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Flashcard 1432377756940

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
When one person, object or activity is compared with another a [...] form is used.
Answer
comparative

mia figlia nuota meglio della sua ‘my daughter swims better than hers’;

la pasta napoletana è migliore di quella siciliana ‘Neapolitan pasta is better than Sicilian pasta’.

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When one person, object or activity is compared with another a comparative form is used: mia figlia nuota meglio della sua ‘my daughter swims better than hers’; la pasta napoletana è migliore di quella siciliana ‘Neapolitan pasta is better than Sicilian pasta’

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Flashcard 1432409738508

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
A noun is [...] if it can normally be used in both singular and plural, and take the indefinite article un, una (etc.)
Answer
countable

un bicchiere ‘a glass’; una pizza ‘a pizza’.

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A noun is countable if it can normally be used in both singular and plural, and take the indefinite article un, una (etc.): un bicchiere ‘a glass’; una pizza ‘a pizza’. Whereas an uncountable noun is one w

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Flashcard 1432701242636

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
With [...], there is not always an obvious explanation for their gender.
Answer
non-animate objects

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With non-animate objects, there is not always an obvious explanation for their gender.

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Flashcard 1439261920524

Tags
#eximbank #fees #octopus #usa
Question
Letter of interest: $[...] for online application; $ [...]for paper application via mail and fax.
Answer
50

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Letter of interest: $50 for online application; $100 for paper application via mail and fax.

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Government-Assisted Foreign Buyer Financing (Eximbank USA)
disbursement of a loan to the foreign buyers. Generally, goods shipped by sea must be carried exclusively on U.S. vessels. Direct loans are best used when the buyer insists on a fixed rate. <span>Fees and Ex-Im Bank Contact Information Letter of interest: $50 for online application; $100 for paper application via mail and fax. Preliminary commitment: 0.1 of 1 percent of the financed amount up to $25,000. Guarantee commitment: 0.125 percent per year on the undisbursed balance of the loan. Direct loan commitment: 0.5 percent per year on the undisbursed balance of the loan. Exposure fee: varies, depending upon tenor, country risk, and buyer credit risk. For more information about loans from Ex-Im Bank, visit its Web site at www.exim.gov or call 1-800-565-EXIM (3946). <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1439277124876

Tags
#eximbank #fees #octopus #usa
Question

Letter of interest

[...]

Guarantee commitment

[...]

Exposure fee

Answer
Preliminary commitment

Direct loan commitment


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Letter of interest: $50 for online application; $100 for paper application via mail and fax. Preliminary commitment: 0.1 of 1 percent of the financed amount up to $25,000. Guarantee commitment: 0.125 percent per year on the undisbursed balance of the loan. Direct loan commit

Original toplevel document

Government-Assisted Foreign Buyer Financing (Eximbank USA)
disbursement of a loan to the foreign buyers. Generally, goods shipped by sea must be carried exclusively on U.S. vessels. Direct loans are best used when the buyer insists on a fixed rate. <span>Fees and Ex-Im Bank Contact Information Letter of interest: $50 for online application; $100 for paper application via mail and fax. Preliminary commitment: 0.1 of 1 percent of the financed amount up to $25,000. Guarantee commitment: 0.125 percent per year on the undisbursed balance of the loan. Direct loan commitment: 0.5 percent per year on the undisbursed balance of the loan. Exposure fee: varies, depending upon tenor, country risk, and buyer credit risk. For more information about loans from Ex-Im Bank, visit its Web site at www.exim.gov or call 1-800-565-EXIM (3946). <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1439578328332

Tags
#aspectos-generales #beneficios #immex #mexico #octopus
Question

Los bienes están agrupados bajo las siguientes 3 categorías:

  1. [...], partes y componentes que se vayan a destinar totalmente a integrar mercancías de exportación; combustibles, lubricantes y otros materiales que se vayan a consumir durante el proceso productivo de la mercancía de exportación; envases y empaques; etiquetas y folletos.
Answer
Materias primas

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Los bienes están agrupados bajo las siguientes categorías: Materias primas, partes y componentes que se vayan a destinar totalmente a integrar mercancías de exportación; combustibles, lubricantes y otros materiales que se vayan a consumir durante el proceso pr

Original toplevel document

Decreto IMMEX
iladora de Exportación (Maquila) y el que Establece Programas de Importación Temporal para Producir Artículos de Exportación (PITEX), cuyas empresas representan en su conjunto el 85% de las exportaciones manufactureras de México. <span>ASPECTOS GENERALES Definición: El Programa IMMEX es un instrumento mediante el cual se permite importar temporalmente los bienes necesarios para ser utilizados en un proceso industrial o de servicio destinado a la elaboración, transformación o reparación de mercancías de procedencia extranjera importadas temporalmente para su exportación o a la prestación de servicios de exportación, sin cubrir el pago del impuesto general de importación, del impuesto al valor agregado y, en su caso, de las cuotas compensatorias Beneficiarios: La Secretaría de Economía (SE) podrá autorizar a las personas morales residentes en territorio nacional a que se refiere la fracción II del artículo 9 del Código Fiscal de la Federación, que tributen de conformidad con el Título II de la Ley del Impuesto sobre la Renta, un solo Programa IMMEX, que puede incluir las modalidades de controladora de empresas, industrial, servicios, albergue y terciarización, siempre que cumplan con los requisitos previstos en el Decreto para el Fomento de la Industria Manufacturera, Maquiladora y de Servicios de Exportación (Decreto IMMEX), publicado en el Diario Oficial e la Federación el 1 de noviembre de 2006. Beneficios: El Programa IMMEX brinda a sus titulares la posibilidad de importar temporalmente libre de impuestos a la importación y del IVA, los bienes necesarios para ser utilizados en un proceso industrial o de servicio destinado a la elaboración, transformación o reparación de mercancías de procedencia extranjera importadas temporalmente para su exportación o a la prestación de servicios de exportación. Estos bienes están agrupados bajo las siguientes categorías: Materias primas, partes y componentes que se vayan a destinar totalmente a integrar mercancías de exportación; combustibles, lubricantes y otros materiales que se vayan a consumir durante el proceso productivo de la mercancía de exportación; envases y empaques; etiquetas y folletos. Contenedores y cajas de trailers. Maquinaria, equipo, herramientas, instrumentos, moldes y refacciones destinadas al proceso productivo; equipos y aparatos para el control de la contaminación; para la investigación o capacitación, de seguridad industrial, de telecomunicación y cómputo, de laboratorio, de medición, de prueba de productos y control de calidad; así como aquéllos que intervengan en el manejo de materiales relacionados directamente con los bienes de exportación y otros vinculados con el proceso productivo; equipo para el desarrollo administrativo. Modalidades: Programa IMMEX Controladora de empresas, cuando en un mismo programa se integren las operaciones de manufactura de una empresa certificada denominada controladora y una o más sociedades controladas; Programa IMMEX Industrial, cuando se realice un proceso industrial de elaboración o transformación de mercancías destinadas a la exportación; Programa IMMEX Servicios, cuando se realicen servicios a mercancías de exportación o se presten servicios de exportación, únicamente para el desarrollo de las actividades que la Secretaría determine, previa opinión de la Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público; Programa IMMEX Albergue, cuando una o varias empresas extranjeras le faciliten la tecnología y el material productivo, sin que estas últimas operen directamente el Programa, y Programa IMMEX Terciarización, cuando una empresa certificada que no cuente con instalaciones para realizar procesos productivos, realice las operaciones de manufactura a través de terceros que registre en su Programa. La SE podrá aprobar de manera simultánea un Programa de Promoción Sectorial, de acuerdo con el tipo de productos que fabrica o a los servicios de exportación que realice, debiendo cumplir con la normatividad aplicable a los mismos. Tratándose de una empresa bajo la modalidad de servicios, únicamente podrá importar al amparo del Programa de Promoción Sectorial las mercancías a que se refiere el artículo 4, fracción III del presente Decreto, siempre que corresponda al sector en que sea registrada. Vigencia: La vigencia de los Programas IMMEX estará sujeta mientras el titular de los mismos continúe cumpliendo con los requisitos previstos para su otorgamiento y con las obligaciones establecidas en el Decreto. Plazos de permanencia: Los bienes importados temporalmente al amparo de un Programa IMMEX, podrán permanecer en territorio nacional por los plazos establecidos en el artículo 108 de la Ley Aduanera. Para las mercancías comprendidas en los Anexos II y III del Decreto IMMEX, cuando se importen como materia prima, el plazo de permanencia será hasta por doce meses. Tratándose de las mercancías que se encuentran comprendidas en el Anexo III del Decreto IMMEX, cuando se importen como materia prima, únicamente cuando se destinen a actividades bajo la modalidad de servicios, el plazo de permanencia será de hasta seis meses. No podrán ser importadas al amparo del Programa las mercancías señaladas en el Anexo I del Decreto IMMEX. Compromisos: Para gozar de los beneficios de un Programa IMMEX se deberá dar cumplimiento a los términos establecidos en el Decreto en la materia. La autorización del Programa se otorgará bajo el compromiso de realizar anualmente ventas al exterior por un valor superior a 500,000 dólares de los Estados Unidos de América, o su equivalente en moneda nacional, o bien, facturar exportaciones, cuando menos por el 10% de su facturación total. Reportes: El titular de un Programa IMMEX deberá presentar un reporte anual de forma electrónica, respecto del total de las ventas y de las exportaciones, correspondientes al ejercicio fiscal inmediato anterior, a más tardar el último día hábil del mes de mayo, conforme al formato que mediante Reglas y Criterios de Carácter General en Materia de Comercio Exterior dé a conocer la Secretaría de Economía. Adicionalmente, la empresa con Programa IMMEX deberá presentar la información que, para efectos estadísticos, se determine, en los términos que establezca la SE mediante Reglas y Criterios de Carácter General en Materia de Comercio Exterior. Para mayor información sobre este programa comunicarse al 01 800 410 2000 disponible para todo el país ó al buzón de la Secretaría de Economía en www.economia.gob.mx; o al teléfono 52-29-61-00, ext. 34347, Lic. Sergio Manríquez Fernández, Subdirector de Devolución de Impuestos. TRÁMITES Operación: Los trámites relativos al Programa IMMEX son gratuitos y pueden ser realizados en las ventanillas de atención al público de las Repre







Flashcard 1439592746252

Tags
#aspectos-generales #immex #mexico #modalidades #octopus
Question

2. Programa IMMEX [...], cuando se realice un proceso industrial de elaboración o transformación de mercancías destinadas a la exportación;
Answer
Industrial

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y> Programa IMMEX Controladora de empresas, cuando en un mismo programa se integren las operaciones de manufactura de una empresa certificada denominada controladora y una o más sociedades controladas; Programa IMMEX Industrial, cuando se realice un proceso industrial de elaboración o transformación de mercancías destinadas a la exportación; Programa IMMEX Servicios, cuando se realicen servicios a mercancías d

Original toplevel document

Decreto IMMEX
iladora de Exportación (Maquila) y el que Establece Programas de Importación Temporal para Producir Artículos de Exportación (PITEX), cuyas empresas representan en su conjunto el 85% de las exportaciones manufactureras de México. <span>ASPECTOS GENERALES Definición: El Programa IMMEX es un instrumento mediante el cual se permite importar temporalmente los bienes necesarios para ser utilizados en un proceso industrial o de servicio destinado a la elaboración, transformación o reparación de mercancías de procedencia extranjera importadas temporalmente para su exportación o a la prestación de servicios de exportación, sin cubrir el pago del impuesto general de importación, del impuesto al valor agregado y, en su caso, de las cuotas compensatorias Beneficiarios: La Secretaría de Economía (SE) podrá autorizar a las personas morales residentes en territorio nacional a que se refiere la fracción II del artículo 9 del Código Fiscal de la Federación, que tributen de conformidad con el Título II de la Ley del Impuesto sobre la Renta, un solo Programa IMMEX, que puede incluir las modalidades de controladora de empresas, industrial, servicios, albergue y terciarización, siempre que cumplan con los requisitos previstos en el Decreto para el Fomento de la Industria Manufacturera, Maquiladora y de Servicios de Exportación (Decreto IMMEX), publicado en el Diario Oficial e la Federación el 1 de noviembre de 2006. Beneficios: El Programa IMMEX brinda a sus titulares la posibilidad de importar temporalmente libre de impuestos a la importación y del IVA, los bienes necesarios para ser utilizados en un proceso industrial o de servicio destinado a la elaboración, transformación o reparación de mercancías de procedencia extranjera importadas temporalmente para su exportación o a la prestación de servicios de exportación. Estos bienes están agrupados bajo las siguientes categorías: Materias primas, partes y componentes que se vayan a destinar totalmente a integrar mercancías de exportación; combustibles, lubricantes y otros materiales que se vayan a consumir durante el proceso productivo de la mercancía de exportación; envases y empaques; etiquetas y folletos. Contenedores y cajas de trailers. Maquinaria, equipo, herramientas, instrumentos, moldes y refacciones destinadas al proceso productivo; equipos y aparatos para el control de la contaminación; para la investigación o capacitación, de seguridad industrial, de telecomunicación y cómputo, de laboratorio, de medición, de prueba de productos y control de calidad; así como aquéllos que intervengan en el manejo de materiales relacionados directamente con los bienes de exportación y otros vinculados con el proceso productivo; equipo para el desarrollo administrativo. Modalidades: Programa IMMEX Controladora de empresas, cuando en un mismo programa se integren las operaciones de manufactura de una empresa certificada denominada controladora y una o más sociedades controladas; Programa IMMEX Industrial, cuando se realice un proceso industrial de elaboración o transformación de mercancías destinadas a la exportación; Programa IMMEX Servicios, cuando se realicen servicios a mercancías de exportación o se presten servicios de exportación, únicamente para el desarrollo de las actividades que la Secretaría determine, previa opinión de la Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público; Programa IMMEX Albergue, cuando una o varias empresas extranjeras le faciliten la tecnología y el material productivo, sin que estas últimas operen directamente el Programa, y Programa IMMEX Terciarización, cuando una empresa certificada que no cuente con instalaciones para realizar procesos productivos, realice las operaciones de manufactura a través de terceros que registre en su Programa. La SE podrá aprobar de manera simultánea un Programa de Promoción Sectorial, de acuerdo con el tipo de productos que fabrica o a los servicios de exportación que realice, debiendo cumplir con la normatividad aplicable a los mismos. Tratándose de una empresa bajo la modalidad de servicios, únicamente podrá importar al amparo del Programa de Promoción Sectorial las mercancías a que se refiere el artículo 4, fracción III del presente Decreto, siempre que corresponda al sector en que sea registrada. Vigencia: La vigencia de los Programas IMMEX estará sujeta mientras el titular de los mismos continúe cumpliendo con los requisitos previstos para su otorgamiento y con las obligaciones establecidas en el Decreto. Plazos de permanencia: Los bienes importados temporalmente al amparo de un Programa IMMEX, podrán permanecer en territorio nacional por los plazos establecidos en el artículo 108 de la Ley Aduanera. Para las mercancías comprendidas en los Anexos II y III del Decreto IMMEX, cuando se importen como materia prima, el plazo de permanencia será hasta por doce meses. Tratándose de las mercancías que se encuentran comprendidas en el Anexo III del Decreto IMMEX, cuando se importen como materia prima, únicamente cuando se destinen a actividades bajo la modalidad de servicios, el plazo de permanencia será de hasta seis meses. No podrán ser importadas al amparo del Programa las mercancías señaladas en el Anexo I del Decreto IMMEX. Compromisos: Para gozar de los beneficios de un Programa IMMEX se deberá dar cumplimiento a los términos establecidos en el Decreto en la materia. La autorización del Programa se otorgará bajo el compromiso de realizar anualmente ventas al exterior por un valor superior a 500,000 dólares de los Estados Unidos de América, o su equivalente en moneda nacional, o bien, facturar exportaciones, cuando menos por el 10% de su facturación total. Reportes: El titular de un Programa IMMEX deberá presentar un reporte anual de forma electrónica, respecto del total de las ventas y de las exportaciones, correspondientes al ejercicio fiscal inmediato anterior, a más tardar el último día hábil del mes de mayo, conforme al formato que mediante Reglas y Criterios de Carácter General en Materia de Comercio Exterior dé a conocer la Secretaría de Economía. Adicionalmente, la empresa con Programa IMMEX deberá presentar la información que, para efectos estadísticos, se determine, en los términos que establezca la SE mediante Reglas y Criterios de Carácter General en Materia de Comercio Exterior. Para mayor información sobre este programa comunicarse al 01 800 410 2000 disponible para todo el país ó al buzón de la Secretaría de Economía en www.economia.gob.mx; o al teléfono 52-29-61-00, ext. 34347, Lic. Sergio Manríquez Fernández, Subdirector de Devolución de Impuestos. TRÁMITES Operación: Los trámites relativos al Programa IMMEX son gratuitos y pueden ser realizados en las ventanillas de atención al público de las Repre







Flashcard 1439606115596

Tags
#aspectos-generales #immex #mexico #octopus
Question
Vigencia:
La vigencia de los Programas IMMEX estará sujeta [...] y con [...]
Answer
mientras el titular continúe cumpliendo con los requisitos previstos

las obligaciones establecidas en el Decreto.

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Vigencia: La vigencia de los Programas IMMEX estará sujeta mientras el titular de los mismos continúe cumpliendo con los requisitos previstos para su otorgamiento y con las obligaciones establecidas en el Decreto.

Original toplevel document

Decreto IMMEX
iladora de Exportación (Maquila) y el que Establece Programas de Importación Temporal para Producir Artículos de Exportación (PITEX), cuyas empresas representan en su conjunto el 85% de las exportaciones manufactureras de México. <span>ASPECTOS GENERALES Definición: El Programa IMMEX es un instrumento mediante el cual se permite importar temporalmente los bienes necesarios para ser utilizados en un proceso industrial o de servicio destinado a la elaboración, transformación o reparación de mercancías de procedencia extranjera importadas temporalmente para su exportación o a la prestación de servicios de exportación, sin cubrir el pago del impuesto general de importación, del impuesto al valor agregado y, en su caso, de las cuotas compensatorias Beneficiarios: La Secretaría de Economía (SE) podrá autorizar a las personas morales residentes en territorio nacional a que se refiere la fracción II del artículo 9 del Código Fiscal de la Federación, que tributen de conformidad con el Título II de la Ley del Impuesto sobre la Renta, un solo Programa IMMEX, que puede incluir las modalidades de controladora de empresas, industrial, servicios, albergue y terciarización, siempre que cumplan con los requisitos previstos en el Decreto para el Fomento de la Industria Manufacturera, Maquiladora y de Servicios de Exportación (Decreto IMMEX), publicado en el Diario Oficial e la Federación el 1 de noviembre de 2006. Beneficios: El Programa IMMEX brinda a sus titulares la posibilidad de importar temporalmente libre de impuestos a la importación y del IVA, los bienes necesarios para ser utilizados en un proceso industrial o de servicio destinado a la elaboración, transformación o reparación de mercancías de procedencia extranjera importadas temporalmente para su exportación o a la prestación de servicios de exportación. Estos bienes están agrupados bajo las siguientes categorías: Materias primas, partes y componentes que se vayan a destinar totalmente a integrar mercancías de exportación; combustibles, lubricantes y otros materiales que se vayan a consumir durante el proceso productivo de la mercancía de exportación; envases y empaques; etiquetas y folletos. Contenedores y cajas de trailers. Maquinaria, equipo, herramientas, instrumentos, moldes y refacciones destinadas al proceso productivo; equipos y aparatos para el control de la contaminación; para la investigación o capacitación, de seguridad industrial, de telecomunicación y cómputo, de laboratorio, de medición, de prueba de productos y control de calidad; así como aquéllos que intervengan en el manejo de materiales relacionados directamente con los bienes de exportación y otros vinculados con el proceso productivo; equipo para el desarrollo administrativo. Modalidades: Programa IMMEX Controladora de empresas, cuando en un mismo programa se integren las operaciones de manufactura de una empresa certificada denominada controladora y una o más sociedades controladas; Programa IMMEX Industrial, cuando se realice un proceso industrial de elaboración o transformación de mercancías destinadas a la exportación; Programa IMMEX Servicios, cuando se realicen servicios a mercancías de exportación o se presten servicios de exportación, únicamente para el desarrollo de las actividades que la Secretaría determine, previa opinión de la Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público; Programa IMMEX Albergue, cuando una o varias empresas extranjeras le faciliten la tecnología y el material productivo, sin que estas últimas operen directamente el Programa, y Programa IMMEX Terciarización, cuando una empresa certificada que no cuente con instalaciones para realizar procesos productivos, realice las operaciones de manufactura a través de terceros que registre en su Programa. La SE podrá aprobar de manera simultánea un Programa de Promoción Sectorial, de acuerdo con el tipo de productos que fabrica o a los servicios de exportación que realice, debiendo cumplir con la normatividad aplicable a los mismos. Tratándose de una empresa bajo la modalidad de servicios, únicamente podrá importar al amparo del Programa de Promoción Sectorial las mercancías a que se refiere el artículo 4, fracción III del presente Decreto, siempre que corresponda al sector en que sea registrada. Vigencia: La vigencia de los Programas IMMEX estará sujeta mientras el titular de los mismos continúe cumpliendo con los requisitos previstos para su otorgamiento y con las obligaciones establecidas en el Decreto. Plazos de permanencia: Los bienes importados temporalmente al amparo de un Programa IMMEX, podrán permanecer en territorio nacional por los plazos establecidos en el artículo 108 de la Ley Aduanera. Para las mercancías comprendidas en los Anexos II y III del Decreto IMMEX, cuando se importen como materia prima, el plazo de permanencia será hasta por doce meses. Tratándose de las mercancías que se encuentran comprendidas en el Anexo III del Decreto IMMEX, cuando se importen como materia prima, únicamente cuando se destinen a actividades bajo la modalidad de servicios, el plazo de permanencia será de hasta seis meses. No podrán ser importadas al amparo del Programa las mercancías señaladas en el Anexo I del Decreto IMMEX. Compromisos: Para gozar de los beneficios de un Programa IMMEX se deberá dar cumplimiento a los términos establecidos en el Decreto en la materia. La autorización del Programa se otorgará bajo el compromiso de realizar anualmente ventas al exterior por un valor superior a 500,000 dólares de los Estados Unidos de América, o su equivalente en moneda nacional, o bien, facturar exportaciones, cuando menos por el 10% de su facturación total. Reportes: El titular de un Programa IMMEX deberá presentar un reporte anual de forma electrónica, respecto del total de las ventas y de las exportaciones, correspondientes al ejercicio fiscal inmediato anterior, a más tardar el último día hábil del mes de mayo, conforme al formato que mediante Reglas y Criterios de Carácter General en Materia de Comercio Exterior dé a conocer la Secretaría de Economía. Adicionalmente, la empresa con Programa IMMEX deberá presentar la información que, para efectos estadísticos, se determine, en los términos que establezca la SE mediante Reglas y Criterios de Carácter General en Materia de Comercio Exterior. Para mayor información sobre este programa comunicarse al 01 800 410 2000 disponible para todo el país ó al buzón de la Secretaría de Economía en www.economia.gob.mx; o al teléfono 52-29-61-00, ext. 34347, Lic. Sergio Manríquez Fernández, Subdirector de Devolución de Impuestos. TRÁMITES Operación: Los trámites relativos al Programa IMMEX son gratuitos y pueden ser realizados en las ventanillas de atención al público de las Repre







Flashcard 1439610834188

Tags
#aspectos-generales #compromisos #immex #mexico #octopus
Question

La autorización del Programa IMMEX se otorgará bajo el compromiso de realizar anualmente ventas al exterior por un valor superior a [...] USD, o su equivalente MXN, o bien, facturar exportaciones, cuando menos por el 10% de su facturación total.
Answer
500,000

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La autorización del Programa IMMEX se otorgará bajo el compromiso de realizar anualmente ventas al exterior por un valor superior a 500,000 USD, o su equivalente MXN, o bien, facturar exportaciones, cuando menos por el 10% de su facturación total.

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Decreto IMMEX
iladora de Exportación (Maquila) y el que Establece Programas de Importación Temporal para Producir Artículos de Exportación (PITEX), cuyas empresas representan en su conjunto el 85% de las exportaciones manufactureras de México. <span>ASPECTOS GENERALES Definición: El Programa IMMEX es un instrumento mediante el cual se permite importar temporalmente los bienes necesarios para ser utilizados en un proceso industrial o de servicio destinado a la elaboración, transformación o reparación de mercancías de procedencia extranjera importadas temporalmente para su exportación o a la prestación de servicios de exportación, sin cubrir el pago del impuesto general de importación, del impuesto al valor agregado y, en su caso, de las cuotas compensatorias Beneficiarios: La Secretaría de Economía (SE) podrá autorizar a las personas morales residentes en territorio nacional a que se refiere la fracción II del artículo 9 del Código Fiscal de la Federación, que tributen de conformidad con el Título II de la Ley del Impuesto sobre la Renta, un solo Programa IMMEX, que puede incluir las modalidades de controladora de empresas, industrial, servicios, albergue y terciarización, siempre que cumplan con los requisitos previstos en el Decreto para el Fomento de la Industria Manufacturera, Maquiladora y de Servicios de Exportación (Decreto IMMEX), publicado en el Diario Oficial e la Federación el 1 de noviembre de 2006. Beneficios: El Programa IMMEX brinda a sus titulares la posibilidad de importar temporalmente libre de impuestos a la importación y del IVA, los bienes necesarios para ser utilizados en un proceso industrial o de servicio destinado a la elaboración, transformación o reparación de mercancías de procedencia extranjera importadas temporalmente para su exportación o a la prestación de servicios de exportación. Estos bienes están agrupados bajo las siguientes categorías: Materias primas, partes y componentes que se vayan a destinar totalmente a integrar mercancías de exportación; combustibles, lubricantes y otros materiales que se vayan a consumir durante el proceso productivo de la mercancía de exportación; envases y empaques; etiquetas y folletos. Contenedores y cajas de trailers. Maquinaria, equipo, herramientas, instrumentos, moldes y refacciones destinadas al proceso productivo; equipos y aparatos para el control de la contaminación; para la investigación o capacitación, de seguridad industrial, de telecomunicación y cómputo, de laboratorio, de medición, de prueba de productos y control de calidad; así como aquéllos que intervengan en el manejo de materiales relacionados directamente con los bienes de exportación y otros vinculados con el proceso productivo; equipo para el desarrollo administrativo. Modalidades: Programa IMMEX Controladora de empresas, cuando en un mismo programa se integren las operaciones de manufactura de una empresa certificada denominada controladora y una o más sociedades controladas; Programa IMMEX Industrial, cuando se realice un proceso industrial de elaboración o transformación de mercancías destinadas a la exportación; Programa IMMEX Servicios, cuando se realicen servicios a mercancías de exportación o se presten servicios de exportación, únicamente para el desarrollo de las actividades que la Secretaría determine, previa opinión de la Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público; Programa IMMEX Albergue, cuando una o varias empresas extranjeras le faciliten la tecnología y el material productivo, sin que estas últimas operen directamente el Programa, y Programa IMMEX Terciarización, cuando una empresa certificada que no cuente con instalaciones para realizar procesos productivos, realice las operaciones de manufactura a través de terceros que registre en su Programa. La SE podrá aprobar de manera simultánea un Programa de Promoción Sectorial, de acuerdo con el tipo de productos que fabrica o a los servicios de exportación que realice, debiendo cumplir con la normatividad aplicable a los mismos. Tratándose de una empresa bajo la modalidad de servicios, únicamente podrá importar al amparo del Programa de Promoción Sectorial las mercancías a que se refiere el artículo 4, fracción III del presente Decreto, siempre que corresponda al sector en que sea registrada. Vigencia: La vigencia de los Programas IMMEX estará sujeta mientras el titular de los mismos continúe cumpliendo con los requisitos previstos para su otorgamiento y con las obligaciones establecidas en el Decreto. Plazos de permanencia: Los bienes importados temporalmente al amparo de un Programa IMMEX, podrán permanecer en territorio nacional por los plazos establecidos en el artículo 108 de la Ley Aduanera. Para las mercancías comprendidas en los Anexos II y III del Decreto IMMEX, cuando se importen como materia prima, el plazo de permanencia será hasta por doce meses. Tratándose de las mercancías que se encuentran comprendidas en el Anexo III del Decreto IMMEX, cuando se importen como materia prima, únicamente cuando se destinen a actividades bajo la modalidad de servicios, el plazo de permanencia será de hasta seis meses. No podrán ser importadas al amparo del Programa las mercancías señaladas en el Anexo I del Decreto IMMEX. Compromisos: Para gozar de los beneficios de un Programa IMMEX se deberá dar cumplimiento a los términos establecidos en el Decreto en la materia. La autorización del Programa se otorgará bajo el compromiso de realizar anualmente ventas al exterior por un valor superior a 500,000 dólares de los Estados Unidos de América, o su equivalente en moneda nacional, o bien, facturar exportaciones, cuando menos por el 10% de su facturación total. Reportes: El titular de un Programa IMMEX deberá presentar un reporte anual de forma electrónica, respecto del total de las ventas y de las exportaciones, correspondientes al ejercicio fiscal inmediato anterior, a más tardar el último día hábil del mes de mayo, conforme al formato que mediante Reglas y Criterios de Carácter General en Materia de Comercio Exterior dé a conocer la Secretaría de Economía. Adicionalmente, la empresa con Programa IMMEX deberá presentar la información que, para efectos estadísticos, se determine, en los términos que establezca la SE mediante Reglas y Criterios de Carácter General en Materia de Comercio Exterior. Para mayor información sobre este programa comunicarse al 01 800 410 2000 disponible para todo el país ó al buzón de la Secretaría de Economía en www.economia.gob.mx; o al teléfono 52-29-61-00, ext. 34347, Lic. Sergio Manríquez Fernández, Subdirector de Devolución de Impuestos. TRÁMITES Operación: Los trámites relativos al Programa IMMEX son gratuitos y pueden ser realizados en las ventanillas de atención al público de las Repre







Flashcard 1439731944716

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #microeconomics #reading-16-the-firm-and-market-structures #section-2 #study-session-4
Question
Section 2 introduces the [...].
Answer
analysis of market structures

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Section 2 introduces the analysis of market structures. The section addresses questions such as: What determines the degree of competition associated with each market structure? Given the degree of competition associated with each market st

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1. INTRODUCTION
ts are possible even in the long run; in the short run, any outcome is possible. Therefore, understanding the forces behind the market structure will aid the financial analyst in determining firms’ short- and long-term prospects. <span>Section 2 introduces the analysis of market structures. The section addresses questions such as: What determines the degree of competition associated with each market structure? Given the degree of competition associated with each market structure, what decisions are left to the management team developing corporate strategy? How does a chosen pricing and output strategy evolve into specific decisions that affect the profitability of the firm? The answers to these questions are related to the forces of the market structure within which the firm operates. Sections 3, 4, 5, and 6 analyze demand, supply, optimal price and output, and factors affecting long-run equilibrium for perfect competition, monopolistic competition, olig







Flashcard 1448348617996

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital #study-session-11
Question
This reading is organized as follows:

In Section 2, we introduce the cost of capital and its basic computation.

Section 3 presents a selection of methods for [...]

Section 4 discusses issues an analyst faces in using the cost of capital.
Answer
estimating the costs of the various sources of capital.

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This reading is organized as follows: In Section 2, we introduce the cost of capital and its basic computation. Section 3 presents a selection of methods for estimating the costs of the various sources of capital. Section 4 discusses issues an analyst faces in using the cost of capital.

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1. INTRODUCTION
r, is to estimate the cost of capital for the company as a whole and then adjust this overall corporate cost of capital upward or downward to reflect the risk of the contemplated project relative to the company’s average project. <span>This reading is organized as follows: In the next section, we introduce the cost of capital and its basic computation. Section 3 presents a selection of methods for estimating the costs of the various sources of capital. Section 4 discusses issues an analyst faces in using the cost of capital. A summary concludes the reading. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1448739998988

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4


Question
Point S, which corresponds to QAVC, is the [...]

Point T, which corresponds to QATC, is the [...]
Answer
minimum point on the AVC .

minimum point on ATC.

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This shows the cost curve relationships among ATC, AVC, and AFC in the short run. The difference between ATC and AVC at any output quantity is exactly equal to the amount of AFC. Both ATC and AVC take on a bowl-shaped pattern in which each curv







Flashcard 1450269609228

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm
Question
At zero output, total costs are always equal to the amount of [...] that is incurred at this production point.
Answer
total fixed cost

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Normal profit is considered to be a fixed cost because it is a return required by investors on their equity capital regardless of output level. At zero output, total costs are always equal to the amount of total fixed cost that is incurred at this production point. In Exhibit 13, total fixed cost remains at 100 throughout the entire production range.

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Costs
rate of change in total variable cost. In Exhibit 13, TC at 5 units is 400—of which 300 is variable cost and 100 is fixed cost. At 10 units, total costs are 1,650, which is the sum of 1,550 in variable cost and 100 in fixed cost. <span>Total fixed cost (TFC) is the summation of all expenses that do not change when production varies. It can be a sunk or unavoidable cost that a firm has to cover whether it produces anything or not, or it can be a cost that stays the same over a range of production but can change to another constant level when production moves outside of that range. The latter is referred to as a quasi-fixed cost , although it remains categorized as part of TFC. Examples of fixed costs are debt service, real estate lease agreements, and rental contracts. Quasi-fixed cost examples would be certain utilities and administrative salaries that could be avoided or be lower when output is zero but would assume higher constant values over different production ranges. Normal profit is considered to be a fixed cost because it is a return required by investors on their equity capital regardless of output level. At zero output, total costs are always equal to the amount of total fixed cost that is incurred at this production point. In Exhibit 13, total fixed cost remains at 100 throughout the entire production range. Other fixed costs evolve primarily from investments in such fixed assets as real estate, production facilities, and equipment. As a firm grows in size, fixed asset expansion occurs along with a related increase in fixed cost. However, fixed cost cannot be arbitrarily cut when production declines. Regardless of the volume of output, an investment in a given level of fixed assets locks the firm into a certain amount of fixed cost that is used to finance the physical capital base, technology, and other capital assets. When a firm downsizes, the last expense to be cut is usually fixed cost. Total variable cost (TVC), which is the summation of all variable expenses, has a direct relationship with quantity. When quantity increases, total variable cost increases







Flashcard 1450821160204

Tags
#estrategias
Question

Las decisiones [...] tienen que ver con asuntos tales como la fijación de precios y la eficacia en la fabricación y la publicidad.

Answer
estratégicas adoptadas a nivel negocio

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La estrategia de negocios es la forma en que un negocio compite en un sector particular. Las decisiones estratégicas adoptadas a nivel negocio tienen que ver con asuntos tales como la fijación de precios y la eficacia en la fabricación y la publicidad. La estrategia de negocios se basa principalmente en la obtención de una ven

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Estrategia de negocios y corporativa
respecto a la dirección de la organización en su conjunto. Esta estrategia se refiere a los asuntos que afectan a la empresa en general, tales como decidir el tamaño y la composición del portafolio de negocios. <span>Estrategia de negocios La estrategia de negocios es la forma en que un negocio compite en un sector particular. Las decisiones estratégicas adoptadas a nivel negocio tienen que ver con asuntos tales como la fijación de precios y la eficacia en la fabricación y la publicidad. La estrategia de negocios se basa principalmente en la obtención de una ventaja competitiva en el mercado . <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1450856287500

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
En los [...] se proporcionan los fondos necesarios para adquirir activos fijos, siendo su parte medular las bolsas de valores.
Answer
Mercados de Capital

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En los Mercados de Capital se comercializan los valores a largo plazo, como son los bonos y las acciones, es decir, las emisiones de deuda y de capital de las empresas y de los gobiernos. Proporcionan

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Flashcard 1450859695372

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Las tesorerías de las empresas buscarán aplicar sus [...]
Answer
excedentes de tesorería.

Corto y mediano plazo y en los cajones de inversión que mejor rendimiento les den.

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Las tesorerías de las empresas buscarán aplicar sus excedentes de tesorería, tanto en el corto como en el mediano plazo y en los cajones de inversión que mejor rendimiento les proporcionen. Asimismo, la aplicación de los recursos disponibles de la emp

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Flashcard 1450875424012

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Previa a la reestructuración organizacional, operativa y financiera, es aconsejable efectuar un análisis de la posible [...], así como de su Adelgazamiento organizacional.
Answer
Redimensión de la empresa

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Previa a la reestructuración organizacional, operativa y financiera, es aconsejable efectuar un análisis de la posible Redimensión de la empresa, así como de su Adelgazamiento organizacional.

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Flashcard 1453685083404

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
Most people aren’t by nature inclined to brag about themselves, they talk about themselves so [...]
Answer
they can feel validated by others.

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Most people aren’t by nature inclined to brag about themselves, they talk about themselves so they can feel validated by others.

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#48-laws-of-power
Learning the game of power requires a certain way of looking at the world, a shifting of perspective. It takes effort and years of practice, for much of the game may not come naturally. Certain basic skills are required, and once you master these skills you will be able to apply the laws of power more easily.
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#48-laws-of-power
It is a game. Both of you behave as gentlemen. observing the rules of the game and taking nothing personally.
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OBSERVANCE OF THE LAW
#48-laws-of-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #observance-of-the-law
Galileo depended on the generosity of rulers to support his research so he would sometimes make gifts of his inventions to the leading patrons of the time but his patrons usually paid him with gifts, not cash. This made for a life of constant insecurity and dependence.

He hit on a new strategy, when he discovered the moons of Jupiter. Instead of dividing the discovery among his patrons, as he had done in the past, he decided to focus exclusively on the Medicis.

He chose the Medicis because they had made Jupiter, the mightiest of the gods, the Medici symbol—a symbol of a power that went beyond politics and banking.

Galileo announced that "the moons of Jupiter offered themselves in the heavens” to his telescope at the same time as Cosimo II’s enthronement. He said that the four moons harmonized with the number of the Medicis.

After he dedicated the discovery to the Medicis, Galileo commissioned an emblem representing Jupiter sitting on a cloud with the four stars circling about him, and presented this to Cosimo II as a symbol of his link to the stars.

Cosimo II made Galileo his official court philosopher and mathematician, with a full salary.

For a scientist this was the shit. The days of begging for patronage were over.
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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #second-rule
Never take your position for granted and never let any favors you receive go to your head.
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highest nobility, he had forgotten that his position depended on the emperor, and had come to believe that he had earned it on his own. This was an unforgivable miscalculation of his own importance and he paid for it with his life. <span>Remember the following: Never take your position for granted and never let any favors you receive go to your head.<span><body><html>

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Commit harmless mistakes that will not hurt you in the long run but will give you the chance to ask for his help. Masters adore such requests.
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has its limits; it is too direct and obvious, and looks bad to other courtiers. Discreet flattery is much more powerful. If you are more intelligent than your master, for example, seem the opposite: Make him appear more intelligent than you. <span>Act naive. Make it seem that you need his expertise. Commit harmless mistakes that will not hurt you in the long run but will give you the chance to ask for his help. Masters adore such requests. A master who cannot bestow on you the gifts of his experience may direct rancor and ill will at you instead. If your ideas are more creative than your master’s, ascribe them to him, in as public a manner as possible. Make it clear that your advice is merely an echo of his advice.&#

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Avoid outshining the master. This is a lesson that the stars in the sky teach us—they may be related to the sun, and just as brilliant, but they never appear in her company.
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13; Sky. There can be only one sun at a time. Never obscure the sunlight, or rival the sun’s brilliance; rather, fade into the sky and find ways to heighten the master star’s intensity. Authority: <span>Avoid outshining the master. All superiority is odious, but the superiority of a subject over his prince is not only stupid, it is fatal. This is a lesson that the stars in the sky teach us—they may be related to the sun, and just as brilliant, but they never appear in her company. (Baltasar Gracián, 1601-1658)<span><body><html>

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#48-laws-of-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #reversal
If your master is very weak and ready to fall, let nature take its course. Do not risk outshining a feeble superior—it might appear cruel or spiteful.
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othing to fear from outshining him. Do not be merciful—your master had no such scruples in his own cold-blooded climb to the top. Gauge his strength. If he is weak, discreetly hasten his downfall: Outdo, outcharm, outsmart him at key moments. <span>If he is very weak and ready to fall, let nature take its course. Do not risk outshining a feeble superior—it might appear cruel or spiteful. But if your master is firm in his position, yet you know yourself to be the more capable, bide your time and be patient. It is the natural course of things that power eventually fades a

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Flashcard 1455280491788

Tags
#biochem
Question
When is A-form DNA favored? (2 times)
Answer
Usually only favored when limited water is available to hydrate the DNA. The A-form helix is also adopted by RNA-DNA hybrids

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DNA can also adopt the A-form helical structure (Figure 2.15), but it is usually only favored when limited water is available to hydrate the DNA. When DNA molecules that are in the B-form are allowed to dry out slowly, they switch spontaneously to A-DNA. Th e A-form helix is also adopted by RNA-DNA hybrids

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Flashcard 1456148188428

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th ere is, in addition, a fundamentally dif- ferent way of reading information stored in DNA that neither opens the helix nor copies the sequence, but instead reads the base sequence from the “outside” (via the grooves), leaving the helix largely intact. Th is process of reading the surface signposts of the base pairs is particularly important in the mechanisms by which [...and...are controlled]
Answer
DNA replication and transcription are controlled

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he sequence, but instead reads the base sequence from the “outside” (via the grooves), leaving the helix largely intact. Th is process of reading the surface signposts of the base pairs is particularly important in the mechanisms by which <span>DNA replication and transcription are controlled<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1456504966412

Tags
#biochem
Question
What double helical structure does RNA form and what is its suger pucker? (which carbon?)
Answer
RNA does form a double-helical structure known as the A-form helix, in which the sugar pucker is C3ʹ endo.

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ecall from Section 2.7 that RNA cannot readily adopt the C2ʹ endo sugar pucker characteristic of B-DNA. However, RNA does form a double-helical structure known as the A-form helix, in which the sugar pucker is C3ʹ endo.

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#enneagram-made-easy
Ones are motivated by the need to live their life the right way, including improving themselves and the world around them.
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#enneagram-made-easy #perfectionist
Ones at their BEST are
ethical
reliable
productive
wise
idealistic
fair
honest
self-disciplined


Ones at their WORST are
judgmental
inflexible
dogmatic
obsessive-compulsive
critical of others
overly serious
controlling orderly
anxious
jealous
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Flashcard 1456606153996

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
Regarding pace, When you’re making a big point, you should [...] to increase the impact felt
Answer
slow down your pace

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Speed and pace are how you can emphasize certain points. When you’re making a big point, you should slow down your pace to increase the impact felt

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Small words can have a big effect when used with care and understanding. And because they are small, they often go undetected, which makes them subtle tools for change and persuasion.
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Ace (perfection)
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#69-ways-to-influence
we also live in an incredible age, where the study of human psychology has researched, worked out, proven and explained many concrete ways in which humans are powerfully influenced.
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#69-ways-to-influence
Influence and control really boils down to making someone else make a decision in the direction you wish them to.
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#69-ways-to-influence
The first principle to understand is that human beings are emotional creatures. Our day to day lives are filled with hundreds of micro-decisions, which we mostly make unconsciously, and these decisions are largely based on our emotional responses to things.
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#69-ways-to-influence
Because nobody likes to admit that our decisions are based mainly on how we feel in that moment, we almost always explain out decision to ourselves based on logic.
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#69-ways-to-influence
it is very effective to influence someone using a strong emotional technique, and then help them along by giving them a logical reason to explain to themselves or others by saying ‘because…’ and giving any logical reason.
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#69-ways-to-influence
It’s important to remember that people make decisions emotionally, because then you start to realize that people will follow their emotions. Yet they do not necessarily know where their emotions are coming from. You can lead their emotions, in many man ways.
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Flashcard 1456750857484

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
the better you are at [...], the better friend, lover, husband, wife, and person you become.
Answer
dealing with power

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the better you are at dealing with power, the better friend, lover, husband, wife, and person you become.

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#48-laws-of-power
Certain basic skills are required, and once you master these skills you will be able to apply the laws of power more easily.
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Learning the game of power requires a certain way of looking at the world, a shifting of perspective. It takes effort and years of practice, for much of the game may not come naturally. Certain basic skills are required, and once you master these skills you will be able to apply the laws of power more easily.

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Flashcard 1456756100364

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
For the future, the motto is, “[...].”
Answer
No days unalert

Nothing should catch you by surprise because you are constantly imagining problems before they arise.

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For the future, the motto is, “No days unalert.” Nothing should catch you by surprise because you are constantly imagining problems before they arise.

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Flashcard 1456758983948

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
The further you see, the more steps ahead you plan, the more [...]
Answer
powerful you become

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The further you see, the more steps ahead you plan, the more powerful you become

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Flashcard 1456761605388

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Half of the game is learning how to [...] that eat away at you and cloud your reason.
Answer
forget those events in the past

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Half of the game is learning how to forget those events in the past that eat away at you and cloud your reason.

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Flashcard 1456763440396

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Power is [...]—this cannot be repeated too often—
Answer
a game

and in games you do not judge your opponents by their intentions but by the effect of their actions.

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Power is a game—this cannot be repeated too often—and in games you do not judge your opponents by their intentions but by the effect of their actions.

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Flashcard 1456767110412

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Never waste valuable time, or mental peace of mind, on the [...]—that is too high a price to pay.
Answer
affairs of others

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Never waste valuable time, or mental peace of mind, on the affairs of others—that is too high a price to pay.

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Flashcard 1456769207564

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
To be a master player you must also be a master [...].
Answer
psychologist

You must recognize motivations and see through the cloud of dust with which people surround their actions.

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To be a master player you must also be a master psychologist. You must recognize motivations and see through the cloud of dust with which people surround their actions.

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Flashcard 1456772091148

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Never trust anyone completely and [...]
Answer
study everyone

including friends and loved ones.

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Never trust anyone completely and study everyone, including friends and loved ones.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
With those above you, however, you must take a different approach: When it comes to power, outshining the master is perhaps the worst mistake of all.
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You cannot spend your life worrying about the petty feelings of others. With those above you, however, you must take a different approach: When it comes to power, outshining the master is perhaps the worst mistake of all.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Masters always want to feel secure in their positions, and superior to those around them in intelligence, wit, and charm.
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Do not fool yourself into thinking that life has changed much since the days of Louis XIV and the Medicis. Those who attain high standing in life are like kings and queens: They want to feel secure in their positions, and superior to those around them in intelligence, wit, and charm.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Do not fool yourself into thinking that life has changed much since the days of Louis XIV and the Medicis
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Do not fool yourself into thinking that life has changed much since the days of Louis XIV and the Medicis. Those who attain high standing in life are like kings and queens: They want to feel secure in their positions, and superior to those around them in intelligence, wit, and charm.

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Flashcard 1456790179084

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #first-rule #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
If you cannot help being charming and superior, you must learn to [...].
Answer
avoid such monsters of vanity

Either that, or find a way to mute your good qualities when in the company of a Cesare Borgia.

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If you cannot help being charming and superior, you must learn to avoid such monsters of vanity. Either that, or find a way to mute your good qualities when in the company of a Cesare Borgia.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Public flattery can be effective but has its limits; it is too direct and obvious, and looks bad to other courtiers.
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First you must flatter and puff up your master. Overt flattery can be effective but has its limits; it is too direct and obvious, and looks bad to other courtiers.

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Flashcard 1456796470540

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
Public flattery can be effective but has its limits; it is too direct and obvious, and [...]
Answer
looks bad to other courtiers.

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Public flattery can be effective but has its limits; it is too direct and obvious, and looks bad to other courtiers.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
A master who cannot bestow on you the gifts of his experience may direct rancor and ill will at you instead.
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Act naive. Make it seem that you need his expertise. Commit harmless mistakes that will not hurt you in the long run but will give you the chance to ask for his help. Masters adore such requests. A master who cannot bestow on you the gifts of his experience may direct rancor and ill will at you instead.

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Flashcard 1456800402700

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
A master who cannot bestow on you [...] may direct rancor and ill will at you instead.
Answer
the gifts of his experience

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A master who cannot bestow on you the gifts of his experience may direct rancor and ill will at you instead.

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Flashcard 1456803548428

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
Act naive. Make it seem that you need [...].
Answer
his expertise

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Act naive. Make it seem that you need his expertise. Commit harmless mistakes that will not hurt you in the long run but will give you the chance to ask for his help. Masters adore such requests.

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Flashcard 1456807480588

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
Commit harmless mistakes that will not hurt you in the long run but [...].
Answer
will give you the chance to ask for his help.

Masters adore such requests.

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Commit harmless mistakes that will not hurt you in the long run but will give you the chance to ask for his help. Masters adore such requests.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
If you have to entertaining your master, display limited means to win his sympathy.
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If you are thrust into the position of entertaining him, a display of your limited means may win you his sympathy. Any attempt to impress him with your grace and generosity can prove fatal: Learn from Fouquet or pay the price.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Any attempt to impress your master with your grace and generosity can prove fatal: Learn from Fouquet or pay the price.
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If you are thrust into the position of entertaining him, a display of your limited means may win you his sympathy. Any attempt to impress him with your grace and generosity can prove fatal: Learn from Fouquet or pay the price.

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Flashcard 1456817704204

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
it is not a weakness to [...] if in the end they lead to power.
Answer
disguise your strengths

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it is not a weakness to disguise your strengths if in the end they lead to power.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
All superiority is odious, but the superiority of a subject over his prince is not only stupid, it is fatal.
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Avoid outshining the master. All superiority is odious, but the superiority of a subject over his prince is not only stupid, it is fatal. This is a lesson that the stars in the sky teach us—they may be related to the sun, and just as brilliant, but they never appear in her company.

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Flashcard 1456827141388

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #reversal
Question
If your master is very weak and ready to fall, [...].
Answer
let nature take its course

Do not risk outshining a feeble superior—it might appear cruel or spiteful.

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If your master is very weak and ready to fall, let nature take its course. Do not risk outshining a feeble superior—it might appear cruel or spiteful.

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Flashcard 1456837627148

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
If you can master the [...], you will be able to make people bend to your will without their realizing what you have done.
Answer
arts of indirection

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If you can master the arts of indirection, you will be able to make people bend to your will without their realizing what you have done. And if they do not realize what you have done, they will neither resent nor resist you.</s

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Flashcard 1456839200012

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
You must create for yourself-one face looking continuously to [...] and the other to [...]
Answer
the future

the past.

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You must create for yourself-one face looking continuously to the future and the other to the past.

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Flashcard 1456841559308

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
We face a paradox: Everything must appear civilized, decent, democratic, and fair.

But if we play by those rules too strictly,
[...]
Answer
we are crushed by those around us who are not so foolish.

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Today we face a peculiarly similar paradox to that of the courtier: Everything must appear civilized, decent, democratic, and fair. But if we play by those rules too strictly, if we take them too literally, we are crushed by those around us who are not so foolish.

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Flashcard 1456845491468

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Another strategy of the supposed nonplayer is to [...].
Answer
demand equality in every area of life

Everyone must be treated alike, whatever their status and strength.

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Another strategy of the supposed nonplayer is to demand equality in every area of life. Everyone must be treated alike, whatever their status and strength.

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#48-laws-of-power
being perfectly honest will inevitably hurt and insult a great many people, some of whom will choose to injure you in return.
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Yet another way of avoiding the game would be perfect honesty and straightforwardness, since one of the main techniques of those who seek power is deceit and secrecy. But being perfectly honest will inevitably hurt and insult a great many people, some of whom will choose to injure you in return.

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Flashcard 1456849685772

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
The only means to gain one’s ends with people are [...].
Answer
force and cunning

Love also, they say; but that is to wait for sunshine, and life needs every moment

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The only means to gain one’s ends with people are force and cunning. Love also, they say; but that is to wait for sunshine, and life needs every moment

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Flashcard 1456852045068

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
An [...] to a situation is the single greatest barrier to power.
Answer
emotional response

a mistake that will cost you a lot more than any temporary satisfaction you might gain by expressing your feelings.

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An emotional response to a situation is the single greatest barrier to power, a mistake that will cost you a lot more than any temporary satisfaction you might gain by expressing your feelings.

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Flashcard 1456854404364

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
If you are trying to [...], far better to keep him off-guard by feigning friendliness than showing your anger.
Answer
destroy an enemy who has hurt you

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If you are trying to destroy an enemy who has hurt you, far better to keep him off-guard by feigning friendliness than showing your anger.

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Flashcard 1456855977228

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
[...] are potentially destructive, in that they blind you to the often self-serving interests of those whom you least suspect of playing a power game.
Answer
Love and affection

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Love and affection are potentially destructive, in that they blind you to the often self-serving interests of those whom you least suspect of playing a power game.

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Flashcard 1456857812236

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
The real purpose of the backward-glancing eye is to [...]
Answer
educate yourself constantly

you look at the past to learn from those who came before you. (The many historical examples in this book will greatly help that process.)

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The real purpose of the backward-glancing eye is to educate yourself constantly—you look at the past to learn from those who came before you. (The many historical examples in this book will greatly help that process.)

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Flashcard 1456860171532

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
There are no principles; there are only [...].
Answer
events

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There are no principles; there are only events.

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Flashcard 1456861744396

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
There is no good and bad, there are only [...].
Answer
circumstances

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There is no good and bad, there are only circumstances.

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Flashcard 1456863841548

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
If deception is the most potent weapon in your arsenal, then [...] in all things is your crucial shield.
Answer
patience

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If deception is the most potent weapon in your arsenal, then patience in all things is your crucial shield.

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Flashcard 1456865414412

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
[...] is the supreme virtue of the gods.
Answer
patience

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patience is the supreme virtue of the gods, who have nothing but time.

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Flashcard 1456866987276

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Power is a social game. To learn and master it, you must develop the ability to [...]
Answer
study and understand people.

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Power is a social game. To learn and master it, you must develop the ability to study and understand people.

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Flashcard 1456868560140

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Never [...] as to whom you study and whom you trust.
Answer
discriminate

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Never discriminate as to whom you study and whom you trust.

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Flashcard 1456870133004

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Finally, you must learn always to take the [...] to power.
Answer
indirect route

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Finally, you must learn always to take the indirect route to power.

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Flashcard 1456871968012

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
The laws have a simple premise: Certain actions almost always increase one’s power (the [...] of the law), while others decrease it and even ruin us (the [...] of the law).
Answer
observance

transgression

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The laws have a simple premise: Certain actions almost always increase one’s power (the observance of the law), while others decrease it and even ruin us (the transgression of the law).

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Flashcard 1456874589452

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
In your desire to please and impress your superiors, do not go too far in [...] or you might accomplish the opposite—inspire fear and insecurity.
Answer
displaying your talents

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In your desire to please and impress your superiors, do not go too far in displaying your talents or you might accomplish the opposite—inspire fear and insecurity.

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Flashcard 1456876162316

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Make your masters appear [...] and you will attain the heights of power.
Answer
more brilliant than they are

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Make your masters appear more brilliant than they are and you will attain the heights of power.

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#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #observance-of-the-law
Masters care about their name and glory.
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Galileo gained more with his new strategy than he had in years of begging. The reason is simple: All masters want to appear more brilliant than other people. They do not care about science or empirical truth or the latest invention ; they care about their name and glory. Galileo gave the Medicis infinitely more glory by linking their name with cosmic forces than he had by making them the patrons of some new scientific gadget or discovery. Sci

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#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #observance-of-the-law
intellectual powers can make the master feel insecure
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ame and glory. Galileo gave the Medicis infinitely more glory by linking their name with cosmic forces than he had by making them the patrons of some new scientific gadget or discovery. Scientists too must serve masters. And their <span>intellectual powers can make the master feel insecure , as if he were only there to supply the funds—an ugly, ignoble job. The producer of a great work wants to feel he is more than just the provider of the financing.

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Flashcard 1456881929484

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
When you show yourself in the world and [...], you naturally stir up all kinds of resentment, envy, and other manifestations of insecurity.
Answer
display your talents

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When you show yourself in the world and display your talents, you naturally stir up all kinds of resentment, envy, and other manifestations of insecurity.

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Flashcard 1456883502348

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
This Law involves [...] rules that you must realize.
Answer
two

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This Law involves two rules that you must realize.

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Flashcard 1456885075212

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Question
First rule:

You can outshine a master [...].
Answer
without knowing simply by being yourself

Some masters are really insecure; you may naturally outshine them by your charm and grace.

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First rule: You can inadvertently outshine a master simply by being yourself. There are masters who are more insecure than others, monstrously insecure; you may naturally outshine them by your charm and grace.

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Flashcard 1456888483084

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
[...] flattery is much more powerful.
Answer
Discreet

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Discreet flattery is much more powerful.

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Flashcard 1456891628812

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#48-laws-of-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #reversal
Question
[...] his strength. If he is weak, discreetly hasten his downfall: Outdo, outcharm, outsmart him at key moments.
Answer
Gauge

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Gauge his strength. If he is weak, discreetly hasten his downfall: Outdo, outcharm, outsmart him at key moments.

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Flashcard 1456893201676

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#48-laws-of-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #reversal
Question
It is the natural course of things that power [...].
Answer
eventually fades and weakens

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It is the natural course of things that power eventually fades and weakens.

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Flashcard 1456894774540

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Question
To seduce, charm, deceive, and subtly outmaneuver your opponents are the [...]
Answer
arts of indirection

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If you can master the arts of indirection, learning to seduce, charm, deceive, and subtly outmaneuver your opponents, you will attain the heights of power.

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Flashcard 1456896347404

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
[...] cloud reason, and if you cannot see the situation clearly, you cannot prepare for and respond to it with any degree of control.
Answer
Emotions

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Emotions cloud reason, and if you cannot see the situation clearly, you cannot prepare for and respond to it with any degree of control.

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Flashcard 1456898182412

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Question
Half of your mastery of power comes from what you [...].
Answer
do not do

what you do not allow yourself to get dragged into.

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Half of your mastery of power comes from what you do not do, what you do not allow yourself to get dragged into.

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Flashcard 1456902114572

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Question
It is a game. Both of you behave as gentlemen. observing the rules of the game and [...]
Answer
taking nothing personally.

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It is a game. Both of you behave as gentlemen. observing the rules of the game and taking nothing personally.

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#48-laws-of-power
LAW 2 NEVER PUT TOO MUCH TRUST IN FRIENDS, LEARN HOW TO USE ENEMIES
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Flashcard 1456913911052

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
LAW 2

NEVER
[...], LEARN HOW
[...]
Answer
PUT TOO MUCH TRUST IN FRIENDS

TO USE ENEMIES

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LAW 2 NEVER PUT TOO MUCH TRUST IN FRIENDS, LEARN HOW TO USE ENEMIES

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#48-laws-of-power
JUDGMENT

Be wary of friends—they will betray you more quickly, for they are easily aroused to envy. They also become spoiled and tyrannical. But hire a former enemy and he will be more loyal than a friend, because he has more to prove. In fact, you have more to fear from friends than from enemies. If you have no enemies, find a way to make them.
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TRANSGRESSION OF THE LAW
#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #transgression-of-the-law
Once a young man named Michael III assumed the throne of the Byzantine Empire. His mother, the Empress Theodora, had been banished to a nunnery, and her lover, Theoctistus, had been murdered. The head of the conspiracy to remove Theodora and enthrone Michael had been Michael’s uncle, Bardas.

Michael was now a young and inexperienced so he needed someone he could trust as his councillor, and his thoughts turned to Basilius, his best friend. Basilius had no experience but he had proven his love and gratitude.

To have a good enemy, choose a friend: He knows where to strike.
DIANF DE POITIERS, 1499-1566, MISTRESS OF HENRI II OF FRANCE

They had met a few years before, when Basilius had saved Michael’s life. The groom’s strength and courage had impressed Michael, who immediately turned Basilius from being a horse trainer to the position of head of the stables and they became inseparable. Basilius was sent to the finest school in Byzantium became a cultured and sophisticated courtier.

Every time I bestow a vacant office I make a hundred discontented persons and one ingrate.
Louis XIV, 1638-1715

Now Michael was emperor, and trusted a friend who owed him everything.

Ignoring the advice of those who recommended the much more qualified Bardas, Michael chose his friend.

Thus for my own part I have more than once been deceived by the person I loved most and of whose love, above everyone else’s, I have been most confident. So that I believe that it may be right to love and serve one person above all others, according to merit and worth, but never to trust so much in this tempting trap of friendship as to have cause to repent of it later on.
BALDASSARE CASTIGLIONE, 1478-1529

Basilius was soon advising the emperor on all matters of state. The only problem seemed to be money—Basiiius never had enough. He became avaricious for the perks of power. Michael doubled, then tripled his salary, ennobled him, and married him off to his own mistress, Eudoxiaingerina. Keeping such a trusted friend and adviser satisfied was worth any price.

Bardas was now head of the army, and Basilius convinced Michael that the man was ambitious. Under the illusion that he could control his nephew, Bardas had conspired to put him on the throne, and he could conspire again, this time to get rid of Michael and assume the crown himself. Basilius poured poison into Michael’s ear until the emperor agreed to have his uncle murdered. Basilius killed him. Soon after, Basilius asked that he replace Bardas as head of the army, where he could keep control of the realm and quell rebellion. This was granted.

Now Basilius’s power and wealth only grew, and a few years later Michael, in financial straits from his own extravagance, asked him to pay back some of the money he had borrowed over the years. To Michael’s shock and astonishment, Basilius refused, with a look of such impudence that the emperor suddenly realized his predicament: The former stable boy had more money, more allies in the army and senate, and in the end more power than the emperor himself. A few weeks later, after a night of heavy drinking, Michael awoke to find himself surrounded by soldiers. Basilius watched as they stabbed the emperor to death. Then, after proclaiming himself emperor, he rode his horse through the streets of Byzantium, brandishing the head of his former benefactor and best friend at the end of a long pike.
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#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #transgression-of-the-law
THE SNAKE, THE FARMER, AND THE HERON

A snake chased by hunters asked a farmer to save its life. To hide it from its pursuers, the farmer squatted and let the snake crawl into his belly. But when the danger had passed and the farmer asked the snake to come out, the snake refused. It was warm and safe inside. On his way home, the man saw a heron and went up to him and whispered what had happened. The heron told him to squat and strain to eject the snake. When the snake snuck its head out, the heron caught it, pulled it out, and killed it. The farmer was worried that the snake’s poison might still be inside him, and the heron told him that the cure for snake poison was to cook and eat six white fowl. “You’re a white fowl,” said the farmer. “You’ll do for a start.” He grabbed the heron, put it in a bag, and carried it home, where he hung it up while he told his wife what had happened. “I’m surprised at you, ” said the wife. “The bird does you a kindness, rids you of the evil in your belly, saves your life in fact, yet you catch it and talk of killing it. She immediately released the heron, and it flew away. But on its way, it gouged out her eyes.

Moral: When you see water flowing uphill, it means that someone is repaying a kindness. AFRICAN FOLK TALE
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ched as they stabbed the emperor to death. Then, after proclaiming himself emperor, he rode his horse through the streets of Byzantium, brandishing the head of his former benefactor and best friend at the end of a long pike. <span>THE SNAKE, THE FARMER, AND THE HERON A snake chased by hunters asked a farmer to save its life. To hide it from its pursuers, the farmer squatted and let the snake crawl into his belly. But when the danger had passed and the farmer asked the snake to come out, the snake refused. It was warm and safe inside. On his way home, the man saw a heron and went up to him and whispered what had happened. The heron told him to squat and strain to eject the snake. When the snake snuck its head out, the heron caught it, pulled it out, and killed it. The farmer was worried that the snake’s poison might still be inside him, and the heron told him that the cure for snake poison was to cook and eat six white fowl. “You’re a white fowl,” said the farmer. “You’ll do for a start.” He grabbed the heron, put it in a bag, and carried it home, where he hung it up while he told his wife what had happened. “I’m surprised at you, ” said the wife. “The bird does you a kindness, rids you of the evil in your belly, saves your life in fact, yet you catch it and talk of killing it. She immediately released the heron, and it flew away. But on its way, it gouged out her eyes. Moral: When you see water flowing uphill, it means that someone is repaying a kindness. AFRICAN FOLK TALE<span><body><html>

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#48-laws-of-power #enemies #friends-learn #how #law-2-never #to #transgression-of-the-law #trust #use
When you see water flowing uphill, it means that someone is repaying a kindness.
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he bird does you a kindness, rids you of the evil in your belly, saves your life in fact, yet you catch it and talk of killing it. She immediately released the heron, and it flew away. But on its way, it gouged out her eyes. Moral: <span>When you see water flowing uphill, it means that someone is repaying a kindness. AFRICAN FOLK TALE<span><body><html>

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Interpretation
#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #transgression-of-the-law
Michael III staked his future on the sense of gratitude he thought Basilius must feel for him. Surely Basilius would serve him best; he owed the emperor his wealth, his education, and his position. Then, once Basilius was in power, anything he needed it was best to give to him, strengthening the bonds between the two men. It was only on the fateful day when the emperor saw that impudent smile on Basilius’s face that he realized his deadly mistake.

He had created a monster. He had allowed a man to see power up close—a man who then wanted more, who asked for anything and got it, who felt encumbered by the charity he had received and simply did what many people do in such a situation: They forget the favors they have received and imagine they have earned their success by their own merits.

At Michael’s moment of realization, he could still have saved his own life, but friendship and love blind every man to their interests. Nobody believes a friend can betray. And Michael went on disbelieving until the day his head ended up on a pike. Lord, protect me from my friends; I can take care of my enemies. Voltaire, 1694-1778
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#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #transgression-of-the-law
Michael III staked his future on the sense of gratitude he thought Basilius must feel for him. Surely Basilius would serve him best; he owed the emperor his wealth, his education, and his position. Then, once Basilius was in power, anything he needed it was best to give to him, strengthening the bonds between the two men. It was only on the fateful day when the emperor saw that impudent smile on Basilius’s face that he realized his deadly mistake.
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Michael III staked his future on the sense of gratitude he thought Basilius must feel for him. Surely Basilius would serve him best; he owed the emperor his wealth, his education, and his position. Then, once Basilius was in power, anything he needed it was best to give to him, strengthening the bonds between the two men. It was only on the fateful day when the emperor saw that impudent smile on Basilius’s face that he realized his deadly mistake. He had created a monster. He had allowed a man to see power up close—a man who then wanted more, who asked for anything and got it, who felt encumbered by the charity he h

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#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #transgression-of-the-law
He had created a monster. He had allowed a man to see power up close—a man who then wanted more, who asked for anything and got it, who felt encumbered by the charity he had received and simply did what many people do in such a situation: They forget the favors they have received and imagine they have earned their success by their own merits.
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n power, anything he needed it was best to give to him, strengthening the bonds between the two men. It was only on the fateful day when the emperor saw that impudent smile on Basilius’s face that he realized his deadly mistake. <span>He had created a monster. He had allowed a man to see power up close—a man who then wanted more, who asked for anything and got it, who felt encumbered by the charity he had received and simply did what many people do in such a situation: They forget the favors they have received and imagine they have earned their success by their own merits. At Michael’s moment of realization, he could still have saved his own life, but friendship and love blind every man to their interests. Nobody believes a friend can betra

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#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #transgression-of-the-law
friendship and love blind every man to their interests. Nobody believes a friend can betray.
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what many people do in such a situation: They forget the favors they have received and imagine they have earned their success by their own merits. At Michael’s moment of realization, he could still have saved his own life, but <span>friendship and love blind every man to their interests. Nobody believes a friend can betray. And Michael went on disbelieving until the day his head ended up on a pike. Lord, protect me from my friends; I can take care of my enemies. Voltaire, 1694-1778<span><body></ht

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#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #transgression-of-the-law
Lord, protect me from my friends; I can take care of my enemies.

Voltaire, 1694-1778
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hael’s moment of realization, he could still have saved his own life, but friendship and love blind every man to their interests. Nobody believes a friend can betray. And Michael went on disbelieving until the day his head ended up on a pike. <span>Lord, protect me from my friends; I can take care of my enemies. Voltaire, 1694-1778<span><body><html>

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OBSERVANCE OF THE LAW
#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
For centuries in China army men would plot to kill a weak emperor, then would replace him with a strong general. The general, to ensure his own survival he would kill off his fellow generals. After some years, new generals would rise up and assassinate him.

To be emperor of China was to be alone, surrounded by a pack of enemies.

General Chao K’uang-yin became Emperor. He knew the probability that soon he would be murdered.

To break the pattern, he ordered a banquet to celebrate his triumph, and invited the most powerful commanders in the army. After drinking a lot, he talked alone to them, who thought they were going to get murdered.

Instead of killing them, he ask them if someone wanted to dethrone him. Drunk and fearing for their lives, the generals proclaimed their innocence and their loyalty.


But Sung offered them: "give up your commands, and I will give you houses, riches and bitches."

The next day, all of the generals tendered their resignations, and they retired as nobles to the estates.

In one stroke, Sung turned a pack of “friendly” wolves, who would likely have betrayed him, into a group of docile lambs, far from all power.

Over the next few years Sung continued his campaign to secure his rule.

In A.D. 971, King Liu of the Southern Han finally surrendered to him after years of rebellion. To Liu’s astonishment, Sung gave him a rank in the imperial court. Liu thought he was going to get poisoned. He said he didnt deserved death, then, Emperor Sung swallowed it himself. There was no poison. From then on Liu became his most trusted and loyal friend.

When Ch‘ien Shu, the king of one of little kingdom, was defeated, Sung’s ministers advised the emperor to lock him up. They presented documents proving that he was still conspiring to kill Sung. When Ch’ien Shu came to visit the emperor, however, instead of locking him up, Sung honored him. He also gave him a package, which he told the former king to open when he was halfway home. Ch’ien Shu opened the bundle on his return journey and saw that it contained all the papers documenting his conspiracy. He realized that Sung knew of his murderous plans, yet had spared him nonetheless. This generosity won him over, and he too became one of Sung’s most loyal vassals.





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#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
There are many who think therefore that a wise prince ought, when he has the chance, to foment astutely some enmity, so that by suppressing it he will augment his greatness. Princes, and especially new ones, have found more faith and more usefulness in those men, whom at the beginning of their power they regarded with suspicion, than in those they at first confided in.

Pandolfo Petrucci, prince of Siena, governed his state more by those whom he suspected than by others.

NICCOLÒ MACHIAVELLI, 1469-1527
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d that instead of a life of anxiety and struggle Sung was offering them riches and security. The next day, all of the generals tendered their resignations, and they retired as nobles to the estates that Sung bestowed on them. <span>There are many who think therefore that a wise prince ought, when he has the chance, to foment astutely some enmity, so that by suppressing it he will augment his greatness. Princes, and especially new ones, have found more faith and more usefulness in those men, whom at the beginning of their power they regarded with suspicion, than in those they at first confided in. Pandolfo Petrucci, prince of Siena, governed his state more by those whom he suspected than by others.<span><body><html>

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#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
In one stroke, Sung turned a pack of “friendly” wolves, who would likely have betrayed him, into a group of docile lambs, far from all power.
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In one stroke, Sung turned a pack of “friendly” wolves, who would likely have betrayed him, into a group of docile lambs, far from all power. Over the next few years Sung continued his campaign to secure his rule. In A.D. 971, King Liu of the Southern Han finally surrendered to him after years of rebellion. To

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#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
A brahman, a great expert in Veda who has become a great archer as well, offers his services to his good friend, who is now the king. The brahman cries out when he sees the king, “Recognize me, your friend!” The king answers him with contempt and then explains: “Yes, we were friends before, but our friendship was based on what power we had.... I was friends with you, good brahman, because it served my purpose. No pauper is friend to the rich, no fool to the wise, no coward to the brave. An old friend—who needs him? It is two men of equal wealth and equal birth who contract friendship and marriage, not a rich man and a pauper.... An old friend—who needs him?

THE MAHABHARATA, C. THIRD CENTURY B.C.
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contained all the papers documenting his conspiracy. He realized that Sung knew of his murderous plans, yet had spared him nonetheless. This generosity won him over, and he too became one of Sung’s most loyal vassals. <span>A brahman, a great expert in Veda who has become a great archer as well, offers his services to his good friend, who is now the king. The brahman cries out when he sees the king, “Recognize me, your friend!” The king answers him with contempt and then explains: “Yes, we were friends before, but our friendship was based on what power we had.... I was friends with you, good brahman, because it served my purpose. No pauper is friend to the rich, no fool to the wise, no coward to the brave. An old friend—who needs him? It is two men of equal wealth and equal birth who contract friendship and marriage, not a rich man and a pauper.... An old friend—who needs him? THE MAHABHARATA, C. THIRD CENTURY B.C. <span><body><html>

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Interpretation of the second law observance
#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
A Chinese proverb compares friends to the jaws and teeth of a dangerous animal: If you are not careful, you will find them chewing you up. Emperor Sung knew the jaws he was passing between when he assumed the throne: His “friends” in the army would chew him up like meat, and if he somehow survived, his “friends” in the government would have him for supper. Emperor Sung would have no truck with “friends”—he bribed his fellow generals with splendid estates and kept them far away. This was a much better way to emasculate them than killing them, which would only have led other generals to seek vengeance. And Sung would have nothing to do with “friendly” ministers. More often than not, they would end up drinking his famous cup of poisoned wine.

Instead of relying on friends, Sung used his enemies, one after the other, transforming them into far more reliable subjects. While a friend expects more and more favors, and seethes with jealousy, these former enemies expected nothing and got everything. A man suddenly spared the guillotine is a grateful man indeed, and will go to the ends of the earth for the man who has pardoned him. In time, these former enemies became Sung’s most trusted friends. Pick up a bee from kindness, and learn the limitations of kindness. SUFI PROVERB And Sung was finally able to break the pattern of coups, violence, and civil war—the Sung Dynasty ruled China for more than three hundred years.

In a speech Abraham Lincoln delivered at the height of the Civil War, he referred to the Southerners as fellow human beings who were in error. An elderly lady chastised him for not calling them irreconcilable enemies who must be destroyed. “Why, madam,” Lincoln replied, “do I not destroy my enemies when I make them my friends?”
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A Chinese proverb compares friends to the jaws and teeth of a dangerous animal: If you are not careful, you will find them chewing you up
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A Chinese proverb compares friends to the jaws and teeth of a dangerous animal: If you are not careful, you will find them chewing you up. Emperor Sung knew the jaws he was passing between when he assumed the throne: His “friends” in the army would chew him up like meat, and if he somehow survived, his “friends” in the go

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#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
Emperor Sung knew the jaws he was passing between when he assumed the throne: His “friends” in the army would chew him up like meat, and if he somehow survived, his “friends” in the government would have him for supper.
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A Chinese proverb compares friends to the jaws and teeth of a dangerous animal: If you are not careful, you will find them chewing you up. Emperor Sung knew the jaws he was passing between when he assumed the throne: His “friends” in the army would chew him up like meat, and if he somehow survived, his “friends” in the government would have him for supper. Emperor Sung would have no truck with “friends”—he bribed his fellow generals with splendid estates and kept them far away. This was a much better way to emasculate them than killing th

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#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
Emperor Sung would have no truck with “friends”—he bribed his fellow generals with splendid estates and kept them far away. This was a much better way to emasculate them than killing them, which would only have led other generals to seek vengeance.
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d them chewing you up. Emperor Sung knew the jaws he was passing between when he assumed the throne: His “friends” in the army would chew him up like meat, and if he somehow survived, his “friends” in the government would have him for supper. <span>Emperor Sung would have no truck with “friends”—he bribed his fellow generals with splendid estates and kept them far away. This was a much better way to emasculate them than killing them, which would only have led other generals to seek vengeance. And Sung would have nothing to do with “friendly” ministers. More often than not, they would end up drinking his famous cup of poisoned wine. Instead of relying on friends,

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#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
nstead of relying on friends, Sung used his enemies, one after the other, transforming them into far more reliable subjects
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te them than killing them, which would only have led other generals to seek vengeance. And Sung would have nothing to do with “friendly” ministers. More often than not, they would end up drinking his famous cup of poisoned wine. I<span>nstead of relying on friends, Sung used his enemies, one after the other, transforming them into far more reliable subjects. While a friend expects more and more favors, and seethes with jealousy, these former enemies expected nothing and got everything. A man suddenly spared the guillotine is a grateful man

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#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
While a friend expects more and more favors, former enemies expect nothing.
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“friendly” ministers. More often than not, they would end up drinking his famous cup of poisoned wine. Instead of relying on friends, Sung used his enemies, one after the other, transforming them into far more reliable subjects. <span>While a friend expects more and more favors, and seethes with jealousy, these former enemies expected nothing and got everything. A man suddenly spared the guillotine is a grateful man indeed, and will go to the ends of the earth for the man who has pardoned him. In time, these former enemies became Sung’s most tr

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#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
A man suddenly spared the guillotine is a grateful man indeed, and will go to the ends of the earth for the man who has pardoned him.
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lying on friends, Sung used his enemies, one after the other, transforming them into far more reliable subjects. While a friend expects more and more favors, and seethes with jealousy, these former enemies expected nothing and got everything. <span>A man suddenly spared the guillotine is a grateful man indeed, and will go to the ends of the earth for the man who has pardoned him. In time, these former enemies became Sung’s most trusted friends. Pick up a bee from kindness, and learn the limitations of kindness. SUFI PROVERB And Sung was finally able to break the

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Pick up a bee from kindness, and learn the limitations of kindness.
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emies expected nothing and got everything. A man suddenly spared the guillotine is a grateful man indeed, and will go to the ends of the earth for the man who has pardoned him. In time, these former enemies became Sung’s most trusted friends. <span>Pick up a bee from kindness, and learn the limitations of kindness. SUFI PROVERB And Sung was finally able to break the pattern of coups, violence, and civil war—the Sung Dynasty ruled China for more than three hundred years. In a speech Abra

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#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
Sung was finally able to break the pattern of coups, violence, and civil war—the Sung Dynasty ruled China for more than three hundred years.
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grateful man indeed, and will go to the ends of the earth for the man who has pardoned him. In time, these former enemies became Sung’s most trusted friends. Pick up a bee from kindness, and learn the limitations of kindness. SUFI PROVERB And <span>Sung was finally able to break the pattern of coups, violence, and civil war—the Sung Dynasty ruled China for more than three hundred years. In a speech Abraham Lincoln delivered at the height of the Civil War, he referred to the Southerners as fellow human beings who were in error. An elderly lady chastised him f

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#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
In a speech Abraham Lincoln delivered at the height of the Civil War, he referred to the Southerners as fellow human beings who were in error. An elderly lady chastised him for not calling them irreconcilable enemies who must be destroyed. “Why, madam,” Lincoln replied, “do I not destroy my enemies when I make them my friends?”
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ends. Pick up a bee from kindness, and learn the limitations of kindness. SUFI PROVERB And Sung was finally able to break the pattern of coups, violence, and civil war—the Sung Dynasty ruled China for more than three hundred years. <span>In a speech Abraham Lincoln delivered at the height of the Civil War, he referred to the Southerners as fellow human beings who were in error. An elderly lady chastised him for not calling them irreconcilable enemies who must be destroyed. “Why, madam,” Lincoln replied, “do I not destroy my enemies when I make them my friends?”<span><body><html>

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KEYS TO POWER
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
It is natural to want to employ your friends when you find yourself in times of need. The world is a harsh place, and your friends soften the harshness. Besides, you know them. Why depend on a stranger when you have a friend at hand?

Men are more ready to repay an injury than a benefit, because gratitude is a burden and revenge a pleasure.

TACITUS, c. A.D. 55-120

The problem is that you often do not know your friends as well as you imagine. Friends often agree on things in order to avoid an argument. They cover up their unpleasant qualities so as to not offend each other. They laugh extra hard at each other’s jokes. Since honesty rarely strengthens friendship, you may never know how a friend truly feels. Friends will say that they love your poetry, adore your music, envy your taste in clothes—maybe they mean it, often they do not.

When you decide to hire a friend, you gradually discover the qualities he or she has kept hidden. Strangely enough, it is your act of kindness that unbalances everything. People want to feel they deserve their good fortune. The receipt of a favor can become oppressive: It means you have been chosen because you are a friend, not necessarily because you are deserving. There is almost a touch of condescension in the act of hiring friends that secretly afflicts them. The injury will come out slowly: A little more honesty, flashes of resentment and envy here and there, and before you know it your friendship fades. The more favors and gifts you supply to revive the friendship, the less gratitude you receive.

Ingratitude has a long and deep history. It has demonstrated its powers for so many centuries, that it is truly amazing that people continue to underestimate them. Better to be wary. If you never expect gratitude from a friend, you will be pleasantly surprised when they do prove grateful.

The problem with using or hiring friends is that it will inevitably limit your power. The friend is rarely the one who is most able to help you; and in the end, skill and competence are far more important than friendly feelings. (Michael III had a man right under his nose who would have steered him right and kept him alive: That man was Bardas.)

PROFITING BY OUR ENEMIES

King Hiero chanced upon a time, speaking with one of his enemies, to be told in a reproachful manner that he had stinking breath. Whereupon the good king, being somewhat dismayed in himself, as soon as he returned home chided his wife, “How does it happen that you never told me of this problem?” The woman, being a simple, chaste. and harmless dame, said, “Sir, I had thought all men breath had smelled so.” Thus it is plain that faults that are evident to the senses, gross and corporal, or otherwise notorious to the world, we know by our enemies sooner than by our friends and familiars.

PLUTARCH, C. A.D. 46-120

All working situations require a kind of distance between people. You are trying to work, not make friends; friendliness (real or false) only obscures that fact. The key to power, then, is the ability to judge who is best able to further your interests in all situations. Keep friends for friendship, but work with the skilled and competent.

Your enemies, on the other hand, are an untapped gold mine that you must learn to exploit. When Talleyrand, Napoleon’s foreign minister, decided in 1807 that his boss was leading France to ruin, and the time had come to turn against him, he understood the dangers of conspiring against the emperor; he needed a partner, a confederate—what friend could he trust in such a project? He chose Joseph Fouché, head of the secret police, his most hated enemy, a man who had even tried to have him assassinated. He knew that their former hatred would create an opportunity for an emotional reconciliation. He knew that Fouché would expect nothing from him, and in fact would work to prove that he was worthy of Talleyrand’s choice; a person who has something to prove will move mountains ...
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It is natural to want to employ your friends when you find yourself in times of need. The world is a harsh place, and your friends soften the harshness. Besides, you know them. Why depend on a stranger when you have a friend at hand?
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It is natural to want to employ your friends when you find yourself in times of need. The world is a harsh place, and your friends soften the harshness. Besides, you know them. Why depend on a stranger when you have a friend at hand? Men are more ready to repay an injury than a benefit, because gratitude is a burden and revenge a pleasure. TACITUS, c. A.D. 55-120 The problem is that

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Men are more ready to repay an injury than a benefit, because gratitude is a burden and revenge a pleasure.

TACITUS, c. A.D. 55-120
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is natural to want to employ your friends when you find yourself in times of need. The world is a harsh place, and your friends soften the harshness. Besides, you know them. Why depend on a stranger when you have a friend at hand? <span>Men are more ready to repay an injury than a benefit, because gratitude is a burden and revenge a pleasure. TACITUS, c. A.D. 55-120 The problem is that you often do not know your friends as well as you imagine. Friends often agree on things in order to avoid an argument. They cover up their unpleasant qua

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Friends often agree on things in order to avoid an argument. They cover up their unpleasant qualities so as to not offend each other.
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13; Men are more ready to repay an injury than a benefit, because gratitude is a burden and revenge a pleasure. TACITUS, c. A.D. 55-120 The problem is that you often do not know your friends as well as you imagine. <span>Friends often agree on things in order to avoid an argument. They cover up their unpleasant qualities so as to not offend each other. They laugh extra hard at each other’s jokes. Since honesty rarely strengthens friendship, you may never know how a friend truly feels. Friends will say that they love your poetry, adore

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
When you decide to hire a friend, you gradually discover the qualities he or she has kept hidden. Strangely enough, it is your act of kindness that unbalances everything. People want to feel they deserve their good fortune.
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her’s jokes. Since honesty rarely strengthens friendship, you may never know how a friend truly feels. Friends will say that they love your poetry, adore your music, envy your taste in clothes—maybe they mean it, often they do not. <span>When you decide to hire a friend, you gradually discover the qualities he or she has kept hidden. Strangely enough, it is your act of kindness that unbalances everything. People want to feel they deserve their good fortune. The receipt of a favor can become oppressive: It means you have been chosen because you are a friend, not necessarily because you are deserving. There is almost a touch of condescension

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
The receipt of a favor can become oppressive: It means you have been chosen because you are a friend, not necessarily because you are deserving.
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do not. When you decide to hire a friend, you gradually discover the qualities he or she has kept hidden. Strangely enough, it is your act of kindness that unbalances everything. People want to feel they deserve their good fortune. <span>The receipt of a favor can become oppressive: It means you have been chosen because you are a friend, not necessarily because you are deserving. There is almost a touch of condescension in the act of hiring friends that secretly afflicts them. The injury will come out slowly: A little more honesty, flashes of resentment and envy

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
There is almost a touch of condescension in the act of hiring friends that secretly afflicts them.
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act of kindness that unbalances everything. People want to feel they deserve their good fortune. The receipt of a favor can become oppressive: It means you have been chosen because you are a friend, not necessarily because you are deserving. <span>There is almost a touch of condescension in the act of hiring friends that secretly afflicts them. The injury will come out slowly: A little more honesty, flashes of resentment and envy here and there, and before you know it your friendship fades. The more favors and gifts you supply

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
The injury will come out slowly: A little more honesty, flashes of resentment and envy here and there, and before you know it your friendship fades. The more favors and gifts you supply to revive the friendship, the less gratitude you receive.
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he receipt of a favor can become oppressive: It means you have been chosen because you are a friend, not necessarily because you are deserving. There is almost a touch of condescension in the act of hiring friends that secretly afflicts them. <span>The injury will come out slowly: A little more honesty, flashes of resentment and envy here and there, and before you know it your friendship fades. The more favors and gifts you supply to revive the friendship, the less gratitude you receive. Ingratitude has a long and deep history. It has demonstrated its powers for so many centuries, that it is truly amazing that people continue to underestimate them. Better to

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Ingratitude has a long and deep history. It has demonstrated its powers for so many centuries, that it is truly amazing that people continue to underestimate them. Better to be wary. If you never expect gratitude from a friend, you will be pleasantly surprised when they do prove grateful.
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ill come out slowly: A little more honesty, flashes of resentment and envy here and there, and before you know it your friendship fades. The more favors and gifts you supply to revive the friendship, the less gratitude you receive. <span>Ingratitude has a long and deep history. It has demonstrated its powers for so many centuries, that it is truly amazing that people continue to underestimate them. Better to be wary. If you never expect gratitude from a friend, you will be pleasantly surprised when they do prove grateful. The problem with using or hiring friends is that it will inevitably limit your power. The friend is rarely the one who is most able to help you; and in the end, skill and com

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
The problem with using or hiring friends is that it will inevitably limit your power. The friend is rarely the one who is most able to help you; and in the end, skill and competence are far more important than friendly feelings.
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ed its powers for so many centuries, that it is truly amazing that people continue to underestimate them. Better to be wary. If you never expect gratitude from a friend, you will be pleasantly surprised when they do prove grateful. <span>The problem with using or hiring friends is that it will inevitably limit your power. The friend is rarely the one who is most able to help you; and in the end, skill and competence are far more important than friendly feelings. (Michael III had a man right under his nose who would have steered him right and kept him alive: That man was Bardas.) PROFITING BY OUR ENEMIES King Hiero chanced

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Michael III had a man right under his nose who would have steered him right and kept him alive: That man was Bardas.
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. The problem with using or hiring friends is that it will inevitably limit your power. The friend is rarely the one who is most able to help you; and in the end, skill and competence are far more important than friendly feelings. (<span>Michael III had a man right under his nose who would have steered him right and kept him alive: That man was Bardas.) PROFITING BY OUR ENEMIES King Hiero chanced upon a time, speaking with one of his enemies, to be told in a reproachful manner that he had stinking breath. Whereup

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
All working situations require a kind of distance between people. You are trying to work, not make friends; friendliness (real or false) only obscures that fact.
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melled so.” Thus it is plain that faults that are evident to the senses, gross and corporal, or otherwise notorious to the world, we know by our enemies sooner than by our friends and familiars. PLUTARCH, C. A.D. 46-120 <span>All working situations require a kind of distance between people. You are trying to work, not make friends; friendliness (real or false) only obscures that fact. The key to power, then, is the ability to judge who is best able to further your interests in all situations. Keep friends for friendship, but work with the skilled and competent.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
The key to power, then, is the ability to judge who is best able to further your interests in all situations. Keep friends for friendship, but work with the skilled and competent.
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an by our friends and familiars. PLUTARCH, C. A.D. 46-120 All working situations require a kind of distance between people. You are trying to work, not make friends; friendliness (real or false) only obscures that fact. <span>The key to power, then, is the ability to judge who is best able to further your interests in all situations. Keep friends for friendship, but work with the skilled and competent. Your enemies, on the other hand, are an untapped gold mine that you must learn to exploit. When Talleyrand, Napoleon’s foreign minister, decided in 1807 that his boss was lea

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Enemies, are an untapped gold mine that you must learn to exploit.

When Talleyrand, Napoleon’s foreign minister, decided the time had come to turn against him, he understood the dangers of conspiring against the emperor; he needed a partner, a confederate—what friend could he trust in such a project?

He chose Joseph Fouché, head of the secret police, his most hated enemy, a man who had even tried to have him assassinated.

He knew that Fouché would expect nothing from him, and in fact would work to prove that he was worthy of Talleyrand’s choice; a person who has something to prove will move mountains for you.

He knew that their relationship would be based on mutual self-interest.

And from then on, Talleyrand and Fouché had a fruitful working relationship.

Whenever you can, bury the hatchet with an enemy, and make a point of putting him in your service.
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iendliness (real or false) only obscures that fact. The key to power, then, is the ability to judge who is best able to further your interests in all situations. Keep friends for friendship, but work with the skilled and competent. <span>Your enemies, on the other hand, are an untapped gold mine that you must learn to exploit. When Talleyrand, Napoleon’s foreign minister, decided in 1807 that his boss was leading France to ruin, and the time had come to turn against him, he understood the dangers of conspiring against the emperor; he needed a partner, a confederate—what friend could he trust in such a project? He chose Joseph Fouché, head of the secret police, his most hated enemy, a man who had even tried to have him assassinated. He knew that their former hatred would create an opportunity for an emotional reconciliation. He knew that Fouché would expect nothing from him, and in fact would work to prove that he was worthy of Talleyrand’s choice; a person who has something to prove will move mountains for you. Finally, he knew that his relationship with Fouché would be based on mutual self-interest, and would not be contaminated by personal feeling. The selection proved perfect; although the conspirators did not succeed in toppling Napoleon, the union of such powerful but unlikely partners generated much interest in the cause; opposition to the emperor slowly began to spread. And from then on, Talleyrand and Fouché had a fruitful working relationship. Whenever you can, bury the hatchet with an enemy, and make a point of putting him in your service. As Lincoln said, you destroy an enemy when you make a friend of him. In 1971, during the Vietnam War, Henry Kissinger was the target of an unsuccessful kidnapping attempt, a

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Whenever you can, bury the hatchet with an enemy, and make a point of putting him in your service.
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n who has something to prove will move mountains for you. He knew that their relationship would be based on mutual self-interest. And from then on, Talleyrand and Fouché had a fruitful working relationship. <span>Whenever you can, bury the hatchet with an enemy, and make a point of putting him in your service .<span><body><html>

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
As Lincoln said, you destroy an enemy when you make a friend of him.
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ause; opposition to the emperor slowly began to spread. And from then on, Talleyrand and Fouché had a fruitful working relationship. Whenever you can, bury the hatchet with an enemy, and make a point of putting him in your service. <span>As Lincoln said, you destroy an enemy when you make a friend of him. In 1971, during the Vietnam War, Henry Kissinger was the target of an unsuccessful kidnapping attempt, a conspiracy involving, among others, the renowned antiwar activist priests the Be

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
During the Vietnam War, Henry Kissinger was the target of an unsuccessful kidnapping attempt, a conspiracy involving, among others, the renowned antiwar activist priests.

In private, Kissinger arranged a meeting with three of the alleged kidnappers. Explaining to his guests that he would have most American soldiers out of Vietnam by mid-1972, he completely charmed them.

They gave him some “Kidnap Kissinger” buttons and one of them remained a friend of his for years, visiting him on several occasions.

This was not just a onetime ploy: Kissinger made a policy of working with those who disagreed with him. Colleagues commented that he seemed to get along better with his enemies than with his friends.
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on, Talleyrand and Fouché had a fruitful working relationship. Whenever you can, bury the hatchet with an enemy, and make a point of putting him in your service. As Lincoln said, you destroy an enemy when you make a friend of him. <span>In 1971, during the Vietnam War, Henry Kissinger was the target of an unsuccessful kidnapping attempt, a conspiracy involving, among others, the renowned antiwar activist priests the Berrigan brothers, four more Catholic priests, and four nuns. In private, without informing the Secret Service or the Justice Department, Kissinger arranged a Saturday-morning meeting with three of the alleged kidnappers. Explaining to his guests that he would have most American soldiers out of Vietnam by mid-1972, he completely charmed them. They gave him some “Kidnap Kissinger” buttons and one of them remained a friend of his for years, visiting him on several occasions. This was not just a onetime ploy: Kissinger made a policy of working with those who disagreed with him. Colleagues commented that he seemed to get along better with his enemies than with his friends. Without enemies around us, we grow lazy. An enemy at our heels sharpens our wits, keeping us focused and alert. It is sometimes better, then, to use enemies as enemies rather

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Without enemies around us, we grow lazy. An enemy at our heels sharpens our wits, keeping us focused and alert. It is sometimes better, then, to use enemies as enemies rather than transforming them into friends or allies.
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iting him on several occasions. This was not just a onetime ploy: Kissinger made a policy of working with those who disagreed with him. Colleagues commented that he seemed to get along better with his enemies than with his friends. <span>Without enemies around us, we grow lazy. An enemy at our heels sharpens our wits, keeping us focused and alert. It is sometimes better, then, to use enemies as enemies rather than transforming them into friends or allies. Mao Tse-tung saw conflict as key in his approach to power. In 1937 the Japanese invaded China, interrupting the civil war between Mao’s Communists and their enemy, the Nation

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Flashcard 1457007496460

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Question
Without enemies around us, [...].
Answer
we grow lazy

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Without enemies around us, we grow lazy. An enemy at our heels sharpens our wits, keeping us focused and alert. It is sometimes better, then, to use enemies as enemies rather than transforming them into friends or allies.</sp

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Mao Tse-tung saw conflict as key in his approach to power. In 1937 the Japanese invaded China, interrupting the civil war between Mao’s Communists and their enemy, the Nationalists.

Some Communist leaders advocated leaving the Nationalists to fight the Japanese and recuperate meanwhile.

Mao disagreed: The Japanese would eventually be defeated and if they didnt fight they would rust. To fight would be the perfect training for the Communist army. Mao’s plan was adopted, and it worked.

Years later, a Japanese visitor tried to apologize to Mao for his country’s invasion of China. Mao interrupted, “Should I not thank you instead?” Without a worthy opponent, he explained, a man or group cannot grow stronger.
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13; Without enemies around us, we grow lazy. An enemy at our heels sharpens our wits, keeping us focused and alert. It is sometimes better, then, to use enemies as enemies rather than transforming them into friends or allies. <span>Mao Tse-tung saw conflict as key in his approach to power. In 1937 the Japanese invaded China, interrupting the civil war between Mao’s Communists and their enemy, the Nationalists. Fearing that the Japanese would wipe them out, some Communist leaders advocated leaving the Nationalists to fight the Japanese, and using the time to recuperate. Mao disagreed: The Japanese could not possibly defeat and occupy a vast country like China for long. Once they left, the Communists would have grown rusty if they had been out of combat for several years, and would be ill prepared to reopen their struggle with the Nationalists. To fight a formidable foe like the Japanese, in fact, would be the perfect training for the Communists’ ragtag army. Mao’s plan was adopted, and it worked: By the time the Japanese finally retreated, the Communists had gained the fighting experience that helped them defeat the Nationalists. Years later, a Japanese visitor tried to apologize to Mao for his country’s invasion of China. Mao interrupted, “Should I not thank you instead?” Without a worthy opponent, he explained, a man or group cannot grow stronger. Mao’s strategy of constant conflict has several key components. First, be certain that in the long run you will emerge victorious. Never pick a fight with someone you are not sure you can defeat, as Mao knew the Japanese would be defeated in time. Second, if you have no apparent enemies, you must sometimes set up a convenient target, even turning a friend into an enemy. Mao used this tactic time and again in politics. Third, use such enemies to define your cause more clearly to the public, even framing it as a struggle of good against evil. Mao actually encouraged China’s disagreements with the Soviet Union and the United States; without clear-cut enemies, he believed, his people would lose any sense of what Chinese Communism meant. A sharply defined enemy is a far stronger argument for your side than all the words you could possibly put together. Never let the presence of enemies upset or distress you—you are far better off with a declared opponent or two than not knowing where your real enemies lie. The man of power welcomes conflict, using enemies to enhance his reputation as a surefooted fighter who can be relied upon in times of uncertainty. Image: The Jaws of ingratitude. Knowing what would happen if you put a finger in the mouth of a lion, you would stay clear of it. With friends you will have no such caution,

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Mao’s strategy of constant conflict has several key components:
First, be certain that in the long run you will emerge victorious. Never pick a fight with someone you are not sure you can defeat, as Mao knew the Japanese would be defeated in time.

Second, if you have no apparent enemies, you must sometimes set up a convenient target, even turning a friend into an enemy. Mao used this tactic time and again in politics.

Third, use such enemies to define your cause more clearly to the public, even framing it as a struggle of good against evil. Mao actually encouraged China’s disagreements with the Soviet Union and the United States; without clear-cut enemies, he believed, his people would lose any sense of what Chinese Communism meant. A sharply defined enemy is a far stronger argument for your side than all the words you could possibly put together.
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; Years later, a Japanese visitor tried to apologize to Mao for his country’s invasion of China. Mao interrupted, “Should I not thank you instead?” Without a worthy opponent, he explained, a man or group cannot grow stronger. <span>Mao’s strategy of constant conflict has several key components: First, be certain that in the long run you will emerge victorious. Never pick a fight with someone you are not sure you can defeat, as Mao knew the Japanese would be defeated in time. Second, if you have no apparent enemies, you must sometimes set up a convenient target, even turning a friend into an enemy. Mao used this tactic time and again in politics. Third, use such enemies to define your cause more clearly to the public, even framing it as a struggle of good against evil. Mao actually encouraged China’s disagreements with the Soviet Union and the United States; without clear-cut enemies, he believed, his people would lose any sense of what Chinese Communism meant. A sharply defined enemy is a far stronger argument for your side than all the words you could possibly put together. Never let the presence of enemies upset or distress you—you are far better off with a declared opponent or two than not knowing where your real enemies lie. The man of power

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Never let the presence of enemies upset or distress you—you are far better off with a declared opponent or two than not knowing where your real enemies lie. The man of power welcomes conflict, using enemies to enhance his reputation as a surefooted fighter who can be relied upon in times of uncertainty.
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; Years later, a Japanese visitor tried to apologize to Mao for his country’s invasion of China. Mao interrupted, “Should I not thank you instead?” Without a worthy opponent, he explained, a man or group cannot grow stronger. <span>Never let the presence of enemies upset or distress you—you are far better off with a declared opponent or two than not knowing where your real enemies lie. The man of power welcomes conflict, using enemies to enhance his reputation as a surefooted fighter who can be relied upon in times of uncertainty.<span><body><html>

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Image: The Jaws of ingratitude.
#48-laws-of-power #image #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies


Knowing what would happen if you put a finger in the mouth of a lion, you would stay clear of it. With friends you will have no such caution, and if you hire them, they will eat you alive with ingratitude.

Authority: Know how to use enemies for your own profit. You must learn to grab a sword not by its blade, which would cut you, but by the handle, which allows you to defend yourself. The wise man profits more from his enemies, than a fool from his friends. (Baltasar Gracián, 1601-1658)
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r off with a declared opponent or two than not knowing where your real enemies lie. The man of power welcomes conflict, using enemies to enhance his reputation as a surefooted fighter who can be relied upon in times of uncertainty. <span>Image: The Jaws of ingratitude. Knowing what would happen if you put a finger in the mouth of a lion, you would stay clear of it. With friends you will have no such caution, and if you hire them, they will eat you alive with ingratitude. Authority: Know how to use enemies for your own profit. You must learn to grab a sword not by its blade, which would cut you, but by the handle, which allows you to defend yourself. The wise man profits more from his enemies, than a fool from his friends. (Baltasar Gracián, 1601-1658)<span><body><html>

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REVERSAL
#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #reversal
Although it is generally best not to mix work with friendship, there are times when a friend can be used to greater effect than an enemy. A man of power, for example, often has dirty work that has to be done, but for the sake of appearances it is generally preferable to have other people do it for him; friends often do this the best, since their affection for him makes them willing to take chances. Also, if your plans go awry for some reason, you can use a friend as a convenient scapegoat. This “fall of the favorite” was a trick often used by kings and sovereigns: They would let their closest friend at court take the fall for a mistake, since the public would not believe that they would deliberately sacrifice a friend for such a purpose. Of course, after you play that card, you have lost your friend forever. It is best, then, to reserve the scapegoat role for someone who is close to you but not too close.

Finally, the problem about working with friends is that it confuses the boundaries and distances that working requires. But if both partners in the arrangement understand the dangers involved, a friend often can be employed to great effect. You must never let your guard down in such a venture, however; always be on the lookout for any signs of emotional disturbance such as envy and ingratitude. Nothing is stable in the realm of power, and even the closest of friends can be transformed into the worst of enemies.
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Use for friends
#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #reversal
A man of power, often has dirty work that has to be done, but for the sake of appearances it is generally preferable to have other people do it for him; friends often do this the best, since their affection for him makes them willing to take chances.
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Although it is generally best not to mix work with friendship, there are times when a friend can be used to greater effect than an enemy. A man of power, for example, often has dirty work that has to be done, but for the sake of appearances it is generally preferable to have other people do it for him; friends often do this the best, since their affection for him makes them willing to take chances. Also, if your plans go awry for some reason, you can use a friend as a convenient scapegoat. This “fall of the favorite” was a trick often used by kings and sovereigns: They would let t

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#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #reversal
If your plans go awry for some reason, you can use a friend as a convenient scapegoat.

This “fall of the favorite” was a trick often used by kings and sovereigns: They would let their closest friend at court take the fall for a mistake, since the public would not believe that they would deliberately sacrifice a friend for such a purpose.

Of course, after you play that card, you have lost your friend forever. It is best, then, to reserve the scapegoat role for someone who is close to you but not too close.
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xample, often has dirty work that has to be done, but for the sake of appearances it is generally preferable to have other people do it for him; friends often do this the best, since their affection for him makes them willing to take chances. <span>Also, if your plans go awry for some reason, you can use a friend as a convenient scapegoat. This “fall of the favorite” was a trick often used by kings and sovereigns: They would let their closest friend at court take the fall for a mistake, since the public would not believe that they would deliberately sacrifice a friend for such a purpose. Of course, after you play that card, you have lost your friend forever. It is best, then, to reserve the scapegoat role for someone who is close to you but not too close. Finally, the problem about working with friends is that it confuses the boundaries and distances that working requires. But if both partners in the arrangement understand the

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#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #reversal
Finally, the problem about working with friends is that it confuses the boundaries and distances that working requires.
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ey would deliberately sacrifice a friend for such a purpose. Of course, after you play that card, you have lost your friend forever. It is best, then, to reserve the scapegoat role for someone who is close to you but not too close. <span>Finally, the problem about working with friends is that it confuses the boundaries and distances that working requires. But if both partners in the arrangement understand the dangers involved, a friend often can be employed to great effect. You must never let your guard down in such a venture, however; a

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#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #reversal
Finally, the problem about working with friends is that it confuses the boundaries and distances that working requires. But if both partners in the arrangement understand the dangers involved, a friend often can be employed to great effect. You must never let your guard down in such a venture, however; always be on the lookout for any signs of emotional disturbance such as envy and ingratitude. Nothing is stable in the realm of power, and even the closest of friends can be transformed into the worst of enemies.
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ey would deliberately sacrifice a friend for such a purpose. Of course, after you play that card, you have lost your friend forever. It is best, then, to reserve the scapegoat role for someone who is close to you but not too close. <span>Finally, the problem about working with friends is that it confuses the boundaries and distances that working requires. But if both partners in the arrangement understand the dangers involved, a friend often can be employed to great effect. You must never let your guard down in such a venture, however; always be on the lookout for any signs of emotional disturbance such as envy and ingratitude. Nothing is stable in the realm of power, and even the closest of friends can be transformed into the worst of enemies.<span><body><html>

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JUDGMENT
#48-laws-of-power #law-3-conceal-your-intentions
Keep people off-balance and in the dark by never revealing the purpose behind your actions. If they have no clue what you are up to, they cannot prepare a defense. Guide them far enough down the wrong path, envelop them in enough smoke, and by the time they realize your intentions, it will be too late.
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Flashcard 1457029778700

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
LAW 3 [...]
Answer
CONCEAL YOUR INTENTIONS

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LAW 3 CONCEAL YOUR INTENTIONS JUDGMENT Keep people off-balance and in the dark by never revealing the purpose behind your actions. If they have no clue what you are up to, they cannot prepare a defense. Guide them f

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Flashcard 1457033448716

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #law-3-conceal-your-intentions
Question
Keep people off-balance and in the dark by [...].
Answer
never revealing the purpose behind your actions

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Keep people off-balance and in the dark by never revealing the purpose behind your actions. If they have no clue what you are up to, they cannot prepare a defense. Guide them far enough down the wrong path, envelop them in enough smoke, and by the time they realize your inten

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Flashcard 1457035808012

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #law-3-conceal-your-intentions
Question
If people have no clue what you are up to, they [...].
Answer
cannot prepare a defense

Guide them down the wrong path, envelop them in smoke, and when they realize your intentions, it will be too late.

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Keep people off-balance and in the dark by never revealing the purpose behind your actions. If they have no clue what you are up to, they cannot prepare a defense. Guide them far enough down the wrong path, envelop them in enough smoke, and by the time they realize your intentions, it will be too late.

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Flashcard 1457038167308

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The segment of code, type="l" (that’s a letter “ l” not a numeral “1”) tells R to [...]
Answer
plot connecting lines between the points, with no distinctive symbols marking the points.

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The segment of code, type="l" (that’s a letter “ l” not a numeral “1”) tells R to plot connecting lines between the points, with no distinctive symbols marking the points.

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Flashcard 1457041313036

Tags
#biochem
Question
the [...] conformation is lower in energy and occurs more frequently
Answer
anti

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the anti conformation is lower in energy and occurs more frequently

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Flashcard 1457042885900

Tags
#biochem
Question
n the standard Watson-Crick model of DNA, all of the sugar groups have the [...] conformation.
Answer
C2ʹ endo

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n the standard Watson-Crick model of DNA, all of the sugar groups have the C2ʹ endo conformation.

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Flashcard 1457044458764

Tags
#biochem
Question
If the 2ʹ hydrogen were replaced by a hydroxyl group, as in the ribose ring of RNA, the two oxygen atoms would [...]
Answer
repel each other strongly.

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If the 2ʹ hydrogen were replaced by a hydroxyl group, as in the ribose ring of RNA, the two oxygen atoms would repel each other strongly.

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Flashcard 1457046031628

Tags
#biochem
Question
If the 2ʹ hydrogen were replaced by a [...], as in the ribose ring of RNA, the two oxygen atoms would repel each other strongly.
Answer
hydroxyl group

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If the 2ʹ hydrogen were replaced by a hydroxyl group, as in the ribose ring of RNA, the two oxygen atoms would repel each other strongly.

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Flashcard 1457047604492

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
To get a list of all sorts of online documentation, much of it written in readable prose instead of telegraphic lists, type [...]
Answer
help.start()

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To get a list of all sorts of online documentation, much of it written in readable prose instead of telegraphic lists, type help.start()

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Flashcard 1457049177356

Tags
#biochem
Question
Both [types of ions and examples] have been found to interact with various sites on nucleic acids. Th ese interactions may be through direct metal-ion coordination or they may be mediated by water molecules
Answer
monovalent (sodium and potas- sium) and divalent (particularly magnesium) ions

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Both monovalent (sodium and potas- sium) and divalent (particularly magnesium) ions have been found to interact with various sites on nucleic acids. Th ese interactions may be through direct metal-ion coordination or they may be mediated by water molecules

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Flashcard 1457051798796

Tags
#biochem
Question
Both monovalent (sodium and potas- sium) and divalent (particularly magnesium) ions have been found to interact with various sites on nucleic acids. Th ese interactions may be through [...] or they may be mediated by water molecules
Answer
direct metal-ion coordination

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Both monovalent (sodium and potas- sium) and divalent (particularly magnesium) ions have been found to interact with various sites on nucleic acids. Th ese interactions may be through direct metal-ion coordination or they may be mediated by water molecules

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Flashcard 1457053371660

Tags
#biochem
Question
Both monovalent (sodium and potas- sium) and divalent (particularly magnesium) ions have been found to interact with various sites on nucleic acids. Th ese interactions may be through direct metal-ion coordination or they may be [...]
Answer
mediated by water molecules

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y>Both monovalent (sodium and potas- sium) and divalent (particularly magnesium) ions have been found to interact with various sites on nucleic acids. Th ese interactions may be through direct metal-ion coordination or they may be mediated by water molecules<body><html>

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Flashcard 1457055206668

Tags
#biochem
Question
What needs to happen wrt phosphates/backbone to minimize electrostatic repulsion in DNA/RNA?
Answer
Th e backbones (specifi cally the phosphates) need to be separated as far as possible and be exposed to solvent to minimize electrostatic repulsions.

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Th e backbones (specifi cally the phosphates) need to be separated as far as possible and be exposed to solvent to minimize electrostatic repulsions.

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Flashcard 1457057565964

Tags
#biochem
Question
Why can't the C2' sugar pucker be adopted by RNA as it is in DNA?
Answer
because of steric hindrance between the OH group on C2 ʹ and the phosphate group on C3ʹ

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In RNA, however, the C2ʹ endo sugar pucker cannot be adopted because of steric hindrance between the OH group on C2 ʹ and the phosphate group on C3ʹ

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Flashcard 1457059925260

Tags
#biochem
Question
What is one purpose of the wider major groove (what does it allow for?)
Answer
allows regulatory proteins or other molecules to gain access to nucleotide functional groups on the edges of the groove.

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Th e wider and more accessible major groove (Figure 2.11) allows regulatory proteins or other molecules to gain access to nucleotide functional groups on the edges of the groove.

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Flashcard 1457062284556

Tags
#biochem
Question
Are the patterns of recognition elements in the major groove unique or identifical for each base pair?
Answer
Th e patterns of recognition elements in the major groove are unique for each of the four base pairs (G-C, C-G, A-T, and T-A).

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Th e patterns of recognition elements in the major groove are unique for each of the four base pairs (G-C, C-G, A-T, and T-A).

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Flashcard 1457064643852

Tags
#biochem
Question
What base pairs are distuingishable in the minor groove?
Answer
In the minor groove, however, the pattern for G-C is indistinguishable from that for C-G, and the pattern for A-T is the same as that for T-A

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In the minor groove, however, the pattern for G-C is indistinguishable from that for C-G, and the pattern for A-T is the same as that for T-A

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Question
What is one measure of DNA deformability?
Answer
One measure of deformability is how easily DNA can be bent

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One measure of deformability is how easily DNA can be bent. Th e stiff ness of DNA is characterized by its persistence length.

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Question
What is one characterization of DNA stiffness?
Answer
Th e stiff ness of DNA is characterized by its persistence length.

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One measure of deformability is how easily DNA can be bent. Th e stiff ness of DNA is characterized by its persistence length.

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Question
Th e persistence length of B-form DNA is approximately [...]. Th is corresponds to 14 or 15 helical turns, or roughly 140–150 base pairs
Answer
500 Å

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Th e persistence length of B-form DNA is approximately 500 Å. Th is corresponds to 14 or 15 helical turns, or roughly 140–150 base pairs

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Question
Th e persistence length of B-form DNA is approximately 500 Å. Th is corresponds to [...] helical turns, or roughly 140–150 base pairs
Answer
14 or 15

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Th e persistence length of B-form DNA is approximately 500 Å. Th is corresponds to 14 or 15 helical turns, or roughly 140–150 base pairs

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Question
Th e persistence length of B-form DNA is approximately 500 Å. Th is corresponds to 14 or 15 helical turns, or roughly [...] base pairs
Answer
140–150

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Th e persistence length of B-form DNA is approximately 500 Å. Th is corresponds to 14 or 15 helical turns, or roughly 140–150 base pairs

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Question
A matrix is simply [...]
Answer
a two-dimensional array of values of the same type.

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A matrix is simply a two-dimensional array of values of the same type.

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Question
A matrix can be created in R using the [...] command. The first argument specifies the contents of the matrix, in order. Other arguments specify the size of the matrix, the order in which the matrix should be filled, and, optionally, the names of the dimensions and rows and columns.
Answer
matrix

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A matrix can be created in R using the matrix command. The first argument specifies the contents of the matrix, in order. Other arguments specify the size of the matrix, the order in which the matrix should be filled, and, optional

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Question
A matrix can be created in R using the matrix command. The first argument specifies the [...], in order. Other arguments specify the size of the matrix, the order in which the matrix should be filled, and, optionally, the names of the dimensions and rows and columns.
Answer
contents of the matrix

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A matrix can be created in R using the matrix command. The first argument specifies the contents of the matrix, in order. Other arguments specify the size of the matrix, the order in which the matrix should be filled, and, optionally, the names of the dimensions and rows and columns.</spa

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Flashcard 1457081158924

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Question
A matrix can be created in R using the matrix command. The first argument specifies the contents of the matrix, in order. Other arguments specify the [...], the order in which the matrix should be filled, and, optionally, the names of the dimensions and rows and columns.
Answer
size of the matrix

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A matrix can be created in R using the matrix command. The first argument specifies the contents of the matrix, in order. Other arguments specify the size of the matrix, the order in which the matrix should be filled, and, optionally, the names of the dimensions and rows and columns.

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Flashcard 1457082731788

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Question
A matrix can be created in R using the matrix command. The first argument specifies the contents of the matrix, in order. Other arguments specify the size of the matrix, the [...], and, optionally, the names of the dimensions and rows and columns.
Answer
order in which the matrix should be filled

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A matrix can be created in R using the matrix command. The first argument specifies the contents of the matrix, in order. Other arguments specify the size of the matrix, the order in which the matrix should be filled, and, optionally, the names of the dimensions and rows and columns.

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Flashcard 1457084304652

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Question
A matrix can be created in R using the matrix command. The first argument specifies the contents of the matrix, in order. Other arguments specify the size of the matrix, the order in which the matrix should be filled, and, optionally, the [...]
Answer
names of the dimensions and rows and columns.

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pan>A matrix can be created in R using the matrix command. The first argument specifies the contents of the matrix, in order. Other arguments specify the size of the matrix, the order in which the matrix should be filled, and, optionally, the <span>names of the dimensions and rows and columns.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1457085877516

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Question
How is a dataframe like a matrix?
Answer
A data frame is much like a matrix, insofar as it has several columns of equal length

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A data frame is much like a matrix, insofar as it has several columns of equal length. But each column can be of a different type, and, in particular, columns can be factors. A data frameisreallyatypeof list in which each component is thought of as a named column of a ma

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Flashcard 1457088236812

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Question
How is a dataframe different from a matrix? (2 ways)
Answer
But each column can be of a different type, and, in particular, columns can be factors.

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A data frame is much like a matrix, insofar as it has several columns of equal length. But each column can be of a different type, and, in particular, columns can be factors. A data frameisreallyatypeof list in which each component is thought of as a named column of a matrix, with different columns possibly of different types. The elements of a data frame ca

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Flashcard 1457090858252

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Question
What is a dataframe?
Answer
A data frame is a type of list in which each component is thought of as a named column of a matrix, with different columns possibly of different types

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A data frame is much like a matrix, insofar as it has several columns of equal length. But each column can be of a different type, and, in particular, columns can be factors. A data frameisreallyatypeof list in which each component is thought of as a named column of a matrix, with different columns possibly of different types. The elements of a data frame can be accessed as if it were a list or as if it were a matrix.

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Flashcard 1457093741836

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Question
A data frame is much like a matrix, insofar as it has several columns of equal length. But each column can be of a different type, and, in particular, columns can be factors. A data frameisreallyatypeof list in which each component is thought of as a named column of a matrix, with different columns possibly of different types. The elements of a data frame can be accessed as if it were [...or...]
Answer
a list or as if it were a matrix.

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ular, columns can be factors. A data frameisreallyatypeof list in which each component is thought of as a named column of a matrix, with different columns possibly of different types. The elements of a data frame can be accessed as if it were <span>a list or as if it were a matrix.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1457096101132

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Question
What are columns with nonnumeric entries in a dataframe turned into?
Answer
factors

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>Thus, the columns of HGNdf are vectors or factors, named according to the words in the first row of the CSV file, and all of length equal to the number of data rows in the CSV file. It is important to note that columns with any character (non-numeric) entries are turned into factors<html>

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Flashcard 1457098460428

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Question
How do you get element i from a list? Will this also return its name?
Answer
We can get element i from a list, including its name, by putting i inside single square brackets.

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We can get element i from a list, including its name, by putting i inside single square brackets. We can get the contents of element i by putting i inside double square brackets.

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Question
How do you get the contents of element i in a list?
Answer
We can get the contents of element i by putting i inside double square brackets.

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We can get element i from a list, including its name, by putting i inside single square brackets. We can get the contents of element i by putting i inside double square brackets.

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Flashcard 1457103179020

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Question
One way to save a data table is with the [...] function.
Answer
write.csv

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One way to save a data table is with the write.csv function. For example, the command

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A list of length n is an ordered collection of n objects (which might be num- bers, other lists, or more abstract entities) separated by commas and surrounded by parentheses
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Question
A list of length n is [...]
Answer
an ordered collection of n objects (which might be num- bers, other lists, or more abstract entities) separated by commas and surrounded by parentheses

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A list of length n is an ordered collection of n objects (which might be num- bers, other lists, or more abstract entities) separated by commas and surrounded by parentheses

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Question
We will define a vector space to be a set V along with an addition and a scalar multiplication on V that satisfy the properties discussed in the previous paragraph. By an addition on V we mean [...]
Answer
a function that assigns an element u + v ∈ V to each pair of elements u, v ∈ V.

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We will define a vector space to be a set V along with an addition and a scalar multiplication on V that satisfy the properties discussed in the previous paragraph. By an addition on V we mean a function that assigns an element u + v ∈ V to each pair of elements u, v ∈ V.

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Question
Now we are ready to give the formal definition of a vector space. A vector space is a set V along with an addition on V and a scalar multiplication on V such that the following properties hold:

















[...]
Answer
commutativity
u + v = v + u for all u, v ∈ V;

associativity
(u+v)+w = u+(v +w) and (ab)v = a(bv) for all u,v,w ∈ V and all a,b ∈ F;

additive identity
there exists an element 0 ∈ V such that v +0 = v for all v ∈ V;

additive inverse
for every v ∈ V, there exists w ∈ V such that v + w = 0;

multiplicative identity
1v = v for all v ∈ V;

distributive properties
a(u +v) = au +av and (a +b)u = au +bu for all a,b ∈ F and all u,v ∈ V.

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Now we are ready to give the formal definition of a vector space. A vector space is a set V along with an addition on V and a scalar multiplication on V such that the following properties hold: commutativity u + v = v + u for all u, v ∈ V; associativity (u+v)+w = u+(v +w) and (ab)v = a(bv) for all u,v,w ∈ V and all a,b ∈ F; additive identity there exists an element 0 ∈ V such that v +0 = v for all v ∈ V; additive inverse for every v ∈ V, there exists w ∈ V such that v + w = 0; multiplicative identity 1v = v for all v ∈ V; distributive properties a(u +v) = au +av and (a +b)u = au +bu for all a,b ∈ F and all u,v ∈ V.

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Question
Proposition: Every element in a vector space has a unique additive inverse. Proof: [...]
Answer
Suppose V is a vector space. Let v ∈ V. Suppose that w and w' are additive inverses of v. Then w' = w' + 0 = w' +(v + w) = (w'+v)+w = 0 + w = w. Thus w = w', as desired.

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Proposition: Every element in a vector space has a unique additive inverse. Proof: Suppose V is a vector space. Let v ∈ V. Suppose that w and w' are additive inverses of v. Then w' = w' + 0 = w' +(v + w) = (w'+v)+w = 0 + w = w. Thus w = w', as desired.

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Flashcard 1457126771980

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Question
The summary function [...]
Answer
detects the type, or “class,” of the argument provided to it, and returns a summary appropriate for that class of object.

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The summary function detects the type, or “class,” of the argument provided to it, and returns a summary appropriate for that class of object.

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Flashcard 1457128344844

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Question
The aggregate function is very useful for [...]
Answer
summarizing data according to factor characteristics.

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The aggregate function is very useful for summarizing data according to factor characteristics.

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Flashcard 1457129917708

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Question
How do you write a function in R?
Answer
In general, a function in R in defined by code of the form: functionName = function( arguments ) { commands }

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In general, a function in R in defined by code of the form: functionName = function( arguments ) { commands } The commands inside the curly braces can extend over many lines of code.

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Flashcard 1457132277004

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Question
You invoke the function by commanding R thus: [...]
Answer
functionName( arguments=argumentValues )

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You invoke the function by commanding R thus: functionName( arguments=argumentValues )

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Flashcard 1457133849868

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Question
Where do the curly braces go in a conditional statement (if, else)?
Answer
In particular, the line containing “else” begins with a closing curly brace, which tells R that the “else” clause is continuing the preceding “if.” A line that begins with “else” causes an error

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Notice the arrangement of curly braces across lines in the if-else structure above. In particular, the line containing “else” begins with a closing curly brace, which tells R that the “else” clause is continuing the preceding “if.” A line that begins with “else” causes an error

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Flashcard 1457136209164

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Question
A simple way to measure processing time is with the [...] function, which returns the current computer-system time.
Answer
proc.time

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A simple way to measure processing time is with the proc.time function, which returns the current computer-system time. To measure the duration of a process, use proc.time at the beginning and end of the process, and compute the difference between

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Flashcard 1457138568460

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Question
A simple way to measure processing time is with the proc.time function, which returns the current computer-system time. To measure the duration of a process, [...]
Answer
use proc.time at the beginning and end of the process, and compute the difference between the times

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A simple way to measure processing time is with the proc.time function, which returns the current computer-system time. To measure the duration of a process, use proc.time at the beginning and end of the process, and compute the difference between the times

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Flashcard 1457140141324

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Question
Which is faster? Loops or vectorized operations?
Answer
In general, for loops are slow relative to vectorized operations

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In general, for loops are slow relative to vectorized operations

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Flashcard 1457142500620

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Question
What is a sample space?
Answer
a set of possible outcomes in mind. This set exhausts all possible outcomes, and the outcomes are all mutually exclusive.

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Whenever we ask about how likely an outcome is, we always ask with a set of possible outcomes in mind. This set exhausts all possible outcomes, and the outcomes are all mutually exclusive. This set is called the sample space

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Flashcard 1457144859916

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Question
What is the technical term for heads in a coin?
Answer
“obverse.”

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Many coins minted by governments have the picture of an important person’s head on one side. This side is called “heads” or, technically, the “obverse.”

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Flashcard 1457147219212

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Question
A more general form of for is [...] where v is any vector. The index moves through each element of the vector in turn, providing a neat way of processing each item in a list.
Answer
for index = v

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A more general form of for is for index = v where v is any vector. The index moves through each element of the vector in turn, providing a neat way of processing each item in a list.

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Flashcard 1457148792076

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Question
The MATLAB function [...] returns a six-element vector with the current date and time in the format year, month, day, hour, minute, seconds. Thus, t0 records when the calculation starts.
Answer
clock

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The MATLAB function clock returns a six-element vector with the current date and time in the format year, month, day, hour, minute, seconds. Thus, t0 records when the calculation starts.</ht

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Flashcard 1457150364940

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Question
The MATLAB function clock returns a [...] Thus, t0 records when the calculation starts.
Answer
six-element vector with the current date and time in the format year, month, day, hour, minute, seconds.

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The MATLAB function clock returns a six-element vector with the current date and time in the format year, month, day, hour, minute, seconds. Thus, t0 records when the calculation starts.

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Flashcard 1457151937804

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Question
The function [...] returns the time in seconds elapsed between its two ar- guments, which must be vectors as returned by clock.
Answer
etime

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The function etime returns the time in seconds elapsed between its two ar- guments, which must be vectors as returned by clock.

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Flashcard 1457153510668

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Question
The function etime returns the [...], which must be vectors as returned by clock.
Answer
time in seconds elapsed between its two ar- guments

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The function etime returns the time in seconds elapsed between its two ar- guments, which must be vectors as returned by clock.

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Flashcard 1457155083532

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#matlab #programming
Question
The function etime returns the time in seconds elapsed between its two ar- guments, which must be [...]
Answer
vectors as returned by clock.

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The function etime returns the time in seconds elapsed between its two ar- guments, which must be vectors as returned by clock.

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#matlab #programming
A complex number may be represented in polar coordinates: z =re
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A complex number may be represented in polar coordinates: z =re iθ angle(z) returns θ between −π and π ; that is, atan2(imag(z), real(z)). abs(z) returns the magnitude r

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Flashcard 1457159015692

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#matlab #programming
Question
A complex number may be represented in polar coordinates: z =re iθ angle(z) returns [...]. abs(z) returns the magnitude r
Answer
θ between −π and π ; that is, atan2(imag(z), real(z))

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A complex number may be represented in polar coordinates: z =re iθ angle(z) returns θ between −π and π ; that is, atan2(imag(z), real(z)). abs(z) returns the magnitude r

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Flashcard 1457160588556

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#matlab #programming
Question
A complex number may be represented in polar coordinates: z =re angle(z) returns θ between −π and π ; that is, atan2(imag(z), real(z)). abs(z) returns the [...]
Answer
magnitude r

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A complex number may be represented in polar coordinates: z =re iθ angle(z) returns θ between −π and π ; that is, atan2(imag(z), real(z)). abs(z) returns the magnitude r

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Flashcard 1457162161420

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
A vector is [...]
Answer
the mathematical representation of a physical entity that may be characterized by size (or “magnitude”) and direction

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A vector is the mathematical representation of a physical entity that may be characterized by size (or “magnitude”) and direction

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Flashcard 1457163734284

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
In other words, if you were to move the vector shown in Figure 1.1(a) to a different location without varying its length or its pointing direction, would it still be the same vector? In some applications, the answer is “yes,” and those vectors are called [...]
Answer
free vectors.

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ds, if you were to move the vector shown in Figure 1.1(a) to a different location without varying its length or its pointing direction, would it still be the same vector? In some applications, the answer is “yes,” and those vectors are called <span>free vectors.<span><body><html>

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