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MEANING OF JUDICIAL ACTIVISM Judicial activism denotes the proactive role played by the judiciary in the protection of the rights of citizens and in the promotion of justice in the society. In other words, it implies the assertive role played by the judiciary to force the other two organs of the government (legislature and executive) to discharge their constitutional duties. Judicial activism is also known as “judicial dynamism”.
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When a company deposits cash with a bank, the bank records a liability on its balance sheet, representing the obligation to repay the depositor, usually on demand.

...

of course also holds for people depositing cash.

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Liability (financial accounting) - Wikipedia
de issued long-term bonds, notes payables, long-term leases, pension obligations, and long-term product warranties. Liabilities of uncertain value or timing are called provisions. Example[edit] <span>When a company deposits cash with a bank, the bank records a liability on its balance sheet, representing the obligation to repay the depositor, usually on demand. Simultaneously, in accordance with the double-entry principle, the bank records the cash, itself, as an asset. The company, on the other hand, upon depositing the cash with the bank, re




Ulcerative colitis is a long-term condition that causes the lining of the colon and rectum to become inflamed and develop tiny open sores (ulcers). Scientists aren’t sure what causes it, but there are known risk factors. These include recent gut infections, a family history of the disease, and taking anti-inflammatory painkillers such as ibuprofen. People living in western nations and at higher latitudes are also at greater risk.

Most new cases are reported in early adulthood, but some people develop the disease in childhood or in later life. Abe’s condition began when he was in junior high school.

Ulcerative colitis often causes diarrhoea and blood in the stool. This may be associated with abdominal pain and cramps. If a GP suspects that you have the condition, you will be sent to a specialist for endoscopy of the colon with a biopsy to confirm or rule out the disease.

Symptoms tend to come and go. The period between flare-ups (remission) can last for months or even years, but the symptoms will eventually return. A previous flare-up, in 2007, caused Abe to resign as prime minister.

Treatments

Although there is no cure for the disease, there is a range of drugs that can help to reduce the symptoms or lengthen the period of remission. The goal is to heal the inflamed gut completely as this reduces the chance of disease flare-ups and complications.

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Ulcerative colitis explained, as Shinzo Abe retires
ing due to worsening health. The condition 65-year-old Abe suffers from is ulcerative colitis. But what exactly is this disease? NEXT NEWS ❯ By James Lindsay Last Updated: Sunday 30 August 2020 <span>Ulcerative colitis is a long-term condition that causes the lining of the colon and rectum to become inflamed and develop tiny open sores (ulcers). Scientists aren’t sure what causes it, but there are known risk factors. These include recent gut infections, a family history of the disease, and taking anti-inflammatory painkillers such as ibuprofen. People living in western nations and at higher latitudes are also at greater risk. Most new cases are reported in early adulthood, but some people develop the disease in childhood or in later life. Abe’s condition began when he was in junior high school. Ulcerative colitis often causes diarrhoea and blood in the stool. This may be associated with abdominal pain and cramps. If a GP suspects that you have the condition, you will be sent to a specialist for endoscopy of the colon with a biopsy to confirm or rule out the disease. Symptoms tend to come and go. The period between flare-ups (remission) can last for months or even years, but the symptoms will eventually return. A previous flare-up, in 2007, caused Abe to resign as prime minister. Treatments Although there is no cure for the disease, there is a range of drugs that can help to reduce the symptoms or lengthen the period of remission. The goal is to heal the inflamed gut completely as this reduces the chance of disease flare-ups and complications. The first treatment given is usually a class of drugs known as aminosalicylates or 5-ASAs. These drugs are delivered by mouth or as an enema and work locally in the gut to reduce inflam




Bihar’s transport department launched a mobile pollution testing van facility to deliver pollution under control (PUC) certificates on vehicle owners’ doorsteps.

After implementation of the new Motors Vehicles Act, penalty for violating PUC norms increased to Rs 10,000 and so did the footfall of certificate seekers at pollution testing centres. This prompted the department to launch the facility.

A trial of the mobile van facility was conducted at the Patna secretariat on September 18 and it will soon be completely functional with the launch of a toll-free number, said transport officials.

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Patna's new home delivery: pollution under control certificates
n under control certificates Bihar transport department moves in as car owners complain of few testing centres amid hefty fines NEXT NEWS ❯ By C K Manoj Last Updated: Thursday 19 September 2019 <span>Bihar’s transport department launched a mobile pollution testing van facility to deliver pollution under control (PUC) certificates on vehicle owners’ doorsteps. After implementation of the new Motors Vehicles Act, penalty for violating PUC norms increased to Rs 10,000 and so did the footfall of certificate seekers at pollution testing centres. This prompted the department to launch the facility. A trial of the mobile van facility was conducted at the Patna secretariat on September 18 and it will soon be completely functional with the launch of a toll-free number, said transport officials. “We are in the process of launching a toll-free number. Once it starts functioning, the mobile van service will be operational too,” said Sanjay Agarwal, secretary, state transport depa




The Centre has changed rules for appointment and termination in the National Green Tribunal (NGT), which will allow the Central Government to gain influence in selections, qualification and tenures of selection committee members as well as panel-members.

The “Tribunal, Appellate Tribunal and other Authorities (Qualifications, Experience and other Conditions of Service of Members) Rules, 2017" or simply tribunal rules, have introduced changes in two significant aspects. One, they change the composition of the selection committee that assists the government in making appointments to the NGT. Then, there are changes in the criteria for qualification, composition and removal of chairpersons, judicial members and expert members of the NGT.

The Centre has introduced these changes through the Finance Act 2017—a money bill that allowed the Lok Sabha to reject some crucial suggestions given by the Rajya Sabha contradicting these provisions. Sections 183 and 184 of the Act ensure that appointment of NGT members and its selection committee will be controlled by the provisions of this legislation. Using this, the Centre has issued the new tribunal rules.

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Centre’s new tribunal rules likely to change NGT composition
for appointment and termination in the NGT, which grant more say to the executive while reducing the influence of the judiciary NEXT NEWS ❯ By Ikshaku Bezbaroa Last Updated: Friday 14 July 2017 <span>The Centre has changed rules for appointment and termination in the National Green Tribunal (NGT), which will allow the Central Government to gain influence in selections, qualification and tenures of selection committee members as well as panel-members. The “Tribunal, Appellate Tribunal and other Authorities (Qualifications, Experience and other Conditions of Service of Members) Rules, 2017" or simply tribunal rules, have introduced changes in two significant aspects. One, they change the composition of the selection committee that assists the government in making appointments to the NGT. Then, there are changes in the criteria for qualification, composition and removal of chairpersons, judicial members and expert members of the NGT. The Centre has introduced these changes through the Finance Act 2017—a money bill that allowed the Lok Sabha to reject some crucial suggestions given by the Rajya Sabha contradicting these provisions. Sections 183 and 184 of the Act ensure that appointment of NGT members and its selection committee will be controlled by the provisions of this legislation. Using this, the Centre has issued the new tribunal rules. Centre to nominate majority selection committee members The selection committee, largely responsible for appointing members to the tribunal, comprises of judicial and executive members.




Changes in required qualification of NGT members

The new tribunal rules have relaxed the criteria or qualification required to choose the NGT chairperson. As per the new tribunal rules, the chairperson need not be an existing or former Chief Justice of a High Court or a judge of the Supreme Court, which was earlier necessary. Now, it is possible to appoint anyone who is qualified to be a judge. A person who has been a judical or expert member for three years is also eligible for the post. In fact, anyone at all with “ability, integrity, standing and special knowledge of, and professional experience of not less than twenty-five years in law including five years' practical experience in the field of environment and forests“ is eligible.

The qualifications for judicial members have been relaxed as well. The prior requirement of being a judge of the Supreme Court has been done away with. In its place, anyone who has held a judical office in India for ten years, qualifies. Someone who is qualified to be a high court judge, but may not have held the office, is also eligible.

Contrary to this, the qualifications for expert members have been made stricter. The new rules stipulate that expert members must have 20 years of experience in relevant fields, instead of 15 years, as per older rules.

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Centre’s new tribunal rules likely to change NGT composition
earch and selection committee itself will undertake the task of choosing candidates. No comments could be obtained from the office of the MoEF&CC regarding these ambiguities when contacted. <span>Changes in required qualification of NGT members The new tribunal rules have relaxed the criteria or qualification required to choose the NGT chairperson. As per the new tribunal rules, the chairperson need not be an existing or former Chief Justice of a High Court or a judge of the Supreme Court, which was earlier necessary. Now, it is possible to appoint anyone who is qualified to be a judge. A person who has been a judical or expert member for three years is also eligible for the post. In fact, anyone at all with “ability, integrity, standing and special knowledge of, and professional experience of not less than twenty-five years in law including five years' practical experience in the field of environment and forests“ is eligible. The qualifications for judicial members have been relaxed as well. The prior requirement of being a judge of the Supreme Court has been done away with. In its place, anyone who has held a judical office in India for ten years, qualifies. Someone who is qualified to be a high court judge, but may not have held the office, is also eligible. Contrary to this, the qualifications for expert members have been made stricter. The new rules stipulate that expert members must have 20 years of experience in relevant fields, instead of 15 years, as per older rules. 11 out of existing 15 NGT members tenures end by 2018 These rules will have direct consequences for the composition of the Tribunal in the near future. The five-year-long tenures of Cha




11 out of existing 15 NGT members tenures end by 2018

These rules will have direct consequences for the composition of the Tribunal in the near future. The five-year-long tenures of Chairperson Justice Swatanter Kumar, and three other members will terminate this year. Further, six members will complete their tenure by 2018 and will have to be replaced. With increased executive control in the new appointments, the tribunal is likely to witness a significant change in character.

No judicial safeguards in the matter of removals

In a step further towards exerting control of the NGT panel, the new tribunal rules ensure that the judiciary no longer has a say in removing committee members.

Formerly, according to the NGT Act, it was mandatory to consult the Chief Justice of India in order to remove any judicial member from the tribunal. An inquiry had to be conducted by a Supreme Court judge and dissimal could take place only after the inquiry report was submitted.Such a system allowed for judical safeguards against executive control, according to Dutta. The process ensured a balance of powers between the judical and executive wings.

In the new rules, the entire process is monitored and controlled by a committee constituted by the Central government. The committee regulates its own process, and is not bound to the Code of Civil Procedure 1908, which ensures a standard and accountable approach.

Moreover, anyone can make a written complaint about any member of the tribunal. The MoEF&CC will undertake a preliminary scrutiny based on this complaint and refer it to the inquiry committee that will present its findings to the Centre. The government may then remove the member without consulting the judiciary.

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Centre’s new tribunal rules likely to change NGT composition
lifications for expert members have been made stricter. The new rules stipulate that expert members must have 20 years of experience in relevant fields, instead of 15 years, as per older rules. <span>11 out of existing 15 NGT members tenures end by 2018 These rules will have direct consequences for the composition of the Tribunal in the near future. The five-year-long tenures of Chairperson Justice Swatanter Kumar, and three other members will terminate this year. Further, six members will complete their tenure by 2018 and will have to be replaced. With increased executive control in the new appointments, the tribunal is likely to witness a significant change in character. No judicial safeguards in the matter of removals In a step further towards exerting control of the NGT panel, the new tribunal rules ensure that the judiciary no longer has a say in removing committee members. Formerly, according to the NGT Act, it was mandatory to consult the Chief Justice of India in order to remove any judicial member from the tribunal. An inquiry had to be conducted by a Supreme Court judge and dissimal could take place only after the inquiry report was submitted.Such a system allowed for judical safeguards against executive control, according to Dutta. The process ensured a balance of powers between the judical and executive wings. In the new rules, the entire process is monitored and controlled by a committee constituted by the Central government. The committee regulates its own process, and is not bound to the Code of Civil Procedure 1908, which ensures a standard and accountable approach. Moreover, anyone can make a written complaint about any member of the tribunal. The MoEF&CC will undertake a preliminary scrutiny based on this complaint and refer it to the inquiry committee that will present its findings to the Centre. The government may then remove the member without consulting the judiciary. Comparison of former and current legal position MEMBER SELECTION COMMITTEE COMPOSITION OF SEARCH-CUM-COMMITTEE NGT Rules 2012 Tribunal, Appellate Tribunal and other Authorities (Qualifi




Sand mining

A committee comprising of the district collector of Sehore and the Madhya Pradesh State Pollution Control Board (MPPCB) was entrusted by the NGT on August 26 to look into the matter of illegal sand mining.

An application was filed before the NGT by SAHAS (Mahila Sikshan Evam Samajik Vikas Sanstha) against illegal mining and request for direction to the Madhya Pradesh State Mining Corporation to ensure 'scientific replenishment study' as prescribed in sand guidelines issued by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.

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Daily Court Digest: Major environment orders (August 27, 2020)
of the area would be badly affected. There was also no other dhalao nearby, at which the garbage dumped at this dhalao could be diverted. Therefore, this dhalao should not be closed or shifted. <span>Sand mining A committee comprising of the district collector of Sehore and the Madhya Pradesh State Pollution Control Board (MPPCB) was entrusted by the NGT on August 26 to look into the matter of illegal sand mining. An application was filed before the NGT by SAHAS (Mahila Sikshan Evam Samajik Vikas Sanstha) against illegal mining and request for direction to the Madhya Pradesh State Mining Corporation to ensure 'scientific replenishment study' as prescribed in sand guidelines issued by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. Bhopal Chota Talab The bench of Justice Sheo Kumar Singh of the NGT on August 25 directed a joint committee consisting of the Collector, Bhopal, the Municipal Corporation, Bhopal and th




Indore was declared the cleanest city in India for the fourth consecutive time in the Swachh Survekshan, 2020 — India’s annual survey on cleanliness. The results were declared August 20 by Union Minister of State (independent charge) for Housing and Urban Affairs Hardeep Singh Puri.

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Swachh Survekshan 2020: Indore is the cleanest city 4th time in a row
in Gujarat and Navi Mumbai in Maharashtra ranked second and third among the cleanest cities with more than a million population NEXT NEWS ❯ By Shagun Kapil Last Updated: Thursday 20 August 2020 <span>Indore was declared the cleanest city in India for the fourth consecutive time in the Swachh Survekshan, 2020 — India’s annual survey on cleanliness. The results were declared August 20 by Union Minister of State (independent charge) for Housing and Urban Affairs Hardeep Singh Puri. The pan-India survey was started in 2016. It ranks India’s cities, towns and states based on sanitation, waste management and overall cleanliness. The fifth edition this year was carrie




The assessment of 97 Ganga towns was done separately to measure cleanliness in and around the ghats. Varanasi, Kannauj and Chunar bagged the first three positions respectively.

The assessment was done based on parameters such as:

  • Open dumpsites sighted (or not) near ghats or on the river bank
  • Garbage vulnerable points near ghats or on the riverbank
  • Solid waste floating on the Ganga (passing through UBLs jurisdiction)
  • Availability of anti-littering messages around ghats / riverbanks accessible to citizens
  • Availability of twin litter bins every 50 meters around ghats / riverbanks accessible to citizens
  • Sweeping and cleaning arrangements at least once a day
  • Sweeping / cleaning around all ghats / riverbanks
  • Nullah discharge into river
  • Availability of solid waste plant and trash cleaners to trap solid waste floating on river surface

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Swachh Survekshan 2020: Indore is the cleanest city 4th time in a row
ance till the processing site; treatment and re-use of waste water; curtailment of solid waste-based air pollution; and improvement of social conditions of informal waste pickers, among others. <span>The assessment of 97 Ganga towns was done separately to measure cleanliness in and around the ghats. Varanasi, Kannauj and Chunar bagged the first three positions respectively. The assessment was done based on parameters such as: Open dumpsites sighted (or not) near ghats or on the river bank Garbage vulnerable points near ghats or on the riverbank Solid waste floating on the Ganga (passing through UBLs jurisdiction) Availability of anti-littering messages around ghats / riverbanks accessible to citizens Availability of twin litter bins every 50 meters around ghats / riverbanks accessible to citizens Sweeping and cleaning arrangements at least once a day Sweeping / cleaning around all ghats / riverbanks Nullah discharge into river Availability of solid waste plant and trash cleaners to trap solid waste floating on river surface The survey has evolved from its first edition, when only 73 cities were assessed. Five more cities have been included since 2019. Around 2,606 ULBs practice door-to-door garbage collect




Bharalu, the only river that flows through Guwahati and carries excess rainwater to the Brahmaputra, has been reduced to a dumping ground for garbage by the residents.

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Watery grave: How garbage, encroachments contaminated Guwahati’s only river
edial measures. The state administration realised floods are caused by poor drainage systems. Natural and artificial drains in the city get clogged during heavy rains and spill on to the roads. <span>Bharalu, the only river that flows through Guwahati and carries excess rainwater to the Brahmaputra, has been reduced to a dumping ground for garbage by the residents. Illegal constructions along the Bharalu make matters worse. “The natural drainage has been blocked in many areas as a result of encroachment,” the former chief minister told the media.




The country imports around 300,000 tonnes of ammonium nitrate every year. A small portion of this is used to make explosives for mines, while the rest is used by fertiliser units

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Beirut blast lessons: Time for India to strengthen handling of explosives, chemicals
BSCRIBE Coronavirus News In-depth Blogs Videos Book Store Africa Climate Gobar Times डाउन टू अर्थ Governance Beirut blast lessons: Time for India to strengthen handling of explosives, chemicals <span>The country imports around 300,000 tonnes of ammonium nitrate every year. A small portion of this is used to make explosives for mines, while the rest is used by fertiliser units NEXT NEWS ❯ By Nivit Kumar Yadav Last Updated: Friday 07 August 2020 An explosion of 2,750 tonnes of ammonium nitrate in Lebanon capital Beirut — that killed 100 and injured more than 4




An explosion of 2,750 tonnes of ammonium nitrate in Lebanon capital Beirut — that killed 100 and injured more than 4,000 — has raised concerns over India’s use of the chemical compound and the policy mechanisms that regulate such use.

India imports around 300,000 tonnes of ammonium nitrate every year. A small portion of this is used to make explosives for mines, while the rest is used by fertiliser units.

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Beirut blast lessons: Time for India to strengthen handling of explosives, chemicals
nitrate every year. A small portion of this is used to make explosives for mines, while the rest is used by fertiliser units NEXT NEWS ❯ By Nivit Kumar Yadav Last Updated: Friday 07 August 2020 <span>An explosion of 2,750 tonnes of ammonium nitrate in Lebanon capital Beirut — that killed 100 and injured more than 4,000 — has raised concerns over India’s use of the chemical compound and the policy mechanisms that regulate such use. India imports around 300,000 tonnes of ammonium nitrate every year. A small portion of this is used to make explosives for mines, while the rest is used by fertiliser units. There were, however, reports of theft of the chemical in the past for illegal mining. The Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012 — that regulate the usage of the chemical — do not apply for quant




The Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012 were framed under the Explosives Act, 1884 for the regulation of the chemical. The rules state the controls over manufacture, import, export, transport, possession for sale and use of ammonium nitrate.

They also state warehouse-construction guidelines, a security and disaster management plan, training for staff in handling ammonium nitrate and the need for licenses. The use of the chemical is applicable for the Indian Railways and ports and does not apply to establishments under the Armed forces.

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Beirut blast lessons: Time for India to strengthen handling of explosives, chemicals
this was because it is classified as an oxidising agent under the United Nations classification for dangerous goods prepared by the UN Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. <span>The Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012 were framed under the Explosives Act, 1884 for the regulation of the chemical. The rules state the controls over manufacture, import, export, transport, possession for sale and use of ammonium nitrate. They also state warehouse-construction guidelines, a security and disaster management plan, training for staff in handling ammonium nitrate and the need for licenses. The use of the chemical is applicable for the Indian Railways and ports and does not apply to establishments under the Armed forces. Are the rules toothless? The rules are comprehensive and cover most of the aspects needed for the scientific management of the explosive. The biggest problem with the rules, however, ar




Pure ammonium nitrate is a white, water-soluble, crystalline substance with a melting point of 170 degrees Celsius. It is a base ingredient used in the manufacture of commercial explosives, but is not an explosive in itself. Others ingredient like fuel need to be added to make it explosive.

Ammonium nitrate, however, was deemed an explosive by the Union government, in a July 27, 2011 notification. The reason for this was because it is classified as an oxidising agent under the United Nations classification for dangerous goods prepared by the UN Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.

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Beirut blast lessons: Time for India to strengthen handling of explosives, chemicals
te in Gujarat’s Dahej and another gas leak at a pharmaceuticals firm in Visakhapatnam — was negligence. There are other several accidents that go unnoticed as well. Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012 <span>Pure ammonium nitrate is a white, water-soluble, crystalline substance with a melting point of 170 degrees Celsius. It is a base ingredient used in the manufacture of commercial explosives, but is not an explosive in itself. Others ingredient like fuel need to be added to make it explosive. Ammonium nitrate, however, was deemed an explosive by the Union government, in a July 27, 2011 notification. The reason for this was because it is classified as an oxidising agent under the United Nations classification for dangerous goods prepared by the UN Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. The Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012 were framed under the Explosives Act, 1884 for the regulation of the chemical. The rules state the controls over manufacture, import, export, transport,




There were, however, reports of theft of the chemical in the past for illegal mining. The Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012 — that regulate the usage of the chemical — do not apply for quantities of less than five kilogrammes.

Ammonium nitrate does not typically detonate on its own and requires another ignition source. Experts, however, point out that even a small amount can be dangerous.

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Beirut blast lessons: Time for India to strengthen handling of explosives, chemicals
regulate such use. India imports around 300,000 tonnes of ammonium nitrate every year. A small portion of this is used to make explosives for mines, while the rest is used by fertiliser units. <span>There were, however, reports of theft of the chemical in the past for illegal mining. The Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012 — that regulate the usage of the chemical — do not apply for quantities of less than five kilogrammes. Ammonium nitrate does not typically detonate on its own and requires another ignition source. Experts, however, point out that even a small amount can be dangerous. Early reports blamed the Beirut blast on negligence while storing the chemical and welding activity near the storage site caused the explosion. The ammonium nitrate stored in the wareho




The handloom board was formed in 1992 “to advise the Government in formulating policy for the overall development” of the sector. The handicraft board, dating back seven decades, similarly was mandated to advise in formulation of all development programmes “keeping in view socio-economic cultural and artistic perspective.”

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Gloom ahead of Handloom Day: Centre scraps handloom, handicraft boards
Government Machinery and the need for systematic rationalization of Government bodies, the Government of India has abolished…” A telephone call to the ministry of Smriti Irani went unanswered. <span>The handloom board was formed in 1992 “to advise the Government in formulating policy for the overall development” of the sector. The handicraft board, dating back seven decades, similarly was mandated to advise in formulation of all development programmes “keeping in view socio-economic cultural and artistic perspective.” The ministry has similar advisory boards for the powerloom sector as well as cotton and jute. Handloom and handicrafts employ a sizeable number of Indians. They have been spoken of as t




Third National Handloom Census of Weavers and Allied Workers 2010. Among them, nearly 1.7 million were in the North East.

It is common for multiple members of such households to participate in the work. In fact, the census identified more than three-quarters of the workers to be women.

Two-thirds of these households were full-time into the handloom sector. The weaver households (three-fourth of the total) worked for 531 million person days in the year the census was taken.

Among them, 40.9 per cent were from Other Backward Classes, 22.1 per cent form scheduled tribes and 9.8 per cent from scheduled castes; nearly a quarter were from minority communities. Weaving and ancillary activities, like many traditional occupations in India, have been under strict caste-based domination.

More than half such households lived in kuchha houses (loosely, hutments) and even 10 years ago, almost half the workforce was from the 18-35 years age group. Nearly 30 per cent never attended schools. Only 16-17 per cent went to high school.

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Gloom ahead of Handloom Day: Centre scraps handloom, handicraft boards
esented as handloom and the government has not done much about it, the source alleged. Nearly 2.8 million households in India, mostly rural, were associated with handloom work, according to the <span>Third National Handloom Census of Weavers and Allied Workers 2010. Among them, nearly 1.7 million were in the North East. It is common for multiple members of such households to participate in the work. In fact, the census identified more than three-quarters of the workers to be women. Two-thirds of these households were full-time into the handloom sector. The weaver households (three-fourth of the total) worked for 531 million person days in the year the census was taken. Among them, 40.9 per cent were from Other Backward Classes, 22.1 per cent form scheduled tribes and 9.8 per cent from scheduled castes; nearly a quarter were from minority communities. Weaving and ancillary activities, like many traditional occupations in India, have been under strict caste-based domination. More than half such households lived in kuchha houses (loosely, hutments) and even 10 years ago, almost half the workforce was from the 18-35 years age group. Nearly 30 per cent never attended schools. Only 16-17 per cent went to high school. “Most weavers have not completed schooling. Some 80-90 per cent weavers don’t have Bunkar cards (an ID to access government benefits) or bank accounts. Most of them have not cleared sch




#biology #neurology #sleep
For best learning and best creative results use these yellow blocks for brainwork. Caffeine can only be used to enhance alertness early in this optimum window. Later use will affect sleep (caffeine half-life is about six hours).

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Good sleep, good learning, good life
circadian sleepiness. There are two quality alertness blocks during the day: first after the awakening and second after the siesta period. Both are marked as yellow blocks in the graph (above). <span>For best learning and best creative results use these yellow blocks for brainwork. Caffeine can only be used to enhance alertness early in this optimum window. Later use will affect sleep (caffeine half-life is about six hours). Optimum timing of exercise may vary depending on your exercise goals and the optimum timing of zeitgebers (e.g. early morning for DSPS people and evening for ASPS people). In this examp




#biology #neurology #sleep
In this example, the stress block is followed by the exercise block to counterbalance the hormonal and neural effects of stress before the siesta.

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Good sleep, good learning, good life
is about six hours). Optimum timing of exercise may vary depending on your exercise goals and the optimum timing of zeitgebers (e.g. early morning for DSPS people and evening for ASPS people). <span>In this example, the stress block is followed by the exercise block to counterbalance the hormonal and neural effects of stress before the siesta. Unmarked white areas can be used for the lunch (before siesta) and fun time unrelated to work in the evening at a time when the ascending circadian sleepiness makes creative work ineffe




#biology #neurology #sleep
That white evening protective zone should be free from stress, alcohol, caffeine, etc. Recommended activities might include fun, games, relaxation, TV, reading, family, DIY, housework, etc. For inveterate workaholics, less challenging and stress-free jobs might also work ok. The best litmus test for a well designed day is that all activities should be fun! Brainwork is fun only if your brain is ready. Sleep is fun if you are ready. Rest and entertainment feel in place only after a productive day. Even a bit of stress can be fun if it is properly dosed and timed

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Good sleep, good learning, good life
. Unmarked white areas can be used for the lunch (before siesta) and fun time unrelated to work in the evening at a time when the ascending circadian sleepiness makes creative work ineffective. <span>That white evening protective zone should be free from stress, alcohol, caffeine, etc. Recommended activities might include fun, games, relaxation, TV, reading, family, DIY, housework, etc. For inveterate workaholics, less challenging and stress-free jobs might also work ok. The best litmus test for a well designed day is that all activities should be fun! Brainwork is fun only if your brain is ready. Sleep is fun if you are ready. Rest and entertainment feel in place only after a productive day. Even a bit of stress can be fun if it is properly dosed and timed. You do not need to be an adrenaline junkie to enjoy your stress and exercise slots. There is little exaggeration in saying that a good understanding of the circadian cycle is the key t




What is Environment Impact Assessment?

Environment impact assessment is a process under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, which prevents industrial and infrastructural projects from being approved without proper oversight. This process ensures that every project should go through the EIA process for obtaining prior environmental clearance.

EIA covers projects such as mining of coal or other minerals, infrastructure development, thermal, nuclear and hydropower projects, real estate and other industrial projects. The projects are assessed based on their potential impact on the environment. Based on the assessments, they are granted or denied environmental clearance by a panel of experts.

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Why draft EIA 2020 needs a revaluation
ng the balance between sustainable development and environment protection. The Union government, on the contrary, argues that the new draft will reinforce transparency and expedite the process. <span>What is Environment Impact Assessment? Environment impact assessment is a process under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, which prevents industrial and infrastructural projects from being approved without proper oversight. This process ensures that every project should go through the EIA process for obtaining prior environmental clearance. EIA covers projects such as mining of coal or other minerals, infrastructure development, thermal, nuclear and hydropower projects, real estate and other industrial projects. The projects are assessed based on their potential impact on the environment. Based on the assessments, they are granted or denied environmental clearance by a panel of experts. Loopholes in draft EIA 2020 The EIA new draft 2020 allows post-facto clearance. This means that even if a project has come up without environment safeguards or without getting environme




Avoiding stupidity is easier than seeking brilliance.

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Inversion: The Power of Avoiding Stupidity
t? I bet your organization does some of those ‘stupid’ things today. Another example, rather than think about what makes a good life, you can think about what prescriptions would ensure misery. <span>Avoiding stupidity is easier than seeking brilliance. While both thinking forward and thinking backward result in some action, you can think of them as additive vs. subtractive. Despite our best intentions, thinking forward increases the o




Public participation has been crucial in the EIA process and has significantly helped communities to not only get information about the projects being proposed in their areas, but also to speak about their concerns regarding the projects.

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Why draft EIA 2020 needs a revaluation
are also two crucial ways in which the new draft endeavours to take power away from communities. First, it reduces the space available for public participation, thereby abandoning public trust. <span>Public participation has been crucial in the EIA process and has significantly helped communities to not only get information about the projects being proposed in their areas, but also to speak about their concerns regarding the projects. Related Stories Draft EIA notification institutionalises 1 season data for baseline COVID-19: MoEF&CC extends validity of environmental clearances till June 30 Mumbai-Ahmedabad bull




The National Green Tribunal (NGT) has called for commercial entities to follow new rules for getting permission to extract groundwater. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) will now form the basis of granting such permissions, the NGT bench said.

The Union Ministry of Jal Shakti (water) and the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) were ordered by the NGT July 20, 2020 to ensure no general permission was given for withdrawing groundwater, particularly to any commercial entity.

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NGT wants groundwater extraction based on EIA only
on based on EIA only Tribunal calls for doing away with general permissions given to commercial entities to withdraw groundwater NEXT NEWS ❯ By Shreya Verma Last Updated: Tuesday 04 August 2020 <span>The National Green Tribunal (NGT) has called for commercial entities to follow new rules for getting permission to extract groundwater. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) will now form the basis of granting such permissions, the NGT bench said. The Union Ministry of Jal Shakti (water) and the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) were ordered by the NGT July 20, 2020 to ensure no general permission was given for withdrawing groundwater, particularly to any commercial entity. NGT Chairperson AK Goel said: There must be no general permission for withdrawal of groundwater, particularly to any commercial entity, without EIA of such activity on individual assess




Evolution Part Two: Adaptation and The Red Queen Effect
Species tend to adapt to their surroundings in order to survive, given the combination of their genetics and their environment – an always-unavoidable combination. However, adaptations made in an individual’s lifetime are not passed down genetically, as was once thought: Populations of species adapt through the process of evolution by natural selection, as the most-fit examples of the species replicate at an above-average rate

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Mental Models: The Best Way to Make Intelligent Decisions (109 Models Explained)
we can call Mother Nature deciding the success or failure of a particular mutation “natural selection.” Those best suited for survival tend to be preserved. But of course, conditions change. 2. <span>Evolution Part Two: Adaptation and The Red Queen Effect Species tend to adapt to their surroundings in order to survive, given the combination of their genetics and their environment – an always-unavoidable combination. However, adaptations made in an individual’s lifetime are not passed down genetically, as was once thought: Populations of species adapt through the process of evolution by natural selection, as the most-fit examples of the species replicate at an above-average rate. The evolution-by-natural-selection model leads to something of an arms race among species competing for limited resources. When one species evolves an advantageous adaptation, a compet




The study found that irrigation decreases regional temperatures during crop growing seasons by as much as 3-4 degrees Celsius over the most heavily irrigated areas (primarily the Indo-Gangetic plains). This cooling, in turn, affects the monsoon cycle and alters rainfall amount differently in different regions.

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Irrigation does more than deplete groundwater, it changes climate too
mospheric Sciences at the Indian Institute of Technology in Delhi used computer simulations and sophisticated global climate models to analyse the effects of irrigation on the climate in India. <span>The study found that irrigation decreases regional temperatures during crop growing seasons by as much as 3-4 degrees Celsius over the most heavily irrigated areas (primarily the Indo-Gangetic plains). This cooling, in turn, affects the monsoon cycle and alters rainfall amount differently in different regions. “When the land surface absorbs sunlight, some of the energy is used up in evaporating the available water in the soil. If there is no (or limited) water, then more of that energy goes i




Tendency to Minimize Energy Output (Mental & Physical)
In a physical world governed by thermodynamics and competition for limited energy and resources, any biological organism that was wasteful with energy would be at a severe disadvantage for survival. Thus, we see in most instances that behavior is governed by a tendency to minimize energy usage when at all possible

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Mental Models: The Best Way to Make Intelligent Decisions (109 Models Explained)
the incentive-driven nature of biology; however, humans are complicated in that their incentives can be hidden or intangible. The rule of life is to repeat what works and has been rewarded. 10. <span>Tendency to Minimize Energy Output (Mental & Physical) In a physical world governed by thermodynamics and competition for limited energy and resources, any biological organism that was wasteful with energy would be at a severe disadvantage for survival. Thus, we see in most instances that behavior is governed by a tendency to minimize energy usage when at all possible. Systems 1. Feedback Loops All complex systems are subject to positive and negative feedback loops whereby A causes B, which in turn influences A (and C), and so on – with higher-order




“Irrigation leads to lower surface temperatures, causing lower thermal gradients (difference in temperature) between surface and air,” AchutaRao said. “This thermal gradient is responsible for drawing moisture from the oceans which drives the monsoon cycle. Lower thermal gradient means weaker monsoon and lower rainfall,” he added.

There are, however, competing processes by which irrigation could affect local rainfall. When more water is available on the ground, there is more evaporation, which means more moisture in the air and more rainfall locally. This is called recycling.

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Irrigation does more than deplete groundwater, it changes climate too
of the temperature rise from increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. But, the climatic effects of irrigation are not limited to cooler temperatures, it changes rainfall patterns as well. <span>“Irrigation leads to lower surface temperatures, causing lower thermal gradients (difference in temperature) between surface and air,” AchutaRao said. “This thermal gradient is responsible for drawing moisture from the oceans which drives the monsoon cycle. Lower thermal gradient means weaker monsoon and lower rainfall,” he added. There are, however, competing processes by which irrigation could affect local rainfall. When more water is available on the ground, there is more evaporation, which means more moisture in the air and more rainfall locally. This is called recycling. Both processes can occur simultaneously in some places; one could overpower the other. “If recycling is more important than the moisture transport from the ocean, then the rainfall incr




Scale
One of the most important principles of systems is that they are sensitive to scale. Properties (or behaviors) tend to change when you scale them up or down. In studying complex systems, we must always be roughly quantifying – in orders of magnitude, at least – the scale at which we are observing, analyzing, or predicting the system

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Mental Models: The Best Way to Make Intelligent Decisions (109 Models Explained)
ff course more often than on course. Everything within a homeostatic system contributes to keeping it within a range of equilibrium, so it is important to understand the limits of the range. 4. <span>Scale One of the most important principles of systems is that they are sensitive to scale. Properties (or behaviors) tend to change when you scale them up or down. In studying complex systems, we must always be roughly quantifying – in orders of magnitude, at least – the scale at which we are observing, analyzing, or predicting the system. 5. Law of Diminishing Returns Related to scale, most important real-world results are subject to an eventual decrease of incremental value. A good example would be a poor family: Give




Law of Diminishing Returns
Related to scale, most important real-world results are subject to an eventual decrease of incremental value. A good example would be a poor family: Give them enough money to thrive, and they are no longer poor. But after a certain point, additional money will not improve their lot; there is a clear diminishing return of additional dollars at some roughly quantifiable point

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Mental Models: The Best Way to Make Intelligent Decisions (109 Models Explained)
up or down. In studying complex systems, we must always be roughly quantifying – in orders of magnitude, at least – the scale at which we are observing, analyzing, or predicting the system. 5. <span>Law of Diminishing Returns Related to scale, most important real-world results are subject to an eventual decrease of incremental value. A good example would be a poor family: Give them enough money to thrive, and they are no longer poor. But after a certain point, additional money will not improve their lot; there is a clear diminishing return of additional dollars at some roughly quantifiable point. Often, the law of diminishing returns veers into negative territory – i.e., receiving too much money could destroy the poor family. 6. Churn Insurance companies and subscription servic




Churn
Insurance companies and subscription services are well aware of the concept of churn – every year, a certain number of customers are lost and must be replaced. Standing still is the equivalent of losing, as seen in the model called the “Red Queen Effect.” Churn is present in many business and human systems: A constant figure is periodically lost and must be replaced before any new figures are added over the top

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Mental Models: The Best Way to Make Intelligent Decisions (109 Models Explained)
of additional dollars at some roughly quantifiable point. Often, the law of diminishing returns veers into negative territory – i.e., receiving too much money could destroy the poor family. 6. <span>Churn Insurance companies and subscription services are well aware of the concept of churn – every year, a certain number of customers are lost and must be replaced. Standing still is the equivalent of losing, as seen in the model called the “Red Queen Effect.” Churn is present in many business and human systems: A constant figure is periodically lost and must be replaced before any new figures are added over the top. 7. Preferential Attachment (Cumulative Advantage) A preferential attachment situation occurs when the current leader is given more of the reward than the laggards, thereby tending to p




Ironically, irrigation is supposed to compensate for low rainfall during weak monsoon seasons. But, it may itself be contributing to the weakening of monsoons.

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Irrigation does more than deplete groundwater, it changes climate too
western region and a decrease over the wet eastern part of the Gangetic basin. Overall, the study found a decrease in the range of 1.5 to 4.2 per cent in the all India summer monsoon rainfall. <span>Ironically, irrigation is supposed to compensate for low rainfall during weak monsoon seasons. But, it may itself be contributing to the weakening of monsoons. “I would generally trust the temperature change results. For rainfall changes, it would be important to see robustness in the pattern of changes by looking at a host of climate models w




Preferential Attachment (Cumulative Advantage)
A preferential attachment situation occurs when the current leader is given more of the reward than the laggards, thereby tending to preserve or enhance the status of the leader. A strong network effect is a good example of preferential attachment; a market with 10x more buyers and sellers than the next largest market will tend to have a preferential attachment dynamic

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Mental Models: The Best Way to Make Intelligent Decisions (109 Models Explained)
called the “Red Queen Effect.” Churn is present in many business and human systems: A constant figure is periodically lost and must be replaced before any new figures are added over the top. 7. <span>Preferential Attachment (Cumulative Advantage) A preferential attachment situation occurs when the current leader is given more of the reward than the laggards, thereby tending to preserve or enhance the status of the leader. A strong network effect is a good example of preferential attachment; a market with 10x more buyers and sellers than the next largest market will tend to have a preferential attachment dynamic. 8. Irreducibility We find that in most systems there are irreducible quantitative properties, such as complexity, minimums, time, and length. Below the irreducible level, the desired r




A preferential attachment process is any of a class of processes in which some quantity, typically some form of wealth or credit, is distributed among a number of individuals or objects according to how much they already have, so that those who are already wealthy receive more than those who are not. "Preferential attachment" is only the most recent of many names that have been given to such processes

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Preferential attachment - Wikipedia
Wikipedia Preferential attachment From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search "Yule process" redirects here. For the type of birth process, see Simple birth process. <span>A preferential attachment process is any of a class of processes in which some quantity, typically some form of wealth or credit, is distributed among a number of individuals or objects according to how much they already have, so that those who are already wealthy receive more than those who are not. "Preferential attachment" is only the most recent of many names that have been given to such processes. They are also referred to under the names "Yule process", "cumulative advantage", "the rich get richer", and, less correctly, the "Matthew effect". They are also related to Gibrat's la




The principal reason for scientific interest in preferential attachment is that it can, under suitable circumstances, generate power law distributions.

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Preferential attachment - Wikipedia
esses. They are also referred to under the names "Yule process", "cumulative advantage", "the rich get richer", and, less correctly, the "Matthew effect". They are also related to Gibrat's law. <span>The principal reason for scientific interest in preferential attachment is that it can, under suitable circumstances, generate power law distributions. Contents 1 Definition 2 History 3 See also 4 References Definition[edit] A preferential attachment process is a stochastic urn process, meaning a process in which discrete units of weal




In probability and statistics, an urn problem is an idealized mental exercise in which some objects of real interest (such as atoms, people, cars, etc.) are represented as colored balls in an urn or other container. One pretends to remove one or more balls from the urn; the goal is to determine the probability of drawing one color or another, or some other properties. A number of important variations are described below.

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Urn problem - Wikipedia
Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (June 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) <span>In probability and statistics, an urn problem is an idealized mental exercise in which some objects of real interest (such as atoms, people, cars, etc.) are represented as colored balls in an urn or other container. One pretends to remove one or more balls from the urn; the goal is to determine the probability of drawing one color or another, or some other properties. A number of important variations are described below. An urn model is either a set of probabilities that describe events within an urn problem, or it is a probability distribution, or a family of such distributions, of random variables ass




Examples of urn problems [ edit ]
  • binomial distribution: the distribution of the number of successful draws (trials), i.e. extraction of white balls, given n draws with replacement in an urn with black and white balls.
  • beta-binomial distribution: as above, except that every time a ball is observed, an additional ball of the same color is added to the urn. Hence, the number of total marbles in the urn grows. See Pólya urn model.
  • multinomial distribution: the urn contains balls in more than two colors.
  • hypergeometric distribution: the balls are not returned to the urn once extracted. Hence, the number of total marbles in the urn decreases. This is referred to as "drawing without replacement", by opposition to "drawing with replacement".
  • multivariate hypergeometric distribution: as above, but with balls of more than two colors.
  • geometric distribution: number of draws before the first successful (correctly colored) draw.
  • negative binomial distribution: number of draws before a certain number of failures (incorrectly colored draws) occurs.
  • Statistical physics: derivation of energy and velocity distributions.
  • The Ellsberg paradox.
  • Pólya urn: each time a ball of a particular colour is drawn, it is replaced along with an additional ball of the same colour.
  • Hoppe urn: a Pólya urn with an additional ball called the mutator. When the mutator is drawn it is replaced along with an additional ball of an entirely new colour.
  • Occupancy problem: the distribution of the number of occupied urns after the random assignment of k balls into n urns.

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Urn problem - Wikipedia
robability of drawing a specific sequence (e.g. one white followed by one black)? If I only observe n balls, how sure can I be that there are no black balls? (A variation on the first question) <span>Examples of urn problems[edit] binomial distribution: the distribution of the number of successful draws (trials), i.e. extraction of white balls, given n draws with replacement in an urn with black and white balls. beta-binomial distribution: as above, except that every time a ball is observed, an additional ball of the same color is added to the urn. Hence, the number of total marbles in the urn grows. See Pólya urn model. multinomial distribution: the urn contains balls in more than two colors. hypergeometric distribution: the balls are not returned to the urn once extracted. Hence, the number of total marbles in the urn decreases. This is referred to as "drawing without replacement", by opposition to "drawing with replacement". multivariate hypergeometric distribution: as above, but with balls of more than two colors. geometric distribution: number of draws before the first successful (correctly colored) draw. negative binomial distribution: number of draws before a certain number of failures (incorrectly colored draws) occurs. Statistical physics: derivation of energy and velocity distributions. The Ellsberg paradox. Pólya urn: each time a ball of a particular colour is drawn, it is replaced along with an additional ball of the same colour. Hoppe urn: a Pólya urn with an additional ball called the mutator. When the mutator is drawn it is replaced along with an additional ball of an entirely new colour. Occupancy problem: the distribution of the number of occupied urns after the random assignment of k balls into n urns. Historical remarks[edit] In Ars Conjectandi (1713), Jacob Bernoulli considered the problem of determining, given a number of pebbles drawn from an urn, the proportions of different colo




YouTube removes 11.4 million videos as automation replaces human moderator

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Unknown title
replaces human moderator Share On 0 Sci-Tech Science Technology Health Agriculture Environment Gadgets Internet Watch | All about the National Recruitment Agency Sci-Tech Technology Technology <span>YouTube removes 11.4 million videos as automation replaces human moderator Aditya Saroha August 27, 2020 11:13 IST Updated: August 27, 2020 11:28 IST Aditya Saroha August 27, 2020 11:13 IST Updated: August 27, 2020 11:28 IST Most videos were removed in the US




There aren't enough small numbers to meet the many demands made of them.

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Strong Law of Small Numbers - Wikipedia
al law For other uses, see Law of small numbers (disambiguation). In mathematics, the "Strong Law of Small Numbers" is the humorous law that proclaims, in the words of Richard K. Guy (1988):[1] <span>There aren't enough small numbers to meet the many demands made of them. In other words, any given small number appears in far more contexts than may seem reasonable, leading to many apparently surprising coincidences in mathematics, simply because small num




Importantly, Prof. Boni and co-authors say that novel coronavirus itself has not arisen from recombination of any sarbecoviruses. The ability of the spike protein in the virus to bind to ACE2 human receptors had emerged within bats and is an ancestral trait shared with bat viruses and “not one acquired recently via recombination”. According to them, the results suggest the presence of a “single lineage” circulating in bats with properties that allowed it to infect human cells. This was also the case with the bat sarbecoviruses related to the 2002 SARS lineage.

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Unknown title
ional Centre for Biological Sciences. “Many species of bat harbour several viruses which can cross over to new hosts. When we disrupt habitats, we will face more such threats.” No recombination <span>Importantly, Prof. Boni and co-authors say that novel coronavirus itself has not arisen from recombination of any sarbecoviruses. The ability of the spike protein in the virus to bind to ACE2 human receptors had emerged within bats and is an ancestral trait shared with bat viruses and “not one acquired recently via recombination”. According to them, the results suggest the presence of a “single lineage” circulating in bats with properties that allowed it to infect human cells. This was also the case with the bat sarbecoviruses related to the 2002 SARS lineage. The Nature Microbiology paper also challenges the notion that pangolins would have served as an intermediate host where the virus would have acquired its ability to infect human cells t




“We observed around 29,000 fruit flies over this period to see if evolution had modified their tendency to move towards or away from crowded regions. Not only did we find a sharp change in this behaviour owing to evolution, but a crucial discovery was that the dispersal rates of males and females had changed completely,” observes Prof. Dey, adding while females had been dispersing more than the males initially, the males overtook females in movement after evolution.

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Unknown title
ecomes difficult,” says Prof. Dey. The team first “evolved” tens of thousands of fruit flies for over 75 generations (or three years), thus making them “better” dispersers than their ancestors. <span>“We observed around 29,000 fruit flies over this period to see if evolution had modified their tendency to move towards or away from crowded regions. Not only did we find a sharp change in this behaviour owing to evolution, but a crucial discovery was that the dispersal rates of males and females had changed completely,” observes Prof. Dey, adding while females had been dispersing more than the males initially, the males overtook females in movement after evolution. He said that this finding was perhaps the first evidence for an evolutionary reversal in the dispersal of the two sexes. Prof. Dey says that by establishing that these behaviours are ev




\({\displaystyle \pi ^{3}\approx 31,}\) correct to 0.02%

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Mathematical coincidence - Wikipedia
t of folding the scales in about the same place.[citation needed] π 2 ≈ 227 / 23 , {\displaystyle \pi ^{2}\approx 227/23,} correct to 0.0004%.[9] π 3 ≈ 31 , {\displaystyle \pi ^{3}\approx 31,} <span>correct to 0.02%.[11] π 4 ≈ 2143 / 22 ; {\displaystyle \pi ^{4}\approx 2143/22;} or π ≈ ( 9 2 + 19 2 22 ) 1 / 4 , {\displaystyle \pi \approx \left(9^{2}+{\frac {19^{2}}{22}}\right)^{1/4},} accurate to 8




In music, just intonation or pure intonation is the tuning of musical intervals as whole number ratios (such as 3:2 or 4:3) of frequencies. Any interval tuned in this way is called a just interval

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Just intonation - Wikipedia
understandable to non-experts, without removing the technical details. (July 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Harmonic series, partials 1–5 numbered Play (help·info). <span>In music, just intonation or pure intonation is the tuning of musical intervals as whole number ratios (such as 3:2 or 4:3) of frequencies. Any interval tuned in this way is called a just interval. Just intervals (and chords created by combining them) consist of members of a single harmonic series of a (lower) implied fundamental. For example, in the diagram, the notes G and midd




An equal temperament is a musical temperament or tuning system, which approximates just intervals by dividing an octave (or other interval) into equal steps. This means the ratio of the frequencies of any adjacent pair of notes is the same, which gives an equal perceived step size as pitch is perceived roughly as the logarithm of frequency

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Equal temperament - Wikipedia
atios are separated in rows by their prime limits. 12-tone equal temperament chromatic scale on C, one full octave ascending, notated only with sharps. Play ascending and descending (help·info) <span>An equal temperament is a musical temperament or tuning system, which approximates just intervals by dividing an octave (or other interval) into equal steps. This means the ratio of the frequencies of any adjacent pair of notes is the same, which gives an equal perceived step size as pitch is perceived roughly as the logarithm of frequency.[2] In classical music and Western music in general, the most common tuning system since the 18th century has been twelve-tone equal temperament (also known as 12 equal temperament, 12-




In classical music and Western music in general, the most common tuning system since the 18th century has been twelve-tone equal temperament (also known as 12 equal temperament, 12-TET or 12-ET; informally abbreviated to twelve equal), which divides the octave into 12 parts, all of which are equal on a logarithmic scale, with a ratio equal to the 12th root of 2 ( 12√ 2 ≈ 1.05946). That resulting smallest interval, ​ 112 the width of an octave, is called a semitone or half step. In Western countries the term equal temperament, without qualification, generally means 12-TET.

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Equal temperament - Wikipedia
teps. This means the ratio of the frequencies of any adjacent pair of notes is the same, which gives an equal perceived step size as pitch is perceived roughly as the logarithm of frequency.[2] <span>In classical music and Western music in general, the most common tuning system since the 18th century has been twelve-tone equal temperament (also known as 12 equal temperament, 12-TET or 12-ET; informally abbreviated to twelve equal), which divides the octave into 12 parts, all of which are equal on a logarithmic scale, with a ratio equal to the 12th root of 2 (12√2 ≈ 1.05946). That resulting smallest interval, ​1⁄12 the width of an octave, is called a semitone or half step. In Western countries the term equal temperament, without qualification, generally means 12-TET. In modern times, 12-TET is usually tuned relative to a standard pitch of 440 Hz, called A440, meaning one note, A, is tuned to 440 hertz and all other notes are defined as some multiple




A significant advancement has been made by an international team of solar physicists led by those from Peking University, China, and National Center for Atmospheric Research of the United States. The group has measured the global magnetic field of the Sun’s corona, or outer atmosphere, for the very first time.

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his can help solve several puzzles about the solar atmosphere The Sun is our closest star and we have been studying it for a long time. Yet, it has many associated puzzles that are unexplained. <span>A significant advancement has been made by an international team of solar physicists led by those from Peking University, China, and National Center for Atmospheric Research of the United States. The group has measured the global magnetic field of the Sun’s corona, or outer atmosphere, for the very first time. This research has been published in the journal Science. The solar puzzles There are two main puzzles about the Sun which this advancement will help address. First is the coronal heatin




The coincidence \(2^{19} \approx 3^{12}\), from \(\frac{\log3}{\log2} \approx 1.5849\dots \approx \frac{19}{12}\) leads to the observation commonly used in music to relate the tuning of 7 semitones of equal temperament to a perfect fifth of just intonation: \(2^{7/12}\approx 3/2;\), correct to about 0.1%. The just fifth is the basis of Pythagorean tuning and most known systems of music. From the consequent approximation \({(3/2)}^{12}\approx 2^7,\) it follows that the circle of fifths terminates seven octaves higher than the origin

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Mathematical coincidence - Wikipedia
invoked for instance in shutter speed settings on cameras, as approximations to powers of two (128, 256, 512) in the sequence of speeds 125, 250, 500, etc.[2] Concerning musical intervals[edit] <span>The coincidence 2 19 ≈ 3 12 {\displaystyle 2^{19}\approx 3^{12}} , from log ⁡ 3 log ⁡ 2 ≈ 1.5849 ⋯ ≈ 19 12 {\displaystyle {\frac {\log 3}{\log 2}}\approx 1.5849\dots \approx {\frac {19}{12}}} leads to the observation commonly used in music to relate the tuning of 7 semitones of equal temperament to a perfect fifth of just intonation: 2 7 / 12 ≈ 3 / 2 ; {\displaystyle 2^{7/12}\approx 3/2;} , correct to about 0.1%. The just fifth is the basis of Pythagorean tuning and most known systems of music. From the consequent approximation ( 3 / 2 ) 12 ≈ 2 7 , {\displaystyle {(3/2)}^{12}\approx 2^{7},} it follows that the circle of fifths terminates seven octaves higher than the origin.[2] The coincidence 2 12 5 7 = 1.33333319 … ≈ 4 3 {\displaystyle {\sqrt[{12}]{2}}{\sqrt[{7}]{5}}=1.33333319\ldots \approx {\frac {4}{3}}} leads to the rational version of 12-TET, as not




There are two main puzzles about the Sun which this advancement will help address. First is the coronal heating problem. Though the core of the Sun is at a temperature of about 15 million degrees, its outer layer, the photosphere is a mere 5700 degrees hot. However, its corona or outer atmosphere, which stretches up to several million kilometres beyond its surface, is much, much hotter than the surface. It is at a temperature of one million degrees or more. What causes the atmosphere of the Sun (corona) to heat up again, though the surface (photosphere) is cooler than the interior?

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s. The group has measured the global magnetic field of the Sun’s corona, or outer atmosphere, for the very first time. This research has been published in the journal Science. The solar puzzles <span>There are two main puzzles about the Sun which this advancement will help address. First is the coronal heating problem. Though the core of the Sun is at a temperature of about 15 million degrees, its outer layer, the photosphere is a mere 5700 degrees hot. However, its corona or outer atmosphere, which stretches up to several million kilometres beyond its surface, is much, much hotter than the surface. It is at a temperature of one million degrees or more. What causes the atmosphere of the Sun (corona) to heat up again, though the surface (photosphere) is cooler than the interior? That is the question which has baffled solar physicists. Popular attempts to explain this puzzle invoke the magnetic field of the corona. Hence the present work will help understand and




“Magnetic reconnection is a process where oppositely polarity magnetic field lines connect and some of the magnetic energy is converted to heat energy and also kinetic energy which leads to the generation of heating, solar flares, solar jets, etc,”

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er set of questions pertain to the mechanisms of eruptions of the Sun, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections. These are driven by magnetic reconnections happening in the Sun’s corona. <span>“Magnetic reconnection is a process where oppositely polarity magnetic field lines connect and some of the magnetic energy is converted to heat energy and also kinetic energy which leads to the generation of heating, solar flares, solar jets, etc,” says Tanmoy Samanta, a postdoctoral research fellow working at George Mason University, and Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory of the U.S. He is one of the authors of t




Flashcard 5742149635340

Question
squamous cells useful for fluid transport structures. Why?
Answer
cells fit closely together in tissues, providing low-friction surface


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an> Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates that can look polygonal when viewed from above.[12] Their name comes from squāma, Latin for "scale" – as on fish or snake skin. The cells fit closely together in tissues, providing a smooth, low-friction surface over which fluids can move easily. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and helps to identify the type of epithelium. Squamous cells tend to have horizontally flattened, nearly oval-shaped nucle

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Epithelium - Wikipedia
s almost exclusively found in the bladder, ureters and urethra.[10] Cell types[edit] The basic cell types are squamous, cuboidal, and columnar, classed by their shape. Type Description Squamous <span>Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates that can look polygonal when viewed from above.[12] Their name comes from squāma, Latin for "scale" – as on fish or snake skin. The cells fit closely together in tissues, providing a smooth, low-friction surface over which fluids can move easily. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and helps to identify the type of epithelium. Squamous cells tend to have horizontally flattened, nearly oval-shaped nuclei because of the thin, flattened form of the cell. Squamous epithelium is found lining surfaces such as skin or alveoli in the lung, enabling simple passive diffusion as also found in the alveolar epithelium in the lungs. Specialized squamous epithelium also forms the lining of cavities such as in blood vessels (as endothelium), in the pericardium (as mesothelium), and in other body cavities. Cuboidal C







Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates that can look polygonal when viewed from above.[12] Their name comes from squāma, Latin for "scale" – as on fish or snake skin

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Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates that can look polygonal when viewed from above.[12] Their name comes from squāma, Latin for "scale" – as on fish or snake skin. The cells fit closely together in tissues, providing a smooth, low-friction surface over which fluids can move easily. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and

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Epithelium - Wikipedia
s almost exclusively found in the bladder, ureters and urethra.[10] Cell types[edit] The basic cell types are squamous, cuboidal, and columnar, classed by their shape. Type Description Squamous <span>Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates that can look polygonal when viewed from above.[12] Their name comes from squāma, Latin for "scale" – as on fish or snake skin. The cells fit closely together in tissues, providing a smooth, low-friction surface over which fluids can move easily. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and helps to identify the type of epithelium. Squamous cells tend to have horizontally flattened, nearly oval-shaped nuclei because of the thin, flattened form of the cell. Squamous epithelium is found lining surfaces such as skin or alveoli in the lung, enabling simple passive diffusion as also found in the alveolar epithelium in the lungs. Specialized squamous epithelium also forms the lining of cavities such as in blood vessels (as endothelium), in the pericardium (as mesothelium), and in other body cavities. Cuboidal C




Flashcard 5742153043212

Question
where are squamous cells found?
Answer
lining surfaces such as skin or alveoli in the lung


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nds to the cell form and helps to identify the type of epithelium. Squamous cells tend to have horizontally flattened, nearly oval-shaped nuclei because of the thin, flattened form of the cell. <span>Squamous epithelium is found lining surfaces such as skin or alveoli in the lung , enabling simple passive diffusion as also found in the alveolar epithelium in the lungs <span>

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Epithelium - Wikipedia
s almost exclusively found in the bladder, ureters and urethra.[10] Cell types[edit] The basic cell types are squamous, cuboidal, and columnar, classed by their shape. Type Description Squamous <span>Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates that can look polygonal when viewed from above.[12] Their name comes from squāma, Latin for "scale" – as on fish or snake skin. The cells fit closely together in tissues, providing a smooth, low-friction surface over which fluids can move easily. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and helps to identify the type of epithelium. Squamous cells tend to have horizontally flattened, nearly oval-shaped nuclei because of the thin, flattened form of the cell. Squamous epithelium is found lining surfaces such as skin or alveoli in the lung, enabling simple passive diffusion as also found in the alveolar epithelium in the lungs. Specialized squamous epithelium also forms the lining of cavities such as in blood vessels (as endothelium), in the pericardium (as mesothelium), and in other body cavities. Cuboidal C







Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates that can look polygonal when viewed from above.[12] Their name comes from squāma, Latin for "scale" – as on fish or snake skin. The cells fit closely together in tissues, providing a smooth, low-friction surface over which fluids can move easily. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and helps to identify the type of epithelium. Squamous cells tend to have horizontally flattened, nearly oval-shaped nuclei because of the thin, flattened form of the cell. Squamous epithelium is found lining surfaces such as skin or alveoli in the lung, enabling simple passive diffusion as also found in the alveolar epithelium in the lungs
...
squamous cells are thin and flat with oval-shaped nuclei. Their name comes from squama (latin: [fish] scale).
Useful in fluid transport because they form low-friction surfaces.
Cells are used in skin and alveoli in the lung and enable passive diffusion (this is surprising to me! I thought for sure that it would be nice for biological systems to e.g. control oxygen exchange in lungs)

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Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates that can look polygonal when viewed from above.[12] Their name comes from squāma, Latin for "scale" – as on fish or snake skin. The cells fit closely together in tissues, providing a smooth, low-friction surface over which fluids can move easily. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and helps to identify the type of epithelium. Squamous cells tend to have horizontally flattened, nearly oval-shaped nuclei because of the thin, flattened form of the cell. Squamous epithelium is found lining surfaces such as skin or alveoli in the lung , enabling simple passive diffusion as also found in the alveolar epithelium in the lungs

Original toplevel document

Epithelium - Wikipedia
s almost exclusively found in the bladder, ureters and urethra.[10] Cell types[edit] The basic cell types are squamous, cuboidal, and columnar, classed by their shape. Type Description Squamous <span>Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates that can look polygonal when viewed from above.[12] Their name comes from squāma, Latin for "scale" – as on fish or snake skin. The cells fit closely together in tissues, providing a smooth, low-friction surface over which fluids can move easily. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and helps to identify the type of epithelium. Squamous cells tend to have horizontally flattened, nearly oval-shaped nuclei because of the thin, flattened form of the cell. Squamous epithelium is found lining surfaces such as skin or alveoli in the lung, enabling simple passive diffusion as also found in the alveolar epithelium in the lungs. Specialized squamous epithelium also forms the lining of cavities such as in blood vessels (as endothelium), in the pericardium (as mesothelium), and in other body cavities. Cuboidal C




The parasite Plasmodium vivax, responsible for 7.5 million malaria cases worldwide, remains understudied. Not much is known about its dormant stage in the liver. An international team has developed a system to breed these parasites in the lab and then infect cultured human liver cells with it. This can help establish a robust liver stage assay in P. vivax-endemic regions such as India.

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RINT A A A Important step: The improved methodwas developed for breeding A. stephensi mosquitoes in the lab. | Photo Credit: nopparit The method infects liver cells with mosquito-bred parasites <span>The parasite Plasmodium vivax, responsible for 7.5 million malaria cases worldwide, remains understudied. Not much is known about its dormant stage in the liver. An international team has developed a system to breed these parasites in the lab and then infect cultured human liver cells with it. This can help establish a robust liver stage assay in P. vivax-endemic regions such as India. Mosquitoes inject the sporozoite (spore-like) stage of the parasite into the skin when they bite, and the sporozoites travel to the liver. “Imagine some 50 parasites enter our liver, ea




Across the world, countries are considering the use of ‘immunity passports.’ These are handed out to those who have recovered from COVID-19 for the purpose of travel. Immunity passports are also known as ‘risk-free certificates.’ According to the World Health Organisation, use of such certificates could lead to the risk of continued transmission.

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back to edible plants Watch | All about the Israel-UAE Peace Agreement Watch | What is an immunity passport? Close X A video explainer on immunity passport, also known as risk-free certificate <span>Across the world, countries are considering the use of ‘immunity passports.’ These are handed out to those who have recovered from COVID-19 for the purpose of travel. Immunity passports are also known as ‘risk-free certificates.’ According to the World Health Organisation, use of such certificates could lead to the risk of continued transmission. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, ou




Flashcard 5742175063308

[unknown IMAGE 5742181092620]
Tags
#has-images
Question
Squamous cells
Answer
type of epithelial tissue cell. Long and flat


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Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates that can look polygonal when viewed from above.[12] Their name comes from squāma, Latin for "scale" – as on fish or snake skin

Original toplevel document

Epithelium - Wikipedia
s almost exclusively found in the bladder, ureters and urethra.[10] Cell types[edit] The basic cell types are squamous, cuboidal, and columnar, classed by their shape. Type Description Squamous <span>Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates that can look polygonal when viewed from above.[12] Their name comes from squāma, Latin for "scale" – as on fish or snake skin. The cells fit closely together in tissues, providing a smooth, low-friction surface over which fluids can move easily. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and helps to identify the type of epithelium. Squamous cells tend to have horizontally flattened, nearly oval-shaped nuclei because of the thin, flattened form of the cell. Squamous epithelium is found lining surfaces such as skin or alveoli in the lung, enabling simple passive diffusion as also found in the alveolar epithelium in the lungs. Specialized squamous epithelium also forms the lining of cavities such as in blood vessels (as endothelium), in the pericardium (as mesothelium), and in other body cavities. Cuboidal C







The northeastern State of Meghalaya known for its wettest districts and living root bridges is also home to a lowland tropical rainforest north of the Tropic of Cancer. A new study discovers that this rainforest, the northernmost in the world, is similar in structure and diversity to the other rainforests found near the Equator.

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thernmost in the world, this rainforest is similar in structure and diversity to others found near the Equator. A study documents the structure and diversity of Meghalayan rainforests in detail <span>The northeastern State of Meghalaya known for its wettest districts and living root bridges is also home to a lowland tropical rainforest north of the Tropic of Cancer. A new study discovers that this rainforest, the northernmost in the world, is similar in structure and diversity to the other rainforests found near the Equator. Tropical rainforests are the terrestrial areas on the earth teemed with enormous diversity of trees and other life-forms which make the largest sink of carbon. Although these forests co




Tropical rainforests are the terrestrial areas on the earth teemed with enormous diversity of trees and other life-forms which make the largest sink of carbon. Although these forests cover just about 6% of the Earth's land surface, about four-fifth of world's documented species can be found in tropical rainforests.

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north of the Tropic of Cancer. A new study discovers that this rainforest, the northernmost in the world, is similar in structure and diversity to the other rainforests found near the Equator. <span>Tropical rainforests are the terrestrial areas on the earth teemed with enormous diversity of trees and other life-forms which make the largest sink of carbon. Although these forests cover just about 6% of the Earth's land surface, about four-fifth of world's documented species can be found in tropical rainforests. Characteristically, tropical rainforests occur in “hot and wet” habitats where all months receive precipitation and there is no dry season. Rainforests usually occur near the Equator an




Though this is lower compared with equatorial rainforests, it fell in the intermediate category for rainforests around the Tropic of Cancer.

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h only up to about 30 m. Dr. Shankar adds that in order to survive at this higher latitude the trees would have to make some compromises. The region had a high density of 467 trees per hectare. <span>Though this is lower compared with equatorial rainforests, it fell in the intermediate category for rainforests around the Tropic of Cancer. Also, the richness of species per hectare was the highest among all lowland rainforests near the Tropic of Cancer. Ignored in maps Though it has so many special aspects, the team writes




Flashcard 5742192889100

Question
Histaminergic
Answer
working on the histamine system


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Histaminergic means "working on the histamine system", and histaminic means "related to histamine ". A histaminergic agent (or drug) is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the histamine s

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Histaminergic - Wikipedia
Histaminergic - Wikipedia Histaminergic From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Main article: Histamine Histaminergic means "working on the histamine system", and histaminic means "related to histamine". A histaminergic agent (or drug) is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the histamine system in the body or brain. Examples include histamine receptor agonists and histamine receptor antagonists (or antihistamines). Subdivisions of histamine antagonists include H1 receptor antagonists, H2 receptor







#biology #neurology #sleep
This means that, in your last 2-4 waking hours, you need to avoid light, electricity, excitement, stress, intense sports, TV, computers, social interaction, e-mailing, web surfing, etc. If the presented algorithm does not work for you for a longer time, you may have to extend this "protected zone" up to a point where the resulting "inaction" results in more stress or frustration than it actually eliminates. Extending the protected zone beyond 2-3 hours of dark silence will probably be counterproductive. See for yourself. Remember, that the protected zone is not a time for lying in bed! Unproductive time in bed will add to your stress, and if you fall asleep early, you can mess up your sleep on that night and actually delay the phase! Obviously there is a very limited range of activities you can do in the protected zone. I leave it up to your imagination. Perhaps moderate exercise in dim light. Or sex? Or walking and thinking? Seth Roberts swears by one-legged standing before sleep

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Good sleep, good learning, good life
up comfortably 2-3 hours before your chosen waking time. You could then try to re-start the algorithm. Protected zone: As you suffer from DSPS, your primary objective is to prevent phase delay. <span>This means that, in your last 2-4 waking hours, you need to avoid light, electricity, excitement, stress, intense sports, TV, computers, social interaction, e-mailing, web surfing, etc. If the presented algorithm does not work for you for a longer time, you may have to extend this "protected zone" up to a point where the resulting "inaction" results in more stress or frustration than it actually eliminates. Extending the protected zone beyond 2-3 hours of dark silence will probably be counterproductive. See for yourself. Remember, that the protected zone is not a time for lying in bed! Unproductive time in bed will add to your stress, and if you fall asleep early, you can mess up your sleep on that night and actually delay the phase! Obviously there is a very limited range of activities you can do in the protected zone. I leave it up to your imagination. Perhaps moderate exercise in dim light. Or sex? Or walking and thinking? Seth Roberts swears by one-legged standing before sleep. Morning light: One of the most powerful zeitgebers is light. If sunlight can stream into your room at the time when you should wake up, you might eliminate half of the difficulty in ac




#biology #neurology #sleep
One of the most powerful zeitgebers is light. If sunlight can stream into your room at the time when you should wake up, you might eliminate half of the difficulty in achieving a 24h balanced cycle. If this is impossible due to the season, or your early waking hour, or your living arrangements, you might consider using one of the commercial devices used in the "bright light therapy", esp. if you turn on the lights with the timer (if your device has no timer, you can use a timer that cuts off the supply of electricity for the night)

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otected zone. I leave it up to your imagination. Perhaps moderate exercise in dim light. Or sex? Or walking and thinking? Seth Roberts swears by one-legged standing before sleep. Morning light: <span>One of the most powerful zeitgebers is light. If sunlight can stream into your room at the time when you should wake up, you might eliminate half of the difficulty in achieving a 24h balanced cycle. If this is impossible due to the season, or your early waking hour, or your living arrangements, you might consider using one of the commercial devices used in the "bright light therapy", esp. if you turn on the lights with the timer (if your device has no timer, you can use a timer that cuts off the supply of electricity for the night). Please be sure you read all the relevant safety instructions to prevent any long-term impact on your health. Morning exercise: Another powerful zeitgeber is outdoor exercise. If possib




#biology #neurology #sleep
Gentle calisthenics, yoga, or stretching would be an example of harmless evening exercise. Perhaps even body building, if not too exciting or strenuous. This late exercise would best be performed in dim light and in absence of other rousing stimuli. If you can swear that evening exercise helps you fall asleep faster, even if strenuous, remember that sleep itself has a phase-shifting power and can actually outweigh the opposite effect of adrenaline or locomotor activity

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nterbalanced by the amplification of the homeostatic sleep drive and the "fasting effect" that will help you sleep early. Those evening exercises should be free of stress, injury, emotion, etc. <span>Gentle calisthenics, yoga, or stretching would be an example of harmless evening exercise. Perhaps even body building, if not too exciting or strenuous. This late exercise would best be performed in dim light and in absence of other rousing stimuli. If you can swear that evening exercise helps you fall asleep faster, even if strenuous, remember that sleep itself has a phase-shifting power and can actually outweigh the opposite effect of adrenaline or locomotor activity. If you are not sure, experiment on your own. Evening fasting: Unless you are a ravenous type that cannot sleep without a snack, give up meals in the last couple of hours of the day. As




#biology #neurology #sleep
Unless you are a ravenous type that cannot sleep without a snack, give up meals in the last couple of hours of the day. As explained in the DMH section, food may have an additional impact on the positioning of your circadian cycle, and you do not want your brain to think that evening is an opportune time to get food. A healthy breakfast in the morning should have the opposite effect on the sleep phase and is always recommended by nutritionists even if sleep phase delays are not in the cards (note that Seth Roberts recommends skipping breakfast, but this should apply to those who suffer from early waking or ASPS, not for onset insomniacs or DSPS). Don't be discouraged by research that may claim that evening fasting will not affect your circadian cycle. For example, Sensi found that morning meals seem to favor carbohydrate metabolism, and meal timing, within the studied range, did not impact circadian cycles (Sensi and Capani 1987[36]). Fasting has many other added benefits, incl. slimmer waistline. Try it for yourself and see the impact of evening fasting on your sleep and health within a week! Read more: Fasting

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ber that sleep itself has a phase-shifting power and can actually outweigh the opposite effect of adrenaline or locomotor activity. If you are not sure, experiment on your own. Evening fasting: <span>Unless you are a ravenous type that cannot sleep without a snack, give up meals in the last couple of hours of the day. As explained in the DMH section, food may have an additional impact on the positioning of your circadian cycle, and you do not want your brain to think that evening is an opportune time to get food. A healthy breakfast in the morning should have the opposite effect on the sleep phase and is always recommended by nutritionists even if sleep phase delays are not in the cards (note that Seth Roberts recommends skipping breakfast, but this should apply to those who suffer from early waking or ASPS, not for onset insomniacs or DSPS). Don't be discouraged by research that may claim that evening fasting will not affect your circadian cycle. For example, Sensi found that morning meals seem to favor carbohydrate metabolism, and meal timing, within the studied range, did not impact circadian cycles (Sensi and Capani 1987[36]). Fasting has many other added benefits, incl. slimmer waistline. Try it for yourself and see the impact of evening fasting on your sleep and health within a week! Read more: Fasting. Adding pressure: If you keep failing by waking up too late, or not being sleepy at the desired bedtime, keep adding up pressure at both ends of your night sleep. More exercise in the m




#biology #neurology #sleep
You may consider an occasional pill of melatonin (e.g. 2 hours before your optimum bedtime). Remember that melatonin will affect your creativity and alertness, and should not be used on a regular basis. You could resort to melatonin on days when you are particularly wound up or when your waking time was particularly late. Remember also that large doses of melatonin may backfire. I guess you should not ever exceed 3 mg, however, you would better consult your sleep expert to make the final decision as to the dosage and timing. If you keep failing with the algorithm, you should rather increase the frequency of taking melatonin. You should not increase the dosage! Do not use marijuana as a "melatonin substitute"

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ity ensures you do not wake up prematurely and what advance you can actually afford without making the situation worse. Emergency: Melatonin: If your "protected zone" is stretched to the limit. <span>You may consider an occasional pill of melatonin (e.g. 2 hours before your optimum bedtime). Remember that melatonin will affect your creativity and alertness, and should not be used on a regular basis. You could resort to melatonin on days when you are particularly wound up or when your waking time was particularly late. Remember also that large doses of melatonin may backfire. I guess you should not ever exceed 3 mg, however, you would better consult your sleep expert to make the final decision as to the dosage and timing. If you keep failing with the algorithm, you should rather increase the frequency of taking melatonin. You should not increase the dosage! Do not use marijuana as a "melatonin substitute"! If you think that your sleep and your brain performance do not suffer on MJ, you are wrong! Emergency: Radio timer: As the algorithm is supposed to let you sleep without an alarm clock




#biology #neurology #sleep

Caffeine: Sleep experts will often tell you to wean yourself off caffeine. However, I beg to disagree. A cup of early morning coffee or tea will likely have a beneficial effect. Its impact on the homeostatic sleep drive will increase your alertness, which on its own has a phase shifting power. Early caffeine will help you advance your phase! You should avoid caffeine in the later parts of the day though. Before sleep you will already be in mild withdrawal, which, theoretically, should boost your homeostatic sleep drive and allow for a slightly earlier bedtime. This way, caffeine may help you achieve phase advances at both ends of your night sleep

...

i.e. drink it to get more active, which automatically gives more homeostatic sleepiness and coffeine crash. Triple profit.

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that we have not evolved to be alert and productive all day. 100% sharp mind is only our desire that has, among others, contributed to the DSPS problem in the first place. See: Best nap timing <span>Caffeine: Sleep experts will often tell you to wean yourself off caffeine. However, I beg to disagree. A cup of early morning coffee or tea will likely have a beneficial effect. Its impact on the homeostatic sleep drive will increase your alertness, which on its own has a phase shifting power. Early caffeine will help you advance your phase! You should avoid caffeine in the later parts of the day though. Before sleep you will already be in mild withdrawal, which, theoretically, should boost your homeostatic sleep drive and allow for a slightly earlier bedtime. This way, caffeine may help you achieve phase advances at both ends of your night sleep. Alcohol: Drinking alcohol before sleep may have disastrous effects on your effort to balance the cycle. One of your major enemies will be premature waking after premature bedtime. Alco




#biology #neurology #sleep
Myopia: If you are shortsighted, you should consider getting a correct prescription. Some theories of myopia favor underprescription (Rehm 1981[37]), however, you will also find evidence to the contrary (Coghlan and Le Page 2002[38]). If you lean to the underprescription side, consider using the correct prescription only in the morning. Only the first 2-4 hours matter. You may recall from your physics class that the amount of light reaching the retina will actually be reduced with the increase to the focal power. However, well-focused light will be more likely to produce strong maxima with a phase-shifting power. Analogously, you might also consider using dimmed spectacles in the evening. Naturally, these are not recommended for "close world" applications (such as reading the computer screen) as these might accelerate the progression of myopia.

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ts for days is a general enemy of healthy and productive living. If this is your problem, please have a peek at the stress section of this article to see if you can find any useful hints there. <span>Myopia: If you are shortsighted, you should consider getting a correct prescription. Some theories of myopia favor underprescription (Rehm 1981[37]), however, you will also find evidence to the contrary (Coghlan and Le Page 2002[38]). If you lean to the underprescription side, consider using the correct prescription only in the morning. Only the first 2-4 hours matter. You may recall from your physics class that the amount of light reaching the retina will actually be reduced with the increase to the focal power. However, well-focused light will be more likely to produce strong maxima with a phase-shifting power. Analogously, you might also consider using dimmed spectacles in the evening. Naturally, these are not recommended for "close world" applications (such as reading the computer screen) as these might accelerate the progression of myopia. Computer screen: There are computer screen filters and applications that can help you filter phase-shifting light frequencies that can dim your monitor in the late evening. I hear from




The in-vitro skin is made of skin cells from donors and collagen, and can replace cosmetic testing on animals

A piece of skin about the size of your thumbnail can be printed in less than a minute, scientists in Singapore say,

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smetic testing on animals Share Article 0 PRINT A A A A view of lab-made human skin, made from skin cells and collagen, at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore. | Photo Credit: Reuters <span>The in-vitro skin is made of skin cells from donors and collagen, and can replace cosmetic testing on animals A piece of skin about the size of your thumbnail can be printed in less than a minute, scientists in Singapore say, a game-changing step for the future of non-animal testing for cosmetics and other products. Made up of skin cells from donors and collagen, the in-vitro skin has the same chemical and b




Made up of skin cells from donors and collagen, the in-vitro skin has the same chemical and biological properties as human skin, says John Koh

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n about the size of your thumbnail can be printed in less than a minute, scientists in Singapore say, a game-changing step for the future of non-animal testing for cosmetics and other products. <span>Made up of skin cells from donors and collagen, the in-vitro skin has the same chemical and biological properties as human skin, says John Koh, lab manager at start-up DeNova Sciences, which is collaborating with Singapore’s Nanyang Technological University on the product. “We can see that the industry is moving towards animal




China has developed the powerful long March 5 rocket to transport the probe to Mars in 2020.

China on Thursday successfully completed a lander test in northern Hebei province ahead of an unmanned exploration mission to Mars next year.

China is on track to launch its Mars mission in 2020, Zhang Kejian

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T A A A A lander is hanged for a hovering-and-obstacle avoidance test for China's Mars mission at a test facility in Huailai, Hebei province, China on November 14, 2019. | Photo Credit: REUTERS <span>China has developed the powerful long March 5 rocket to transport the probe to Mars in 2020. China on Thursday successfully completed a lander test in northern Hebei province ahead of an unmanned exploration mission to Mars next year. China is on track to launch its Mars mission in 2020, Zhang Kejian, head of the China National Space Administration, said on Thursday. Mr. Zhang was speaking ahead of the hovering-and-obstacle avoidance test for the lander. The journey through space wi




In 2003, China became the third nation to put a man in space with its own rocket after the former Soviet Union and the United States.

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r space station around 2022, around the time when NASA is said to start building a new space station laboratory to orbit the moon, as a pit stop for missions to other parts of the solar system. <span>In 2003, China became the third nation to put a man in space with its own rocket after the former Soviet Union and the United States. Since then, it has been racing to catch up with Russia and the United States and become a major space power by 2030. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to




The study’s lead author, Chad Thackeray, an assistant researcher at UCLA, said one reason predictions about sea ice loss diverge so much is that they differ in how they consider a process called sea ice albedo feedback.

The process occurs when a patch of sea ice completely melts, uncovering a seawater surface that is darker and absorbs more sunlight than ice would have.

That change in the surface’s reflectivity of sunlight, or albedo, causes greater local warming, which in turn leads to further ice melt, the researchers said.

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hed in the journal Nature Climate Change. Among the current generation of models, some show ice-free Septembers as early as 2026, while others suggest the phenomenon will begin as late as 2132. <span>The study’s lead author, Chad Thackeray, an assistant researcher at UCLA, said one reason predictions about sea ice loss diverge so much is that they differ in how they consider a process called sea ice albedo feedback. The process occurs when a patch of sea ice completely melts, uncovering a seawater surface that is darker and absorbs more sunlight than ice would have. That change in the surface’s reflectivity of sunlight, or albedo, causes greater local warming, which in turn leads to further ice melt, the researchers said. The cycle exacerbates warming — one reason the Arctic is heating up twice as fast as the rest of the globe, they said. Thackeray and co-author Alex Hall, a UCLA professor, noted that se




Arctic Ocean may be ice-free for part of year by 2044, finds study

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rt of year by 2044, finds study Share On 3 Sci-Tech Science Technology Health Agriculture Environment Gadgets Internet Watch | All about the National Recruitment Agency Sci-Tech Science Science <span>Arctic Ocean may be ice-free for part of year by 2044, finds study PTI Los Angeles, November 18, 2019 12:14 IST Updated: November 18, 2019 12:14 IST PTI Los Angeles, November 18, 2019 12:14 IST Updated: November 18, 2019 12:14 IST Scientists have been




The launch of PSLV-C47 carrying Cartosat-3 scheduled on November 25, 2019 at 09:28 hrs is rescheduled to launch on November 27, 2019 at 09:28 hrs

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m the U.S., has been rescheduled to November 27. The space agency had earlier announced that the launch is tentatively scheduled at 9:28 a.m. IST on November 25, subject to weather conditions. “<span>The launch of PSLV-C47 carrying Cartosat-3 scheduled on November 25, 2019 at 09:28 hrs is rescheduled to launch on November 27, 2019 at 09:28 hrs from second launch pad of Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota,” ISRO has said in an update. The satellites would be launched by India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C47




The Cartosat-3 is a “third generation agile advanced satellite” having high resolution imaging capability, it said, adding the satellite would be placed in an orbit of 509 km at an inclination of 97.5 degree.

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te. The satellites would be launched by India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C47 into Sun Synchronous Orbit from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR at Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh. <span>The Cartosat-3 is a “third generation agile advanced satellite” having high resolution imaging capability, it said, adding the satellite would be placed in an orbit of 509 km at an inclination of 97.5 degree. With an overall mass of 1,625 kg and mission life of five years, Cartosat-3 shall address the increased user’s demands for large scale urban planning, rural resource and infrastructure




The Cartosat-3 is a “third generation agile advanced satellite” having high resolution imaging capability, it said, adding the satellite would be placed in an orbit of 509 km at an inclination of 97.5 degree.

With an overall mass of 1,625 kg and mission life of five years, Cartosat-3 shall address the increased user’s demands for large scale urban planning, rural resource and infrastructure development, coastal land use and land cover etc.

PSLV-C47 is the 21st flight of PSLV in ‘XL’ configuration (with six solid strap-on motors).

PSLV-C47 would also carry 13 commercial nano satellites from the U.S. as part of a commercial arrangement with NewSpace India Limited (NSIL), Department of Space.

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te. The satellites would be launched by India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C47 into Sun Synchronous Orbit from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR at Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh. <span>The Cartosat-3 is a “third generation agile advanced satellite” having high resolution imaging capability, it said, adding the satellite would be placed in an orbit of 509 km at an inclination of 97.5 degree. With an overall mass of 1,625 kg and mission life of five years, Cartosat-3 shall address the increased user’s demands for large scale urban planning, rural resource and infrastructure development, coastal land use and land cover etc. PSLV-C47 is the 21st flight of PSLV in ‘XL’ configuration (with six solid strap-on motors). PSLV-C47 would also carry 13 commercial nano satellites from the U.S. as part of a commercial arrangement with NewSpace India Limited (NSIL), Department of Space. Among the 13 commercial nano satellites are FLOCK-4P, 12 in numbers, with mission objective of earth observation, and one satellite named MESHBED, whose mission objective is communicati




PSLV-C47 would also carry 13 commercial nano satellites from the U.S. as part of a commercial arrangement with NewSpace India Limited (NSIL), Department of Space.

Among the 13 commercial nano satellites are FLOCK-4P, 12 in numbers, with mission objective of earth observation, and one satellite named MESHBED, whose mission objective is communication test bed.

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e urban planning, rural resource and infrastructure development, coastal land use and land cover etc. PSLV-C47 is the 21st flight of PSLV in ‘XL’ configuration (with six solid strap-on motors). <span>PSLV-C47 would also carry 13 commercial nano satellites from the U.S. as part of a commercial arrangement with NewSpace India Limited (NSIL), Department of Space. Among the 13 commercial nano satellites are FLOCK-4P, 12 in numbers, with mission objective of earth observation, and one satellite named MESHBED, whose mission objective is communication test bed. ISRO has said this would be the 74th launch vehicle mission from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on th




On November 11, the planet of Mercury skipped across the vast, glaring face of the sun in a rare celestial transit. Stargazers used solar-filtered binoculars and telescopes to spot Mercury a tiny black dot as it passed directly between Earth and the Sun .

The eastern U.S. and Canada got the whole 5 -hour show, weather permitting, along with Central and South America. The rest of the world, except for Asia and Australia, got just a sampling.

Mercury is the solar system’s smallest, innermost planet. The next transit isn’t until 2032, and North America won’t get another shot until 2049.

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ticle 1 PRINT A A A Arrow indicating Mercury passing across the face of the Sun | Photo Credit: Data courtesy of NASA/SDO, HMI, and AIA science teams. It was not visible from Asia and Australia <span>On November 11, the planet of Mercury skipped across the vast, glaring face of the sun in a rare celestial transit. Stargazers used solar-filtered binoculars and telescopes to spot Mercury a tiny black dot as it passed directly between Earth and the Sun . The eastern U.S. and Canada got the whole 5 -hour show, weather permitting, along with Central and South America. The rest of the world, except for Asia and Australia, got just a sampling. Mercury is the solar system’s smallest, innermost planet. The next transit isn’t until 2032, and North America won’t get another shot until 2049. In Maryland, clouds prevented NASA solar astrophysicist Alex Young from getting a clear peek. Live coverage was provided by observatories including NASA’s orbiting Solar Dynamics Observ




Elephants in musth

When an elephant is in a musth state, its urine shows increased testosterone levels. Also, temporin, a thick secretion, flows from the temporal ducts situated midway between their eyes and ears. Sometimes, the elephant dribbles urine as well. They hardly feed during musth and are more focussed on finding fertile females. They move from female to female, checking if she is fertile or not. Males enter into musth (show signs of musth) when there are in good body condition, and lost body condition over the time they are in musth because they are hardly feeding. Moreover, males can also mate when they are not in musth (they do not have to enter musth in order to mate). Therefore, people have been interested in finding out how exactly musth helps as a reproductive strategy since it is a very expensive strategy.

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o papers published in Journal of Mammology and Gajah, the team from Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Bengaluru, probes how this works in the Kabini population. <span>Elephants in musth When an elephant is in a musth state, its urine shows increased testosterone levels. Also, temporin, a thick secretion, flows from the temporal ducts situated midway between their eyes and ears. Sometimes, the elephant dribbles urine as well. They hardly feed during musth and are more focussed on finding fertile females. They move from female to female, checking if she is fertile or not. Males enter into musth (show signs of musth) when there are in good body condition, and lost body condition over the time they are in musth because they are hardly feeding. Moreover, males can also mate when they are not in musth (they do not have to enter musth in order to mate). Therefore, people have been interested in finding out how exactly musth helps as a reproductive strategy since it is a very expensive strategy. One way in which musth might give an advantage is that it might help to break a "queue" so to say of which male elephant is allowed to mate. It is also possible that musth allows for ma




Flashcard 5742239550732

Tags
#biology #neurology #sleep
Question
Shortsightedness impacts sleep negatively. How?
Answer
makes you less sensitive to light


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Additionally, shortsightedness, the ailment of the information age, makes us less sensitive to the light zeitgeber and artificially prolongs the circadian cycle

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Good sleep, good learning, good life
erests, give up the Internet, evening TV, etc. We live more stressful and more exciting lives than our grandparents. Turning the lights off in the early evening would probably only be wasteful. <span>Additionally, shortsightedness, the ailment of the information age, makes us less sensitive to the light zeitgeber and artificially prolongs the circadian cycle. There are a number of downsides to free running sleep. The worst shortcoming is a difficulty in establishing an activity cycle that could be well synchronized with the rest of the worl







Flashcard 5742242172172

Question
equity
Answer
asset value minus liabilities


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In finance, equity is ownership of assets that may have debts or other liabilities attached to them. Equity is measured for accounting purposes by subtracting liabilities from the value of an asset. For e

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Equity (finance) - Wikipedia
Financial Internal Firms Report People and organizations[show] Accountants Accounting organizations Luca Pacioli Development[show] History Research Positive accounting Sarbanes–Oxley Act v t e <span>In finance, equity is ownership of assets that may have debts or other liabilities attached to them. Equity is measured for accounting purposes by subtracting liabilities from the value of an asset. For example, if someone owns a car worth $9,000 and owes $3,000 on the loan used to buy the car, then the difference of $6,000 is equity. Equity can apply to a single asset, such as a car or house, or to an entire business. A business that needs to start up or expand its operations can sell its equity in order to raise cash that does not have to be repaid on a set schedule. When liabilities attached to an







The epithelium is an avascular tissue, which means there are no vessels to carry blood. Therefore, the nourishing of the epithelial cells takes place through diffusion of nutrients from the closest underlying connective tissues

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Difference Between Epithelial and Endothelial Cells | Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms
are few types of epithelial tissues known as Simple squamous, Simple cuboidal, Simple columnar, Stratified squamous, Stratified cuboidal, Pseudo stratified columnar, and Transitional epithelia. <span>The epithelium is an avascular tissue, which means there are no vessels to carry blood. Therefore, the nourishing of the epithelial cells takes place through diffusion of nutrients from the closest underlying connective tissues. The purposes of the presence of epithelium or functions of the tissue are protection, secretion, selective absorption, transcellular transportation, and detection of senses. Therefore,




Endothelial cells are a lining layer of cells or tissue (endothelium), especially the interior of the blood vessels. In fact, the endothelium lines the entire circulatory system including the one and only heart and all types of blood vessels. Endothelial cells form the interface between the lumen and wall of the vessel. The endothelium has an epithelial origin, and there are vimentin filaments, and it provides a non thrombogenic surface for the blood clotting

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Difference Between Epithelial and Endothelial Cells | Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms
ions of the tissue are protection, secretion, selective absorption, transcellular transportation, and detection of senses. Therefore, the importance of these cells is immense. Endothelial Cells <span>Endothelial cells are a lining layer of cells or tissue (endothelium), especially the interior of the blood vessels. In fact, the endothelium lines the entire circulatory system including the one and only heart and all types of blood vessels. Endothelial cells form the interface between the lumen and wall of the vessel. The endothelium has an epithelial origin, and there are vimentin filaments, and it provides a non thrombogenic surface for the blood clotting. The endothelium or the endothelial cells as a unit mainly form a selective barrier for the contents (nutrients) in the lumen and the surrounding organs or tissues. In addition, the for




What is the difference between Epithelial Cell and Endothelial Cell?

• Both tissues are of epithelial origins, but the endothelial cells have vimetntin, but epithelial cells have keratin filaments.

• By the sound of the terms, endothelium lines the innermost layer of the circulatory system while epithelium usually lines the outer surfaces of the body. Epithelium linings usually expose to the outside or exterior of the body (e.g. Skin, Intestine, Urinary bladder, Urethra, and many other organs). However, the endothelial layers are never exposed to the exterior as they line the innermost layer of the circulatory system, which is a closed system.

• Depending on the type of tissue, the number of layers varies for the epithelium, but endothelial cells always present as a single layered tissue called epithelium.

• Endothelium provides a non-thrombogenic surface but not the epithelial layers

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Difference Between Epithelial and Endothelial Cells | Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms
organs or tissues. In addition, the formation of new blood vessels, blood clotting, control of blood pressure, and many more functions are either assisted or performed by the endothelial cells. <span>What is the difference between Epithelial Cell and Endothelial Cell? • Both tissues are of epithelial origins, but the endothelial cells have vimetntin, but epithelial cells have keratin filaments. • By the sound of the terms, endothelium lines the innermost layer of the circulatory system while epithelium usually lines the outer surfaces of the body. Epithelium linings usually expose to the outside or exterior of the body (e.g. Skin, Intestine, Urinary bladder, Urethra, and many other organs). However, the endothelial layers are never exposed to the exterior as they line the innermost layer of the circulatory system, which is a closed system. • Depending on the type of tissue, the number of layers varies for the epithelium, but endothelial cells always present as a single layered tissue called epithelium. • Endothelium provides a non-thrombogenic surface but not the epithelial layers. AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to Facebook Facebook Share to Twitter Twitter Share to Pinterest Pinterest Share to WhatsApp WhatsApp Share to Viber Viber Share to More AddThis 6 Related




What is the difference between Epithelial Cell and Endothelial Cell?

• By the sound of the terms, endothelium lines the innermost layer of the circulatory system while epithelium usually lines the outer surfaces of the body. Epithelium linings usually expose to the outside or exterior of the body (e.g. Skin, Intestine, Urinary bladder, Urethra, and many other organs). However, the endothelial layers are never exposed to the exterior as they line the innermost layer of the circulatory system, which is a closed system.

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is the difference between Epithelial Cell and Endothelial Cell? • Both tissues are of epithelial origins, but the endothelial cells have vimetntin, but epithelial cells have keratin filaments. <span>• By the sound of the terms, endothelium lines the innermost layer of the circulatory system while epithelium usually lines the outer surfaces of the body. Epithelium linings usually expose to the outside or exterior of the body (e.g. Skin, Intestine, Urinary bladder, Urethra, and many other organs). However, the endothelial layers are never exposed to the exterior as they line the innermost layer of the circulatory system, which is a closed system. • Depending on the type of tissue, the number of layers varies for the epithelium, but endothelial cells always present as a single layered tissue called epithelium. • Endothelium provi

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Difference Between Epithelial and Endothelial Cells | Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms
organs or tissues. In addition, the formation of new blood vessels, blood clotting, control of blood pressure, and many more functions are either assisted or performed by the endothelial cells. <span>What is the difference between Epithelial Cell and Endothelial Cell? • Both tissues are of epithelial origins, but the endothelial cells have vimetntin, but epithelial cells have keratin filaments. • By the sound of the terms, endothelium lines the innermost layer of the circulatory system while epithelium usually lines the outer surfaces of the body. Epithelium linings usually expose to the outside or exterior of the body (e.g. Skin, Intestine, Urinary bladder, Urethra, and many other organs). However, the endothelial layers are never exposed to the exterior as they line the innermost layer of the circulatory system, which is a closed system. • Depending on the type of tissue, the number of layers varies for the epithelium, but endothelial cells always present as a single layered tissue called epithelium. • Endothelium provides a non-thrombogenic surface but not the epithelial layers. AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to Facebook Facebook Share to Twitter Twitter Share to Pinterest Pinterest Share to WhatsApp WhatsApp Share to Viber Viber Share to More AddThis 6 Related




#biology
Both endothelial cells are type of epithelial tissue. Endothelial cells are squamous cells that line inner surface of circulation system. Squamous cells are one of four epithelial cell types (they're not only found in circulation system)

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What is the difference between Epithelial Cell and Endothelial Cell? • Both tissues are of epithelial origins, but the endothelial cells have vimetntin, but epithelial cells have keratin filaments. • By the sound of the terms, endothelium lines the innermost layer of the circulatory system whil

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Difference Between Epithelial and Endothelial Cells | Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms
organs or tissues. In addition, the formation of new blood vessels, blood clotting, control of blood pressure, and many more functions are either assisted or performed by the endothelial cells. <span>What is the difference between Epithelial Cell and Endothelial Cell? • Both tissues are of epithelial origins, but the endothelial cells have vimetntin, but epithelial cells have keratin filaments. • By the sound of the terms, endothelium lines the innermost layer of the circulatory system while epithelium usually lines the outer surfaces of the body. Epithelium linings usually expose to the outside or exterior of the body (e.g. Skin, Intestine, Urinary bladder, Urethra, and many other organs). However, the endothelial layers are never exposed to the exterior as they line the innermost layer of the circulatory system, which is a closed system. • Depending on the type of tissue, the number of layers varies for the epithelium, but endothelial cells always present as a single layered tissue called epithelium. • Endothelium provides a non-thrombogenic surface but not the epithelial layers. AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to Facebook Facebook Share to Twitter Twitter Share to Pinterest Pinterest Share to WhatsApp WhatsApp Share to Viber Viber Share to More AddThis 6 Related




Female elephants have a four-month oestrous cycle in which they are ovulating for three or four days only. Thus, for a male to find an ovulating female and mate with her is, even normally, a rare occurrence. Further, if the female should get pregnant, she is out of circulation for about five years, because the pregnancy lasts two years and then she is lactating for over two-and-half years. Therefore, females are a rare resource for males seeking to produce offspring. Therefore, male mating strategies become very important in such a species.

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ni has fewer males in the over-45 age class than Kaziranga and Mudumalai…. Hence the number of males of the 45 plus age-class seems to influence the occurrence of musth,” says Dr. Keerthipriya. <span>Female elephants have a four-month oestrous cycle in which they are ovulating for three or four days only. Thus, for a male to find an ovulating female and mate with her is, even normally, a rare occurrence. Further, if the female should get pregnant, she is out of circulation for about five years, because the pregnancy lasts two years and then she is lactating for over two-and-half years. Therefore, females are a rare resource for males seeking to produce offspring. Therefore, male mating strategies become very important in such a species. Competing males In this context, the obvious feature is the high degree of competition that exists among males to select and mate with the few available females. This study analyses how




A seven-year study of Asian elephants from Nagarahole-Bandipur

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ted in musth. Temporal gland secretion is visible as a dark stain behind and slightly above the eye. Going into musth is a roving strategy primarily advantageous to old males not to young males <span>A seven-year study of Asian elephants from Nagarahole-Bandipur, a population centred around the Kabini region, yields interesting patterns of male elephant behaviour when in musth. Hormonal levels give musth males high energy and aggression levels




Depending on the type of tissue, the number of layers varies for the epithelium, but endothelial cells always present as a single layered tissue called endothelium [note: author wrote epithelium, but wrong!].

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bladder, Urethra, and many other organs). However, the endothelial layers are never exposed to the exterior as they line the innermost layer of the circulatory system, which is a closed system. <span>• Depending on the type of tissue, the number of layers varies for the epithelium, but endothelial cells always present as a single layered tissue called epithelium. • Endothelium provides a non-thrombogenic surface but not the epithelial layers <span>

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Difference Between Epithelial and Endothelial Cells | Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms
organs or tissues. In addition, the formation of new blood vessels, blood clotting, control of blood pressure, and many more functions are either assisted or performed by the endothelial cells. <span>What is the difference between Epithelial Cell and Endothelial Cell? • Both tissues are of epithelial origins, but the endothelial cells have vimetntin, but epithelial cells have keratin filaments. • By the sound of the terms, endothelium lines the innermost layer of the circulatory system while epithelium usually lines the outer surfaces of the body. Epithelium linings usually expose to the outside or exterior of the body (e.g. Skin, Intestine, Urinary bladder, Urethra, and many other organs). However, the endothelial layers are never exposed to the exterior as they line the innermost layer of the circulatory system, which is a closed system. • Depending on the type of tissue, the number of layers varies for the epithelium, but endothelial cells always present as a single layered tissue called epithelium. • Endothelium provides a non-thrombogenic surface but not the epithelial layers. AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to Facebook Facebook Share to Twitter Twitter Share to Pinterest Pinterest Share to WhatsApp WhatsApp Share to Viber Viber Share to More AddThis 6 Related




Thrombogenicity refers to the tendency of a material in contact with the blood to produce a thrombus, or clot

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Thrombogenicity - Wikipedia
r · JSTOR (October 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) IUPAC definition Property of a material (or substance) that induces and/or promotes the formation of a thrombus.[1] <span>Thrombogenicity refers to the tendency of a material in contact with the blood to produce a thrombus, or clot. It not only refers to fixed thrombi but also to emboli, thrombi which have become detached and travel through the bloodstream. Thrombogenicity can also encompass events such as the act




Flashcard 5742270221580

Tags
#biology
Question
Squamous cells are part of which tissue type?
Answer
Epithelial tissue


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Both endothelial cells are type of epithelial tissue. Endothelial cells are squamous cells that line inner surface of circulation system. Squamous cells are one of four epithelial cell types (they're not only found in circulation system)

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Difference Between Epithelial and Endothelial Cells | Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms
organs or tissues. In addition, the formation of new blood vessels, blood clotting, control of blood pressure, and many more functions are either assisted or performed by the endothelial cells. <span>What is the difference between Epithelial Cell and Endothelial Cell? • Both tissues are of epithelial origins, but the endothelial cells have vimetntin, but epithelial cells have keratin filaments. • By the sound of the terms, endothelium lines the innermost layer of the circulatory system while epithelium usually lines the outer surfaces of the body. Epithelium linings usually expose to the outside or exterior of the body (e.g. Skin, Intestine, Urinary bladder, Urethra, and many other organs). However, the endothelial layers are never exposed to the exterior as they line the innermost layer of the circulatory system, which is a closed system. • Depending on the type of tissue, the number of layers varies for the epithelium, but endothelial cells always present as a single layered tissue called epithelium. • Endothelium provides a non-thrombogenic surface but not the epithelial layers. AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to Facebook Facebook Share to Twitter Twitter Share to Pinterest Pinterest Share to WhatsApp WhatsApp Share to Viber Viber Share to More AddThis 6 Related







Flashcard 5742273367308

Tags
#biology
Question
where in body: endothelial cells
Answer
line inner surface of circulation system


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Both endothelial cells are type of epithelial tissue. Endothelial cells are squamous cells that line inner surface of circulation system. Squamous cells are one of four epithelial cell types (they're not only found in circulation system)

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Difference Between Epithelial and Endothelial Cells | Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms
organs or tissues. In addition, the formation of new blood vessels, blood clotting, control of blood pressure, and many more functions are either assisted or performed by the endothelial cells. <span>What is the difference between Epithelial Cell and Endothelial Cell? • Both tissues are of epithelial origins, but the endothelial cells have vimetntin, but epithelial cells have keratin filaments. • By the sound of the terms, endothelium lines the innermost layer of the circulatory system while epithelium usually lines the outer surfaces of the body. Epithelium linings usually expose to the outside or exterior of the body (e.g. Skin, Intestine, Urinary bladder, Urethra, and many other organs). However, the endothelial layers are never exposed to the exterior as they line the innermost layer of the circulatory system, which is a closed system. • Depending on the type of tissue, the number of layers varies for the epithelium, but endothelial cells always present as a single layered tissue called epithelium. • Endothelium provides a non-thrombogenic surface but not the epithelial layers. AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to Facebook Facebook Share to Twitter Twitter Share to Pinterest Pinterest Share to WhatsApp WhatsApp Share to Viber Viber Share to More AddThis 6 Related







Flashcard 5742275726604

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#biology
Question
what subtype of epithelial tissue are endothelial cells?
Answer
Squamous cells


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Both endothelial cells are type of epithelial tissue. Endothelial cells are squamous cells that line inner surface of circulation system. Squamous cells are one of four epithelial cell types (they're not only found in circulation system)

Original toplevel document

Difference Between Epithelial and Endothelial Cells | Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms
organs or tissues. In addition, the formation of new blood vessels, blood clotting, control of blood pressure, and many more functions are either assisted or performed by the endothelial cells. <span>What is the difference between Epithelial Cell and Endothelial Cell? • Both tissues are of epithelial origins, but the endothelial cells have vimetntin, but epithelial cells have keratin filaments. • By the sound of the terms, endothelium lines the innermost layer of the circulatory system while epithelium usually lines the outer surfaces of the body. Epithelium linings usually expose to the outside or exterior of the body (e.g. Skin, Intestine, Urinary bladder, Urethra, and many other organs). However, the endothelial layers are never exposed to the exterior as they line the innermost layer of the circulatory system, which is a closed system. • Depending on the type of tissue, the number of layers varies for the epithelium, but endothelial cells always present as a single layered tissue called epithelium. • Endothelium provides a non-thrombogenic surface but not the epithelial layers. AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to Facebook Facebook Share to Twitter Twitter Share to Pinterest Pinterest Share to WhatsApp WhatsApp Share to Viber Viber Share to More AddThis 6 Related







Flashcard 5742280183052

Question
neutral antagonist
Answer
Agonist without direct effect on receptors, but can block agonists & inverse agonists


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A neutral antagonist has no activity in the absence of an agonist or inverse agonist but can block the activity of either

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Inverse agonist - Wikipedia
tagonist, and inverse agonist In pharmacology, an inverse agonist is a drug that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that of the agonist. <span>A neutral antagonist has no activity in the absence of an agonist or inverse agonist but can block the activity of either.[1] Inverse agonists have opposite actions to those of agonists but the effects of both of these can be blocked by antagonists.[2] A prerequisite for an inverse agonist response is that







Flashcard 5742282542348

[unknown IMAGE 5742283590924]
Tags
#has-images
Question
how many cell layers does endothelium have?
Answer
just one


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Depending on the type of tissue, the number of layers varies for the epithelium, but endothelial cells always present as a single layered tissue called endothelium [note: author wrote epithelium, but wrong!].

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Difference Between Epithelial and Endothelial Cells | Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms
organs or tissues. In addition, the formation of new blood vessels, blood clotting, control of blood pressure, and many more functions are either assisted or performed by the endothelial cells. <span>What is the difference between Epithelial Cell and Endothelial Cell? • Both tissues are of epithelial origins, but the endothelial cells have vimetntin, but epithelial cells have keratin filaments. • By the sound of the terms, endothelium lines the innermost layer of the circulatory system while epithelium usually lines the outer surfaces of the body. Epithelium linings usually expose to the outside or exterior of the body (e.g. Skin, Intestine, Urinary bladder, Urethra, and many other organs). However, the endothelial layers are never exposed to the exterior as they line the innermost layer of the circulatory system, which is a closed system. • Depending on the type of tissue, the number of layers varies for the epithelium, but endothelial cells always present as a single layered tissue called epithelium. • Endothelium provides a non-thrombogenic surface but not the epithelial layers. AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to Facebook Facebook Share to Twitter Twitter Share to Pinterest Pinterest Share to WhatsApp WhatsApp Share to Viber Viber Share to More AddThis 6 Related







Flashcard 5742286474508

Tags
#biology
Question
Name of histamine receptor
Answer
H1 receptor


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The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors . This receptor is activated by the biogenic amine histamine . It is expressed in smooth mu

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Histamine H1 receptor - Wikipedia
571 NP_001239572 NP_001304053 NP_001304054 NP_001304055 NP_032311 Location (UCSC) Chr 3: 11.14 – 11.26 Mb Chr 6: 114.4 – 114.48 Mb PubMed search [3] [4] Wikidata View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse <span>The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors. This receptor is activated by the biogenic amine histamine. It is expressed in smooth muscles, on vascular endothelial cells, in the heart, and in the central nervous system. The H1 receptor is linked to an intracellular G-protein (Gq) that activates phospholipase C and the inositol triphosphate (IP3) signalling pathway. Antihistamines, which act on this rec







Flashcard 5742290144524

Question
What's biogenic ligand for H1 receptor?
Answer


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The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors . This receptor is activated by the biogenic amine histamine . It is expressed in smooth muscles , on vascular endothelial cells , in the heart, and in the central nervous system .

Original toplevel document

Histamine H1 receptor - Wikipedia
571 NP_001239572 NP_001304053 NP_001304054 NP_001304055 NP_032311 Location (UCSC) Chr 3: 11.14 – 11.26 Mb Chr 6: 114.4 – 114.48 Mb PubMed search [3] [4] Wikidata View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse <span>The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors. This receptor is activated by the biogenic amine histamine. It is expressed in smooth muscles, on vascular endothelial cells, in the heart, and in the central nervous system. The H1 receptor is linked to an intracellular G-protein (Gq) that activates phospholipase C and the inositol triphosphate (IP3) signalling pathway. Antihistamines, which act on this rec







Flashcard 5742294076684

Tags
#has-images
Question

why do inverse agonists work?

Answer
if receptor has constitutive activity, they turn it off


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Flashcard 5742295911692

[unknown IMAGE 5742296435980]
Tags
#has-images
Question
does this receptor have constitutive activity?
Answer
yes, otherwise inverse agonist couldn't exist because receptor wouldn't have activity in default state


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India has the second highest number of children who are not vaccinated against measles, the report published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) says. With 2.4 million, Nigeria has the most number of unvaccinated children. The other four countries with the most number of unvaccinated children are Pakistan (1.4 million), Ethiopia (1.3 million), Indonesia (1.2 million) and the Philippines (0.7 million).

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table condition Measles can be prevented through two doses of vaccination. But the number of children who are not vaccinated against measles is alarmingly high in six countries. At 2.3 million, <span>India has the second highest number of children who are not vaccinated against measles, the report published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) says. With 2.4 million, Nigeria has the most number of unvaccinated children. The other four countries with the most number of unvaccinated children are Pakistan (1.4 million), Ethiopia (1.3 million), Indonesia (1.2 million) and the Philippines (0.7 million). In 2017, 2.9 million children in India under one year of age had not been vaccinated with the first dose, according to UNICEF. In one year, the number of unvaccinated children in India




The first dose of measles vaccine was introduced as part of the national immunisation programme in the 1990s. Based on the WHO’s recommendation to administer a second dose to prevent infection and death in 90-95% of vaccinated children, India introduced the second dose from 2010 onwards. India was one of the last countries to add a second dose of measles vaccine as recommended by the WHO.

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ctive strategy for delivering vaccination to children who have otherwise been missed by routine services. But it does reflect how many children get missed by the routine immunisation programme. <span>The first dose of measles vaccine was introduced as part of the national immunisation programme in the 1990s. Based on the WHO’s recommendation to administer a second dose to prevent infection and death in 90-95% of vaccinated children, India introduced the second dose from 2010 onwards. India was one of the last countries to add a second dose of measles vaccine as recommended by the WHO. The first mass immunisation campaigns for the second dose of measles vaccine were launched in 2010 in 14 States where the coverage for the first dose was below 80%. The campaign targete




World's oldest artwork uncovered in Indonesian cave: study

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vered in Indonesian cave: study Share On 1 Sci-Tech Science Technology Health Agriculture Environment Gadgets Internet Using human sweat as diagnostic tool and source of power Sci-Tech Sci-Tech <span>World's oldest artwork uncovered in Indonesian cave: study AFP Jakarta, Indonesia, December 12, 2019 12:46 IST Updated: December 12, 2019 12:49 IST AFP Jakarta, Indonesia, December 12, 2019 12:46 IST Updated: December 12, 2019 12:49 IST The lim




At least 40,000 years old

The discovery comes after a painting of an animal in a cave on the Indonesian island of Borneo was earlier determined to have been at least 40,000 years old.

For many years, cave art was thought to have emerged from Europe, but Indonesian paintings have challenged that theory. There are at least 242 caves or shelters with ancient imagery on Sulawesi alone, and new sites are being discovered annually, the team said.

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Upper Paleolithic period. "This hunting scene is — to our knowledge — currently the oldest pictorial record of storytelling and the earliest figurative artwork in the world," researchers said. <span>At least 40,000 years old The discovery comes after a painting of an animal in a cave on the Indonesian island of Borneo was earlier determined to have been at least 40,000 years old. For many years, cave art was thought to have emerged from Europe, but Indonesian paintings have challenged that theory. There are at least 242 caves or shelters with ancient imagery on Sulawesi alone, and new sites are being discovered annually, the team said. In the latest dated scene, hunters are depicted in dark red colours with human bodies and the heads of animals including birds and reptiles. The painting, which is in poor condition, su




World’s oldest fossil forest uncovered in US

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t fossil forest uncovered in US Share On 0 Sci-Tech Science Technology Health Agriculture Environment Gadgets Internet Watch | All about the National Recruitment Agency Sci-Tech Science Science <span>World’s oldest fossil forest uncovered in US PTI New York, December 20, 2019 13:45 IST Updated: December 20, 2019 13:45 IST PTI New York, December 20, 2019 13:45 IST Updated: December 20, 2019 13:45 IST Share Article 0 PRINT A A A




The team harvested water hyacinth leaves, removed the chlorophyll, dried and powdered it. The sieved powder underwent several treatments including heating at 150 degree Celsius to convert it to carbon dots. “When a nanoparticle is less than 10 nanometre we call it a dot or nanodot. Our carbon dots were able to give a green fluorescence under UV light. The extremely small oxygen functional groups on the surface of the dot are responsible for the fluorescence,” explains the first author of the paper Manash Jyoti Deka.

The herbicide pretilachlor is mixed with water and carbon dots, and studied using special equipment. The fluorescence intensity increases in the presence of the herbicide. The team also tested using different pesticides and other compounds having similar chemical structure and found that the carbon dot was extremely sensitive to pretilachlor and could detect even very small quantity of the herbicide. After successful testing in the laboratory conditions, the team collected soil samples from different places across the State and proved the efficiency of the carbon dots in detecting pretilachor in soil samples.

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wdhury from the Material Nanochemistry lab at the Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Assam. He is the corresponding author of the work published in Heliyon. Leaves to carbon <span>The team harvested water hyacinth leaves, removed the chlorophyll, dried and powdered it. The sieved powder underwent several treatments including heating at 150 degree Celsius to convert it to carbon dots. “When a nanoparticle is less than 10 nanometre we call it a dot or nanodot. Our carbon dots were able to give a green fluorescence under UV light. The extremely small oxygen functional groups on the surface of the dot are responsible for the fluorescence,” explains the first author of the paper Manash Jyoti Deka. The herbicide pretilachlor is mixed with water and carbon dots, and studied using special equipment. The fluorescence intensity increases in the presence of the herbicide. The team also tested using different pesticides and other compounds having similar chemical structure and found that the carbon dot was extremely sensitive to pretilachlor and could detect even very small quantity of the herbicide. After successful testing in the laboratory conditions, the team collected soil samples from different places across the State and proved the efficiency of the carbon dots in detecting pretilachor in soil samples. Fluorescence enhancement The paper also describes the mechanism by which electron transfer happens between the dot and the herbicide which enables the fluorescence enhancement. Dr. Chow




In silico (Pseudo-Latin for "in silicon", alluding to the mass use of silicon for computer chips) is an expression meaning "performed on computer or via computer simulation" in reference to biological experiments. The phrase was coined in 1987 as an allusion to the Latin phrases in vivo, in vitro, and in situ, which are commonly used in biology (see also systems biology) and refer to experiments done in living organisms, outside living organisms, and where they are found in nature, respectively.

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In silico - Wikipedia
clopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search For other uses, see In silico (disambiguation). A forest of synthetic pyramidal dendrites generated in silico using Cajal's laws of neuronal branching <span>In silico (Pseudo-Latin for "in silicon", alluding to the mass use of silicon for computer chips) is an expression meaning "performed on computer or via computer simulation" in reference to biological experiments. The phrase was coined in 1987 as an allusion to the Latin phrases in vivo, in vitro, and in situ, which are commonly used in biology (see also systems biology) and refer to experiments done in living organisms, outside living organisms, and where they are found in nature, respectively. Contents 1 History 2 Drug discovery with virtual screening 3 Cell models 4 Genetics 5 Other examples 6 See also 7 References 8 External links History[edit] The earliest known use of the




The verification of all the available records proved that the Chebrolu inscription of Satavahana king Vijaya issued in his 5th regnal year – 207 A.D. — is also the earliest datable Sanskrit inscription from South India so far, said Dr. Muniratnam.

So far the Nagarjunakonda inscription of Ikshavaku king Ehavala Chantamula issued in his 11th regnal year corresponding to the 4th century A.D. was considered the earliest Sanskrit inscription in South India, he added.

The place also yielded another inscription which is in Prakrit language and of Brahmi characters and belongs to the 1st century A.D. This is the earliest epigraphic reference to Mutts and records the gift of a cloister mandapa and chaitya to the bhavatho (Lord) of the Gadasa Mutt by a person hailing from Tabaava, according to Dr. Muniratnam.

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re are references of Saptamatrika worship in the early Kadamba copper plates and the early Chalukyas and Eastern Chalukya copper plates. But the new discovery predates them by almost 200 years. <span>The verification of all the available records proved that the Chebrolu inscription of Satavahana king Vijaya issued in his 5th regnal year – 207 A.D. — is also the earliest datable Sanskrit inscription from South India so far, said Dr. Muniratnam. So far the Nagarjunakonda inscription of Ikshavaku king Ehavala Chantamula issued in his 11th regnal year corresponding to the 4th century A.D. was considered the earliest Sanskrit inscription in South India, he added. The place also yielded another inscription which is in Prakrit language and of Brahmi characters and belongs to the 1st century A.D. This is the earliest epigraphic reference to Mutts and records the gift of a cloister mandapa and chaitya to the bhavatho (Lord) of the Gadasa Mutt by a person hailing from Tabaava, according to Dr. Muniratnam. Calling for conservation and preservation of the pillar given its historical importance, he pointed out that there were many such ancient monuments and structures across the country tha




Saptamatrika cult evidence dates back to 207 A.D. in Satavahana king Vijaya’s era

In a significant find, the Epigraphy Branch of the Archaeological Survey of India has discovered the earliest epigraphic evidence so far for the Saptamatrika cult. It is also the earliest Sanskrit inscription to have been discovered in South India as on date.

Saptamatrikas are a group of seven female deities worshipped in Hinduism as personifying the energy of their respective consorts. The inscription is in Sanskrit and in Brahmi characters and was issued by Satavahana king Vijaya in 207 A.D.

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ptamatrika cult evidence dates back to 207 A.D. in Satavahana king Vijaya’s era Share Article 1 PRINT A A A The inscription on Saptamatrikas discovered by the ASI near Guntur in Andhra Pradesh. <span>Saptamatrika cult evidence dates back to 207 A.D. in Satavahana king Vijaya’s era In a significant find, the Epigraphy Branch of the Archaeological Survey of India has discovered the earliest epigraphic evidence so far for the Saptamatrika cult. It is also the earliest Sanskrit inscription to have been discovered in South India as on date. Saptamatrikas are a group of seven female deities worshipped in Hinduism as personifying the energy of their respective consorts. The inscription is in Sanskrit and in Brahmi characters and was issued by Satavahana king Vijaya in 207 A.D. Dr. K. Muniratnam, Director, Epigraphy branch, ASI, Mysuru told The Hindu that it was discovered in Chebrolu village in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh earlier this month. The inscrip




The country's central bank determines the minimum amount that banks must hold in liquid assets, called the "reserve requirement" or "reserve ratio"

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e holding in reserve an amount equal to only a fraction of the bank's deposit liabilities .[3] Bank reserves are held as cash in the bank or as balances in the bank's account at a central bank. <span>The country's central bank determines the minimum amount that banks must hold in liquid assets, called the "reserve requirement " or "reserve ratio". Banks usually hold more than this minimum amount, keeping excess reserves . <span>

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Fractional-reserve banking - Wikipedia
andards ISO 31000 Professional certification Fund governance Economic history[show] Private equity and venture capital Recession Stock market bubble Stock market crash Accounting scandals v t e <span>Fractional-reserve banking, the most common form of banking practised by commercial banks worldwide,[1][2] involves banks accepting deposits from customers and making loans to borrowers while holding in reserve an amount equal to only a fraction of the bank's deposit liabilities.[3] Bank reserves are held as cash in the bank or as balances in the bank's account at a central bank. The country's central bank determines the minimum amount that banks must hold in liquid assets, called the "reserve requirement" or "reserve ratio". Banks usually hold more than this minimum amount, keeping excess reserves. Bank deposits are usually of a relatively short-term duration while loans made by banks tend to be longer-term[4] – this requires banks to hold reserves to provide liquidity when deposi




Flashcard 5742340476172

Question

How's L called?

\(\lim _{{x\to \infty }}{\frac {L(ax)}{L(x)}}=1.\)

Answer
slowly varying function


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Definition 1 . A measurable function L : (0,+∞) → (0,+∞) is called slowly varying (at infinity) if for all a > 0 , \(\lim _{{x\to \infty }}{\frac {L(ax)}{L(x)}}=1.\)

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Slowly varying function - Wikipedia
roperties 2.1 Uniformity of the limiting behaviour 2.2 Karamata's characterization theorem 2.3 Karamata representation theorem 3 Examples 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References Basic definitions[edit] <span>Definition 1. A measurable function L : (0,+∞) → (0,+∞) is called slowly varying (at infinity) if for all a > 0, lim x → ∞ L ( a x ) L ( x ) = 1. {\displaystyle \lim _{x\to \infty }{\frac {L(ax)}{L(x)}}=1.} Definition 2. A function L : (0,+∞) → (0,+∞) for which the limit g ( a ) = lim x → ∞ L ( a x ) L ( x ) {\displaystyle g(a)=\lim _{x\to \infty }{\frac {L(ax)}{L(x)}}} is finite but nonze







Flashcard 5742343359756

Question
black swan event
Answer
high-impact event happening due to chance, that is rationalized in hindsight


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The black swan theory or theory of black swan events is a metaphor that describes an event that comes as a surprise, has a major effect, and is often inappropriately rationalised after the fact with the benefit of hindsight . </sp

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Black swan theory - Wikipedia
wan theory - Wikipedia Black swan theory From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Theory of response to surprise events A black swan (Cygnus atratus) in Australia <span>The black swan theory or theory of black swan events is a metaphor that describes an event that comes as a surprise, has a major effect, and is often inappropriately rationalised after the fact with the benefit of hindsight. The term is based on an ancient saying that presumed black swans did not exist – a saying that became reinterpreted to teach a different lesson after the first European encounter with t







Flashcard 5742354369804

Question
webdev: Userscript
Answer
javascript file on webpages, e.g. by greasemonkey


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A userscript (or user script) is a program, usually written in JavaScript , for modifying web pages [1] to augment browsing . On desktop browsers such as Firefox, they are enabled by use of a userscript manager browser extension such as Greasemonkey

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Userscript - Wikipedia
Userscript - Wikipedia Userscript From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search For use of userscripts on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:User scripts. A userscript (or user script) is a program, usually written in JavaScript, for modifying web pages[1] to augment browsing. On desktop browsers such as Firefox, they are enabled by use of a userscript manager browser extension such as Greasemonkey. The Presto-based Opera-browser-supported userscripts (referred to as User JavaScript[2]) are placed in a designated directory. Userscripts are often referred to as Greasemonkey scripts