction

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Flashcard 1343975984396

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up),
[...]
-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Congenital


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Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papillary muscles ---Ischemia or infarction

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Flashcard 1343977557260

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-Annulus
---
[...]
-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)


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Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papillary muscles ---Ischemia or infarction

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Flashcard 1343979130124

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---[...]
Answer
Ischemia or infarction


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-Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papillary muscles ---<span>Ischemia or infarction<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343981489420

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume
[...]
-Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction

-The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function
Answer
overload


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Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg -A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload -Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction -The low-pressure left atrial “ou

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Flashcard 1343983062284

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload

-[...] may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction

-The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function
Answer
Left ventricular systolic function


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Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg -A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload -Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction -The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reducti

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Flashcard 1343984635148

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload

-Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until [...] and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction

-The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function
Answer
fibrosis


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Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg -A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload -Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction -The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration&#1

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Flashcard 1343986208012

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload

-Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and [...] herald a decline in ejection fraction

-The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function
Answer
progressive dilation


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html>Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg -A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload -Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction -The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration ---Left ventricular ej

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Flashcard 1343987780876

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload

-Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in
[...]
-The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function
Answer
ejection fraction


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physiology of chronic mitral regurg -A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload -Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in <span>ejection fraction -The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration ---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired co

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Flashcard 1343989353740

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload

-Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction

-The low-pressure [...] is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function
Answer
left atrial “outlet”


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-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload -Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction -The low-pressure <span>left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration ---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function<span><body>

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Flashcard 1343990926604

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload

-Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction

-The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of [...] - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function
Answer
afterload reduction


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eft atrial volume overload -Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction -The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of <span>afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration ---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343993285900

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced [...] in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment!

-When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation
Answer
left ventricular ejection fraction


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Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg: -Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment! -When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial &

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Flashcard 1343994858764

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates [...]!

-When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation
Answer
a poor prognosis regardless of treatment


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Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg: -Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment! -When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further

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Flashcard 1343996431628

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment!

-When ejection fraction declines, [...], left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation
Answer
diastolic filling pressures


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>Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg: -Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment! -When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343998004492

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment!

-When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, [...] & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation
Answer
left atrial


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onic mitral regurg: -Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment! -When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, <span>left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343999577356

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment!

-When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & [...] pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation
Answer
pulmonary


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: -Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment! -When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & <span>pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344001150220

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment!

-When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to [...], increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation
Answer
dilate


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in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment! -When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to <span>dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344002723084

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment!

-When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing [...] further... creating more mitral regurgitation
Answer
afterload


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ation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment! -When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing <span>afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344005082380

Question
Clinical Features of mitral regurg:
-[...]
-Exertional dyspnea
-Orthopnea
-Edema
-Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
-Palpitations
Answer
Fatigue


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Clinical Features of mitral regurg: -Fatigue -Exertional dyspnea -Orthopnea -Edema -Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea -Palpitations

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Flashcard 1344006655244

Question
Clinical Features of mitral regurg:
-Fatigue
-[...]
-Orthopnea
-Edema
-Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
-Palpitations
Answer
Exertional dyspnea


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Clinical Features of mitral regurg: -Fatigue -Exertional dyspnea -Orthopnea -Edema -Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea -Palpitations

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Flashcard 1344008228108

Question
Clinical Features of mitral regurg:
-Fatigue
-Exertional dyspnea
-[...]
-Edema
-Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
-Palpitations
Answer
Orthopnea


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Clinical Features of mitral regurg: -Fatigue -Exertional dyspnea -Orthopnea -Edema -Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea -Palpitations

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Flashcard 1344009800972

Question
Clinical Features of mitral regurg:
-Fatigue
-Exertional dyspnea
-Orthopnea
-[...]
-Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
-Palpitations
Answer
Edema


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Clinical Features of mitral regurg: -Fatigue -Exertional dyspnea -Orthopnea -Edema -Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea -Palpitations

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Flashcard 1344011373836

Question
Clinical Features of mitral regurg:
-Fatigue
-Exertional dyspnea
-Orthopnea
-Edema
-[...]
-Palpitations
Answer
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Clinical Features of mitral regurg: -Fatigue -Exertional dyspnea -Orthopnea -Edema -Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea -Palpitations

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Flashcard 1344012946700

Question
Clinical Features of mitral regurg:
-Fatigue
-Exertional dyspnea
-Orthopnea
-Edema
-Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
-[...]
Answer
Palpitations


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Clinical Features of mitral regurg: -Fatigue -Exertional dyspnea -Orthopnea -Edema -Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea -Palpitations

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Flashcard 1344015305996

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat [...] (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
the underlying cause


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Medical Therapy of mitral regurg: -Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics &amp

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Flashcard 1344016878860

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-[...] e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
Afterload reduction


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Medical Therapy of mitral regurg: -Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates -Endocarditis recognitio

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344018451724

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. [...]
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
ACE inhibitors


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Parent (intermediate) annotation

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Medical Therapy of mitral regurg: -Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates -Endocarditis recognition and treatment -Ant

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344020024588

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying [...]
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)


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Medical Therapy of mitral regurg: -Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates -Endocarditis recognition and treatment -Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344021597452

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-[...] reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
Preload


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Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
body>Medical Therapy of mitral regurg: -Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates -Endocarditis recognition and treatment -Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)<body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344023170316

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: [...] & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
diuretics


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Open it
dical Therapy of mitral regurg: -Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: <span>diuretics & nitrates -Endocarditis recognition and treatment -Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344024743180

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & [...]
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
nitrates


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Parent (intermediate) annotation

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mitral regurg: -Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & <span>nitrates -Endocarditis recognition and treatment -Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344026316044

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-[...] recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
Endocarditis


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Open it
-Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates -<span>Endocarditis recognition and treatment -Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344027888908

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-[...] and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
Anti-arrhythmics


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ossible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates -Endocarditis recognition and treatment -<span>Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344029461772

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and [...] (for complications)
Answer
anti-coagulants


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Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
oad reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates -Endocarditis recognition and treatment -Anti-arrhythmics and <span>anti-coagulants (for complications)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344031821068

Question
Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg)

-Valve repair:
---for [...] / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies
---good outcomes in selected patients
---preferable

-Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic
Answer
myxomatous degeneration


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Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg) -Valve repair: ---for myxomatous degeneration / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies ---good outcomes in selected patients ---preferable -Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic</b

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Flashcard 1344033393932

Question
Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg)

-Valve repair:
---for myxomatous degeneration / [...]; less successful in other etiologies
---good outcomes in selected patients
---preferable

-Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic
Answer
prolapse


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Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg) -Valve repair: ---for myxomatous degeneration / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies ---good outcomes in selected patients ---preferable -Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344034966796

Question
Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg)

-Valve repair:
---for myxomatous degeneration / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies
---good outcomes in selected patients
---preferable

-Valve replacement: [...] vs. bioprosthetic
Answer
Mechanical


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>Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg) -Valve repair: ---for myxomatous degeneration / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies ---good outcomes in selected patients ---preferable -Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344036539660

Question
Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg)

-Valve repair:
---for myxomatous degeneration / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies
---good outcomes in selected patients
---preferable

-Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. [...]
Answer
bioprosthetic


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Therapy (mitral regurg) -Valve repair: ---for myxomatous degeneration / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies ---good outcomes in selected patients ---preferable -Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. <span>bioprosthetic<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344038898956

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular [...], pulm edema
-Balloon or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms
Answer
underfilling


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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms<

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344040471820

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, [...]
-Balloon or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms
Answer
pulm edema


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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms</htm

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Flashcard 1344042044684

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-[...] or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms
Answer
Balloon


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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344043617548

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-Balloon or [...] for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms
Answer
surgery


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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344045190412

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-Balloon or surgery for
[...]
Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms
Answer
symptoms


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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344046763276

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-Balloon or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular [...]
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms
Answer
volume overload


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Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344048336140

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-Balloon or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-[...] for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms
Answer
Operate


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Parent (intermediate) annotation

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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344049909004

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-Balloon or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse [...] or symptoms
Answer
ventricular remodeling


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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344051481868

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-Balloon or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or [...]
Answer
symptoms


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ad><head>Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms<html>

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Flashcard 1344053841164

Question
[...] + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc) = Infective Endocarditis
Answer
Transient Bacteremia (exposure)


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Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc) = Infective Endocarditis

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344055414028

Question
Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + [...] = Infective Endocarditis
Answer
Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc)


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Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc) = Infective Endocarditis

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Flashcard 1344056986892

Question
Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) ([...]) = Infective Endocarditis
Answer
abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc


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Parent (intermediate) annotation

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Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc) = Infective Endocarditis

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344058559756

Question
Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc) = [...]
Answer
Infective Endocarditis


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Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc) = Infective Endocarditis

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344060919052

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted [...] therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
parenteral animicrobial


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Treatment of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodyna

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Flashcard 1344062491916

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---[...], intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
Narrow-spectrum


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Treatment of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recu

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Flashcard 1344064064780

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, [...], synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
intensive


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Treatment of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embol

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Flashcard 1344065637644

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, [...]
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
synergistic


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Treatment of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For lar

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Flashcard 1344067210508

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on [...]!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
culture and sensitivity


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Treatment of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For large and highly mobile vegetations

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Flashcard 1344068783372

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate [...] (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
portal of entry


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Treatment of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For large and highly mobile vegetations ---For prosthetic valve endocardi

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Flashcard 1344070356236

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-[...] surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
Valve


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>Treatment of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For large and highly mobile vegetations ---For prosthetic valve endocarditis ---For fungal end

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Flashcard 1344071929100

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For [...]
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
hemodynamic compromise


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Parent (intermediate) annotation

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nt of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For <span>hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For large and highly mobile vegetations ---For prosthetic valve endocarditis ---For fungal endocarditis<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344073501964

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For [...]
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
recurrent embolism


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geted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For <span>recurrent embolism ---For large and highly mobile vegetations ---For prosthetic valve endocarditis ---For fungal endocarditis<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344075074828

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For [...]
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
large and highly mobile vegetations


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Parent (intermediate) annotation

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herapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For <span>large and highly mobile vegetations ---For prosthetic valve endocarditis ---For fungal endocarditis<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344076647692

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For [...]
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
prosthetic valve endocarditis


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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gistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For large and highly mobile vegetations ---For <span>prosthetic valve endocarditis ---For fungal endocarditis<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344078220556

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For [...]
Answer
fungal endocarditis


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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itivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For large and highly mobile vegetations ---For prosthetic valve endocarditis ---For <span>fungal endocarditis<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1346396622092

Question
Disorders of cardiac conduction present as [...], heart block, sudden death​
Answer
arrhythmias


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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Disorders of cardiac conduction present as arrhythmias, heart block, sudden death​







Flashcard 1346398194956

Question
Disorders of cardiac conduction present as arrhythmias, [...], sudden death​
Answer
heart block


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Open it
Disorders of cardiac conduction present as arrhythmias, heart block, sudden death​







Flashcard 1346399767820

Question
Disorders of cardiac conduction present as arrhythmias, heart block,
[...]
Answer
sudden death​


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Open it
Disorders of cardiac conduction present as arrhythmias, heart block, sudden death​







Flashcard 1346406321420

Question
The endothelium is:

1. [...]
2. Anti‐thrombotic
3. Anti‐proliferative
4. Anti‐oxidative
5. Vasodilatory
6. Selectively permeable
Answer
Anti-inflammatory


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The endothelium is: 1. Anti-inflammatory 2. Anti‐thrombotic 3. Anti‐proliferative 4. Anti‐oxidative 5. Vasodilatory 6. Selectively permeable







Flashcard 1346407894284

Question
The endothelium is:

1. Anti-inflammatory
2. [...]
3. Anti‐proliferative
4. Anti‐oxidative
5. Vasodilatory
6. Selectively permeable
Answer
Anti‐thrombotic


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Open it
The endothelium is: 1. Anti-inflammatory 2. Anti‐thrombotic 3. Anti‐proliferative 4. Anti‐oxidative 5. Vasodilatory 6. Selectively permeable







Flashcard 1346409467148

Question
The endothelium is:

1. Anti-inflammatory
2. Anti‐thrombotic
3. [...]
4. Anti‐oxidative
5. Vasodilatory
6. Selectively permeable
Answer
Anti‐proliferative


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Open it
The endothelium is: 1. Anti-inflammatory 2. Anti‐thrombotic 3. Anti‐proliferative 4. Anti‐oxidative 5. Vasodilatory 6. Selectively permeable







Flashcard 1346411040012

Question
The endothelium is:

1. Anti-inflammatory
2. Anti‐thrombotic
3. Anti‐proliferative
4. [...]
5. Vasodilatory
6. Selectively permeable
Answer
Anti‐oxidative


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Open it
The endothelium is: 1. Anti-inflammatory 2. Anti‐thrombotic 3. Anti‐proliferative 4. Anti‐oxidative 5. Vasodilatory 6. Selectively permeable







Flashcard 1346412612876

Question
The endothelium is:

1. Anti-inflammatory
2. Anti‐thrombotic
3. Anti‐proliferative
4. Anti‐oxidative
5. [...]
6. Selectively permeable
Answer
Vasodilatory


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Open it
The endothelium is: 1. Anti-inflammatory 2. Anti‐thrombotic 3. Anti‐proliferative 4. Anti‐oxidative 5. Vasodilatory 6. Selectively permeable







Flashcard 1346414185740

Question
The endothelium is:

1. Anti-inflammatory
2. Anti‐thrombotic
3. Anti‐proliferative
4. Anti‐oxidative
5. Vasodilatory
6. [...]
Answer
Selectively permeable


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Open it
The endothelium is: 1. Anti-inflammatory 2. Anti‐thrombotic 3. Anti‐proliferative 4. Anti‐oxidative 5. Vasodilatory 6. Selectively permeable