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Flashcard 1425603693836

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the [...] unit and the cost to the seller of that unit.
Answer
next (or marginal)


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prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit.

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1. INTRODUCTION
; This reading focuses on a fundamental subject in microeconomics: demand and supply analysis. Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. As we will see, <span>prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit. In private enterprise market economies, which are the chief concern of investment analysts, demand and supply analysis encompasses the most basic set of microeconomic tools.







Flashcard 1427634261260

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Overall, the study session 4 provides the economic tools for understanding how [...] markets function and [...] of different industries.
Answer
product and resource

and the competitive characteristics


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Flashcard 1432379329804

Tags
#comparative #italian #italian-grammar
Question
mia figlia nuota meglio della sua
Answer
my daughter swims better than hers


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When one person, object or activity is compared with another a comparative form is used: mia figlia nuota meglio della sua ‘my daughter swims better than hers’; la pasta napoletana è migliore di quella siciliana ‘Neapolitan pasta is better than Sicilian pasta’.

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Flashcard 1432394534156

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
voleva che io andassi a casa sua
Answer
he wanted me to go to his house


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>This refers to the way in which verb forms change according to the person, tense or mood: (io) vado ‘I go’; (noi) andremo ‘we will go’; le ragazze sono andate ‘the girls went’; voleva che io andassi a casa sua ‘he wanted me to go to his house’; etc. The word conjugation is also used to mean the regular patterns of verbs ending in -are, -ere, -ire to which verbs belong.<html>

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Flashcard 1432402660620

Tags
#conjunction #italian #italian-grammar
Question
sono andata a letto perché ero stanca
Answer
I went to bed because I was tired


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ody>A linking or joining word, usually linking two words, phrases or clauses within a sentence: Marco e Davide ‘Marco and Davide’; con amore ma con disciplina ‘with love but with discipline’; sono andata a letto perché ero stanca ‘I went to bed because I was tired’; i giudici dicono che bisogna cambiare la legge ‘the judges say that the law should be changed’. Conjunctions can either be coordinating, linking two phrases or clauses of equal weight

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Flashcard 1432667688204

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar #structure
Question
The main function of nouns in any language is to denote [...] or [...]
Answer
an entity (person, object, etc.)

concept (situation, abstract idea, etc.).


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The main function of nouns in any language is to denote an entity (person, object, etc.) or concept (situation, abstract idea, etc.).

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Flashcard 1432671096076

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar #structure
Question
Nouns are generally used together with [...] and/or [...] , which provide information about the entity or concept.
Answer
articles (the, a)

adjectives (describing physical or other characteristics)


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Nouns are generally used together with articles (the, a) and/or adjectives (describing physical or other characteristics), which provide information about the entity or concept.

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Flashcard 1432686038284

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar #structure
Question
The two grammatical features of gender and number determine the form of [...], [...] and [...]
Answer
noun

article

adjective.


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The two grammatical features of gender and number determine the form of noun, article and adjective.

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Flashcard 1439318543628

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 #subject-3-investment-criteria
Question
Which of the following best describes the length of time required for an investment's cash flows to equal its initial cost?

A. Average accounting return
B. Profitability index
C. Payback period
Answer
Correct Answer: C


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dy>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk.<body><html>

Original toplevel document

Subject 3. Investment Decision Criteria
on that capital. If a firm takes on a project with a positive NPV, the position of the stockholders is improved. Decision rules: The higher the NPV, the better. Reject if NPV is less than or equal to 0. <span>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk. Assuming the cost of capital for the firm is 10%, calculate each cash flow by dividing the cash flow by (1 + k) t where k is the cost of capital and t is the year number.







Flashcard 1446955322636

Tags
#charisma
Question
What is a technique for inducing self-gratitude?
Answer
♦ Start to describe your life as if you were an outside observer, and focus on all the positive aspects you can think of.
♦ Write about your job—the work you do and the people you work with. Describe your personal relationships and the good things friends and family members would say about you. Mention a few positive things that have happened today and the tasks you have already accomplished.
♦ Take the time to write down this narrative. Just thinking about it won’t be as effective


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Use a third-person lens: For this technique, you’ll need just a few minutes to sit down, a pen, and some paper. ♦ Start to describe your life as if you were an outside observer, and focus on all the positive aspects you can think of. ♦ Write about your job—the work you do and the people you work with. Describe your personal relationships and the good things friends and family members would say about you. Mention a few positive things that have happened today and the tasks you have already accomplished. ♦ Take the time to write down this narrative. Just thinking about it won’t be as effective

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Flashcard 1447254166796

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Most of the words listed in the dictionary are [...]
Answer
common names.


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Most of the words listed in the dictionary are common names.

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Flashcard 1448539720972

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #fra-introduction #reading-22-financial-statement-analysis-intro #study-session-7
Question
The role of financial reporting is to provide information about a company's [...] and performance.
Answer
financial position


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The role of financial reporting is to provide information about a company's financial position and performance for use by parties both internal and external to the company.

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Subject 1. The Roles of Financial Reporting and Financial Statement Analysis
The role of financial reporting is to provide information about a company's financial position and performance for use by parties both internal and external to the company. Financial statements are issued by management, who is responsible for their form and content. The role of financial statement analysis, on the other hand, is to take these







Flashcard 1453673024780

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
In an agglutinated language like [...], a construct is more commonly symbolized by a compound word which does make explicit its composite character.
Answer
German

Abwehrflammenwerfer (defensive flame-thrower).


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In an agglutinated language like German, a construct is more commonly symbolized by a compound word which does make explicit its composite character, for example, Abwehrflammenwerfer (defensive flame-thrower).</

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Flashcard 1455166721292

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master #second-rule
Question
Remember the following: Never take [...] and never let any [...].
Answer
your position for granted

favors you receive go to your head


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Remember the following: Never take your position for granted and never let any favors you receive go to your head.

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Flashcard 1456894774540

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
To seduce, charm, deceive, and subtly outmaneuver your opponents are the [...]
Answer
arts of indirection


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If you can master the arts of indirection, learning to seduce, charm, deceive, and subtly outmaneuver your opponents, you will attain the heights of power.

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Flashcard 1465054268684

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #law-3-conceal-your-intentions
Question
If at any point in the deception practice [...], all is lost.
Answer
people suspect your intentions


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If at any point in the deception you practice people have the slightest suspicion as to your intentions, all is lost. Do not give them the chance to sense what you are up to: Throw them off the scent by dragging red herrings across the path. Use false sincerity, send ambiguous signals, se

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Flashcard 1471049239820

Question
The [What?] in the world are the ones that create the most value for other people.
Answer
best businesses


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The best businesses in the world are the ones that create the most value for other people. Some businesses thrive by providing a little value to many, and others focus on providing a lot of value to only

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#biochem #biology #cell
hot hydrothermal vents on the floor of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. They are located where the ocean floor is spread- ing as new portions of the Earth’s crust form by a gradual upwelling of material from the Earth’s interior (Figure 1–11). Downward-percolating seawater is heated and driven back upward as a submarine geyser, carrying with it a current of chemicals from the hot rocks below. A typical cocktail might include H 2 S, H 2 , C O, Mn 2+ , Fe 2+ , Ni 2+ , CH 2 , NH 4 + , and phosphorus-containing compounds.

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Flashcard 1471061298444

Question
The best businesses in the world are the ones that [Provision?] for other people.
Answer
create the most value


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The best businesses in the world are the ones that create the most value for other people. Some businesses thrive by providing a little value to many, and others focus on providing a lot of value to only a few people. Regard- less, the more real value you c

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Roughly defined, a business is a repeatable process that:

1. Creates and delivers something of value . . .
2. That other people want or need . . .
3. At a price they’re willing to pay . . .
4. In a way that satisfies the customer’s needs and expectations . . .
5. So that the business brings in enough profit to make it worth- while for the owners to continue operation.

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A venture that doesn’t create value for others is a hobby. A venture that doesn’t attract attention is a flop. A venture that doesn’t sell the value it creates is a nonprofit. A venture that doesn’t deliver what it promises is a scam. A venture that doesn’t bring in enough money to keep operating will inevitably close.

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1. Value Creation. Discovering what people need or want, then creating it.
2. Marketing. Attracting attention and building demand for what you’ve created.
3. Sales. Turning prospective customers into paying customers.
4. Value Delivery. Giving your customers what you’ve promised and ensuring that they’re satisfied.
5. Finance. Bringing in enough money to keep going and make your effort worthwhile.

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The Five Parts of Every Business are the basis of every good business idea and business plan. If you can clearly define each of these five processes for any business, you’ll have a complete understanding of how it works.

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Not every skill or area of knowledge is Economically Valuable, and that’s okay—there are many things worth pursuing for the sake of relaxation or enjoyment alone.

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Make the leap from personal enjoyment to Products and Services (discussed later), however, and you’ll find yourself getting paid

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don’t expect skills that aren’t related to the Five Parts of Every Business to be economically rewarded. Find a way to use them to create Economic Value, and you’ll inevitably find a way to get paid.

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The same thing happens to new businesses every day. Without enough revenue to sustain it, any business will fail. Your revenue is completely dependent on people actually wanting what you have to off er.

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The Iron Law of the Market is cold, hard, and un- forgiving: if you don’t have a large group of people who really want what you have to offer, your chances of building a viable business are very slim.

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The best approach is to focus on making things people want to buy. Cre- ating something no one wants is a waste. Market research is the business equivalent of “look before you leap.”

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#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
gelink] [emptylink] The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD) [imagelink] [emptylink] Bust of Tiberius Julius Sauromates II (d. 210 AD), ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states <span>Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republ




Flashcard 1471086726412

Question
[Imperial Capital] had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC
Answer
Rome


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Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
gelink] [emptylink] The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD) [imagelink] [emptylink] Bust of Tiberius Julius Sauromates II (d. 210 AD), ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states <span>Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republ







Flashcard 1471089085708

Question
Rome had begun expanding shortly after the [Political Event] in the 6th century BC
Answer
founding of the republic


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Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
gelink] [emptylink] The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD) [imagelink] [emptylink] Bust of Tiberius Julius Sauromates II (d. 210 AD), ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states <span>Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republ







Flashcard 1471091445004

Question
Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the [Period (Centuries)]
Answer
6th century BC


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Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
gelink] [emptylink] The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD) [imagelink] [emptylink] Bust of Tiberius Julius Sauromates II (d. 210 AD), ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states <span>Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republ







#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
Rome did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
nk] [emptylink] Bust of Tiberius Julius Sauromates II (d. 210 AD), ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, <span>though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rul




#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
Rome was an "empire" long before it had an emperor.

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
he Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. <span>Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves (though with varying degrees of independence from the




#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
xpanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] <span>The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves (though with varying degrees of independence from the Roman Senate) and provinces administered by military commanders. It was ruled, not by emperors, but by annually elected magistrates




#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
the network of towns had varying degrees of independence from the Roman Senate

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves (<span>though with varying degrees of independence from the Roman Senate) and provinces administered by military commanders. It was ruled, not by emperors, but by annually elected magistrates (Roman Consuls above all) in conjunction with the senate. [14] Fo




#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
The Roman Republic had provinces administered by military commanders

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
re" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves (though with varying degrees of independence from the Roman Senate) and <span>provinces administered by military commanders. It was ruled, not by emperors, but by annually elected magistrates (Roman Consuls above all) in conjunction with the senate. [14] For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of




#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
The Roman Republic was ruled, not by emperors, but by annually elected magistrates (Roman Consuls above all) in conjunction with the senate.

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
1] [12] [13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves (though with varying degrees of independence from the Roman Senate) and provinces administered by military commanders. <span>It was ruled, not by emperors, but by annually elected magistrates (Roman Consuls above all) in conjunction with the senate. [14] For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which ultimately led to rule by emperors. [11] [15] [16] [17] The consuls' military power r




#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval for the Roman Republic, which ultimately led to rule by emperors.

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
with varying degrees of independence from the Roman Senate) and provinces administered by military commanders. It was ruled, not by emperors, but by annually elected magistrates (Roman Consuls above all) in conjunction with the senate. [14] <span>For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which ultimately led to rule by emperors. [11] [15] [16] [17] The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which literally means "command" (though typically in a military sense). [18] O




#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which literally means "command" (though typically in a military sense).

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
annually elected magistrates (Roman Consuls above all) in conjunction with the senate. [14] For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which ultimately led to rule by emperors. [11] [15] [16] [17] <span>The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which literally means "command" (though typically in a military sense). [18] Occasionally, successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator (commander), and this is the origin of the word emperor (and empire) since this title (among others) was a




#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
Occasionally, successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator (commander), and this is the origin of the word emperor (and empire) since this title (among others) was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession.

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
litary upheaval, which ultimately led to rule by emperors. [11] [15] [16] [17] The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which literally means "command" (though typically in a military sense). [18] <span>Occasionally, successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator (commander), and this is the origin of the word emperor (and empire) since this title (among others) was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. [19] Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts, conspiracies and civil wars from the late second century BC onwards, while greatly extending its power beyond Italy. This was t




#biochem #biology #cell
ccord- ing to one estimate, at least 99% of prokaryotic species remain to be characterized.

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#biochem #biology #cell
ntragenic mutation: an existing gene can be randomly modified by changes in its DNA sequence, through various types of error that occur mainly in the process of DNA replication

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#biochem #biology #cell
Gene duplication: an existing gene can be accidentally duplicated so as to create a pair of initially identical genes within a single cell; these two genes may then diverge in the course of evolution

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#biochem #biology #cell
DNA segment shuffling: two or more existing genes can break and rejoin to make a hybrid gene consisting of DNA segments that originally belonged to separate genes.

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#biochem #biology #cell
Horizontal (intercellular) transfer: a piece of DNA can be transferred from the genome of one cell to that of another—even to that of another species. This process is in contrast with the usual vertical transfer of genetic infor- mation from parent to progeny.

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#biochem #biology #cell
genes in two separate species that derive from the same ancestral gene in the last common ancestor of those two species—are called orthologs

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#biochem #biology #cell
it has been estimated that at least 18% of all of the genes in the present-day genome of E. coli have been acquired by horizontal transfer from another species within the past 100 million years.

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#biochem #biology #cell
Thus, out of 4873 protein-coding gene families defined by comparing the genomes of 50 species of bacteria, 13 archaea, and 3 unicellular eukaryotes, only 63 are truly ubiquitous (that is, represented in all the genomes analyzed). The great majority of these universal families include components of the translation and transcription systems.

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#biochem #biology #cell
This is not likely to be a realistic approxi- mation of an ancestral gene set. A better—though still crude—idea of the latter can be obtained by tallying the gene families that have representatives in multiple, but not necessarily all, species from all three major domains. Such an analysis reveals 264 ancient conserved families. Each family can be assigned a function (at least in terms of general biochemical activity, but usually with more precision). As shown in Table 1–1, the largest number of shared gene families are involved in transla- tion and in amino acid metabolism and transport.

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Flashcard 1471135223052

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
How many genes on average does a prokaryote (bacteria and archea) have?
Answer
1000-6000


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#biochem #biology #cell
The standard laboratory strain E. coli K-12 has a genome of approximately 4.6 million nucleotide pairs, contained in a single circular molecule of DNA that codes for about 4300 different kinds of proteins

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Flashcard 1471200496908

Question
Every [...] creates something of value. The world is full of opportunities to make other people’s lives better in some way, and your job as a businessperson is to identify things that people don’t have enough of, then find a way to provide them.
Answer
successful business


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Every successful business creates something of value. The world is full of opportunities to make other people’s lives better in some way, and your job as a businessperson is to identify things that people don’

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#geography #geology #landmarks #wiki
The Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes (in German: Saalfelder Feengrotten) are caverns or grottoes of a former mine in near Saalfeld, in the German state of Thuringia.

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Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes - Wikipedia
ink] "Fairy Kingdom" (Märchendom) in the Saalfeld Feengrotten. [imagelink] Location Saalfeld, Thuringia, Germany Discovery 1910 Geology Alum Access public Lighting electric Website http://en.feengrotten.de <span>The Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes (in German: Saalfelder Feengrotten) are caverns or grottoes of a former mine in near Saalfeld, in the German state of Thuringia. [1] They have long been famous for their countless colorful mineral formations (speleothems) formed over many years by water dripping through relatively soft rock. Since 1993, the Gui




#geography #geology #landmarks #wiki
The Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes have long been famous for their countless colorful mineral formations (speleothems) formed over many years by water dripping through relatively soft rock. Since 1993, the Guinness Book of World Records has termed the Feengrotten "the most colorful cave grottoes in the world."

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Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes - Wikipedia
Geology Alum Access public Lighting electric Website http://en.feengrotten.de The Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes (in German: Saalfelder Feengrotten) are caverns or grottoes of a former mine in near Saalfeld, in the German state of Thuringia. [1] <span>They have long been famous for their countless colorful mineral formations (speleothems) formed over many years by water dripping through relatively soft rock. Since 1993, the Guinness Book of World Records has termed the Feengrotten "the most colorful cave grottoes in the world." [2] Contents 1 Extent 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Extent[edit] The caverns consist of three chambers connected by galleries. In the first chambe




#geography #geology #landmarks #wiki
The Saalfeld Fairy Grotto caverns consist of three chambers connected by galleries. In the first chamber, information is presented about the history of the mine — in the 16th to 19th centuries an alum shale mine that was closed in 1850 but opened for sightseeing in 1914.

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Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes - Wikipedia
rock. Since 1993, the Guinness Book of World Records has termed the Feengrotten "the most colorful cave grottoes in the world." [2] Contents 1 Extent 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Extent[edit] <span>The caverns consist of three chambers connected by galleries. In the first chamber, information is presented about the history of the mine — in the 16th to 19th centuries an alum shale mine that was closed in 1850 but opened for sightseeing in 1914. [3] In the first chamber, the historical background of the mine is presented, including information about environmental radiation treatments formerly offered there until such treatment




#geography #geology #landmarks #wiki
In the first chamber of the Saalfeld Fairy Grotto, the historical background of the mine is presented, including information about environmental radiation treatments formerly offered there until such treatments were found to be hazardous.

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Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes - Wikipedia
consist of three chambers connected by galleries. In the first chamber, information is presented about the history of the mine — in the 16th to 19th centuries an alum shale mine that was closed in 1850 but opened for sightseeing in 1914. [3] <span>In the first chamber, the historical background of the mine is presented, including information about environmental radiation treatments formerly offered there until such treatments were found to be hazardous. In the second chamber is found the source of the mineral-laden water that formed colorful stalagmites, stalactites and other shapes over the centuries. The third chamber contains the




#geography #geology #landmarks #wiki
In the second chamber of the Saalfeld Fairy Grotto caverns is found the source of the mineral-laden water that formed colorful stalagmites, stalactites and other shapes over the centuries.

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Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes - Wikipedia
for sightseeing in 1914. [3] In the first chamber, the historical background of the mine is presented, including information about environmental radiation treatments formerly offered there until such treatments were found to be hazardous. <span>In the second chamber is found the source of the mineral-laden water that formed colorful stalagmites, stalactites and other shapes over the centuries. The third chamber contains the famed "Fairy Kingdom" (Märchendom), featuring a variegated grouping of deposits that, illuminated by theatrical lights and reflected in a perfec




#geography #geology #landmarks #wiki
The third chamber of the Saalfeld Fairy Grotto caverns contains the famed "Fairy Kingdom" ( Märchendom), featuring a variegated grouping of deposits that, illuminated by theatrical lights and reflected in a perfectly still pool of water, is thought to resemble miniature castles and other buildings.

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Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes - Wikipedia
tion treatments formerly offered there until such treatments were found to be hazardous. In the second chamber is found the source of the mineral-laden water that formed colorful stalagmites, stalactites and other shapes over the centuries. <span>The third chamber contains the famed "Fairy Kingdom" (Märchendom), featuring a variegated grouping of deposits that, illuminated by theatrical lights and reflected in a perfectly still pool of water, is thought to resemble miniature castles and other buildings. History[edit] Historically, alum was employed in a range of medicinal products, as a food preservative and in clarifying water. However, in the 19th century more effective chemical




#chemistry #geology #history #mining #wiki
Historically, alum was employed in a range of medicinal products, as a food preservative and in clarifying water. However, in the 19th century more effective chemical compounds were developed, and alum ceased to be a profitable mining product.

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Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes - Wikipedia
y Kingdom" (Märchendom), featuring a variegated grouping of deposits that, illuminated by theatrical lights and reflected in a perfectly still pool of water, is thought to resemble miniature castles and other buildings. History[edit] <span>Historically, alum was employed in a range of medicinal products, as a food preservative and in clarifying water. However, in the 19th century more effective chemical compounds were developed, and alum ceased to be a profitable mining product. By the 20th century, the Feengrotten had been largely forgotten. But in 1910 the old mine was rediscovered and explorers took note of the fantastic mineral deposits that had accumulated




#geography #geology #history #landmarks #mining #wiki
By the 20th century, the Feengrotten (Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes) had been largely forgotten. But in 1910 the old mine was rediscovered and explorers took note of the fantastic mineral deposits that had accumulated over the geologically short period of three centuries.

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Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes - Wikipedia
istorically, alum was employed in a range of medicinal products, as a food preservative and in clarifying water. However, in the 19th century more effective chemical compounds were developed, and alum ceased to be a profitable mining product. <span>By the 20th century, the Feengrotten had been largely forgotten. But in 1910 the old mine was rediscovered and explorers took note of the fantastic mineral deposits that had accumulated over the geologically short period of three centuries. In 1913 the third chamber with the "Fairy Kingdom" was discovered, and shortly before the outbreak of World War I in 1914 tours began to be offered to the public. [3] At th




#geography #geology #history #landmarks #wiki
In 1913 the third chamber of the Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes with the "Fairy Kingdom" was discovered, and shortly before the outbreak of World War I in 1914 tours began to be offered to the public.[3] At that time a pavilion with café was opened that remained in use in the following decades — including the post-World War II German Democratic Republic, which categorized the Feengrotten as an official Sehenswürdigkeit (point of Interest) of the GDR, open to foreign tourists. Following German unification, the pavilion was renovated beginning in 1998, and new facilities were added.

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Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes - Wikipedia
By the 20th century, the Feengrotten had been largely forgotten. But in 1910 the old mine was rediscovered and explorers took note of the fantastic mineral deposits that had accumulated over the geologically short period of three centuries. <span>In 1913 the third chamber with the "Fairy Kingdom" was discovered, and shortly before the outbreak of World War I in 1914 tours began to be offered to the public. [3] At that time a pavilion with café was opened that remained in use in the following decades — including the post-World War II German Democratic Republic, which categorized the Feengrotten as an official Sehenswürdigkeit (point of Interest) of the GDR, open to foreign tourists. Following German unification, the pavilion was renovated beginning in 1998, and new facilities were added. Between 1914 and 2007, more than 20 million people visited the grottoes, which annually draw an average of 160,000 visitors. [imagelink] [imagelink]




#geography #geology #history #landmarks #wiki
Between 1914 and 2007, more than 20 million people visited the Saalfeld Fairy grottoes, which annually draw an average of 160,000 visitors

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Saalfeld Fairy Grottoes - Wikipedia
Republic, which categorized the Feengrotten as an official Sehenswürdigkeit (point of Interest) of the GDR, open to foreign tourists. Following German unification, the pavilion was renovated beginning in 1998, and new facilities were added. <span>Between 1914 and 2007, more than 20 million people visited the grottoes, which annually draw an average of 160,000 visitors. [imagelink] [imagelink] [imagelink] [imagelink] See also[edit] List of show caves in Germany References[edit] ^ "F




#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts, conspiracies and civil wars from the late second century BC onwards, while greatly extending its power beyond Italy. This was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic.

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
casionally, successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator (commander), and this is the origin of the word emperor (and empire) since this title (among others) was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. [19] <span>Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts, conspiracies and civil wars from the late second century BC onwards, while greatly extending its power beyond Italy. This was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was briefly perpetual dictator before being assassinated. The faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Batt




#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
Towards the end of this era (Crisis of the Roman Republic), in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was briefly perpetual dictator before being assassinated.

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
accession. [19] Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts, conspiracies and civil wars from the late second century BC onwards, while greatly extending its power beyond Italy. This was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. <span>Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was briefly perpetual dictator before being assassinated. The faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's




Article 1471259741452

2.2. Weights of the Weighted Average
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital

How do we determine what weights to use? Ideally, we want to use the proportion of each source of capital that the company would use in the project or company. If we assume that a company has a target capital structure and raises capital consistent with this target, we should use this target capital structure. The target capital structure is the capital structure that a company is striving to obtain. If we know the company’s target capital structure, then, of course, we should use this in our analysis. Someone outside the company, however, such as an analyst, typically does not know the target capital structure and must estimate it using one of several approaches: Assume the company’s current capital structure, at market value weights for the components, represents the company’s target capital structure. Examine trends in the company’s capital structure or statements by management regarding capital structure policy to infer the target capital structure. Use averages of compar



#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital
How do we determine what weights to use? Ideally, we want to use the proportion of each source of capital that the company would use in the project or company.

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2.2. Weights of the Weighted Average
How do we determine what weights to use? Ideally, we want to use the proportion of each source of capital that the company would use in the project or company. If we assume that a company has a target capital structure and raises capital consistent with this target, we should use this target capital structure. The target capital structure is




Flashcard 1471262100748

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital
Question
How do we determine what weights to use? [...]
Answer
Ideally, we want to use the proportion of each source of capital that the company would use in the project or company.


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How do we determine what weights to use? Ideally, we want to use the proportion of each source of capital that the company would use in the project or company.

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2.2. Weights of the Weighted Average
How do we determine what weights to use? Ideally, we want to use the proportion of each source of capital that the company would use in the project or company. If we assume that a company has a target capital structure and raises capital consistent with this target, we should use this target capital structure. The target capital structure is







#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital
If we assume that a company has a target capital structure and raises capital consistent with this target, we should use this target capital structure.

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2.2. Weights of the Weighted Average
How do we determine what weights to use? Ideally, we want to use the proportion of each source of capital that the company would use in the project or company. If we assume that a company has a target capital structure and raises capital consistent with this target, we should use this target capital structure. The target capital structure is the capital structure that a company is striving to obtain. If we know the company’s target capital structure, then, of course, we should use this in o




#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital
The target capital structure is the capital structure that a company is striving to obtain.

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2.2. Weights of the Weighted Average
proportion of each source of capital that the company would use in the project or company. If we assume that a company has a target capital structure and raises capital consistent with this target, we should use this target capital structure. <span>The target capital structure is the capital structure that a company is striving to obtain. If we know the company’s target capital structure, then, of course, we should use this in our analysis. Someone outside the company, however, such as an analyst, typically does not know




#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital

Someone outside the company, however, such as an analyst, typically does not know the target capital structure and must estimate it using one of several approaches:

  1. Assume the company’s current capital structure, at market value weights for the components, represents the company’s target capital structure.

  2. Examine trends in the company’s capital structure or statements by management regarding capital structure policy to infer the target capital structure.

  3. Use averages of comparable companies’ capital structures as the target capital structure.

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2.2. Weights of the Weighted Average
we should use this target capital structure. The target capital structure is the capital structure that a company is striving to obtain. If we know the company’s target capital structure, then, of course, we should use this in our analysis. <span>Someone outside the company, however, such as an analyst, typically does not know the target capital structure and must estimate it using one of several approaches: Assume the company’s current capital structure, at market value weights for the components, represents the company’s target capital structure. Examine trends in the company’s capital structure or statements by management regarding capital structure policy to infer the target capital structure. Use averages of comparable companies’ capital structures as the target capital structure. In the absence of knowledge of a company’s target capital structure, we may take Method 1 as the baseline. Note that in applying Method 3, we use an unweighted, ari




#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital

Suppose we are using the company’s current capital structure as a proxy for the target capital structure. In this case, we use the market value of the different capital sources in the calculation of these proportions. For example, if a company has the following market values for its capital

Bonds outstanding$5 million
Preferred stock1 million
Common stock14 million
Total capital$20 million

the weights that we apply would be

wd =0.25
wp =0.05
we =0.70

Example 3 illustrates the estimation of weights. Note that a simple way of transforming a debt-to-equity ratio D/E into a weight—that is, D/(D + E)—is to divide D/E by 1 + D/E.

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2.2. Weights of the Weighted Average
od 1 as the baseline. Note that in applying Method 3, we use an unweighted, arithmetic average, as is often done for simplicity. An alternative is to calculate a weighted average, which would give more weight to larger companies. <span>Suppose we are using the company’s current capital structure as a proxy for the target capital structure. In this case, we use the market value of the different capital sources in the calculation of these proportions. For example, if a company has the following market values for its capital Bonds outstanding $5 million Preferred stock 1 million Common stock 14 million Total capital $20 million the weights that we apply would be w d = 0.25 w p = 0.05 w e = 0.70 Example 3 illustrates the estimation of weights. Note that a simple way of transforming a debt-to-equity ratio D/E into a weight—that is, D/(D + E)—is to divide D/E by 1 + D/E. <span><body><html>




Flashcard 1471268916492

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital
Question
proxy
Answer
The authority to act for another.


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Suppose we are using the company’s current capital structure as a proxy for the target capital structure. In this case, we use the market value of the different capital sources in the calculation of these proportions. For example, if a company has the follo

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2.2. Weights of the Weighted Average
od 1 as the baseline. Note that in applying Method 3, we use an unweighted, arithmetic average, as is often done for simplicity. An alternative is to calculate a weighted average, which would give more weight to larger companies. <span>Suppose we are using the company’s current capital structure as a proxy for the target capital structure. In this case, we use the market value of the different capital sources in the calculation of these proportions. For example, if a company has the following market values for its capital Bonds outstanding $5 million Preferred stock 1 million Common stock 14 million Total capital $20 million the weights that we apply would be w d = 0.25 w p = 0.05 w e = 0.70 Example 3 illustrates the estimation of weights. Note that a simple way of transforming a debt-to-equity ratio D/E into a weight—that is, D/(D + E)—is to divide D/E by 1 + D/E. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1471271275788

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital
Question
Suppose Gewicht announces that a debt-to-equity ratio of 0.7 reflects its target capital structure. What weights should Anziell use in the cost of capital calculations?
Answer
A debt-to-equity ratio of 0.7 represents a weight on debt of 0.7/1.7 = 0.4118 so that wd = 0.4118 and we = 1 − 0.4118 = 0.5882. These would be the preferred weights to use in a cost of capital calculation.


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Article 1471273110796

2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital

With some insight now into the calculation of the cost of capital, let us continue to improve our understanding of the roles it plays in financial analysis. A chief use of the marginal cost of capital estimate is in capital-budgeting decision making. What role does the marginal cost of capital play in a company’s investment program, and how do we adapt it when we need to evaluate a specific investment project? A company’s marginal cost of capital (MCC) may increase as additional capital is raised, whereas returns to a company’s investment opportunities are generally believed to decrease as the company makes additional investments, as represented by the investment opportunity schedule (IOS).2 We show this relation in Figure 1, graphing the upward-sloping marginal cost of capital schedule against the downward-sloping investment opportunity schedule. In the context of a company’s investment decision, the optimal capital budget is that amount of capital raised and invested at which the margina



#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital
A chief use of the marginal cost of capital estimate is in capital-budgeting decision making.

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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
With some insight now into the calculation of the cost of capital, let us continue to improve our understanding of the roles it plays in financial analysis. A chief use of the marginal cost of capital estimate is in capital-budgeting decision making. What role does the marginal cost of capital play in a company’s investment program, and how do we adapt it when we need to evaluate a specific investment project? A company




#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital
A company’s marginal cost of capital (MCC) may increase as additional capital is raised, whereas returns to a company’s investment opportunities are generally believed to decrease as the company makes additional investments, as represented by the investment opportunity schedule (IOS).

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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
cost of capital estimate is in capital-budgeting decision making. What role does the marginal cost of capital play in a company’s investment program, and how do we adapt it when we need to evaluate a specific investment project? <span>A company’s marginal cost of capital (MCC) may increase as additional capital is raised, whereas returns to a company’s investment opportunities are generally believed to decrease as the company makes additional investments, as represented by the investment opportunity schedule (IOS).2 We show this relation in Figure 1, graphing the upward-sloping marginal cost of capital schedule against the downward-sloping investment opportunity schedule. In the context of a compa




#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital

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mpany’s marginal cost of capital (MCC) may increase as additional capital is raised, whereas returns to a company’s investment opportunities are generally believed to decrease as the company makes additional investments, as represented by the <span>investment opportunity schedule (IOS).<span><body><html>

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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
cost of capital estimate is in capital-budgeting decision making. What role does the marginal cost of capital play in a company’s investment program, and how do we adapt it when we need to evaluate a specific investment project? <span>A company’s marginal cost of capital (MCC) may increase as additional capital is raised, whereas returns to a company’s investment opportunities are generally believed to decrease as the company makes additional investments, as represented by the investment opportunity schedule (IOS).2 We show this relation in Figure 1, graphing the upward-sloping marginal cost of capital schedule against the downward-sloping investment opportunity schedule. In the context of a compa




Flashcard 1471278091532

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A company’s marginal cost of capital (MCC) may increase as additional capital is raised and returns to investment opportunities are believed to decrease as they makes additional investments, as represented by the [...]


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mpany’s marginal cost of capital (MCC) may increase as additional capital is raised, whereas returns to a company’s investment opportunities are generally believed to decrease as the company makes additional investments, as represented by the <span>investment opportunity schedule (IOS).<span><body><html>

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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
cost of capital estimate is in capital-budgeting decision making. What role does the marginal cost of capital play in a company’s investment program, and how do we adapt it when we need to evaluate a specific investment project? <span>A company’s marginal cost of capital (MCC) may increase as additional capital is raised, whereas returns to a company’s investment opportunities are generally believed to decrease as the company makes additional investments, as represented by the investment opportunity schedule (IOS).2 We show this relation in Figure 1, graphing the upward-sloping marginal cost of capital schedule against the downward-sloping investment opportunity schedule. In the context of a compa







Flashcard 1471280450828

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Question
A graphical depiction of a company’s investment opportunities ordered from highest to lowest expected return?


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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
pany’s marginal cost of capital (MCC) may increase as additional capital is raised, whereas returns to a company’s investment opportunities are generally believed to decrease as the company makes additional investments, as represented by the <span>investment opportunity schedule (IOS).2 We show this relation in Figure 1, graphing the upward-sloping marginal cost of capital schedule against the downward-sloping investment opportunity schedule. In the context of a comp







Flashcard 1471283072268

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#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital
Question
A company’s optimal capital budget is found where the investment opportunity schedule [...]
Answer
intersects with the company’s marginal cost of capital.


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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
pany’s marginal cost of capital (MCC) may increase as additional capital is raised, whereas returns to a company’s investment opportunities are generally believed to decrease as the company makes additional investments, as represented by the <span>investment opportunity schedule (IOS).2 We show this relation in Figure 1, graphing the upward-sloping marginal cost of capital schedule against the downward-sloping investment opportunity schedule. In the context of a comp







#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital
The relation between the MCC and the IOS provides a broad picture of the basic decision-making problem of a company. However, we are often interested in valuing an individual project or even a portion of a company, such as a division or product line. In these applications, we are interested in the cost of capital for the project, product, or division as opposed to the cost of capital for the company overall.

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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
marginal cost of capital is equal to the marginal return from investing. In other words, the optimal capital budget occurs when the marginal cost of capital intersects with the investment opportunity schedule as seen in Figure 1. <span>The relation between the MCC and the IOS provides a broad picture of the basic decision-making problem of a company. However, we are often interested in valuing an individual project or even a portion of a company, such as a division or product line. In these applications, we are interested in the cost of capital for the project, product, or division as opposed to the cost of capital for the company overall. The cost of capital in these applications should reflect the riskiness of the future cash flows of the project, product, or division. For an average-risk project, the opportunity cost o




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For an average-risk project, the opportunity cost of capital is the company’s WACC.

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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
of capital for the project, product, or division as opposed to the cost of capital for the company overall. The cost of capital in these applications should reflect the riskiness of the future cash flows of the project, product, or division. <span>For an average-risk project, the opportunity cost of capital is the company’s WACC. If the systematic risk of the project is above or below average relative to the company’s current portfolio of projects, an upward or downward adjustment, respectively, is made to the c




Flashcard 1471300373772

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#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital
Question
For an average-risk project, the opportunity cost of capital is [...]
Answer
the company’s WACC.


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For an average-risk project, the opportunity cost of capital is the company’s WACC.

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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
of capital for the project, product, or division as opposed to the cost of capital for the company overall. The cost of capital in these applications should reflect the riskiness of the future cash flows of the project, product, or division. <span>For an average-risk project, the opportunity cost of capital is the company’s WACC. If the systematic risk of the project is above or below average relative to the company’s current portfolio of projects, an upward or downward adjustment, respectively, is made to the c







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If the systematic risk of the project is above or below average relative to the company’s current portfolio of projects, an upward or downward adjustment, respectively, is made to the company’s WACC. Companies may take an ad hoc or a systematic approach to making such adjustments.

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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
for the company overall. The cost of capital in these applications should reflect the riskiness of the future cash flows of the project, product, or division. For an average-risk project, the opportunity cost of capital is the company’s WACC. <span>If the systematic risk of the project is above or below average relative to the company’s current portfolio of projects, an upward or downward adjustment, respectively, is made to the company’s WACC. Companies may take an ad hoc or a systematic approach to making such adjustments. The discussion of a systematic approach is a somewhat advanced topic that we defer to Section 4.1. Figure 1. Optimal Investment Decision




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The WACC or MCC corresponding to the average risk of the company, adjusted appropriately for the risk of a given project, plays a role in capital-budgeting decision making based on the net present value (NPV) of that project.

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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
ies may take an ad hoc or a systematic approach to making such adjustments. The discussion of a systematic approach is a somewhat advanced topic that we defer to Section 4.1. Figure 1. Optimal Investment Decision <span>The WACC or MCC corresponding to the average risk of the company, adjusted appropriately for the risk of a given project, plays a role in capital-budgeting decision making based on the net present value (NPV) of that project. Recall from the reading on capital budgeting that the NPV is the present value of all the project cash flows. It is useful to think of it as the difference between the present value of




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NPV = Present value of inflows − Present value of outflows

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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
between the present value of the cash inflows, discounted at the opportunity cost of capital applicable to the specific project, and the present value of the cash outflows, discounted using that same opportunity cost of capital: <span>NPV = Present value of inflows − Present value of outflows If an investment’s NPV is positive, the company should undertake the project. If we choose to use the company’s WACC in the calculation of the NPV of a project, we are assu




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If we choose to use the company’s WACC in the calculation of the NPV of a project, we are assuming that the project:

  • has the same risk as the average-risk project of the company, and

  • will have a constant target capital structure throughout its useful life.3

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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
e of the cash outflows, discounted using that same opportunity cost of capital: NPV = Present value of inflows − Present value of outflows If an investment’s NPV is positive, the company should undertake the project. <span>If we choose to use the company’s WACC in the calculation of the NPV of a project, we are assuming that the project: has the same risk as the average-risk project of the company, and will have a constant target capital structure throughout its useful life.3 These may not be realistic or appropriate assumptions and are potential drawbacks to using the company’s WACC in valuing projects. However, alternative approaches a




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For the analyst, the second key use of the marginal cost of capital is in security valuation using any one of several discounted cash flow valuation models available

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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
e realistic or appropriate assumptions and are potential drawbacks to using the company’s WACC in valuing projects. However, alternative approaches are subject to drawbacks as well, and the approach outlined has wide acceptance.4 <span>For the analyst, the second key use of the marginal cost of capital is in security valuation using any one of several discounted cash flow valuation models available.5 For a particular valuation model, if these cash flows are cash flows to the company’s suppliers of capital (that is, free cash flow to the firm), the analyst uses the weighted average




#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital
For a particular valuation model, if these cash flows are cash flows to the company’s suppliers of capital (that is, free cash flow to the firm), the analyst uses the weighted average cost of capital of the company in the valuation.

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acks as well, and the approach outlined has wide acceptance.4 For the analyst, the second key use of the marginal cost of capital is in security valuation using any one of several discounted cash flow valuation models available.5 <span>For a particular valuation model, if these cash flows are cash flows to the company’s suppliers of capital (that is, free cash flow to the firm), the analyst uses the weighted average cost of capital of the company in the valuation.6 If these cash flows are strictly those belonging to the company’s owners, such as the free cash flow to equity, or dividends, the analyst uses the cost of equity capital to find the pr




#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital
If these cash flows are strictly those belonging to the company’s owners, such as the free cash flow to equity, or dividends, the analyst uses the cost of equity capital to find the present value of these flows.

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2.3. Applying the Cost of Capital to Capital Budgeting and Security Valuation
ilable.5 For a particular valuation model, if these cash flows are cash flows to the company’s suppliers of capital (that is, free cash flow to the firm), the analyst uses the weighted average cost of capital of the company in the valuation.6 <span>If these cash flows are strictly those belonging to the company’s owners, such as the free cash flow to equity, or dividends, the analyst uses the cost of equity capital to find the present value of these flows.7 In the next section, we discuss how an analyst may approach the calculation of the component costs of capital, focusing on debt, preferred stock, and common equity.




Flashcard 1471321607436

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#python #sicp
Question
A list value is a [...]
Answer
sequence that can have arbitrary length.


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A list value is a sequence that can have arbitrary length.

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2.3 Sequences
element corresponding to any non-negative integer index less than its length, starting at 0 for the first element. Python includes several native data types that are sequences, the most important of which is the list . 2.3.1 Lists <span>A list value is a sequence that can have arbitrary length. Lists have a large set of built-in behaviors, along with specific syntax to express those behaviors. We have already seen the list literal, which evaluates to a list instance, as wel







Flashcard 1471323180300

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#python #sicp
Question
What does a list literal evaluate to?
Answer
evaluates to a list instance, as well as an element selection expression that evaluates to a value in the list.


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which evaluates to a list instance, as well as an element selection expression that evaluates to a value in the list.

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2.3 Sequences
which is the list . 2.3.1 Lists A list value is a sequence that can have arbitrary length. Lists have a large set of built-in behaviors, along with specific syntax to express those behaviors. We have already seen the list literal, <span>which evaluates to a list instance, as well as an element selection expression that evaluates to a value in the list. The built-in len function returns the length of a sequence. Below, digits is a list with four elements. The element at index 3 is 8. >>> digits = [1, 8, 2, 8] >>&gt







#python #sicp
lists can be added together and multiplied by integers

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lists can be added together and multiplied by integers. For sequences, addition and multiplication do not add or multiply elements, but instead combine and replicate the sequences themselves. That is, the add function in the operator module

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2.3 Sequences
he built-in len function returns the length of a sequence. Below, digits is a list with four elements. The element at index 3 is 8. >>> digits = [1, 8, 2, 8] >>> len(digits) 4 >>> digits[3] 8 Additionally, <span>lists can be added together and multiplied by integers. For sequences, addition and multiplication do not add or multiply elements, but instead combine and replicate the sequences themselves. That is, the add function in the operator module (and the + operator) yields a list that is the concatenation of the added arguments. The mul function in operator (and the * operator) can take a list and an integer k to return the list that consists of k repetitions of the original list. >>> [2, 7] + digits * 2 [2, 7, 1, 8, 2, 8, 1, 8, 2, 8] Any values can be included in a list, including another list. Element selection can be applied multiple times in or




#python #sicp
the add function in the operator module (and the + operator) yields a list that is the concatenation of the added arguments

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lists can be added together and multiplied by integers. For sequences, addition and multiplication do not add or multiply elements, but instead combine and replicate the sequences themselves. That is, the add function in the operator module (and the + operator) yields a list that is the concatenation of the added arguments. The mul function in operator (and the * operator) can take a list and an integer k to return the list that consists of k repetitions of the original list.

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2.3 Sequences
he built-in len function returns the length of a sequence. Below, digits is a list with four elements. The element at index 3 is 8. >>> digits = [1, 8, 2, 8] >>> len(digits) 4 >>> digits[3] 8 Additionally, <span>lists can be added together and multiplied by integers. For sequences, addition and multiplication do not add or multiply elements, but instead combine and replicate the sequences themselves. That is, the add function in the operator module (and the + operator) yields a list that is the concatenation of the added arguments. The mul function in operator (and the * operator) can take a list and an integer k to return the list that consists of k repetitions of the original list. >>> [2, 7] + digits * 2 [2, 7, 1, 8, 2, 8, 1, 8, 2, 8] Any values can be included in a list, including another list. Element selection can be applied multiple times in or




#python #sicp
The mul function in operator (and the * operator) can take a list and an integer k to return the list that consists of k repetitions of the original list.

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multiplication do not add or multiply elements, but instead combine and replicate the sequences themselves. That is, the add function in the operator module (and the + operator) yields a list that is the concatenation of the added arguments. <span>The mul function in operator (and the * operator) can take a list and an integer k to return the list that consists of k repetitions of the original list.<span><body><html>

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2.3 Sequences
he built-in len function returns the length of a sequence. Below, digits is a list with four elements. The element at index 3 is 8. >>> digits = [1, 8, 2, 8] >>> len(digits) 4 >>> digits[3] 8 Additionally, <span>lists can be added together and multiplied by integers. For sequences, addition and multiplication do not add or multiply elements, but instead combine and replicate the sequences themselves. That is, the add function in the operator module (and the + operator) yields a list that is the concatenation of the added arguments. The mul function in operator (and the * operator) can take a list and an integer k to return the list that consists of k repetitions of the original list. >>> [2, 7] + digits * 2 [2, 7, 1, 8, 2, 8, 1, 8, 2, 8] Any values can be included in a list, including another list. Element selection can be applied multiple times in or




#python #sicp
A third common pattern in sequence processing is to aggregate all values in a sequence into a single value.

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A third common pattern in sequence processing is to aggregate all values in a sequence into a single value. The built-in functions sum , min , and max are all examples of aggregation functions.

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#python #sicp
The built-in functions sum , min , and max are all examples of aggregation functions.

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A third common pattern in sequence processing is to aggregate all values in a sequence into a single value. The built-in functions sum , min , and max are all examples of aggregation functions.

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#python #sicp
The elements of a string are themselves strings that have only a single character.

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The elements of a string are themselves strings that have only a single character. A character is any single letter of the alphabet, punctuation mark, or other symbol. Unlike many other programming languages, Python does not have a separate character type; any text is

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#python #sicp
A character is any single letter of the alphabet, punctuation mark, or other symbol.

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The elements of a string are themselves strings that have only a single character. A character is any single letter of the alphabet, punctuation mark, or other symbol. Unlike many other programming languages, Python does not have a separate character type; any text is a string, and strings that represent single characters have a length of 1.</s

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#python #sicp
Python does not have a separate character type; any text is a string, and strings that represent single characters have a length of 1.

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ml>The elements of a string are themselves strings that have only a single character. A character is any single letter of the alphabet, punctuation mark, or other symbol. Unlike many other programming languages, Python does not have a separate character type; any text is a string, and strings that represent single characters have a length of 1.<html>

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Flashcard 1471342316812

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#python #sicp
Question

Like lists, strings can also be combined via addition and multiplication.

 >>> 'Berkeley' + ', CA' 'Berkeley, CA' >>> 'Shabu ' * 2 [...] 
Answer
'Shabu Shabu '


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Like lists, strings can also be combined via addition and multiplication. >>> 'Berkeley' + ', CA' 'Berkeley, CA' >>> 'Shabu ' * 2 'Shabu Shabu '

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Flashcard 1471343889676

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
Our ability to use lists as the elements of other lists provides a new means of combination in our programming language. This ability is called a [...] of a data type.
Answer
closure property


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Our ability to use lists as the elements of other lists provides a new means of combination in our programming language. This ability is called a closure property of a data type.

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#python #sicp
The tree is a fundamental data abstraction that imposes regularity on how hierarchical values are structured and manipulated.

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The tree is a fundamental data abstraction that imposes regularity on how hierarchical values are structured and manipulated. A tree has a root value and a sequence of branches. Each branch of a tree is a tree. A tree with no branches is called a leaf. Any tree contained within a tree is called a sub-tree of

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#python #sicp
A tree has a root value and a sequence of branches.

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The tree is a fundamental data abstraction that imposes regularity on how hierarchical values are structured and manipulated. A tree has a root value and a sequence of branches. Each branch of a tree is a tree. A tree with no branches is called a leaf. Any tree contained within a tree is called a sub-tree of that tree (such as a branch of a branch). The root va

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Flashcard 1471350181132

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
Each branch of a tree is a list (T/F)
Answer
False, it's a tree


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The tree is a fundamental data abstraction that imposes regularity on how hierarchical values are structured and manipulated. A tree has a root value and a sequence of branches. Each branch of a tree is a tree. A tree with no branches is called a leaf. Any tree contained within a tree is called a sub-tree of that tree (such as a branch of a branch). The root value of a sub-tree of a tree is c

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#python #sicp
A tree with no branches is called a leaf

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head><head>The tree is a fundamental data abstraction that imposes regularity on how hierarchical values are structured and manipulated. A tree has a root value and a sequence of branches. Each branch of a tree is a tree. A tree with no branches is called a leaf. Any tree contained within a tree is called a sub-tree of that tree (such as a branch of a branch). The root value of a sub-tree of a tree is called a node (or node value) in that tree.

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#python #sicp
Any tree contained within a tree is called a sub-tree of that tree (such as a branch of a branch)

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a fundamental data abstraction that imposes regularity on how hierarchical values are structured and manipulated. A tree has a root value and a sequence of branches. Each branch of a tree is a tree. A tree with no branches is called a leaf. <span>Any tree contained within a tree is called a sub-tree of that tree (such as a branch of a branch). The root value of a sub-tree of a tree is called a node (or node value) in that tree.<span><body><html>

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#python #sicp
The root value of a sub-tree of a tree is called a node (or node value) in that tree.

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d manipulated. A tree has a root value and a sequence of branches. Each branch of a tree is a tree. A tree with no branches is called a leaf. Any tree contained within a tree is called a sub-tree of that tree (such as a branch of a branch). <span>The root value of a sub-tree of a tree is called a node (or node value) in that tree.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1471357259020

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
In general, a probability, whether it’s outside the head or inside the head, is just a way of [...]
Answer
assigning numbers to a set of mutually exclusive possibilities


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In general, a probability, whether it’s outside the head or inside the head, is just a way of assigning numbers to a set of mutually exclusive possibilities

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Flashcard 1471358831884

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
A probability distribution is simply a [...]
Answer
list of all possible outcomes and their corresponding probabilities


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A probability distribution is simply a list of all possible outcomes and their corresponding probabilities

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#matlab #programming
Step 1 Problem analysis. The context of the proposed investigation must be es- tablished to provide the proper motivation for the d esign of a computer program. The designer must fully recognize the need and must develop an understanding of the nature of the problem to be solved.

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Step 1 Problem analysis. The context of the proposed investigation must be es- tablished to provide the proper motivation for the d esign of a computer program. The designer must fully recognize the need and must develop an understanding of the nature of the problem to be solved. Step 2 Problem statement. Develop a detailed statement of the mathematical problem to be solved with a computer program. Step 3 Processing scheme. Define the inputs required and the out

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#matlab #programming
Step 2 Problem statement. Develop a detailed statement of the mathematical problem to be solved with a computer program.

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f the proposed investigation must be es- tablished to provide the proper motivation for the d esign of a computer program. The designer must fully recognize the need and must develop an understanding of the nature of the problem to be solved. <span>Step 2 Problem statement. Develop a detailed statement of the mathematical problem to be solved with a computer program. Step 3 Processing scheme. Define the inputs required and the outputs to be pro- duced by the p rogram. Step 4 Algorithm. Design the step-by-step procedure in a top-down process that dec

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#matlab #programming
Step 3 Processing scheme. Define the inputs required and the outputs to be pro- duced by the p rogram.

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. The designer must fully recognize the need and must develop an understanding of the nature of the problem to be solved. Step 2 Problem statement. Develop a detailed statement of the mathematical problem to be solved with a computer program. <span>Step 3 Processing scheme. Define the inputs required and the outputs to be pro- duced by the p rogram. Step 4 Algorithm. Design the step-by-step procedure in a top-down process that decomposes the overall problem into subordinate problems. The subtasks to solve the latter are refined by

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Step 4 Algorithm. Design the step-by-step procedure in a top-down process that decomposes the overall problem into subordinate problems. The subtasks to solve the latter are refined by designing an itemized list of steps to be programmed. This list o f tasks is the structure plan and is written in pseudo- code (i.e., a combination of English, mathematics, and anticipated MATLAB commands). The goal is a plan that is understandable and easily translated into a computer language.

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blem to be solved. Step 2 Problem statement. Develop a detailed statement of the mathematical problem to be solved with a computer program. Step 3 Processing scheme. Define the inputs required and the outputs to be pro- duced by the p rogram. <span>Step 4 Algorithm. Design the step-by-step procedure in a top-down process that decomposes the overall problem into subordinate problems. The subtasks to solve the latter are refined by designing an itemized list of steps to be programmed. This list o f tasks is the structure plan and is written in pseudo- code (i.e., a combination of English, mathematics, and anticipated MATLAB commands). The goal is a plan that is understandable and easily translated into a computer language. Step 5 Program algorithm. Translate or convert the algorithm into a computer language (e.g., MATLAB) and debug the syntax errors until the tool executes successfully. Step 6 Evaluation.

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Step 5 Program algorithm. Translate or convert the algorithm into a computer language (e.g., MATLAB) and debug the syntax errors until the tool executes successfully.

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This list o f tasks is the structure plan and is written in pseudo- code (i.e., a combination of English, mathematics, and anticipated MATLAB commands). The goal is a plan that is understandable and easily translated into a computer language. <span>Step 5 Program algorithm. Translate or convert the algorithm into a computer language (e.g., MATLAB) and debug the syntax errors until the tool executes successfully. Step 6 Evaluation. Test all of the options and conduct a validation study of the program. For example, compare results with other programs that do similar tasks, compare with experiment

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Step 6 Evaluation. Test all of the options and conduct a validation study of the program. For example, compare results with other programs that do similar tasks, compare with experimental data if appropriate, and compare

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plan that is understandable and easily translated into a computer language. Step 5 Program algorithm. Translate or convert the algorithm into a computer language (e.g., MATLAB) and debug the syntax errors until the tool executes successfully. <span>Step 6 Evaluation. Test all of the options and conduct a validation study of the program. For example, compare results with other programs that do similar tasks, compare with experimental data if appropriate, and compare<span><body><html>

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with theoretical predictions based on theoretical methodology related to the problems to be solved. The objective is to determine that the subtasks and the overall program are correct and accurate. The additional debugging in this step is to find and correct logical errors (e.g., mistyping of expressions by putting a plus sign where a minus sign was supposed to be) and runtime errors that may occur after the program successfully executes (e.g., cases where division by zero u nintentially occurs).

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with theoretical predictions based on theoretical methodology related to the problems to be solved. The objective is to determine that the subtasks and the overall program are correct and accurate. The additional debugging in this step is to find and correct logical errors (e.g., mistyping of expressions by putting a plus sign where a minus sign was supposed to be) and runtime errors that may occur after the program successfully executes (e.g., cases where division by zero u nintentially occurs). Step 7 Application. Solve the problems the program was designed to solve. If the program is well designed and useful, it can be saved in your working directory (i.e., in your user-devel

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Step 7 Application. Solve the problems the program was designed to solve. If the program is well designed and useful, it can be saved in your working directory (i.e., in your user-developed toolbox) for future use

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logical errors (e.g., mistyping of expressions by putting a plus sign where a minus sign was supposed to be) and runtime errors that may occur after the program successfully executes (e.g., cases where division by zero u nintentially occurs). <span>Step 7 Application. Solve the problems the program was designed to solve. If the program is well designed and useful, it can be saved in your working directory (i.e., in your user-developed toolbox) for future use<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1471374560524

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
This is not likely to be a realistic approxi- mation of an ancestral gene set. A better—though still crude—idea of the latter can be obtained by tallying the gene families that have representatives in multiple, but not necessarily all, species from all three major domains. Such an analysis reveals [...] ancient conserved families. Each family can be assigned a function (at least in terms of general biochemical activity, but usually with more precision). As shown in Table 1–1, the largest number of shared gene families are involved in transla- tion and in amino acid metabolism and transport.
Answer
264


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ancestral gene set. A better—though still crude—idea of the latter can be obtained by tallying the gene families that have representatives in multiple, but not necessarily all, species from all three major domains. Such an analysis reveals <span>264 ancient conserved families. Each family can be assigned a function (at least in terms of general biochemical activity, but usually with more precision). As shown in Table 1–1, the lar

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Flashcard 1471376133388

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
This is not likely to be a realistic approxi- mation of an ancestral gene set. A better—though still crude—idea of the latter can be obtained by tallying the gene families that have representatives in multiple, but not necessarily all, species from all three major domains. Such an analysis reveals 264 ancient conserved families. Each family can be assigned a function (at least in terms of general biochemical activity, but usually with more precision). As shown in Table 1–1, the largest number of shared gene families are involved in [3 things]
Answer
translation and in amino acid metabolism and transport.


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264 ancient conserved families. Each family can be assigned a function (at least in terms of general biochemical activity, but usually with more precision). As shown in Table 1–1, the largest number of shared gene families are involved in <span>transla- tion and in amino acid metabolism and transport.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1471378492684

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
The built-in [...] function allows us to inspect the class of any value
Answer
type


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The built-in type function allows us to inspect the class of any value

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2.1 Introduction
e it is. Values that share a class also share behavior. For example, the integers 1 and 2 are both instances of the int class. These two values can be treated similarly. For example, they can both be negated or added to another integer. <span>The built-in type function allows us to inspect the class of any value. >>> type(2) The values we have used so far are instances of a small number of native data types that are built into the Python language. Native data types have the foll







Flashcard 1471380065548

Question
[...] isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed.
Answer
data abstraction


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data abstraction isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
r function itself can be replaced by any other function with the same overall behavior. In other words, we can make an abstraction that separates the way the function is used from the details of how the function is implemented. Analogously, <span>data abstraction isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed. The basic idea of data abstraction is to structure programs so that they operate on abstract data. That is, our programs should use data in such a way as to make as few assumptions ab







Flashcard 1471381638412

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
data abstraction [...]
Answer
isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed.


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data abstraction isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
r function itself can be replaced by any other function with the same overall behavior. In other words, we can make an abstraction that separates the way the function is used from the details of how the function is implemented. Analogously, <span>data abstraction isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed. The basic idea of data abstraction is to structure programs so that they operate on abstract data. That is, our programs should use data in such a way as to make as few assumptions ab







Flashcard 1471386357004

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
The equivalent function for the element selection operator is called [...] , and it also uses 0-indexed positions to select elements from a list.
Answer
getitem


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The equivalent function for the element selection operator is called getitem , and it also uses 0-indexed positions to select elements from a list.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
exed, meaning that the index 0 selects the first element, index 1 selects the second, and so on. One intuition that supports this indexing convention is that the index represents how far an element is offset from the beginning of the list. <span>The equivalent function for the element selection operator is called getitem , and it also uses 0-indexed positions to select elements from a list. >>> from operator import getitem >>> getitem(pair, 0) 10 >>> getitem(pair, 1) 20 Two-element lists are not the only method of representing pairs in Pyth







Flashcard 1471387929868

Question
An abstraction barrier violation occurs whenever [...]
Answer
a part of the program that can use a higher level function instead uses a function in a lower level.


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An abstraction barrier violation occurs whenever a part of the program that can use a higher level function instead uses a function in a lower level.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
two-element lists list literals and element selection In each layer above, the functions in the final column enforce an abstraction barrier. These functions are called by a higher level and implemented using a lower level of abstraction. <span>An abstraction barrier violation occurs whenever a part of the program that can use a higher level function instead uses a function in a lower level. For example, a function that computes the square of a rational number is best implemented in terms of mul_rational , which does not assume anything about the implementation of a ration







Flashcard 1471389502732

Question
An [...] occurs whenever a part of the program that can use a higher level function instead uses a function in a lower level.
Answer
abstraction barrier violation


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An abstraction barrier violation occurs whenever a part of the program that can use a higher level function instead uses a function in a lower level.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
two-element lists list literals and element selection In each layer above, the functions in the final column enforce an abstraction barrier. These functions are called by a higher level and implemented using a lower level of abstraction. <span>An abstraction barrier violation occurs whenever a part of the program that can use a higher level function instead uses a function in a lower level. For example, a function that computes the square of a rational number is best implemented in terms of mul_rational , which does not assume anything about the implementation of a ration







Flashcard 1471392648460

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
Sequences are not instances of a particular built-in type or abstract data representation, but instead a [...]
Answer
collection of behaviors that are shared among several different types of data.


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Sequences are not instances of a particular built-in type or abstract data representation, but instead a collection of behaviors that are shared among several different types of data.

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2.3 Sequences
rsive Objects 2.9.1 Linked List Class 2.9.2 Tree Class 2.9.3 Sets 2.3 Sequences A sequence is an ordered collection of values. The sequence is a powerful, fundamental abstraction in computer science. <span>Sequences are not instances of a particular built-in type or abstract data representation, but instead a collection of behaviors that are shared among several different types of data. That is, there are many kinds of sequences, but they all share common behavior. In particular, Length. A sequence has a finite length. An empty sequence has length 0. Element selec







Flashcard 1471394221324

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
Ranges commonly appear as the expression in a for header to specify the number of times that the suite should be executed: A common convention is to use a [...] for the name in the for header if the name is unused in the suite:
Answer
single underscore character


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Ranges commonly appear as the expression in a for header to specify the number of times that the suite should be executed: A common convention is to use a single underscore character for the name in the for header if the name is unused in the suite:

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2.3 Sequences
at the elements can be easily inspected. >>> list(range(5, 8)) [5, 6, 7] If only one argument is given, it is interpreted as one beyond the last value for a range that starts at 0. >>> list(range(4)) [0, 1, 2, 3] <span>Ranges commonly appear as the expression in a for header to specify the number of times that the suite should be executed: A common convention is to use a single underscore character for the name in the for header if the name is unused in the suite: >>> for _ in range(3): print('Go Bears!') Go Bears! Go Bears! Go Bears! This underscore is just another name in the environment as far as the interpreter is conce







Flashcard 1471395794188

Tags
#python #sicp
Question

Another common sequence processing operation is to select a subset of values that satisfy some condition. List comprehensions can also express this pattern, for instance selecting all elements of odds that evenly divide 25 .

 [...] 
Answer
>>> [ x for x in odds if 25 % x == 0 ] [1, 5]


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dy>Another common sequence processing operation is to select a subset of values that satisfy some condition. List comprehensions can also express this pattern, for instance selecting all elements of odds that evenly divide 25 . >>> [ x for x in odds if 25 % x == 0 ] [1, 5] <body><html>

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2.3 Sequences
statement, but instead part of a list comprehension because it is contained within square brackets. The sub-expression x+1 is evaluated with x bound to each element of odds in turn, and the resulting values are collected into a list. <span>Another common sequence processing operation is to select a subset of values that satisfy some condition. List comprehensions can also express this pattern, for instance selecting all elements of odds that evenly divide 25 . >>> [x for x in odds if 25 % x == 0] [1, 5] The general form of a list comprehension is: [<span><body><html>







Flashcard 1471397367052

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
What does binaziration of a tree do?
Answer
computes a binary tree from an original tree by grouping together adjacent branches.


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can be used on the branches of a tree as well. For example, we may want to place a restriction on the number of branches in a tree. A binary tree is either a leaf or a sequence of at most two binary trees. A common tree transformation called <span>binarization computes a binary tree from an original tree by grouping together adjacent branches.<span><body><html>

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2.3 Sequences







#python #sicp
A binary tree is either a leaf or a sequence of at most two binary trees.

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Slicing can be used on the branches of a tree as well. For example, we may want to place a restriction on the number of branches in a tree. A binary tree is either a leaf or a sequence of at most two binary trees. A common tree transformation called binarization computes a binary tree from an original tree by grouping together adjacent branches.

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2.3 Sequences




#python #sicp
A list is depicted as adjacent boxes that contain the elements of the list. Primitive values such as numbers, strings, boolean values, and None appear within an element box. Composite values, such as function values and other lists, are indicated by an arrow.

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We can visualize lists in environment diagrams using box-and-pointer notation. A list is depicted as adjacent boxes that contain the elements of the list. Primitive values such as numbers, strings, boolean values, and None appear within an element box. Composite values, such as function values and other lists, are indicated by an arrow.

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2.3 Sequences




#python #sicp
A linked list is a pair containing the first element of the sequence (in this case 1) and the rest of the sequence (in this case a representation of 2, 3, 4). The second element is also a linked list. The rest of the inner-most linked list containing only 4 is 'empty' , a value that represents an empty linked list.

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A linked list is a pair containing the first element of the sequence (in this case 1) and the rest of the sequence (in this case a representation of 2, 3, 4). The second element is also a linked list. The rest of the inner-most linked list containing only 4 is 'empty' , a value that represents an empty linked list. Linked lists have recursive structure: the rest of a linked list is a linked list or 'empty' . We can define an abstract data representation to validate, construct, and select the com

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#python #sicp
Linked lists have recursive structure: the rest of a linked list is a linked list or 'empty'

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s case 1) and the rest of the sequence (in this case a representation of 2, 3, 4). The second element is also a linked list. The rest of the inner-most linked list containing only 4 is 'empty' , a value that represents an empty linked list. <span>Linked lists have recursive structure: the rest of a linked list is a linked list or 'empty' . We can define an abstract data representation to validate, construct, and select the components of linked lists.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1471413095692

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
Give an example of a tensor (anglular momenta)
Answer
An example of a tensor is the inertia that relates the angular velocity of a rotating object to its angular momentum


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An example of a tensor is the inertia that relates the angular velocity of a rotating object to its angular momentum

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
1. A probability value must be nonnegative (i.e., zero or positive).

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1. A probability value must be nonnegative (i.e., zero or positive). 2. The sum of the probabilities across all events in the entire sample space must be 1.0 (i.e., one of the events in the space must happen, otherwise the space does not exhaust all poss

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
2. The sum of the probabilities across all events in the entire sample space must be 1.0 (i.e., one of the events in the space must happen, otherwise the space does not exhaust all possibilities).

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1. A probability value must be nonnegative (i.e., zero or positive). 2. The sum of the probabilities across all events in the entire sample space must be 1.0 (i.e., one of the events in the space must happen, otherwise the space does not exhaust all possibilities). 3. For any two mutually exclusive events, the probability that one or the other occurs is the sum of their individual probabilities. For example, the probability that a fair six-sided d

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
3. For any two mutually exclusive events, the probability that one or the other occurs is the sum of their individual probabilities.

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must be nonnegative (i.e., zero or positive). 2. The sum of the probabilities across all events in the entire sample space must be 1.0 (i.e., one of the events in the space must happen, otherwise the space does not exhaust all possibilities). <span>3. For any two mutually exclusive events, the probability that one or the other occurs is the sum of their individual probabilities. For example, the probability that a fair six-sided die comes up 3-dots or 4-dots is 1/6 + 1/6 = 2/6.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1471421746444

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
For continuous outcome spaces, we can [...] the space into a finite set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive “bins.”
Answer
discretize


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For continuous outcome spaces, we can discretize the space into a finite set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive “bins.”

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Flashcard 1471423319308

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
Loosely speaking, the term “mass” refers the amount of stuff in an object. When the stuff is probability and the object is an interval of a scale, then the mass is [...]
Answer
the proportion of the outcomes in the interval.


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Loosely speaking, the term “mass” refers the amount of stuff in an object. When the stuff is probability and the object is an interval of a scale, then the mass is the proportion of the outcomes in the interval.

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Flashcard 1471424892172

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The problem with using intervals, however, is that [...]. Therefore, what we will do is make the intervals infinitesimally narrow, and instead of talking about the infinitesimal probability mass of each infinitesimal interval, we will talk about the ratio of the probability mass to the interval width. That ratio is called the probability density.
Answer
their widths and edges are arbitrary, and wide intervals are not very precise


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The problem with using intervals, however, is that their widths and edges are arbitrary, and wide intervals are not very precise. Therefore, what we will do is make the intervals infinitesimally narrow, and instead of talking about the infinitesimal probability mass of each infinitesimal interval, we will talk ab

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Flashcard 1471428037900

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The problem with using intervals, however, is that their widths and edges are arbitrary, and wide intervals are not very precise. Therefore, what we will do is make the intervals infinitesimally narrow, and instead of talking about the infinitesimal probability mass of each infinitesimal interval, we will talk about the ratio of [...] That ratio is called the probability density.
Answer
the probability mass to the interval width.


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and wide intervals are not very precise. Therefore, what we will do is make the intervals infinitesimally narrow, and instead of talking about the infinitesimal probability mass of each infinitesimal interval, we will talk about the ratio of <span>the probability mass to the interval width. That ratio is called the probability density.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1471429610764

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What is probability density?
Answer
The ratio of the probability mass to the interval width, where the width is infinitesamally narrow


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erefore, what we will do is make the intervals infinitesimally narrow, and instead of talking about the infinitesimal probability mass of each infinitesimal interval, we will talk about the ratio of the probability mass to the interval width. <span>That ratio is called the probability density.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1471434329356

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
the output of the system as a function of time t could be given by something like h(t) = cos(8t)+ cos(9t). (3.1) You can represent h(t) at the command line by creating an inline object as fol- lows: [...]
Answer
h = inline( ’cos(8*t) + cos(9*t)’ );


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the output of the system as a function of time t could be given by something like h(t) = cos(8t)+ cos(9t). (3.1) You can represent h(t) at the command line by creating an inline object as fol- lows: h = inline( ’cos(8*t) + cos(9*t)’ );

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Flashcard 1471435902220

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#matlab #programming
Question
You can create functions of more than one argument with [...]
Answer
inline.


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You can create functions of more than one argument with inline.

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Flashcard 1471437475084

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
A gene therefore is defined [...]
Answer
as the segment of DNA sequence corresponding to a single protein or set of alternative protein variants or to a single catalytic, regulatory, or structural RNA molecule


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A gene therefore is defined as the segment of DNA sequence corresponding to a single protein or set of alternative protein variants or to a single catalytic, regulatory, or structural RNA molecule

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Flashcard 1471439047948

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Question
[...] (Figure 1–10). This organism lives as a parasite in mammals, and its environment provides it with many of its small molecules ready-made. Nevertheless, it still has to make all the large molecules—DNA, RNAs, and proteins—required for the basic processes of heredity. It has about 530 genes, about 400 of which are essential. Its genome of 580,070 nucleotide pairs represents 145,018 bytes of information—about as much as it takes to record the text of one chapter of this book.
Answer
Mycoplasma genitalium


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Mycoplasma genitalium (Figure 1–10). This organism lives as a parasite in mammals, and its environment provides it with many of its small molecules ready-made. Nevertheless, it still has to make all the l

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Flashcard 1471442193676

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Mycoplasma genitalium (Figure 1–10). This organism lives as a parasite in mammals, and its environment provides it with many of its small molecules ready-made. Nevertheless, it still has to make all the large molecules—DNA, RNAs, and proteins—required for the basic processes of heredity. It has about 530 genes, about [...] of which are essential. Its genome of 580,070 nucleotide pairs represents 145,018 bytes of information—about as much as it takes to record the text of one chapter of this book.
Answer
400


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ls, and its environment provides it with many of its small molecules ready-made. Nevertheless, it still has to make all the large molecules—DNA, RNAs, and proteins—required for the basic processes of heredity. It has about 530 genes, about <span>400 of which are essential. Its genome of 580,070 nucleotide pairs represents 145,018 bytes of information—about as much as it takes to record the text of one chapter of this book.

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Flashcard 1471443766540

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Mycoplasma genitalium (Figure 1–10). This organism lives as a parasite in mammals, and its environment provides it with many of its small molecules ready-made. Nevertheless, it still has to make all the large molecules—DNA, RNAs, and proteins—required for the basic processes of heredity. It has about 530 genes, about 400 of which are essential. Its genome of [...] nucleotide pairs represents 145,018 bytes of information—about as much as it takes to record the text of one chapter of this book.
Answer
580,070


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any of its small molecules ready-made. Nevertheless, it still has to make all the large molecules—DNA, RNAs, and proteins—required for the basic processes of heredity. It has about 530 genes, about 400 of which are essential. Its genome of <span>580,070 nucleotide pairs represents 145,018 bytes of information—about as much as it takes to record the text of one chapter of this book. <span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1471446912268

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Mycoplasma genitalium (Figure 1–10). This organism lives as a parasite in mammals, and its environment provides it with many of its small molecules ready-made. Nevertheless, it still has to make all the large molecules—DNA, RNAs, and proteins—required for the basic processes of heredity. It has about 530 genes, about 400 of which are essential. Its genome of 580,070 nucleotide pairs represents 145,018 bytes of information—about as much as it takes to record the text of [...]
Answer
one chapter of this book.


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proteins—required for the basic processes of heredity. It has about 530 genes, about 400 of which are essential. Its genome of 580,070 nucleotide pairs represents 145,018 bytes of information—about as much as it takes to record the text of <span>one chapter of this book. <span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1471448485132

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The minimum number of genes for a viable cell in today’s environments is probably [...], although there are only about 60 genes in the core set that is shared by all living species.
Answer
not less than 300


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The minimum number of genes for a viable cell in today’s environments is probably not less than 300, although there are only about 60 genes in the core set that is shared by all living species.

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Flashcard 1471450057996

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The minimum number of genes for a viable cell in today’s environments is probably not less than 300, although there are only about [...] genes in the core set that is shared by all living species.
Answer
60


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The minimum number of genes for a viable cell in today’s environments is probably not less than 300, although there are only about 60 genes in the core set that is shared by all living species.

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Flashcard 1471451630860

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
hot hydrothermal vents on the floor of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. They are located where the ocean floor is spread- ing as new portions of the Earth’s crust form by a gradual upwelling of material from the Earth’s interior (Figure 1–11). Downward-percolating seawater is heated and driven back upward as a submarine geyser, carrying with it a current of chemicals from the hot rocks below. A typical cocktail might include [4 gasses, 3 metals, 1 intermediate, 1 class of chemicals ]
Answer
H2S, H2 , CO, Mn2+ , Fe2+ , Ni2+ , CH 2 , NH4 + , and phosphorus-containing compounds.


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g of material from the Earth’s interior (Figure 1–11). Downward-percolating seawater is heated and driven back upward as a submarine geyser, carrying with it a current of chemicals from the hot rocks below. A typical cocktail might include <span>H 2 S, H 2 , C O, Mn 2+ , Fe 2+ , Ni 2+ , CH 2 , NH 4 + , and phosphorus-containing compounds. <span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1471453990156

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
[...]: an existing gene can be randomly modified by changes in its DNA sequence, through various types of error that occur mainly in the process of DNA replication
Answer
Intragenic mutation


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ntragenic mutation: an existing gene can be randomly modified by changes in its DNA sequence, through various types of error that occur mainly in the process of DNA replication</htm

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Flashcard 1471456349452

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
ntragenic mutation: [...], through various types of error that occur mainly in the process of DNA replication
Answer
an existing gene can be randomly modified by changes in its DNA sequence


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ntragenic mutation: an existing gene can be randomly modified by changes in its DNA sequence, through various types of error that occur mainly in the process of DNA replication

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Flashcard 1471457922316

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
What is an Intragenic mutation?
Answer
Random modification of gene by changes in its DNA sequence through errors in the process of DNA replication


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ntragenic mutation: an existing gene can be randomly modified by changes in its DNA sequence, through various types of error that occur mainly in the process of DNA replication

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Flashcard 1471459495180

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
[...]: two or more existing genes can break and rejoin to make a hybrid gene consisting of DNA segments that originally belonged to separate genes.
Answer
DNA segment shuffling


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DNA segment shuffling: two or more existing genes can break and rejoin to make a hybrid gene consisting of DNA segments that originally belonged to separate genes.

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Flashcard 1471461068044

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
DNA segment shuffling: [...]
Answer
two or more existing genes can break and rejoin to make a hybrid gene consisting of DNA segments that originally belonged to separate genes.


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DNA segment shuffling: two or more existing genes can break and rejoin to make a hybrid gene consisting of DNA segments that originally belonged to separate genes.

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Flashcard 1471462640908

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Question
Thus, out of [...] protein-coding gene families defined by comparing the genomes of 50 species of bacteria, 13 archaea, and 3 unicellular eukaryotes, only 63 are truly ubiquitous (that is, represented in all the genomes analyzed). The great majority of these universal families include components of the translation and transcription systems.
Answer
4873


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Thus, out of 4873 protein-coding gene families defined by comparing the genomes of 50 species of bacteria, 13 archaea, and 3 unicellular eukaryotes, only 63 are truly ubiquitous (that is, represented i

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Flashcard 1471464213772

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Question
Thus, out of 4873 protein-coding gene families defined by comparing the genomes of 50 species of bacteria, 13 archaea, and 3 unicellular eukaryotes, only [...] are truly ubiquitous (that is, represented in all the genomes analyzed). The great majority of these universal families include components of the translation and transcription systems.
Answer
63


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Thus, out of 4873 protein-coding gene families defined by comparing the genomes of 50 species of bacteria, 13 archaea, and 3 unicellular eukaryotes, only 63 are truly ubiquitous (that is, represented in all the genomes analyzed). The great majority of these universal families include components of the translation and transcription systems

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Flashcard 1471465786636

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Thus, out of 4873 protein-coding gene families defined by comparing the genomes of 50 species of bacteria, 13 archaea, and 3 unicellular eukaryotes, only 63 are truly ubiquitous (that is, represented in all the genomes analyzed). The great majority of these universal families include [...]
Answer
components of the translation and transcription systems.


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s defined by comparing the genomes of 50 species of bacteria, 13 archaea, and 3 unicellular eukaryotes, only 63 are truly ubiquitous (that is, represented in all the genomes analyzed). The great majority of these universal families include <span>components of the translation and transcription systems. <span><body><html>

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The general technique of isolating the parts of a program that deal with how data are represented from the parts that deal with how data are manipulated is a powerful design methodology called data abstraction.

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The general technique of isolating the parts of a program that deal with how data are represented from the parts that deal with how data are manipulated is a powerful design methodology called data abstraction. Data abstraction makes programs much easier to design, maintain, and modify.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
ta enables us to increase the modularity of our programs. If we can manipulate geographic positions as whole values, then we can shield parts of our program that compute using positions from the details of how those positions are represented. <span>The general technique of isolating the parts of a program that deal with how data are represented from the parts that deal with how data are manipulated is a powerful design methodology called data abstraction. Data abstraction makes programs much easier to design, maintain, and modify. Data abstraction is similar in character to functional abstraction. When we create a functional abstraction, the details of how a function is implemented can be suppressed, and the p




The basic idea of data abstraction is to structure programs so that they operate on abstract data. That is, our programs should use data in such a way as to make as few assumptions about the data as possible

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The basic idea of data abstraction is to structure programs so that they operate on abstract data. That is, our programs should use data in such a way as to make as few assumptions about the data as possible. At the same time, a concrete data representation is defined as an independent part of the program.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
we can make an abstraction that separates the way the function is used from the details of how the function is implemented. Analogously, data abstraction isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed. <span>The basic idea of data abstraction is to structure programs so that they operate on abstract data. That is, our programs should use data in such a way as to make as few assumptions about the data as possible. At the same time, a concrete data representation is defined as an independent part of the program. These two parts of a program, the part that operates on abstract data and the part that defines a concrete representation, are connected by a small set of functions that implement abs




At the same time, a concrete data representation is defined as an independent part of the program.

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ml>The basic idea of data abstraction is to structure programs so that they operate on abstract data. That is, our programs should use data in such a way as to make as few assumptions about the data as possible. At the same time, a concrete data representation is defined as an independent part of the program.<html>

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2.2 Data Abstraction
we can make an abstraction that separates the way the function is used from the details of how the function is implemented. Analogously, data abstraction isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed. <span>The basic idea of data abstraction is to structure programs so that they operate on abstract data. That is, our programs should use data in such a way as to make as few assumptions about the data as possible. At the same time, a concrete data representation is defined as an independent part of the program. These two parts of a program, the part that operates on abstract data and the part that defines a concrete representation, are connected by a small set of functions that implement abs




Flashcard 1471474175244

Question
We are using here a powerful strategy for designing programs: [...] We haven't yet said how a rational number is represented, or how the functions numer , denom , and rational should be implemented. Even so, if we did define these three functions, we could then add, multiply, print, and test equality of rational numbers:
Answer
wishful thinking.


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We are using here a powerful strategy for designing programs: wishful thinking. We haven't yet said how a rational number is represented, or how the functions numer , denom , and rational should be implemented. Even so, if we did define these three functions, we co

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2.2 Data Abstraction
s the following three functions: rational(n, d) returns the rational number with numerator n and denominator d . numer(x) returns the numerator of the rational number x . denom(x) returns the denominator of the rational number x . <span>We are using here a powerful strategy for designing programs: wishful thinking. We haven't yet said how a rational number is represented, or how the functions numer , denom , and rational should be implemented. Even so, if we did define these three functions, we could then add, multiply, print, and test equality of rational numbers: >>> def add_rationals(x, y): nx, dx = numer(x), denom(x) ny, dy = numer(y), denom(y) return rational(nx * dy + ny * dx, dx * dy) >>> def







Flashcard 1471475748108

Question
One intuition that supports this indexing convention is that the index represents [...]
Answer
how far an element is offset from the beginning of the list.


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One intuition that supports this indexing convention is that the index represents how far an element is offset from the beginning of the list.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
g expression. >>> pair[0] 10 >>> pair[1] 20 Lists in Python (and sequences in most other programming languages) are 0-indexed, meaning that the index 0 selects the first element, index 1 selects the second, and so on. <span>One intuition that supports this indexing convention is that the index represents how far an element is offset from the beginning of the list. The equivalent function for the element selection operator is called getitem , and it also uses 0-indexed positions to select elements from a list. >>> from operator impor







Flashcard 1471477320972

Question
The floor division operator, [...] , expresses integer division, which rounds down the fractional part of the result of division.
Answer
//


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The floor division operator, // , expresses integer division, which rounds down the fractional part of the result of division.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
ms before constructing the pair. As with many useful tools, such a function already exists in the Python Library. >>> from fractions import gcd >>> def rational(n, d): g = gcd(n, d) return (n//g, d//g) <span>The floor division operator, // , expresses integer division, which rounds down the fractional part of the result of division. Since we know that g divides both n and d evenly, integer division is exact in this case. This revised rational implementation ensures that rationals are expressed in lowest te







Flashcard 1471478893836

Question
The floor division operator, // , expresses [...]
Answer
integer division, which rounds down the fractional part of the result of division.


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The floor division operator, // , expresses integer division, which rounds down the fractional part of the result of division.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
ms before constructing the pair. As with many useful tools, such a function already exists in the Python Library. >>> from fractions import gcd >>> def rational(n, d): g = gcd(n, d) return (n//g, d//g) <span>The floor division operator, // , expresses integer division, which rounds down the fractional part of the result of division. Since we know that g divides both n and d evenly, integer division is exact in this case. This revised rational implementation ensures that rationals are expressed in lowest te







Flashcard 1471480990988

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
A sequence is [...]
Answer
an ordered collection of values


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A sequence is an ordered collection of values

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2.3 Sequences
emoization 2.8.3 Orders of Growth 2.8.4 Example: Exponentiation 2.8.5 Growth Categories 2.9 Recursive Objects 2.9.1 Linked List Class 2.9.2 Tree Class 2.9.3 Sets 2.3 Sequences <span>A sequence is an ordered collection of values. The sequence is a powerful, fundamental abstraction in computer science. Sequences are not instances of a particular built-in type or abstract data representation, but instead a collec







Flashcard 1471482563852

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#python #sicp
Question

there are many kinds of sequences, but they all share common behavior. In particular,

[...]

Element selection. A sequence has an element corresponding to any non-negative integer index less than its length, starting at 0 for the first element.

Answer
Length. A sequence has a finite length. An empty sequence has length 0.


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there are many kinds of sequences, but they all share common behavior. In particular, Length. A sequence has a finite length. An empty sequence has length 0. Element selection. A sequence has an element corresponding to any non-negative integer index less than its length, starting at 0 for the first element.

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2.3 Sequences
ful, fundamental abstraction in computer science. Sequences are not instances of a particular built-in type or abstract data representation, but instead a collection of behaviors that are shared among several different types of data. That is, <span>there are many kinds of sequences, but they all share common behavior. In particular, Length. A sequence has a finite length. An empty sequence has length 0. Element selection. A sequence has an element corresponding to any non-negative integer index less than its length, starting at 0 for the first element. Python includes several native data types that are sequences, the most important of which is the list . 2.3.1 Lists A list value is a sequence that can have arbitrary lengt







Flashcard 1471484136716

Tags
#python #sicp
Question

there are many kinds of sequences, but they all share common behavior. In particular,

Length. A sequence has a finite length. An empty sequence has length 0.

[...]

Answer
Element selection. A sequence has an element corresponding to any non-negative integer index less than its length, starting at 0 for the first element.


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there are many kinds of sequences, but they all share common behavior. In particular, Length. A sequence has a finite length. An empty sequence has length 0. Element selection. A sequence has an element corresponding to any non-negative integer index less than its length, starting at 0 for the first element.

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2.3 Sequences
ful, fundamental abstraction in computer science. Sequences are not instances of a particular built-in type or abstract data representation, but instead a collection of behaviors that are shared among several different types of data. That is, <span>there are many kinds of sequences, but they all share common behavior. In particular, Length. A sequence has a finite length. An empty sequence has length 0. Element selection. A sequence has an element corresponding to any non-negative integer index less than its length, starting at 0 for the first element. Python includes several native data types that are sequences, the most important of which is the list . 2.3.1 Lists A list value is a sequence that can have arbitrary lengt







#python #sicp
Lists are a type of sequence, and sequences are iterable values.

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This execution procedure refers to iterable values. Lists are a type of sequence, and sequences are iterable values. Their elements are considered in their sequential order.

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2.3 Sequences
atement is executed by the following procedure: Evaluate the header , which must yield an iterable value. For each element value in that iterable value, in order: Bind to that value in the current frame. Execute the . <span>This execution procedure refers to iterable values. Lists are a type of sequence, and sequences are iterable values. Their elements are considered in their sequential order. Python includes other iterable types, but we will focus on sequences for now; the general definition of the term "iterable" appears in the section on iterators in Chapter 4.




Flashcard 1471487282444

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#python #sicp
Question
What is sequence unpacking?
Answer
for a,b in [(1,2), (3,4)]

[(1,2), (3,4)] is the sequence, a, b are the names each element is being unpacked to


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This pattern of binding multiple names to multiple values in a fixed-length sequence is called sequence unpacking; it is the same pattern that we see in assignment statements that bind multiple names to multiple values.

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2.3 Sequences
wo names in its header will bind each name x and y to the first and second elements in each pair, respectively. >>> for x, y in pairs: if x == y: same_count = same_count + 1 >>> same_count 2 <span>This pattern of binding multiple names to multiple values in a fixed-length sequence is called sequence unpacking; it is the same pattern that we see in assignment statements that bind multiple names to multiple values. Ranges. A range is another built-in type of sequence in Python, which represents a range of integers. Ranges are created with range , which takes two integer arguments: the first







Flashcard 1471488855308

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#python #sicp
Question
This pattern of binding multiple names to multiple values in a fixed-length sequence is called sequence unpacking; it is the same pattern that we see in assignment statements that [...]
Answer
bind multiple names to multiple values.


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This pattern of binding multiple names to multiple values in a fixed-length sequence is called sequence unpacking; it is the same pattern that we see in assignment statements that bind multiple names to multiple values.

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2.3 Sequences
wo names in its header will bind each name x and y to the first and second elements in each pair, respectively. >>> for x, y in pairs: if x == y: same_count = same_count + 1 >>> same_count 2 <span>This pattern of binding multiple names to multiple values in a fixed-length sequence is called sequence unpacking; it is the same pattern that we see in assignment statements that bind multiple names to multiple values. Ranges. A range is another built-in type of sequence in Python, which represents a range of integers. Ranges are created with range , which takes two integer arguments: the first







Flashcard 1471492001036

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
A range is another built-in type of sequence in Python, which represents a [...]
Answer
range of integers.


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A range is another built-in type of sequence in Python, which represents a range of integers.

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2.3 Sequences
count 2 This pattern of binding multiple names to multiple values in a fixed-length sequence is called sequence unpacking; it is the same pattern that we see in assignment statements that bind multiple names to multiple values. Ranges. <span>A range is another built-in type of sequence in Python, which represents a range of integers. Ranges are created with range , which takes two integer arguments: the first number and one beyond the last number in the desired range. >>> range(1, 10) # Includes 1, but







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Question

If only one argument is given, it is interpreted as

[...]
 >>> list ( range ( 4 )) [0, 1, 2, 3] 
Answer
one beyond the last value for a range that starts at 0.


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If only one argument is given, it is interpreted as one beyond the last value for a range that starts at 0. >>> list ( range ( 4 )) [0, 1, 2, 3]

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2.3 Sequences
(1, 10) # Includes 1, but not 10 range(1, 10) Calling the list constructor on a range evaluates to a list with the same elements as the range, so that the elements can be easily inspected. >>> list(range(5, 8)) [5, 6, 7] <span>If only one argument is given, it is interpreted as one beyond the last value for a range that starts at 0. >>> list(range(4)) [0, 1, 2, 3] Ranges commonly appear as the expression in a for header to specify the number of times that the suite should be executed: A common convention is to use a single underscore charac







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Question

The general form of a list comprehension is:

[...]

To evaluate a list comprehension, Python evaluates the <sequence expression> , which must return an iterable value. Then, for each element in order, the element value is bound to <name> , the filter expression is evaluated, and if it yields a true value, the map expression is evaluated. The values of the map expression are collected into a list.

Answer
[<map expression> for <name> in <sequence expression> if <filter expression>]


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To evaluate a list comprehension, Python evaluates the <sequence expression> , which must return an iterable value. Then, for each element in order, the element value is bound to <name> , the filter expression is evaluated, and if it yields a true value, the map expression is evaluated. The values of the map expression are collected into a list.

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Strings satisfy the two basic conditions of a sequence that we introduced at the beginning of this section: [...]
Answer
they have a length and they support element selection.


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Strings satisfy the two basic conditions of a sequence that we introduced at the beginning of this section: they have a length and they support element selection.

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2.3 Sequences







Flashcard 1471501700364

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A method for combining data values has a closure property if [...]
Answer
the result of combination can itself be combined using the same method.


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a method for combining data values has a closure property if the result of combination can itself be combined using the same method. Closure is the key to power in any means of combination because it permits us to create hierarchical structures — structures made up of parts, which themselves are made up of parts, and

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Flashcard 1471503273228

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The values at the leaves of a partition tree express [...]
Answer
whether the path from the root of the tree to the leaf represents a successful partition of n .


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The values at the leaves of a partition tree express whether the path from the root of the tree to the leaf represents a successful partition of n .

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Flashcard 1471504846092

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Linked lists are particularly useful when [...], a situation that arises often in recursive computations.
Answer
constructing sequences incrementally


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Linked lists are particularly useful when constructing sequences incrementally, a situation that arises often in recursive computations.

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Flashcard 1471506681100

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Question
Your job in answering that question is to provide a number between 0 and 1 that accurately reflects your belief probability. One way to come up with such a number is to [...]
Answer
calibrate your beliefs relative to other events with clear probabilities


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Your job in answering that question is to provide a number between 0 and 1 that accurately reflects your belief probability. One way to come up with such a number is to calibrate your beliefs relative to other events with clear probabilities

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Flashcard 1471508253964

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Question
The probability of a discrete outcome, such as the probability of falling into an interval on a continuous scale, is referred to as a [...]
Answer
probability mass


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The probability of a discrete outcome, such as the probability of falling into an interval on a continuous scale, is referred to as a probability mass

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Flashcard 1471509826828

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Question
ccord- ing to one estimate, at least [...] of prokaryotic species remain to be characterized.
Answer
99%


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ccord- ing to one estimate, at least 99% of prokaryotic species remain to be characterized.

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Flashcard 1471511399692

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[...]: an existing gene can be accidentally duplicated so as to create a pair of initially identical genes within a single cell; these two genes may then diverge in the course of evolution
Answer
Gene duplication


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Gene duplication: an existing gene can be accidentally duplicated so as to create a pair of initially identical genes within a single cell; these two genes may then diverge in the course of evolution<

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Gene duplication: [...]
Answer
an existing gene can be accidentally duplicated so as to create a pair of initially identical genes within a single cell; these two genes may then diverge in the course of evolution


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Gene duplication: an existing gene can be accidentally duplicated so as to create a pair of initially identical genes within a single cell; these two genes may then diverge in the course of evolution

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Flashcard 1471514545420

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[...]: a piece of DNA can be transferred from the genome of one cell to that of another—even to that of another species. This process is in contrast with the usual vertical transfer of genetic infor- mation from parent to progeny.
Answer
Horizontal (intercellular) transfer


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Horizontal (intercellular) transfer: a piece of DNA can be transferred from the genome of one cell to that of another—even to that of another species. This process is in contrast with the usual vertical transfer of gene

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Flashcard 1471516118284

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Question
Horizontal (intercellular) transfer: [...]. This process is in contrast with the usual vertical transfer of genetic infor- mation from parent to progeny.
Answer
a piece of DNA can be transferred from the genome of one cell to that of another—even to that of another species


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Horizontal (intercellular) transfer: a piece of DNA can be transferred from the genome of one cell to that of another—even to that of another species. This process is in contrast with the usual vertical transfer of genetic infor- mation from parent to progeny.

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genes in two separate species that derive from the same ancestral gene in the last common ancestor of those two species—are called [...]
Answer
orthologs


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genes in two separate species that derive from the same ancestral gene in the last common ancestor of those two species—are called orthologs

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The standard laboratory strain E. coli K-12 has a genome of approximately [...] nucleotide pairs, contained in a single circular molecule of DNA that codes for about 4300 different kinds of proteins
Answer
4.6 million


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The standard laboratory strain E. coli K-12 has a genome of approximately 4.6 million nucleotide pairs, contained in a single circular molecule of DNA that codes for about 4300 different kinds of proteins

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Flashcard 1471520836876

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The standard laboratory strain E. coli K-12 has a genome of approximately 4.6 million nucleotide pairs, contained in a single circular molecule of DNA that codes for about [...] different kinds of proteins
Answer
4300


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The standard laboratory strain E. coli K-12 has a genome of approximately 4.6 million nucleotide pairs, contained in a single circular molecule of DNA that codes for about 4300 different kinds of proteins

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The faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC.

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second century BC onwards, while greatly extending its power beyond Italy. This was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was briefly perpetual dictator before being assassinated. <span>The faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citizen") with proconsular imperium, thus beginning the Principate (the first epoch of Roman imperial his




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In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citizen") with proconsular imperium, thus beginning the Principate (the first epoch of Roman imperial history, usually dated from 27 BC to AD 284), and gave him the name "Augustus" ("the venerated").

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by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. <span>In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citizen") with proconsular imperium, thus beginning the Principate (the first epoch of Roman imperial history, usually dated from 27 BC to AD 284), and gave him the name "Augustus" ("the venerated"). Though the old constitutional machinery remained in place, Augustus came to predominate it. Although the republic stood in name, contemporaries of Augustus knew it was just a veil and t




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Though the old constitutional machinery remained in place, Augustus came to predominate it. Although the republic stood in name, contemporaries of Augustus knew it was just a veil and that Augustus had all meaningful authority in Rome. [20] Since his rule ended a century of civil wars and began an unprecedented period of peace and prosperity, he was so loved that he came to hold the power of a monarch de facto if not de jure. During the years of his rule, a new constitutional order emerged (in part organically and in part by design), so that, upon his death, this new constitutional order operated as before when Tiberius was accepted as the new emperor.

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ceps ("first citizen") with proconsular imperium, thus beginning the Principate (the first epoch of Roman imperial history, usually dated from 27 BC to AD 284), and gave him the name "Augustus" ("the venerated"). <span>Though the old constitutional machinery remained in place, Augustus came to predominate it. Although the republic stood in name, contemporaries of Augustus knew it was just a veil and that Augustus had all meaningful authority in Rome. [20] Since his rule ended a century of civil wars and began an unprecedented period of peace and prosperity, he was so loved that he came to hold the power of a monarch de facto if not de jure. During the years of his rule, a new constitutional order emerged (in part organically and in part by design), so that, upon his death, this new constitutional order operated as before when Tiberius was accepted as the new emperor. The 200 years that began with Augustus's rule is traditionally regarded as the Pax Romana ("Roman Peace"). During this period, the cohesion of the empire was furthered by a de




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The 200 years that began with Augustus's rule is traditionally regarded as the Pax Romana ("Roman Peace"). During this period, the cohesion of the empire was furthered by a degree of social stability and economic prosperity that Rome had never before experienced. Uprisings in the provinces were infrequent, but put down "mercilessly and swiftly" when they occurred.

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ot de jure. During the years of his rule, a new constitutional order emerged (in part organically and in part by design), so that, upon his death, this new constitutional order operated as before when Tiberius was accepted as the new emperor. <span>The 200 years that began with Augustus's rule is traditionally regarded as the Pax Romana ("Roman Peace"). During this period, the cohesion of the empire was furthered by a degree of social stability and economic prosperity that Rome had never before experienced. Uprisings in the provinces were infrequent, but put down "mercilessly and swiftly" when they occurred. [21] The sixty years of Jewish–Roman wars in the second half of the 1st century and the first half of the 2nd century were exceptional in their duration and violence. [22] The succes




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The sixty years of Jewish–Roman wars in the second half of the 1st century and the first half of the 2nd century were exceptional in their duration and violence.

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of the empire was furthered by a degree of social stability and economic prosperity that Rome had never before experienced. Uprisings in the provinces were infrequent, but put down "mercilessly and swiftly" when they occurred. [21] <span>The sixty years of Jewish–Roman wars in the second half of the 1st century and the first half of the 2nd century were exceptional in their duration and violence. [22] The success of Augustus in establishing principles of dynastic succession was limited by his outliving a number of talented potential heirs. The Julio-Claudian dynasty lasted for




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The 200 years that began with Augustus's rule is traditionally regarded as the Pax Romana ("Roman Peace"). During this period, the cohesion of the empire was furthered by a degree of social stability and economic prosperity that Rome had never before experienced. Uprisings in the provinces were infrequent, but put down "mercilessly and swiftly" when they occurred.

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ot de jure. During the years of his rule, a new constitutional order emerged (in part organically and in part by design), so that, upon his death, this new constitutional order operated as before when Tiberius was accepted as the new emperor. <span>The 200 years that began with Augustus's rule is traditionally regarded as the Pax Romana ("Roman Peace"). During this period, the cohesion of the empire was furthered by a degree of social stability and economic prosperity that Rome had never before experienced. Uprisings in the provinces were infrequent, but put down "mercilessly and swiftly" when they occurred. [21] The sixty years of Jewish–Roman wars in the second half of the 1st century and the first half of the 2nd century were exceptional in their duration and violence. [22] The succes




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The success of Augustus in establishing principles of dynastic succession was limited by his outliving a number of talented potential heirs.

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ut put down "mercilessly and swiftly" when they occurred. [21] The sixty years of Jewish–Roman wars in the second half of the 1st century and the first half of the 2nd century were exceptional in their duration and violence. [22] <span>The success of Augustus in establishing principles of dynastic succession was limited by his outliving a number of talented potential heirs. The Julio-Claudian dynasty lasted for four more emperors — Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero — before it yielded in 69 AD to the strife-torn Year of Four Emperors, from which Vespas




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The Julio-Claudian dynasty lasted for four more emperors — Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero — before it yielded in 69 AD to the strife-torn Year of Four Emperors, from which Vespasian emerged as victor.

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century and the first half of the 2nd century were exceptional in their duration and violence. [22] The success of Augustus in establishing principles of dynastic succession was limited by his outliving a number of talented potential heirs. <span>The Julio-Claudian dynasty lasted for four more emperors — Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero — before it yielded in 69 AD to the strife-torn Year of Four Emperors, from which Vespasian emerged as victor. Vespasian became the founder of the brief Flavian dynasty, to be followed by the Nerva–Antonine dynasty which produced the "Five Good Emperors": Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoni




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Vespasian became the founder of the brief Flavian dynasty, to be followed by the Nerva–Antonine dynasty which produced the "Five Good Emperors": Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and the philosophically-inclined Marcus Aurelius.

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umber of talented potential heirs. The Julio-Claudian dynasty lasted for four more emperors — Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero — before it yielded in 69 AD to the strife-torn Year of Four Emperors, from which Vespasian emerged as victor. <span>Vespasian became the founder of the brief Flavian dynasty, to be followed by the Nerva–Antonine dynasty which produced the "Five Good Emperors": Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and the philosophically-inclined Marcus Aurelius. In the view of the Greek historian Dio Cassius, a contemporary observer, the accession of the emperor Commodus in 180 AD marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of rust a




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In the view of the Greek historian Dio Cassius, a contemporary observer, the accession of the emperor Commodus in 180 AD marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of rust and iron"[23]—a famous comment which has led some historians[ attribution needed ], notably Edward Gibbon, to take Commodus' reign as the beginning of the decline of the Roman Empire.

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espasian became the founder of the brief Flavian dynasty, to be followed by the Nerva–Antonine dynasty which produced the "Five Good Emperors": Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and the philosophically-inclined Marcus Aurelius. <span>In the view of the Greek historian Dio Cassius, a contemporary observer, the accession of the emperor Commodus in 180 AD marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of rust and iron" [23] —a famous comment which has led some historians [attribution needed] , notably Edward Gibbon, to take Commodus' reign as the beginning of the decline of the Roman Empire. [citation needed] In 212, during the reign of Caracalla, Roman citizenship was granted to all freeborn inhabitants of the empire. But despite this gesture of universality, the Severan




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In 212, during the reign of Caracalla, Roman citizenship was granted to all freeborn inhabitants of the empire. But despite this gesture of universality, the Severan dynasty was tumultuous — an emperor's reign was ended routinely by his murder or execution — and, following its collapse, the Roman Empire was engulfed by the Crisis of the Third Century, a period of invasions, civil strife, economic disorder, and plague.[24] In defining historical epochs, this crisis is sometimes viewed as marking the transition from Classical Antiquity to Late Antiquity. Aurelian (reigned 270–275) brought the empire back from the brink and stabilized it.

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kingdom of gold to one of rust and iron" [23] —a famous comment which has led some historians [attribution needed] , notably Edward Gibbon, to take Commodus' reign as the beginning of the decline of the Roman Empire. [citation needed] <span>In 212, during the reign of Caracalla, Roman citizenship was granted to all freeborn inhabitants of the empire. But despite this gesture of universality, the Severan dynasty was tumultuous — an emperor's reign was ended routinely by his murder or execution — and, following its collapse, the Roman Empire was engulfed by the Crisis of the Third Century, a period of invasions, civil strife, economic disorder, and plague. [24] In defining historical epochs, this crisis is sometimes viewed as marking the transition from Classical Antiquity to Late Antiquity. Aurelian (reigned 270–275) brought the empire back from the brink and stabilized it. Diocletian completed the work of fully restoring the empire, but declined the role of princeps and became the first emperor to be addressed regularly as domine, "master" or &q




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Diocletian completed the work of fully restoring the empire, but declined the role of princeps and became the first emperor to be addressed regularly as domine, "master" or "lord".[25] This marked the end of the Principate, and the beginning of the Dominate. Diocletian's reign also brought the empire's most concerted effort against the perceived threat of Christianity, the "Great Persecution". The state of absolute monarchy that began with Diocletian endured until the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire in 1453.

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order, and plague. [24] In defining historical epochs, this crisis is sometimes viewed as marking the transition from Classical Antiquity to Late Antiquity. Aurelian (reigned 270–275) brought the empire back from the brink and stabilized it. <span>Diocletian completed the work of fully restoring the empire, but declined the role of princeps and became the first emperor to be addressed regularly as domine, "master" or "lord". [25] This marked the end of the Principate, and the beginning of the Dominate. Diocletian's reign also brought the empire's most concerted effort against the perceived threat of Christianity, the "Great Persecution". The state of absolute monarchy that began with Diocletian endured until the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire in 1453. [citation needed] Diocletian divided the empire into four regions, each ruled by a separate emperor, the Tetrarchy. [26] Confident that he fixed the disorders that were plaguing Rome




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Diocletian divided the empire into four regions, each ruled by a separate emperor, the Tetrarchy.[26] Confident that he fixed the disorders that were plaguing Rome, he abdicated along with his co-emperor, and the Tetrarchy soon collapsed.

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s most concerted effort against the perceived threat of Christianity, the "Great Persecution". The state of absolute monarchy that began with Diocletian endured until the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire in 1453. [citation needed] <span>Diocletian divided the empire into four regions, each ruled by a separate emperor, the Tetrarchy. [26] Confident that he fixed the disorders that were plaguing Rome, he abdicated along with his co-emperor, and the Tetrarchy soon collapsed. Order was eventually restored by Constantine the Great, who became the first emperor to convert to Christianity, and who established Constantinople as the new capital of the eastern emp




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Order was eventually restored by Constantine the Great, who became the first emperor to convert to Christianity, and who established Constantinople as the new capital of the eastern empire. During the decades of the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties, the empire was divided along an east–west axis, with dual power centres in Constantinople and Rome.

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Diocletian divided the empire into four regions, each ruled by a separate emperor, the Tetrarchy. [26] Confident that he fixed the disorders that were plaguing Rome, he abdicated along with his co-emperor, and the Tetrarchy soon collapsed. <span>Order was eventually restored by Constantine the Great, who became the first emperor to convert to Christianity, and who established Constantinople as the new capital of the eastern empire. During the decades of the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties, the empire was divided along an east–west axis, with dual power centres in Constantinople and Rome. The reign of Julian, who attempted to restore Classical Roman and Hellenistic religion, only briefly interrupted the succession of Christian emperors. Theodosius I, the last emperor to




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The reign of Julian, who attempted to restore Classical Roman and Hellenistic religion, only briefly interrupted the succession of Christian emperors.

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
nd who established Constantinople as the new capital of the eastern empire. During the decades of the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties, the empire was divided along an east–west axis, with dual power centres in Constantinople and Rome. <span>The reign of Julian, who attempted to restore Classical Roman and Hellenistic religion, only briefly interrupted the succession of Christian emperors. Theodosius I, the last emperor to rule over both East and West, died in 395 AD after making Christianity the official religion of the empire. [27] [imagelink] The Roman Empire by




#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
Theodosius I, the last emperor to rule over both East and West, died in 395 AD after making Christianity the official religion of the empire.

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
re was divided along an east–west axis, with dual power centres in Constantinople and Rome. The reign of Julian, who attempted to restore Classical Roman and Hellenistic religion, only briefly interrupted the succession of Christian emperors. <span>Theodosius I, the last emperor to rule over both East and West, died in 395 AD after making Christianity the official religion of the empire. [27] [imagelink] The Roman Empire by 476 The Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate in the early 5th century as Germanic migrations and invasions overwhelmed the capaci




CLIPP 11 - Kawasaki
#ir #peds
11. 5-year-old with fever and adenopathy - Jason
January 27, 2017 2:09:56 PM EST
Knowledge
Irritability in a Child
Irritability may be the only way that a young child can express pain or discomfort from any source,
including:
Meningeal irritation
Headache from intracranial irritation
Simple exhaustion
Pediatric Vital Signs
As a child gets older, the normal ranges for vital signs change, making it important to look at ageappropriate
reference values.
The normal heart rate for a 5-year-old is 80 to 100 beats per minute.
Rashes Associated with Fever (Part 1)
Children get many different kinds of rashes-many, though not all, related to infections. Below are
descriptions and photos of rashes associated with fever.
Cho Sooyoung - sooyoung.cho@mail.utoronto.ca 1/15
Enterovirus
Usually erythematous and maculopapular, and may involve the palms and
soles. Infrequently, it can be petechial.
In hand-foot-and-mouth disease (caused by Coxsackie virus), presents as a
vesicular rash on the hands and feet and with ulcers in the mouth.
Usually seen in late summer and early fall.
While the fever associated with enteroviruses may be high, it usually lasts only
a few days.
Erythema
infectiosum
Also called fifth disease, this is caused by parvovirus B19.
There is frequently an associated low-grade fever (37.8-38.3 degrees C, or
100-101 degrees F), with a rash appearing seven to ten days later.
The characteristic rash starts as facial erythema-the "slapped cheek"
appearance. This can spread to the trunk and have an erythematous macular
appearance. Central clearing of the rash appears, giving a lacy appearance.
The rash often lasts longest on the extremities, where it has a lacy, reticular
appearance.
People with fifth disease can also develop pain and swelling in their joints
(polyarthropathy syndrome).
Individuals with underlying immune deficiencies who are exposed to this virus
are at risk for developing aplastic anemia.
Measles
After a prodrome of fever (over 38.3 C, or 101 F), cough, coryza, and
conjunctivitis, this maculopapular rash starts on the neck, behind the ears, and
along the hairline.
The rash spreads downward, reaching the feet in two or three days.
The initial rash appears on the buccal mucosa as red lesions with bluish white
spots in the center (known as Koplik spots). These have frequently
disappeared by the time the patient presents to medical attention.
Immunization is very effective in preventing this infection.
All photos in this case showing disease manifestations are courtesy of Gary Williams, MD, and the
University of Wisconsin teaching file.
Hyperlink "hands "
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2/15
Hyperlink "feet "
This Multimedia material is not included in this Summary, please open Case to review.
Hyperlink "ulcers in the mouth "
This Multimedia material is not included in this Summary, please open Case to review.
Hyperlink " Erythema infectiosum "
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Hyperlink " Measles "
This Multimedia material is not included in this Summary, please open Case to review.
Rashes Associated with Fever (Part 2)
Meningococcemia
Caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis, onset is abrupt and
accompanied by fever, chills, malaise, and prostration.
The initial rash may be urticarial, maculopapular, or petechial (marked
by small, purplish, hemorrhagic spots).
In fulminant cases, it can become purpuric, marked by large
hemorrhages into the skin.
Immunization is effective in preventing this infection.
Roseola
This macular or maculopapular rash, also called exanthem subitum,
starts on the trunk...

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Tricking Kids into the Perfect Exam: Tips for Evaluating the Pediatric Patient
#ir #peds
Tricking Kids into the Perfect Exam:
Tips for Evaluating the Pediatric Patient
While pediatric patients may be small,
they often can be as intimidating to us
as we are to them. The factors that add
to this anxiety are relative inexperience
with children compared to adult patients,1
and the inability of younger patients
to communicate or cooperate with the
physical exam. While each physician
may vary with style points and favorite
tricks, here are a few tips for the pediatric
physical exam to improve your interaction
and comfort level.
One of the fi rst tasks as an emergency
physician is to put the patient at ease. Talk
to the child as well as the parents. For
older children, introduce yourself to them
fi rst before the parents and sit down on
the bed or chair as to not tower over them.
Try to facilitate the relationship and open
up communication by noticing something
cool about them (i.e. light-up shoes, Dora
T-shirt or fun toy).
While doing the actual physical exam, try
to use the parent’s lap as much as possible
as the child is most comfortable there. To
distract and calm them, consider telling
them a story throughout the exam or try
to make the physical exam a game – play
with the instruments. Finally, consider
having something fun in your pocket such
as stickers or a bubble-blowing pen to
make the experience more enjoyable.
In general, when evaluating any child,
observation is the best initial diagnostic
tool. The degree of alertness and
interaction, responsiveness to parents and
respiratory status are all valuable measures
of illness that may either suggest or
eliminate concerns of toxicity.
After observation, it is important to begin
the exam with auscultation of the heart
and lungs as this is usually when the child
is calm, quiet and most cooperative. Do
not forget that a negative lung auscultation
is not suffi cient to rule out signifi cant
pulmonary disease; the appearance of the
patient (tachypnea, respiratory distress) is
much more predictive.
Finally, always save the worst for last.
The last items to perform in the physical
exam should always be those things that
are most threatening to the child, including
looking in the ears and mouth.
Here are a few cases to illustrate the
importance of the physical exam and
emphasize other tips for evaluating those
age groups that provide the most anxiety
and diffi cult exam.
Newborn
Case 1: A 3-week-old male presented to the
emergency department for congestion and
cough. Mom stated that the infant was not
eating as well, but had normal wet diapers.
No fever noted at home or on exam.
As mentioned above, it is important to
observe the newborn. One of the best tips
is to undress and hold the baby. Holding
allows the clinician to assess multiple
things at once, including level of alertness,
respiratory status and tone. This initial
assessment gives the clinician a good
sense of “sick or not sick.”
It is also important to have the baby
undressed to do a careful examination,
looking for rashes, bruises, hair
tourniquets, etc. During the exam, this
newborn was observed to have an apneic
episode. The patient was admitted for
an evaluation that ultimately revealed a
diagnosis of pertussis.
Infant
Case 2: A 5-month-old male presented
with fever and fussiness. The patient
was seen fi ve days earlier with fever and
URI, diagnosed with otitis media and
discharged home with amoxicillin. Prior to
arrival, the patient had multiple episodes
of vomiting and decreased urine output.
Initial assessment revealed an illappearing,
febrile infant. While observing
the infant and beginning the physical
exam, it is important to place your hand...

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"HEADDS" Up on Talking With Teenagers
#ir #peds
Fifteen-year-old Matthew comes to your office for his annual examination. You last saw him a year ago, when his stepmother brought him in for his physical. For the first 10 minutes of that visit, the stepmother told you about Matthew's "attitude" toward--and "bad influence" on--the rest of the family. She reported that Matthew refused to talk to her or his father, alleged that he was spending all his time "instant messaging," and worried that he was watching pornography online.

Throughout that conversation, Matthew sat on the examination table in his boxer shorts, arms tightly folded, staring at the floor.

During the remaining 5 minutes left for the physical examination, Matthew refused to make eye contact and offered monosyllabic responses. Given the time limitations, you had asked Matthew whether he was using drugs, whether he had a girlfriend, and whether he was sexually active. His response was a firm "no." During the physical, Matthew refused to allow a genital examination.

As Matthew was leaving, you said: "Everything looks fine. Don't do drugs and stop drinking alcohol--they're bad for you. And always use a condom." You haven't heard from him again until today.

Having reviewed his chart, you brace yourself for another forced interaction with this teenager. You think, "I went into pediatrics to take care of babies, not to take care of obnoxious teenagers. What am I really supposed to talk about with this adolescent?"

Perhaps some aspects of this scenario sound familiar? Many pediatricians feel ill-equipped to meet the often complex needs of adolescents. Some physicians have a challenging time convincing teenagers to talk to them about anything. Others worry about opening a Pandora's box of issues that cannot fully be addressed. Given the time and reimbursement constraints facing primary care providers, the wish to avoid time-intensive patients is understandable.

Quality adolescent health care requires that the clinician address a myriad of social and emotional issues that can affect an adolescent's physical and mental well-being. This goes beyond simply ensuring that immunizations are current, listening for heart murmurs, and providing clearance for sports participation.

While time with patients is limited, pediatricians need to build a rapport that permits a glimpse into the adolescent's real concerns. In general, if a teen is treated with respect and addressed nonjudgmentally, he or she will learn to regard the physician as an ally.

Here I present a basic framework for obtaining the relevant psychosocial information that is important for maintaining a teenager's well-being.

BUILDING RAPPORT

The opening vignette underscores the importance of the following measures in establishing rapport with a teenager:

•When you enter the examination room, introduce yourself to the teenager first and shake hands before addressing the parent (if present).

•Take the history while the teenager is dressed and ask him to disrobe only for the examination.

•Face the adolescent and maintain eye contact as much as possible while listening to the parent. If the teenager perceives that he is the central person in the doctor- patient relationship, he will feel respected and will be more likely to trust you.

•When the parent has a laundry list of concerns, make sure to interject occasionally and politely ask the adolescent whether he shares those concerns, which can be addressed one-on-one with the teenager later in the visit.

With a new patient and family, I find it invaluable to discuss confidentiality up front. I usually say, "At this office, we encourage teens be honest with their doctor. It helps ensure that health concerns and questions are addressed. It also helps teens prepare for a rapidly approaching adulthood, when they will have to know how to discuss health concerns with their physician. Occasionally, we...

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Approach to Pediatric Vital Signs
#ir #peds
Intro
Hi everyone, my name is Chris Novak and I’m a medical student at the University of
Alberta. This podcast was developed with Dr. Melanie Lewis, a general pediatrician and
Associate Professor at the University of Alberta and Stollery Children’s Hospital in
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada and Dr. Peter Gill, a pediatric resident at the Hospital for
Sick Children and University of Toronto. This podcast is designed to give an approach
to the interpretation of vital signs in children.
To start, let’s look at a clinical case – You are a medical student on an inpatient
pediatric unit. You have been assigned to look after a 12 month-old male admitted with
bronchiolitis. Before entering the patient’s room you look at the record of the patient’s
vitals. His HR is 120, RR 36, BP is 85/37, he has a tympanic temperature of 36.60
C
and oxygen saturation of 92% on room air. How do you interpret these vital signs and
what do they tell you about your patient’s clinical status?
The interpretation of vital signs in pediatrics can be a confusing topic for learners.
Normal values for vital signs may vary with age, gender, height, level of anxiety and the
technique that you use measure them. Therefore, vital signs have to be interpreted as a
continuum that depends on the clinical context. The objectives of this podcast are the
following:
1) Develop an approach to interpretation of pediatric heart rate, respiratory rate,
blood pressure, temperature and oxygen saturation.
2) Understand how to accurately measure pediatric vitals and identify common
sources of error.
3) Understand broad trends of how vital signs change as a child ages.
A table of normal reference ranges is included in the supplementary materials at
PedsCases.com. Numerous bodies have worked to create normal reference ranges for
vital signs in different age groups, however there is some disagreement between groups
as to what is truly normal. Recent research suggests that many normal ranges for
PedsCases Podcast Scripts
This is a text version of a podcast from Pedscases.com on the “Approach to Pediatric Vital Signs.” These podcasts are
designed to give medical students an overview of key topics in pediatrics. The audio versions are accessible on iTunes
or at www.pedcases.com/podcasts.
Developed by Chris Novak, Dr. Mel Lewis and Dr. Peter Gill for pedscases.com
February 15, 2015
pediatric vital signs may need to be updated, but for now current reference ranges are
used in practice and in resuscitation protocols. All values referenced in this podcast
come from the Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines. A good approach to
pediatric vital signs is to keep an approximate normal value in mind, and to always
interpret vitals based on the clinical context. For example, in a toxic-appearing child, an
elevated HR or RR would be suggestive of sepsis, but those same vital signs may be
normal in a child who is scared or agitated.
Heart Rate
Measuring a pulse is one of the oldest physical exam techniques with reports dating
back to Ancient Egypt in 3500 BC where physicians would use the pulse as a sign of
advancing disease. The heart rate is of equal importance today and can tell us much
about a patient’s clinical status.
Measurement: The HR can be determined by feeling a peripheral pulse, or by direct
auscultation of the heart to determine an apical rate. For accurate measurement, you
can count the pulse for 30 seconds and then multiply this number by two. You may also
get the heart rate from an external monitor, pulse oximeter or blood pressure machine,
but you can gain additional information by feeling the strength, contour and regularity of
a pulse. A heart rate should be measured when a patient is either at rest or asleep.
Separate reference ranges exist for children who are awake and sleeping.
Trends with Age: Resting heart ra...

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Highlight doc Day 1
#ir #peds
  1. BIOETHICS:
  • Informed Consent (c.f. assent): 1) appropriate info 2) decision-making capacity 3) voluntariness (←the 3 hallmarks of informed consent)
    • Confidentiality
      • Age not a factor
      • Unless teen is
        • Suicidal, homicidal, has thoughts of self-harm/harming others
        • <16yo w/ hx of current/past abuse
        • Disclosure of abuse & children <16yo in home
    • Capacity & consent
      • Capable if
        • Able to UNDERSTAND info relevant to making decision re: tx
          • Eg I’ll lose my leg if I don’t manage my DM
        • And able to APPRECIATE consequences of a decision
          • Eg of no appreciation: That’s in the future so I don’t care if I’ll lose my leg, I want to live my life now
      • Assume everyone’s capable.
        • Don’t assume incapability b/c
          • Age, Refusal/Disagreement w/ tx, Request for alt tx, Psych/neuro dx, Disability
      • Healthcare decisions for ped pts should be made jointly by health care team, parents, & child/adoles to varying deg
    • Assent = children given info they understand & some appropriate choice in tx
  • Sexual consent (Ontario): 12-13yo ± 2, 14-15yo ± 5, 16yo (no porn, prostitution, authority)
  1. ETHICAL PRINCIPLES
  • Mother doesn’t want her child to be vaccinated. Which ethical principle would you apply to give the vaccine to the child who doesn’t have capacity? Why would you honour mom’s wishes – 2 reasons?
  • Capacity (assumed, each decision): 1) understand relevant info (risks, benefits) 2) appreciate consequences
  • Disagree: 1) best interests of the child (non-maleficence, beneficence), 2) justice
  • Agree: 1) best interests of the child (non-maleficence, beneficence), 2) family centred-care
  • Best interests of child: looking at their interests broadly & not focusing exclusively on biomed facts; value judgment; harm-benefit balance
  • Family centered-care: triadic model of therapeutic relationship; child’s best interest trumps FCC
  • 9yo with HIV, parents do not want child to know Dx. Give 2 reasons to support parents, 2 reasons to support informing the child. How would this change if he was 12yo?
  • Agree: 1) best interests of the child (non-maleficence, beneficence), 2) family centred-care
  • Disagree: 1) best interests of the child (non-maleficence, beneficence), 2) child autonomy
  • ↑age: makes it more likely that child has capacity (developing child autonomy)
  • Child’s need for info should be paramount vs parents’ wishes
  • Developing autonomy of child: fluctuating autonomy, stability of values, dependence on & influence of fam
  • 6yo ♂ comes to you sick. You do some blood tests on him and learn that he as HIV. What are arguments for and against disclosure?
  • (See above)
  • 2wk has fever, irritability and appears sick (standard, run-of-the-mill, staple ethics question which is always good to have on any mind-exhausting end-of-rotation exams ;-). You want to do LP, but mom refuses, saying her mother, herbalist, will treat the child. Give an advantage of doing the LP (1 mark), a disadvantage of doing the LP (1 mark), 2 strategies of dealing with the situation (assuming LP indicated) and 2 rationales (picked from list of 6 principles that the professor asked us to memorize for the exam) (4 marks), and give 2 resources
...

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Highlight doc Day 2 - maltx
#ir #peds
  1. MALTREATMENT: phys/emo/sex/neglect/exploitationàactual/potential harm to child’s health/survival/development/dignity within relationship of responsibility/trust/power
  • Child isn't walking, but XR shows spiral fracture in femur. What's next?
  • MCQ: full body XR
  • Suspected child abuse: when are you suspicious, what to ask on Hx, and what is Tx?
  • Red Flags: inj inconsistent w/ hx (mechanism, force, age/developmental stage), hx inconsistent/changes, medical attn delay, multiple inj, different age inj, bruises (non-amb bruises, well-cushioned, patterned), # (non-amb, different ages, location)
    • Fractures: metaphyseal/ribs/scapula/vertebrae/sternum/mult skull #s
  • Hx: events leading up to injury
    • Location & time, who present, detailed events, child’s response, caregiver’s response, other children at risk, relevant PHx
  • Thorough O/E (completely undress): head, skin (ears, genitalia, buttocks), neuro (fontanelle, HC, fundi), mouth (frenulum), abdo, msk (swelling, pain), g/u (by specialized team)
    • Palpate everywhere
  • Document all injuries on a body diagram: type, location, size, shape, colour, pattern
  • Photography of skin injuries is ideal (police or hospital camera)
  • Ix (suspected non-accidental in non-ambulating children/infants): skeletal survey (all <2yo if NAI suspected), CT head, direct ophthalmoscopy, labs for occult trauma (AST, ALT, lipase, UA)
    • Fractures: bone density on XR, Ca2+, Mg2+, Phos, ALP, PTH, VIT D
      • Ddx: accidental inj, osteogenesis imperfecta, Menkes dz, osteopenia (rickets, prematurity, meds), osteomyelitis, bone tumours
  • Bruising: CBC, diff, smear, INR, PTT, von Willebrand, clotting factors VII, IX, X, XIII.
    • Ddx: accidental inj, bleeding d/o (ITP, thrombocytopenia, hemophilia), connective tissue d/o (Ehlers Danlos), Mongolian spots, folk healing practices, phytophotodermatitis, ink/paint
  • Intracranial bleed: bruising workup + urine organic acids
    • head trauma often missed b/c: non-specific sx’s (vomiting, crying, irritable)
  • Sexual abuse: STIs
  • r/o other causes (ddx)
  • CAS duties: 1) report (reasonable grounds to suspect needs protection) 2) ongoing report (additional reasonable grounds) 3) no delegation
    • àinvestigation (CAS (safety) + police (criminal charges))
  • How to report
    • Provide basis for suspicion, address, religion, relationship w/ offender, other children
  • A father is known to hit his son for discipline. The child says his dad hits him with a ruler. Father says he hits his son only with a hand. How can you tell O/E how the child was hit? Is this discipline or child abuse?
  • O/E: shape of imprint/bruise, type of injury
  • Abuse: potentially meets definition (depends on injury)
  • Child abuse (2 MCQ questions, what tests would you do; can't remember scenario)
  • (See above)
  • You "see bruises on infant" and also that the mother says infant "fell from a table" (the question stem does not make it clear at first that this is abuse, as is typical of all abuse stems), and it is highly likely that this is child abuse (however there is still a chance that I'm wrong and this is just simple knee fracture). 5 marks for Tx.
  • (See above)
  • 5mo ♀ brought into ER.
...

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Highlight doc Day 3 - imm
#ir #peds
  1. 2DTaP-IPV-HibPneu-C-13Rot-1
    4DTaP-IPV-HibPneu-C-13Rot-1
    6DTaP-IPV-Hib
    12Men-C-CPneu-C-13MMR
    15 Var
    18DTaP-IPV-Hib
    4-6Tdap-IPV MMRV
    Gr 7Men-C-ACYWHPV-4HB
    14-16Tdap
    Yr Infl
    Live (MMR + V)àSC
    Td q10y >24, Pneu q5y, shingles >65
    HEALTH SUPERVISION
    1. IMMUNIZATIONS (know Ontario immunization schedule)
      1. All IM excl MMR & V (SC) & Rota (oral)
  • “Do vaccines cause ASD?” How do you advise the parents? Discuss
    how you would calm mom's fear of autism in a child receiving MMR.
  • Understand concern: worries, understanding of dz risks &
Vaccine benefits & risks, validate why may have belief
  • if concerned re: ASD, discuss how original info was fraud &
no evidence to support link; give anecdotes of children
affected by vaccine-preventable dz’s
  • stick to msg: vaccines are safe & effective & serious dz can
be prevented w/ imm
  • vaccine benefits & risks, herd protection not 100% (tetanus from soil), ‘wait and see’ not good b/c many need mult doses & take time to protect
  • vaccine safety system: held to higher safety standard than drugs, usually approved in Canada after use in other countries
  • address pain assc w/ imm
  • don’t dismiss from practice if parents refuse: majority of parents accept when concerns addressed
  • Adverse reaction of MMR vaccine? (give 3)
  • MMR: measles rash (7-14d), ITP, parotitis, febrile seizure
    • Local: induration, tenderness, redness, swelling
    • Allergic: urticaria, rhinitis, anaphylaxis
    • Systemic: ↑T, rash, irritability, lymphadenopathy, arthr/myalgia, arthritis
    • CIs: moderate/severe illness ± fever (not mild URTI), component allergy
...

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Pediatrics for Dummies (Or Med Students)
#ir #peds
Introduction

One of the most anxiety-provoking experiences for medical students is pediatrics. Dealing with children brings special challenges and problems that are generally not encountered in other fields. In fact, I've seen intelligent, proficient students stopped dead in their tracks, intimidated by a willful 15-month-old, completely unsure of what to do next.

As students, you're still busy learning how to conduct a good physical exam, and it's hard enough to get an adult to breathe deeply in and out on command. But try it with a crying newborn, or a shy 2-year-old, and it suddenly gets even harder.

However, even if you are not planning on going into pediatrics or family practice, many different types of providers may still end up seeing children, particularly if they are working in areas without easy access to pediatric subspecialists. For example, it's not unusual for neurologists in smaller cities to see children since a pediatric neurologist may be a few hours away.

While frustrated clinicians will often document that an exam was difficult or impossible due to a crying or uncooperative child, we all know that the best care is delivered when we can do our best to elicit a good history and examination. In this article, I'll discuss some general tips and techniques that I've picked up over time that will not only make your (and your patient's) life easier, but will also help you deliver good-quality healthcare.

Many of the tips focus on the most difficult age group: 12-36 months. These children are still being seen fairly often for well-child exams and minor illnesses, and can make up the biggest challenge in terms of exam skills. Sometimes using these tricks with older children will work, but often they'll simply look at you like you're crazy.

Invest the time up front; it'll pay off in the end. Often, when we're in a rush, we'll leap right into a physical exam soon after walking into the room. For a young child, having a stranger come right in and begin touching him is frightening. Well-meaning parents may compound the problem by taking the child away from his toys or books and placing him up on the exam table the moment you walk in. Instead, walk in, say hello, and wave briefly at the child. Sit down and begin taking a history. This will allow the child to get used to your presence and also to see that you are talking with his parents -- if mom and dad are okay with you then you can't be all that bad.

Those who forget history are... History is tremendously important in pediatrics. Parents tend to know what's "normal" for their child. Don't be afraid to ask if what you're seeing is "usual" for their child, particularly if you haven't seen them before. Also, children can act very differently in your exam room; don't assume that because they're sitting quietly means that they aren't speaking yet -- or aren't throwing tantrums with alarming regularity at home.

It's okay to cry -- or cause it. I always take trying to get through an entire visit without frightening a child as a "little personal challenge," but it doesn't always work out. While no one likes having to deal with a screaming child, sometimes you have to. Keep in mind that infants will often cry for what appears to be no reason at all. Many students worry that the parents will think they are incompetent, but most parents will be too embarrassed about their child's behavior to focus on you. Also, don't take it personally: Remember that stranger anxiety starts around 9 months of age, peaking at 15 months.

Incidentally, auscultating lungs while a child is crying is indeed possible. Just remember that even when screaming at the top of their lungs, all children have to pause to take a deep breath so they can keep crying. That pause is your opportunity!

Be flexible -- in more ways than one. Don't be afraid to sit on the floor if that's where the child seems most comfortable. Also, be open to different ways of examination. Most ...

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#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
The Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate in the early 5th century as Germanic migrations and invasions overwhelmed the capacity of the Empire to assimilate the migrants and fight off the invaders.

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
errupted the succession of Christian emperors. Theodosius I, the last emperor to rule over both East and West, died in 395 AD after making Christianity the official religion of the empire. [27] [imagelink] The Roman Empire by 476 <span>The Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate in the early 5th century as Germanic migrations and invasions overwhelmed the capacity of the Empire to assimilate the migrants and fight off the invaders. [citation needed] The Romans were successful in fighting off all invaders, most famously Attila, [citation needed] though the empire had assimilated so many Germanic peoples of dubiou




#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
The Romans were successful in fighting off all invaders, most famously Attila,[ citation needed ] though the empire had assimilated so many Germanic peoples of dubious loyalty to Rome that the empire started to dismember itself.

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
Empire by 476 The Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate in the early 5th century as Germanic migrations and invasions overwhelmed the capacity of the Empire to assimilate the migrants and fight off the invaders. [citation needed] <span>The Romans were successful in fighting off all invaders, most famously Attila, [citation needed] though the empire had assimilated so many Germanic peoples of dubious loyalty to Rome that the empire started to dismember itself. [citation needed] Most chronologies place the end of the Western Roman Empire in 476, when Romulus Augustulus was forced to abdicate to the Germanic warlord Odoacer. [28] [better sourc




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Most chronologies place the end of the Western Roman Empire in 476, when Romulus Augustulus was forced to abdicate to the Germanic warlord Odoacer.

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omans were successful in fighting off all invaders, most famously Attila, [citation needed] though the empire had assimilated so many Germanic peoples of dubious loyalty to Rome that the empire started to dismember itself. [citation needed] <span>Most chronologies place the end of the Western Roman Empire in 476, when Romulus Augustulus was forced to abdicate to the Germanic warlord Odoacer. [28] [better source needed] By placing himself under the rule of the Eastern Emperor, rather than naming himself Emperor (as other Germanic chiefs had done after deposing past emperors




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By placing himself under the rule of the Eastern Emperor, rather than naming himself Emperor (as other Germanic chiefs had done after deposing past emperors), Odoacer ended the Western Empire by ending the line of Western emperors.

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e that the empire started to dismember itself. [citation needed] Most chronologies place the end of the Western Roman Empire in 476, when Romulus Augustulus was forced to abdicate to the Germanic warlord Odoacer. [28] [better source needed] <span>By placing himself under the rule of the Eastern Emperor, rather than naming himself Emperor (as other Germanic chiefs had done after deposing past emperors), Odoacer ended the Western Empire by ending the line of Western emperors. [citation needed] The empire in the East — often known as the Byzantine Empire, but referred to in its time as the Roman Empire or by various other names — had a different fate. It su




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The empire in the East — often known as the Byzantine Empire, but referred to in its time as the Roman Empire or by various other names — had a different fate. It survived for almost a millennium after the fall of its Western counterpart and became the most stable Christian realm during the Middle Ages.

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g himself under the rule of the Eastern Emperor, rather than naming himself Emperor (as other Germanic chiefs had done after deposing past emperors), Odoacer ended the Western Empire by ending the line of Western emperors. [citation needed] <span>The empire in the East — often known as the Byzantine Empire, but referred to in its time as the Roman Empire or by various other names — had a different fate. It survived for almost a millennium after the fall of its Western counterpart and became the most stable Christian realm during the Middle Ages. During the 6th century, Justinian I reconquered Northern Africa and Italy. But within a few years of Justinian's death, Byzantine possessions in Italy were greatly reduced by the Lombar




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During the 6th century, Justinian I reconquered Northern Africa and Italy. But within a few years of Justinian's death, Byzantine possessions in Italy were greatly reduced by the Lombards who settled in the peninsula.

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but referred to in its time as the Roman Empire or by various other names — had a different fate. It survived for almost a millennium after the fall of its Western counterpart and became the most stable Christian realm during the Middle Ages. <span>During the 6th century, Justinian I reconquered Northern Africa and Italy. But within a few years of Justinian's death, Byzantine possessions in Italy were greatly reduced by the Lombards who settled in the peninsula. [29] In the east, partially resulting from the destructive Plague of Justinian, the Romans were threatened by the rise of Islam, whose followers rapidly conquered the territories of Sy




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In the east, partially resulting from the destructive Plague of Justinian, the Romans were threatened by the rise of Islam, whose followers rapidly conquered the territories of Syria, Armenia and Egypt during the Byzantine-Arab Wars, and soon presented a direct threat to Constantinople.[30][31] In the following century, the Arabs also captured southern Italy and Sicily.[32] Slavic populations were also able to penetrate deep into the Balkans.[

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g the Middle Ages. During the 6th century, Justinian I reconquered Northern Africa and Italy. But within a few years of Justinian's death, Byzantine possessions in Italy were greatly reduced by the Lombards who settled in the peninsula. [29] <span>In the east, partially resulting from the destructive Plague of Justinian, the Romans were threatened by the rise of Islam, whose followers rapidly conquered the territories of Syria, Armenia and Egypt during the Byzantine-Arab Wars, and soon presented a direct threat to Constantinople. [30] [31] In the following century, the Arabs also captured southern Italy and Sicily. [32] Slavic populations were also able to penetrate deep into the Balkans. [citation needed] [imagelink] The Roman (Byzantine) Empire c. 1263. The Romans, however, managed to stop further Islamic expansion into their lands during the 8th century and




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The Romans, however, managed to stop further Islamic expansion into their lands during the 8th century and, beginning in the 9th century, reclaimed parts of the conquered lands.[33] In 1000 AD, the Eastern Empire was at its height: Basil II reconquered Bulgaria and Armenia, culture and trade flourished.

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0] [31] In the following century, the Arabs also captured southern Italy and Sicily. [32] Slavic populations were also able to penetrate deep into the Balkans. [citation needed] [imagelink] The Roman (Byzantine) Empire c. 1263. <span>The Romans, however, managed to stop further Islamic expansion into their lands during the 8th century and, beginning in the 9th century, reclaimed parts of the conquered lands. [33] In 1000 AD, the Eastern Empire was at its height: Basil II reconquered Bulgaria and Armenia, culture and trade flourished. [34] However, soon after, the expansion was abruptly stopped in 1071 with the Byzantine defeat in the Battle of Manzikert. The aftermath of this important battle sent the empire into a




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However, soon after, the expansion was abruptly stopped in 1071 with the Byzantine defeat in the Battle of Manzikert. The aftermath of this important battle sent the empire into a protracted period of decline.

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eir lands during the 8th century and, beginning in the 9th century, reclaimed parts of the conquered lands. [33] In 1000 AD, the Eastern Empire was at its height: Basil II reconquered Bulgaria and Armenia, culture and trade flourished. [34] <span>However, soon after, the expansion was abruptly stopped in 1071 with the Byzantine defeat in the Battle of Manzikert. The aftermath of this important battle sent the empire into a protracted period of decline. Two decades of internal strife and Turkic invasions ultimately paved the way for Emperor Alexios I Komnenos to send a call for help to the Western European kingdoms in 1095. [30] The




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Two decades of internal strife and Turkic invasions ultimately paved the way for Emperor Alexios I Komnenos to send a call for help to the Western European kingdoms in 1095.

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ture and trade flourished. [34] However, soon after, the expansion was abruptly stopped in 1071 with the Byzantine defeat in the Battle of Manzikert. The aftermath of this important battle sent the empire into a protracted period of decline. <span>Two decades of internal strife and Turkic invasions ultimately paved the way for Emperor Alexios I Komnenos to send a call for help to the Western European kingdoms in 1095. [30] The West responded with the Crusades, eventually resulting in the Sack of Constantinople by participants in the Fourth Crusade. The conquest of Constantinople in 1204 fragmented




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The West responded with the Crusades, eventually resulting in the Sack of Constantinople by participants in the Fourth Crusade.

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t battle sent the empire into a protracted period of decline. Two decades of internal strife and Turkic invasions ultimately paved the way for Emperor Alexios I Komnenos to send a call for help to the Western European kingdoms in 1095. [30] <span>The West responded with the Crusades, eventually resulting in the Sack of Constantinople by participants in the Fourth Crusade. The conquest of Constantinople in 1204 fragmented what remained of the Empire into successor states, the ultimate victor being that of Nicaea. [35] After the recapture of Constantinopl




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The conquest of Constantinople in 1204 fragmented what remained of the Empire into successor states, the ultimate victor being that of Nicaea.

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ed the way for Emperor Alexios I Komnenos to send a call for help to the Western European kingdoms in 1095. [30] The West responded with the Crusades, eventually resulting in the Sack of Constantinople by participants in the Fourth Crusade. <span>The conquest of Constantinople in 1204 fragmented what remained of the Empire into successor states, the ultimate victor being that of Nicaea. [35] After the recapture of Constantinople by Imperial forces, the Empire was little more than a Greek state confined to the Aegean coast. The Roman Empire finally collapsed when Mehme




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After the recapture of Constantinople by Imperial forces, the Empire was little more than a Greek state confined to the Aegean coast.

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es, eventually resulting in the Sack of Constantinople by participants in the Fourth Crusade. The conquest of Constantinople in 1204 fragmented what remained of the Empire into successor states, the ultimate victor being that of Nicaea. [35] <span>After the recapture of Constantinople by Imperial forces, the Empire was little more than a Greek state confined to the Aegean coast. The Roman Empire finally collapsed when Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Constantinople on 29 May 1453. [36] Geography and demography[edit] Main article: Demography of the Roman Empir




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The Roman Empire finally collapsed when Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Constantinople on 29 May 1453.

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ragmented what remained of the Empire into successor states, the ultimate victor being that of Nicaea. [35] After the recapture of Constantinople by Imperial forces, the Empire was little more than a Greek state confined to the Aegean coast. <span>The Roman Empire finally collapsed when Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Constantinople on 29 May 1453. [36] Geography and demography[edit] Main article: Demography of the Roman Empire Further information: Classical demography The Roman Empire was one of the largest in history, wi




Flashcard 1471591353612

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Question
[City?] was an "empire" long before it had an emperor.
Answer
Rome


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Rome was an "empire" long before it had an emperor.

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
he Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. <span>Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves (though with varying degrees of independence from the







Flashcard 1471593712908

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Question
Rome was a/an [What?] long before it had an emperor.
Answer
"empire"


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Rome was an "empire" long before it had an emperor.

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he Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. <span>Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves (though with varying degrees of independence from the







Flashcard 1471596072204

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#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
Question
Rome was an "empire" long before [What Happened?].
Answer
it had an emperor


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Rome was an "empire" long before it had an emperor.

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
he Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. <span>Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves (though with varying degrees of independence from the







Flashcard 1471600004364

Tags
#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
Question
[City?] did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC
Answer
Rome


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Rome did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC

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nk] [emptylink] Bust of Tiberius Julius Sauromates II (d. 210 AD), ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, <span>though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rul







Flashcard 1471603412236

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Question
Rome did not expand outside [Region?] until the 3rd century BC
Answer


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Rome did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC

Original toplevel document

Roman Empire - Wikipedia
nk] [emptylink] Bust of Tiberius Julius Sauromates II (d. 210 AD), ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, <span>though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rul







Flashcard 1471605247244

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#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
Question
Rome did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the [Period (Centuries)?]
Answer
3rd century BC


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Rome did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC

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nk] [emptylink] Bust of Tiberius Julius Sauromates II (d. 210 AD), ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, <span>though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rul







Flashcard 1471607082252

Tags
#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
Question
Which City's empire expanded beyond the Italian Peninsula in the 3rd Century BC?
Answer
Rome


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Rome did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
nk] [emptylink] Bust of Tiberius Julius Sauromates II (d. 210 AD), ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, <span>though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rul







Flashcard 1471611014412

Tags
#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
Question
Which Region did Rome expand beyond in the 3rd Century BC?
Answer


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Rome did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
nk] [emptylink] Bust of Tiberius Julius Sauromates II (d. 210 AD), ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, <span>though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rul







Flashcard 1471613373708

Tags
#ancient-history #history #roman-empire #rome #wiki
Question
During which century did Rome expand beyond the Italian Peninsula?
Answer
3rd century BC


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Rome did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC

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Roman Empire - Wikipedia
nk] [emptylink] Bust of Tiberius Julius Sauromates II (d. 210 AD), ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom in Roman Crimea, one of Rome's client states Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, <span>though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. [10] [11] [12] [13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rul







Nutrition
#has-images #ir #peds
  1. NUTRITION
  • Infant feeding (30cc/1oz): breast (20kcal/oz, 0.67kcal/cc), AVG need (100kcal/kg/d)
  • For a 9mo, select which foods can be introduced at this age? What are the normal feeding stages for a child?
  • 0-6mo: breast milk or formula, 2-4oz (60-120ml) per feed, 8-12 feeds/day, 20-25min per feed
  • 6-8mo: solid food introduction – do not delay beyond 9 mo
    • 2 to 3 new foods/wk with few days in between (monitoring allergies)
    • Suggested order: meat/alternatives/iron enriched cereal (rice cereal is least allergenic)àpureed vegetablesàfruit
    • Breast milk/formula (6-8oz, 3-5/day) + infant cereal/biscuit/vege/fruit/meat/beans
  • 8-12 mo: finger foods and switch to homogenized (3%) milk (9-12mo); breast/formula (6-8oz, 3-4/day) + cheese/yogurt, bread/pasta, infant cereal, veg/fruit, meat/beans
    • Foods to avoid: honey (risk of botulism), added sugar/salt, juice (not nutritious, too much sugar), anything that is a choking hazard (chunks, round foods like grapes)
  • >12mo: avoid excessive milk (i.e. <16 oz/d)
  • Wt often falters before length (if length ↓, chr)
  • Feeding milestones
    • 0-4mo: root, suck, swallow
    • 6mo: holds bottle/cup
    • 8-12mo: finger feed, chew
    • 12-18mo: uses cup, spoon
    • 18-24mo: likes eating w/ hands
    • 2-5y: food jags (fixated on few foods)
    • 4-5y: knife, fork, good self-eater

      Composition of Human Milk
      • Colostrum
      o Energy value
      o Increased sodium, potassium, chloride
      o Increased protein, fat‐soluble vitamins, minerals
      o High level of antibodies
      o Facilitates passage of meconium and establishment of Lactobacillus
      bifidus flora in infant’s gut
      • Mature Milk
      o Energy value (0.67 kcal/mL)
      o Fat (mainly triglycerides)
      o Carbohydrates (mainly lactose)
      o Protein (Whey>Casein)
      o Vitamins/Minerals (except Vitamin D)
Benefits of Breastfeeding
• Infants
o Maternal‐infant bonding
o Composition – digestible macronutrients
o Protection against infections (AOM, RSV infection, diarrhea)
o Passive immunity (macrophages, lymphocytes (IgA), lactoferrin,
lysozyme)
o Decreased incidence of SIDS
o Decreased allergies/atopy
• Maternal
o Decreased postpartum bleeding & faster uterine involution
o Lactational amenorrhea and delayed resumption of ovulation
o Earlier return to pre‐pregnancy weight
o Improved bone remineralization postpartum (and decreased hip
fracture in postmenopausal period)
o Decreased cost
o Ready availability without prep time

Contraindications to Breastfeeding
• Medical Disorders
o Baby: Galactosemia
‐ Absent liver enzyme galactose‐1‐phosphate uridyltransferase
‐ Unable to metabolize galactose, lactose (glucose + galactose)
‐ Without galactose restriction, leads to liver failure and mental
retardation
• Infections
o Mom: HIV, Human lymphotrophic virus (HTLV‐1 or HTLV‐2),
herpetic lesions on breast, active untreated TB
• Medications (www.motherrisk.org)
o Chemotherapy, immunosuppressants, lithium, ergot alkaloids,
radiopharmaceuticals, bromocriptine, iodides

Supplements Required When Breastfeeding
• Vitamin D
o Supplemental dosage: 400 IU/d
o Side effects w/out supplementation: Rickets/hypocalcemic seizure
37
Markers of Successful Breastfeeding
• ≤7% weight loss i...

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Growth
#has-images #ir #peds
  1. GROWTH
    1. Failure to Thrive: cross 2 %-tiles, wt <3%-tile, <80% ideal body wt
  • A 14yo ♂ with 1y Hx of FTT. He is pale and has diffuse abdominal pain. What are possible causes? What are 5 tests you would do to narrow your differential?
  • DDx: non-organic, celiac, IBD, CF, T1DM, haematologic, malignancy, liver disease, obstructive uropathy
  • Ix: CBC/Fe, celiac screen (tTGT), lytes, urea, Cr, TSH, U/A, Ca2+, Vit ADE
  • 14yo at 3rd %ile weight + 10th %ile height is not eating well. What are 3 possible causes?
  • See above
  • A full term baby presents with an eating disorder (i.e. FTT). What is your DDx?
  • ↓intake: non-organic, GERD, structural, CNS, genetic
  • ↓absorption: CF, CMPA, short gut, biliary atresia, GI
  • ↑loss: gastroenteritis
  • ↑demand: cardiac, ↑THY, infection, respiratory
  • Ineffective use: inborn error of metabolism
    1. Obesity
  • 14yo ♂ with weight of 67 kg, height 150cm.
  • Calculate BMI: 29.8 kg/m2
  • 4 complications of obesity: HTN, dyslipidemia, OSA, SCFE, nonEtOH fatty liver
  • 3 tests to perform for obesity: lipids, GLUC, HbA1c, ALT/AST, liver U/S
Newborn Growth Parameters
Weight
• At birth = 3.0‐3.5kg (avg)
• Normal to lose up to 10% of birth weight in first 4‐7 days
o BUT should return to birth weight no later than 10‐14 days
• Doubles birth weight by 4‐6 months; triples birth weight by 1 year
• Quadruples birth weight by 2 years
Head Circumference
• At birth = 35cm (avg)
o <32cm 􀃆 small head = small brain until proven otherwise
• May be inaccurate at birth due to caput succedaneum, molding
• 0‐3mths = +2cm/mth
• 3‐6mths =+1cm/mth
• 6‐12mths = +0.5cm/mth
Height
• At birth = 50cm (avg)
• Doubles height by 4 years
• Measure recumbent length until 2 years, then standing height

Normal Growth Velocity


Growth Charts
• Critical to use gender and age appropriate growth charts
• In 2010, the CPS, RCFPC and the Dieticians of Canada, recommended
the use of the 2006 WHO Growth Standards and Reference charts
• WHO Growth Standards based on longitudinal data from solely breast
fed for first six months, healthy children from diverse ethnic and
geographic backgrounds; use BMI after age 10.
• Growth charts are also available for premature infants and certain
syndromes
• Use corrected age up to 2 years for plotting premature infants

Failure to Thrive
Definition
• Weight < 3%ile (the further below the curve the more likely to be
pathologic in origin)
• Weight falls across major %ile lines
• Weight < 80% of ideal body weight*
* use appropriate growth charts for gender and certain genetic conditions
Factors Affecting Physical Growth
• Genetics
• Intrauterine factors
• "Internal time clock"
• Nutrition
• Endocrine hormones
• Chronic infections/diseases
• Psychosocial factors
Etiology
• Inadequate intake: insufficient provision of food, vomiting, oro‐motor
dysfunction
• Inadequate absorption: pancreatic insufficiency, celiac disease
• Increased utilization: chronic diseases, hyperthyroidism
• Ineffective utilization: chromosomal disorders
• Increased losses: chronic diarrhea, urinary losses
Differential Diagnosis
Nonorganic/
Psychosocial
Most common cause of FTT, often seen in conjunction with organic FTT
Specific ...

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Development
#has-images #ir #peds
  1. DEVELOPMENT [See chart]
    1. NORMAL
  • Case on child not toilet training: what is the likely reason?
  • Not yet interested in learning how, i.e. few signs present (requires physiologic, communication, psychologic)
  • 5yo has been developing normally, but his father has been concerned he's been showing poor speech. What's the first Ix to do?
  • MCQ: audiology testing, NOT genetic testing
  • Developmental milestones for 6mo.
  • Normal: tripod sits, pivots in prone position, reaches/grasps objects, brings toy to mouth, babbles, squeals when excited, grunts in anger, stranger anxiety starts
  • Lists developmental progress for a 12mo, what type of delay does this child have - language, fine motor, gross motor, or global delay?
  • Normal: gets into sitting position without help, stands without support, walks while holding on, neat pincer grasp, places cubes in cup with release, releases ball with throw, says 2-3 words, understand simple requests and questions, uses facial expressions/actions/sounds to make needs known, responds to own name, separation anxiety begins
  • 3 yo development milestone (circle 8): I guess the biggest lesson I took away with me from this exam is from the key features section and this question in particular: listen to what your predecessors have to say about the exam in the past exams you see in this email account! When I saw, in one of the previous peds exam, that one is required to pick things out of a list of 20 development milestones, none of which appears in Toronto Notes, I did not take the warning seriously, and I'm forced to pay for my irreverence. I randomly circled 8 things and would be lucky if I can walk away with half the marks. So the lesson is that not only should you remember the short list of developmental milestones from Toronto Notes or the Peds handbook you got from year 2 for the short answers part, but you should also remember a longer, more exhaustive list of milestones from some other source for the key features version of the development milestonesànot true in 2015
  • Normal: walks upstairs using handrail, stands on one foot, rides tricycles, stacks 10 blocks, twists lid off jars, copies a circle, combines 5 or more words in a sentence, understands 2-3 step commands, recognizes colours, shares willingly some of the time, make-believe games, plays with others, listens to music or stories for 5-10 minutes, jumping on one foot, washes and dries own hands, dresses self independently except shoe laces, knows own sex, tells detailed stories, knows primary colours, speaks with plurals
  • Pick developmental milestones from a list (I think for a 3yo and another one for a 4yo?)
  • See above
  • Developmental Milestones achieved by 15 mo? 18mo? What about 6-10 yrs? 16 wks?
See chart

Developmental Milestones
There are four main areas of developement – gross motor, fine motor, language and social. All areas should be explored when exploring a
developmental history. The milestones cited are, on average, those at the 50th percentile for age.




Developmental Problems
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Documentation
#ir #peds
DOCUMENTATION
Admission Note (Template)
Paediatric History and Physical Examination (as previous), and:
INVESTIGATIONS
• Blood work: CBC, electrolytes, glucose, renal function, liver function
• Microbiology: blood, urine, CSF, nasal, stool cultures
• Imaging: x‐ray, ultrasounds, CT, MRI
• Pathology: if relevant
IMPRESSION/ASSESSMENT (IMP)
This is a (year old) (sex) [who is previously healthy] or [with a history of
XYZ] presenting with (brief summary of pertinent positive/ negative
symptoms on history, signs on physical examination and relevant
investigations) with a most likely diagnosis of _____________.
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS (DDX)
May chose to use broad categories by system or process when considering
specific diagnoses (i.e., use of VITAMINS ACD acronym)
Vascular, Infectious/Inflammatory, Traumatic/Toxin, Autoimmune/
Acquired, Metabolic/Medication, Iatrogenic/Idiopathic, Neoplastic, Social,
Allergic, Congenital, Degenerative, Endocrine
MANAGEMENT PLAN/ADMISSION ORDERS (PLAN)
• Admit: Admit to (your service) under (your consultant today).
• Diagnosis: This is what you suspect they have. (e.g., Asthma)
• Diet: DAT (diet as tolerated) NPO (nothing per os/by mouth; if going
for surgery or procedures), Breast feed ad lib, Formula, Tube feeds
(NG‐tube, G‐tube, GJ‐tube)
• Activity: AAT (Activity as Tolerated), bedrest
• Vital Signs: VS (Vital Signs q8‐12h = HR, RR, BP, O2 sat, Temp), VS
q4h (if particularly sick patient requiring more frequent vitals),
Special parameters (e.g., Neurological vitals)
• Monitoring: ECG, oxygen saturation, Ins & Outs, daily weights
• Investigations
o Bloodwork (Hematology, Biochemistry)
o Microbiology
o Imaging
o Consults
• Drugs
o Past: Medication Reconciliation – all regular medications (may not
need all; e.g., no need for previous PO antibiotics if starting IV)
o Present: what does patient need now
o Future: anticipate what patient may need; e.g., fever, nausea, pain,
stools

Progress Note (Template)
(Service) Progress Note
Date, Time
ID
Age, sex with a history of (non‐active/chronic issues) admitted with (list
active/acute issues for why the patient is admitted). Could also include a
list of recent events that occurred since the most recent note.
SUBJECTIVE
• How was patient overnight, how they feel that day, any new concerns
from the patient/parent
• What has changed since the previous note? Does the patient have any
new symptoms? Any pain? How is the patient coping with the active
symptoms, progression, better/worse.
• Ask the parents and patient’s nurse: behaviour, activity, sleep,
appetite, in and outs.
OBJECTIVE
Vitals: HR, BP, RR, SaO2, Temp, daily weight, pain
I/O: Inputs (Diet, IVF), Output (U/O, BM/Diarrhea, Vx, Drains), fluid
balance
General: what the patient is doing, appearance, behaviour, cognition,
cooperation, disposition
P/E: focused physical exam of system involved plus CVS, RESP, ABDO as it
is common for hospitalized patients to develop problems in these regions.
INVESTIGATIONS
New lab results, imaging or diagnostic tests/ interventions and relevant
results still pending
MEDS
Reviewed daily regarding changes such as new/held/discontinued/
restarted (e.g. Ampicillin day 2/10)
IMPRESSION/ASSESSMENT (IMP)
Summarize what the new findings mean, what progress is being made.
Stable vs. Unstable? Improved vs. Worsened? Waiting investigations/
consult? Differential diagnosis if anything has been ruled in/out?
PLAN (P)
1. Issue (1) 􀃆 plan (e.g., UTI on Day 2 of Empiric Abx, likely 14 day
course required, await urine C&S)
2. Issue (2) 􀃆 plan
3. Issue (3) 􀃆 plan
4. Disposition – plans for home, transfer

Discharge Summary (Template)
Check patient’s name, medical record n...

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Peds Hx
#ir #peds
Identifying Data (ID)
• Name, age (years + months), sex, race
• Individuals accompanying the patient and their relationship to patient
• Previously healthy or any known major diagnoses
Chief Complaint (CC)/Reason for Referral (RFR)
• In patient’s or parent’s words (include duration of symptoms)
History of Present Illness (HPI)
• Open‐ended question, allow parents or child to express their concerns
• Select key symptoms and expand (OPQRSTUVW+ARC):
o Onset (“When was your child last well?”), frequency, duration,
timing (intermittent vs. constant),
o Progression of illness over time (“What happened next?”)
o Quality of symptoms (description, character)
o Relieving and aggravating factors
o Severity of symptoms (quantity, visual analog scale)
o Timing and treatments sought out thus far
o U – “How is this illness affecting U?” (school, work, activities
missed)
o V – Déjà Vu: “Has this happened to you before”, similar past
episodes and treatment, outcome, complications
o What do you think is going on or what are you worried about?
o Associated Symptoms (e.g., if CC is vomiting, ask about abdominal
pain, diarrhea, fever etc.)
o Risk Factors (e.g., if CC is cough, ask about personal and family
history of asthma, eczema, atopy, allergies, exposure to smoking)
o Complications (e.g., if CC is sickle cell crisis, ask about transfusions,
chest crises, ICU admissions, major infections etc.)
• For any infectious disease symptoms always ask: recent exposures to
sick contacts (family, daycare, school), recent travel, recent antibiotic
use, animal or pet exposure
• Current hospital management: What has happened so far since you
arrived at the hospital? Treatments received, investigations, your
understanding of the plan for admission
Past Medical History (PMHx)
• Significant past or ongoing medical problems including:
o Acute illnesses requiring ER visits, antibiotics, hospitalization
o Chronic illnesses (e.g. asthma, diabetes, congenital heart disease)
o Surgeries
o Accidents or injuries
o Community resources/services involved or referrals in place (e.g.
speech and language, occupational therapy)
o Other physicians or specialists involved in care
Prenatal/Pregnancy History (Preg)
• Mother’s age
• Obstetrical history – GTPAL
• Current pregnancy – “How was your pregnancy?” Any complications?”
o Screening: blood group, Rh, DAT, HBsAg, Rubella, Syphilis, HIV, GBS
o Genetic screening: MSS, FTS, IPS, amniocentesis, special tests
o Ultrasounds
o Complications: illnesses, infections, bleeding, gestational diabetes
(GDM), gestational hypertension (GHTN),
• Medications, vitamins, iron, smoking, drinking, drug use
Labour and Delivery or Birth History (L&D)
• Gestational age at birth, birth weight
• Labour complications: prolonged rupture of membranes, maternal
temperature, fetal tachycardia, meconium
• Spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD), interventions required: forceps,
vacuum, caesarian section (C/S) and why
• Resuscitation: APGAR score, routine care, need for resuscitation, NICU
admission, duration
Newborn or Neonatal History (Neonatal)
• Common problems: jaundice, poor feeding, difficulty breathing,
cyanosis, seizures
Medications (MEDS)
• Current medications, purpose, start date, dose, duration, recent
changes and compliance
• Past medications taken for an extended period of time
• Over the counter (OTC), complementary and alternative products
(CAM), vitamins
Allergies
• Commonly no known drug allergies (NKDA)
• Medications, type of reaction (If anaphylactic then Medic alert, epipen)
• Environmental, seasonal, food
Immunizations
• Check if immunizations up to date (IUTD), any additional vaccines
given
• Ask to see immunization record
Developmental History
• Hav...

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