on 06-Feb-2019 (Wed)

Flashcard 1451178200332

Tags
#conversation-tactics #how-to-take-a-complement
Question
Why aint people comfortable with direct praise?
​We live in a passive society

When we avoid being direct in our lives, we have no idea what to do when we’re face-to-face with it.

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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Compliments are meant to make people feel better about themselves, which ultimately builds comfort and rapport.

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Conversation tactics are like the background music in a television scene. When they’re there, you don’t notice that everything is flowing smoothly. But when they’re gone, you notice (sometimes immediately)

Flashcard 1451599727884

Tags
#back-to-high-point #conversation-tactics
Question
What do you when talking about something else to callback the highpoint?
Just combine the two elements and capitalize on the high point you had from earlier

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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s. How do you callback to the wiener dog high point from earlier by referring to it in the context of jackets? Yeah, unfortunately, I can’t wear that type of jacket because I’m mostly similar to the wiener dog, remember? <span>Just combine the two elements and capitalize on the high point you had from earlier. How does this work to your favor? Well, when you refer to that point later in the conversation, it sends a message that you paid attention. You will come off as an extremely

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Flashcard 1456841559308

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
We face a paradox: Everything must appear civilized, decent, democratic, and fair.

But if we play by those rules too strictly,
[...]
we are crushed by those around us who are not so foolish.

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

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Today we face a peculiarly similar paradox to that of the courtier: Everything must appear civilized, decent, democratic, and fair. But if we play by those rules too strictly, if we take them too literally, we are crushed by those around us who are not so foolish.

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Flashcard 1464640081164

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
Question
In action, you can influence people to act the way you want them to act by getting them to agree and say ‘yes’ and take very small actions [...].

in the direction you want them to go in

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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In action, you can influence people to act the way you want them to act by getting them to agree and say ‘yes’ and take very small actions in the direction you want them to go in. Perhaps a long time before you get to the bigger decision you are actually aiming for. In practice, you can start by simply getting a person to say ‘yes’ and agree that they have acted

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Annotation 3805031304460

 #story-brand There are three questions potential customers must be able to answer within five seconds of looking at our website or marketing material: 1. What do you offer? 2. How will it make my life better? 3. What do I need to do to buy it?

Flashcard 3814647794956

Question
In linux, [...] [...] is used to generate stings at the command line or in a shell script using either a sequence specification or a comma separated list of items inside curly braces.

Brace expansion

^^ syntax is simple: {}

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
0.3 Expansion Expansion refers to the way bash modifies the command-line before executing it. bash performs several textual modifications to the command-line, proceeding in the following order: <span>Brace expansion We have already shown how you can use, for example, the shorthand touch file_{one,two,three}.txt to create multiple files file_one.txt , file_two.txt , and file_three.txt . This is know

Flashcard 3814661950732

Question
In linux, you have parameter TEXT with value "hithere", print out just the substring "the" from TEXT.

echo ${TEXT:2:3} ^^ note the special use of parameter expansion above ^^^ note that the first number, 2, is the starting index of string to start the substring from, and the second number, 3, is the length of substring. THIS IS DIFFERENT THAN PYTHON. ^^^^ To go to the end of substing, if you don't know length, just choose a very large length value, e.g. echo${TEXT:2:20000}

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
behavior of ${ VAR :- default } .${ VAR :? message } This will result in $VAR unless VAR is unset or null, in which case an error message containing message is displayed.${ VAR : offset } or <span>${ VAR : n : l } This produces the nth character of$ VAR and then the following l characters. If l is not present, then all characters to the right of the nth character are produced. This is useful for

Flashcard 3814695505164

Question

In linux, the [...] command is used when you have a command stored in a variable and you want to execute that command stored in the string.

For example:

[kevin@linux-box ~]$COMMAND="ls -l" [kevin@linux-box ~]$ [...] $COMMAND Answer eval status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 20. Advanced Shell Scripting ut can be irritating for the administrator. See your ~/.bashrc file for these settings. See also unalias . unalias command Removes an alias created with alias . alias -p Prints list of aliases. <span>eval arg ... Executes args as a line of shell script. exec command arg ... Begins executing command under the same process ID as the current script. This is most often used for shell scripts that ar Flashcard 3814698650892 Question In linux, the [...] built-in command is used when you want to run a command/program where the shell is replaced with that command, instead of a separate process being run (e.g. if you want user to run an applicaton but have no access to the shell, you use this build-in command to run the application from within the ~/.profile startup script, as follows): [...] appln-program Answer exec status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 20. Advanced Shell Scripting /.bashrc file for these settings. See also unalias . unalias command Removes an alias created with alias . alias -p Prints list of aliases. eval arg ... Executes args as a line of shell script. <span>exec command arg ... Begins executing command under the same process ID as the current script. This is most often used for shell scripts that are mere wrapper'' scripts for real programs. Flashcard 3814893948172 Tags #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #static-bilateral-contracting Question Static Bilateral Contracting Answer Contracting with two players in a one-shot game, i.e. without time being modelled status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 pdf cannot see any pdfs Annotation 3814897093900  #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #static-bilateral-contracting Theorem breaks down when there is a monopoly and the monopolist charges uniform prices status not read pdf cannot see any pdfs Annotation 3814900501772  #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #static-bilateral-contracting With asymmetric information, cannot do first degree price discrimination status not read pdf cannot see any pdfs Annotation 3814902074636  #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #static-bilateral-contracting to solve this problem, monopolists can attempt to give "information rents" to unlock gains from trades status not read pdf cannot see any pdfs Annotation 3814903909644  #reading-38-working-capital-management If the receivables turnover is significantly higher than the industry average, the number of days it takes the receivables to convert cash should be very low. status not read Open it If the receivables turnover is significantly higher than the industry average, the number of days it takes the receivables to convert cash should be very low. This is an indication that the company's credit policy may be too strict and that sales are being lost to peers because of this. The average days of receivables are only one component o Annotation 3814908628236  #story-brand People are looking for a philosophy they can embody or a series of steps they can take to solve their problems. status not read Open it " data-bubo-id="temp-selection">People are looking for a philosophy they can embody or a series of steps they can take to solve their problems. <span><span> Annotation 3814910201100  #reading-38-working-capital-management Inventories are less liquid than any other current assets and accordingly will have an effect on the company's ability to remain solvent in the short term. status not read Open it Current assets includes cash, account receivables, inventories, prepaid expenses and short-term marketable securities. Inventories are less liquid than any other current assets and accordingly will have an effect on the company's ability to remain solvent in the short term. Annotation 3814911773964  #reading-38-working-capital-management Current assets includes cash, account receivables, inventories, prepaid expenses and short-term marketable securities. status not read Open it Current assets includes cash, account receivables, inventories, prepaid expenses and short-term marketable securities. Inventories are less liquid than any other current assets and accordingly will have an effect on the company's ability to remain solvent in the short term. Annotation 3814916492556  #reading-38-working-capital-management Commercial papers are mostly issued by large, creditworthy companies as they can get the lowest cost of financing by issuing such paper. status not read Open it Commercial papers are mostly issued by large, creditworthy companies as they can get the lowest cost of financing by issuing such paper. Small companies with poor credit quality usually raise money by selling receivables. Receivables securitization is a higher cost of funds used by companies with poor credit quality. Com Annotation 3814918065420  #reading-38-working-capital-management Small companies with poor credit quality usually raise money by selling receivables. Receivables securitization is a higher cost of funds used by companies with poor credit quality. status not read Open it Commercial papers are mostly issued by large, creditworthy companies as they can get the lowest cost of financing by issuing such paper. Small companies with poor credit quality usually raise money by selling receivables. Receivables securitization is a higher cost of funds used by companies with poor credit quality. Commercial papers are usually used by non-banking corporates. Annotation 3814920949004  #reading-37-measures-of-leverage Companies with high financial leverage use bankruptcy laws and protection to change their capital structure and, once the restructuring is complete, can emerge as ongoing concerns. status not read Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it Companies with high operating leverage have less flexibility in making changes, and bankruptcy protection does little to help reduce operating costs. Companies with high financial leverage use bankruptcy laws and protection to change their capital structure and, once the restructuring is complete, can emerge as ongoing concerns. Original toplevel document Open it The difference between a company that reorganizes and emerges from bankruptcy and one that is liquidated is often the difference between operating and financial leverage. Companies with high operating leverage have less flexibility in making changes, and bankruptcy protection does little to help reduce operating costs. Companies with high financial leverage use bankruptcy laws and protection to change their capital structure and, once the restructuring is complete, can emerge as ongoing concerns. Annotation 3814923046156  #reading-38-working-capital-management Use of secondary sources may signal a company’s deteriorating financial health and provide liquidity at a high price—the cost of giving up a company asset to produce emergency cash. status not read Open it data-bubo-id="temp-selection">Use of secondary sources may signal a company’s deteriorating financial health and provide liquidity at a high price—the cost of giving up a company asset to produce emergency cash.<span> The last source, reorganization through bankruptcy, may also be considered a liquidity tool because a company under bankruptcy protection that generates operating cash will be liquid an Annotation 3814924619020  #reading-38-working-capital-management The last source, reorganization through bankruptcy, may also be considered a liquidity tool because a company under bankruptcy protection that generates operating cash will be liquid and generally able to continue business operations until a restructuring has been devised and approved. status not read Open it ealth and provide liquidity at a high price—the cost of giving up a company asset to produce emergency cash. <span>The last source, reorganization through bankruptcy, may also be considered a liquidity tool because a company under bankruptcy protection that generates operating cash will be liquid and generally able to continue business operations until a restructuring has been devised and approved. <span> Annotation 3814928026892  #Branding To know your customer is why it’s so important, when creating an inbound marketing campaign, to make sure that your site provides: 1) lots of content, and 2) targeted content. status not read Open it r bought three fly fishing rods from a sporting goods website, that should inform the types content you provide, which pages and products you show them, and which special offers you email them. <span>This is why it’s so important, when creating an inbound marketing campaign, to make sure that your site provides: 1) lots of content, and 2) targeted content. Providing content on a wide variety of different niche topics that apply to your industry gives you greater opportunity to figure out what their potential customers are interested in, b Annotation 3814931172620  #Branding Online, a brand has the ability to know enough about their customer’s history that they can automatically create segmented, personalized experiences for them. If, for example, a customer bought three fly fishing rods from a sporting goods website, that should inform the types content you provide, which pages and products you show them, and which special offers you email them. status not read Open it data-bubo-id="temp-selection">Online, a brand has the ability – nay, the obligation – to know enough about their customer’s history that they can automatically create segmented, personalized experiences for them. If, for example, a customer bought three fly fishing rods from a sporting goods website, that should inform the types content you provide, which pages and products you show them, and which special offers you email them.<span> This is why it’s so important, when creating an inbound marketing campaign, to make sure that your site provides: 1) lots of content, and 2) targeted content. Providing content on a wid Annotation 3814934580492  #reading-38-working-capital-management The goal of effective working capital management is to ensure that a company has adequate ready access to the funds necessary for day-to-day operating expenses, while at the same time making sure that the company’s assets are invested in the most productive way. status not read Open it data-bubo-id="temp-selection">The goal of effective working capital management is to ensure that a company has adequate ready access to the funds necessary for day-to-day operating expenses, while at the same time making sure that the company’s assets are invested in the most productive way.<span> But Insufficient access to cash could ultimately lead to severe restructuring of a company by selling off assets, reorganization via bankruptcy proceedings, or final liquidation of the Annotation 3814936153356  #reading-38-working-capital-management Insufficient access to cash could ultimately lead to severe restructuring of a company by selling off assets, reorganization via bankruptcy proceedings, or final liquidation of the company. On the other hand, excessive investment in cash and liquid assets may not be the best use of company resources. status not read Open it any has adequate ready access to the funds necessary for day-to-day operating expenses, while at the same time making sure that the company’s assets are invested in the most productive way. But <span>Insufficient access to cash could ultimately lead to severe restructuring of a company by selling off assets, reorganization via bankruptcy proceedings, or final liquidation of the company. On the other hand, excessive investment in cash and liquid assets may not be the best use of company resources. <span> Annotation 3814941134092  #story-brand All great stories are about survival—either physical, emotional, relational, or spiritual. status not read Open it " data-bubo-id="temp-selection">All great stories are about survival—either physical, emotional, relational, or spiritual.<span> The key is to make your company’s message about something that helps the customer survive and to do so in such a way that they can understand it without burning too many calories. </spa Annotation 3814942706956  #story-brand The key is to make your company’s message about something that helps the customer survive and to do so in such a way that they can understand it without burning too many calories. status not read Open it need to survive. All great stories are about survival—either physical, emotional, relational, or spiritual. <span>The key is to make your company’s message about something that helps the customer survive and to do so in such a way that they can understand it without burning too many calories. <span> Annotation 3814947425548  #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting This is an example of a screening model: asymmetric information- buyer knows his type but seller does not status not read pdf cannot see any pdfs Flashcard 3814948998412 Tags #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting Question This is an example of a [...]: asymmetric information- buyer knows his type but seller does not Answer screening model status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it This is an example of a screening model: asymmetric information- buyer knows his type but seller does not Original toplevel document (pdf) cannot see any pdfs Annotation 3814950571276  #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting Screening model: The general model with two types has hidden information on ”types”. The uninformed party (principal) moves first and designs a contract to maximize her returns. The informed party (agent) moves second. Contract allows the agent to self select status not read pdf cannot see any pdfs Flashcard 3814955552012 Tags #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting Question [...] model: The general model with two types has hidden information on ”types”. The uninformed party (principal) moves first and designs a contract to maximize her returns. The informed party (agent) moves second. Contract allows the agent to self select Answer Screening status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it Screening model: The general model with two types has hidden information on ”types”. The uninformed party (principal) moves first and designs a contract to maximize her returns. The informed part Original toplevel document (pdf) cannot see any pdfs Flashcard 3814956600588 Tags #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting Question Screening model: The general model with two types has hidden information on ”types”. The [...] moves first and designs a contract to maximize her returns. The informed party (agent) moves second. Contract allows the agent to self select Answer uninformed party (principal) status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it Screening model: The general model with two types has hidden information on ”types”. The uninformed party (principal) moves first and designs a contract to maximize her returns. The informed party (agent) moves second. Contract allows the agent to self select Original toplevel document (pdf) cannot see any pdfs Flashcard 3814957649164 Tags #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting Question Screening model: The general model with two types has hidden information on ”types”. The uninformed party (principal) moves first and designs a contract to maximize her returns. The [...] moves second. Contract allows the agent to self select Answer informed party (agent) status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it span> Screening model: The general model with two types has hidden information on ”types”. The uninformed party (principal) moves first and designs a contract to maximize her returns. The informed party (agent) moves second. Contract allows the agent to self select <span> Original toplevel document (pdf) cannot see any pdfs Annotation 3814958697740  #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting Monopolist produces quantity (or quality) q at cost c(q) (increasing and convex in q). Assume that transfer is a lump sum and not a price per unit. (we want to introduce non linear prices). If he sells quantity q for T then his profit = π = T − c(q). status not read pdf cannot see any pdfs Flashcard 3814960270604 Tags #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting Question Monopolist produces quantity (or quality) q at cost c(q) (increasing and convex in q). Assume that transfer is a lump sum and not a price per unit. (we want to introduce non linear prices). If he sells quantity q for T then his profit = [...]. Answer π = T − c(q) status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it at cost c(q) (increasing and convex in q). Assume that transfer is a lump sum and not a price per unit. (we want to introduce non linear prices). If he sells quantity q for T then his profit = <span>π = T − c(q). <span> Original toplevel document (pdf) cannot see any pdfs Annotation 3814963416332  #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting The monopolist does not know buyers valuation (WTP) for q units of the good, u(q, θ i ), I Monopolist knows the probability of θ H = 1 − β status not read pdf cannot see any pdfs Flashcard 3814964989196 Tags #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting Question The monopolist does not know buyers valuation (WTP) for q units of the good, u([...], I Monopolist knows the probability of θ H = 1 − β Answer q, θ i ) status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it The monopolist does not know buyers valuation (WTP) for q units of the good, u(q, θ i ), I Monopolist knows the probability of θ H = 1 − β Original toplevel document (pdf) cannot see any pdfs Annotation 3814966562060  #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting Assume that buyer preferences are of the special type: u(q, T , θ) = θ i v(q) − T (Consumer Surplus), v(q) is interpreted as Willingness to Pay for q with v 0 (q) > 0, v 00 (q) < 0 status not read pdf cannot see any pdfs Flashcard 3814968921356 Tags #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting Question Assume that buyer preferences are of the special type: u(q, T , θ) = θ i v(q) − T (Consumer Surplus), v(q) is interpreted as [...] for q with v 0 (q) > 0, v 00 (q) < 0 Answer Willingness to Pay status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it Assume that buyer preferences are of the special type: u(q, T , θ) = θ i v(q) − T (Consumer Surplus), v(q) is interpreted as Willingness to Pay for q with v 0 (q) > 0, v 00 (q) < 0 Original toplevel document (pdf) cannot see any pdfs Flashcard 3814970494220 Tags #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting Question Assume that buyer preferences are of the special type: u(q, T , θ) = θ i v(q) − T ([...]), v(q) is interpreted as Willingness to Pay for q with v 0 (q) > 0, v 00 (q) < 0 Answer Consumer Surplus status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it Assume that buyer preferences are of the special type: u(q, T , θ) = θ i v(q) − T (Consumer Surplus), v(q) is interpreted as Willingness to Pay for q with v 0 (q) > 0, v 00 (q) < 0 Original toplevel document (pdf) cannot see any pdfs Annotation 3814972067084  #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting Benchmark case: Suppose types are known. What package should be offered if we are interested in maximizing the gains from trade (not the profits of the monopolist) ? This is equivalent to choosing packages (q i , T i ) to maximize θ i v(q i ) − c(q i ) status not read pdf cannot see any pdfs Flashcard 3814975737100 Tags #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting Question Benchmark case: Suppose types are known. What package should be offered if we are interested in maximizing the gains from trade (not the profits of the monopolist) ? This is equivalent to [...] Answer choosing packages (q i , T i ) to maximize θ i v(q i ) − c(q i ) status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it span> Benchmark case: Suppose types are known. What package should be offered if we are interested in maximizing the gains from trade (not the profits of the monopolist) ? This is equivalent to <span>choosing packages (q i , T i ) to maximize θ i v(q i ) − c(q i ) <span> Original toplevel document (pdf) cannot see any pdfs Annotation 3814977309964  #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting First Order conditions for maximization: θ H v 0 (˜q H ) = c, θ L v 0 (˜q L ) = c. status not read pdf cannot see any pdfs Flashcard 3814978882828 Tags #aea #game-theory #hidden-information #microeconomics #static-bilateral-contracting Question First Order conditions for maximization: [...]. Answer $${\theta_H}{v '}(\tilde{q}_H)=c$$ $${\theta_L}v'(\tilde{q}_L)=c$$ status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Parent (intermediate) annotation Open it First Order conditions for maximization: θ H v 0 (˜q H ) = c, θ L v 0 (˜q L ) = c. Original toplevel document (pdf) cannot see any pdfs Flashcard 3816928972044 Question In linux, in shell scripting, you have variable, x, whose value you want to set to 2, assume you are within a function and you want that x's scope to only include enclosed function, declare x: Answer local x=2 ^^ note the use of the local shell built-in command status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 20. Advanced Shell Scripting cripts that are mere wrapper'' scripts for real programs. The wrapper script sets any environment variables and then exec s the real program binary as its last line. exec should never return. <span>local var = value Assigns a value to a variable. The resulting variable is visible only within the current function. pushd directory and popd These two commands are useful for jumping around directories. Flashcard 3817734540556 Question In linux, the [...] command can be used instead of cd , but unlike cd , the directories you change to is saved onto a list of directories so you can go back to them easily, with sister command [...] <-- looking for two different occultions here Answer pushd and popd ^^ this is nice way to navigate directories with keeping track of history (note: will only last in current shell) ^^^ example usage: pushd /etc pushd ~/ktest popd <-- you are now back in /etc status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 20. Advanced Shell Scripting = value Assigns a value to a variable. The resulting variable is visible only within the current function. pushd directory and popd These two commands are useful for jumping around directories. <span>pushd can be used instead of cd , but unlike cd , the directory is saved onto a list of directories. At any time, entering popd returns you to the previous directory. This is nice for navigation since it keeps a history of wherever you have been. printf format args ... This is like the C printf function. It outputs to the terminal like echo but is useful for more complex formatting of output. See printf (3) for details and try p Flashcard 3818480602380 Question In linux, you have variable declared: x=2, print out the value of x with 2 decimal points (i.e. 2.00), on a single line followed by newline. Answer printf "%0.2f\n"$x

^^ note the use of the printf build-in shell command

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
directory is saved onto a list of directories. At any time, entering popd returns you to the previous directory. This is nice for navigation since it keeps a history of wherever you have been. <span>printf format args ... This is like the C printf function. It outputs to the terminal like echo but is useful for more complex formatting of output. See printf (3) for details and try printf "

Flashcard 3818484272396

Question

In linux, if you have a given command, how do you find out if that command is an alias (e.g. alias lsl="ls -l"), a system executable (e.g. cp), or a built-in shell command (e.g. source or printf)? Complete:

[...] <command>

type

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
executing a shell script when environment variables set by that script must be preserved. times Prints the accumulated user and system times for the shell and for processes run from the shell. <span>type command Tells whether command is an alias, a built-in or a system executable. ulimit Prints and sets various user resource limits like memory usage limits and CPU limits. See bash (1) f

Flashcard 3818487942412

Question
In linux, issue command to see (as current logged in user) how much system resources you can consume (i.e. max number of processes you can run, max number of files you can open, etc.)?

ulimit -a

^^ note the use of the ulimit built-in shell command

^^^ note the -a flag to list all the resource limits, you can also look at individual ones with other flags

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
times Prints the accumulated user and system times for the shell and for processes run from the shell. type command Tells whether command is an alias, a built-in or a system executable. ulimit <span>Prints and sets various user resource limits like memory usage limits and CPU limits. See bash (1) for details. umask See Section 14.2. unset VAR Deletes a variable or environment variable. unset -f func Deletes a function. wait Pauses until all background jobs have com

Flashcard 3818491612428

Question
In linux, how do you look up the pre-set system resource limits for all users (i.e. how many process each user can run, how many files can each user open, etc)?
cat /etc/security/limits.conf

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
served. times Prints the accumulated user and system times for the shell and for processes run from the shell. type command Tells whether command is an alias, a built-in or a system executable. <span>ulimit Prints and sets various user resource limits like memory usage limits and CPU limits. See bash (1) for details. umask See Section 14.2. unset VAR Deletes a variable or environment varia

Flashcard 3818495282444

Question
In linux, the /etc/security/limits.conf file has system resource limitations for each user (i.e. how many processes each user can run, how many files can open, etc). In this file, what is the difference between hard vs soft limits.
A hard limit is set by admin and user can never exceed it. While a soft limit is like guidence but user can increase the limit using the ulimit command (provided number does not exceed hard limit)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
type command Tells whether command is an alias, a built-in or a system executable. ulimit Prints and sets various user resource limits like memory usage limits and CPU limits. See bash (1) for <span>details. umask See Section 14.2. unset VAR Deletes a variable or environment variable. unset -f func Deletes a function. wait Pauses until all background jobs have completed. wait PID Pauses un

Flashcard 3818498952460

Question
In linux, if you have declared variable: x=2, how do you get rid of variable x, as if it never existed (i.e. never been declared)?

unset x

^^ note that unset is a shell built-in command

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
nd is an alias, a built-in or a system executable. ulimit Prints and sets various user resource limits like memory usage limits and CPU limits. See bash (1) for details. umask See Section 14.2. <span>unset VAR Deletes a variable or environment variable. unset -f func Deletes a function. wait Pauses until all background jobs have completed. wait PID Pauses until background process with pro

Flashcard 3818502622476

Question
In linux, in shell scripting, how do you pause the foreground process (i.e. shell) until background process with process ID of PID 123 has exited?

wait 123

^^ note that wait not only waits until background process 123 has finished but it also returns the exit code of process 123

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
h (1) for details. umask See Section 14.2. unset VAR Deletes a variable or environment variable. unset -f func Deletes a function. wait Pauses until all background jobs have completed. wait PID <span>Pauses until background process with process ID of PID has exited, then returns the exit code of the background process. wait % job Same with respect to a job spec. 20.5 Trapping Signals -- the trap Command You will often want to make your script perf

Flashcard 3818506816780

Question
In linux, you can use the [...] built-in command if you want to make your script perform certain actions in response to a signal (e.g. SIGINT, when ctrl-c is pressed)

trap

^^ the way you use trap is first create a function (e.g. called on_exit ) to react to the desired signal, then run trap like so, to bind the function to the signal: trap on_exit SIGINT

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
ground process with process ID of PID has exited, then returns the exit code of the background process. wait % job Same with respect to a job spec. 20.5 Trapping Signals -- the trap Command You <span>will often want to make your script perform certain actions in response to a signal. A list of signals can be found on page . To trap a signal, create a function and then use the trap command to bind the function to the signal. 5 10 #!/bin/sh function on_hangup () { ec

Flashcard 3818510486796

Question

In linux, complete the following shell script snippet, to ensure on_exit function is run whenever the SIGINT signal is sent (i.e. when user presses ctr-c):

#!/bin/sh

function on_exit ()
{
echo 'Bye bye'
}

[...]

sleep 500

trap on_exit SIGINT

^^ note the use of trap built-in command to bind the signal SIGINT to function on_exit

^^^ note the order of command line arguments given to trap, i.e. the binding functon is given first, then the signal

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
recieved' } trap on_hangup SIGHUP while true ; do sleep 1 done exit 0 Run the above script and then send the process ID the -HUP signal to test it. (See Section 9.5.) An important function of a <span>program is to clean up after itself on exit. The special signal EXIT (not really a signal) executes code on exit of the script: 5 10 #!/bin/sh function on_exit () { echo 'I should remove temp files now' } trap on_exit EXIT while

Flashcard 3818514156812

Question
In linux, the [...] built-in shell command can modify certain behavioral settings of the shell (e.g. exit immediatly if any command gives error, report error when unset variable is referenced, etc).
set

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Flashcard 3818641558796

Question
In linux, how do you guard against the default risky shell behavior of treating non-existing variables as empty values (e.g. if you try to reference undefined var TEXT, by \$TEXT in script, value is empty string instead of causing explicit error, how do you get shell to spit out explicit error)?

set -u

^^ use the set built-in command, at top of script.

^^^ note the u stands for unset (i.e. you are enabling guarding against unset variables)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
ur shell. This option is enabled by default. set -n Read commands without executing them. This command is useful for syntax checking. set -o posix Comply exactly with the POSIX 1003.2 standard. <span>set -u Report an error when trying to reference a variable that is unset. Usually bash just fills in an empty string. set -v Print each line of script as it is executed. set -x Display each co

Flashcard 3818723085580

Question
In linux, in shell scripts, how do you get the shell to print out every command that gets executed?
set -v

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
yntax checking. set -o posix Comply exactly with the POSIX 1003.2 standard. set -u Report an error when trying to reference a variable that is unset. Usually bash just fills in an empty string. <span>set -v Print each line of script as it is executed. set -x Display each command expansion as it is executed. set -C Do not overwrite existing files when using > . You can use >| to force

Annotation 3818726755596

 #Derecho #Derecho-Romano Los iuris prudentes eran autoridades en el discernimiento de lo justo e injusto.

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Annotation 3818729114892

 #Derecho #Derecho-Romano Se entende por una serie de escritos de aquellos autores que fueron considerados en la antigua Roma como autoridades en el discernimiento de lo justo e injusto (iuris prudentes); especialmente, la colección antológica de esos escritos hecha por el emperador Justiniano (s. VI D.C.), a la que este agrego otra menor de leyes dadas por los emperadores romanos anteriores y las suyas propias. Desde el siglo XII se llama «Cuerpo del Derecho Civil** ( Corpus iuris civilis) a esa compilacidn de derecho y leyes.

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Annotation 3818732260620

 #Derecho #Derecho-Romano Hay, pues, «fuentes de conodmiento» y «fuentes de producci6n». Es- tos dos conceptos no son incompatibles; las fuentes de elaborari6n, sobre todo si nos referimos con la expresidn a los resultados en que se con- densd la actividad de los organismos creadores de normas juridicas

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Annotation 3818735930636

 #Derecho #Derecho-Romano IUS" EN SENTIDO OBJETIVO. "TRIA JURIS PRAECEPTA"

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Annotation 3818738289932

 #Derecho #Derecho-Romano . CONCEPTO ROMANO DEL DERECHO. "IUS" EN SENTIDO OBJETIVO. "TRIA JURIS PRAECEPTA". La palabra latina empleada en correspondencia con nuestra voz "de recho" es ius. Igual que nosotros, los romanos dieron a la misma, unas veces, en sentido objetivo de regia o norma, y otras el de facultad o po- de

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Annotation 3818805660940

 #Derecho #Derecho-Romano Del derecho en sentido objetivo: CELSO: (ius est ars boni et aequi). El derecho es el arte de lo bueno y lo equitativo