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#### Flashcard 1428259474700

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#algebra-baldor
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Los signos empleados en Algebra son de tres clases: [...], Signos de Relación y Signos de Agrupación.
Signos de Ope ración

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Los signos empleados en Algebra son de tres clases: Signos de Ope ración, Signos de Relación y Signos de Agrupación.

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#### Flashcard 1450267249932

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Normal profit is considered to be a [...] because it is a return required by investors on their equity capital regardless of output level.
fixed cost

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Normal profit is considered to be a fixed cost because it is a return required by investors on their equity capital regardless of output level. At zero output, total costs are always equal to the amount of total fixed cost that is i

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Costs
rate of change in total variable cost. In Exhibit 13, TC at 5 units is 400—of which 300 is variable cost and 100 is fixed cost. At 10 units, total costs are 1,650, which is the sum of 1,550 in variable cost and 100 in fixed cost. <span>Total fixed cost (TFC) is the summation of all expenses that do not change when production varies. It can be a sunk or unavoidable cost that a firm has to cover whether it produces anything or not, or it can be a cost that stays the same over a range of production but can change to another constant level when production moves outside of that range. The latter is referred to as a quasi-fixed cost , although it remains categorized as part of TFC. Examples of fixed costs are debt service, real estate lease agreements, and rental contracts. Quasi-fixed cost examples would be certain utilities and administrative salaries that could be avoided or be lower when output is zero but would assume higher constant values over different production ranges. Normal profit is considered to be a fixed cost because it is a return required by investors on their equity capital regardless of output level. At zero output, total costs are always equal to the amount of total fixed cost that is incurred at this production point. In Exhibit 13, total fixed cost remains at 100 throughout the entire production range. Other fixed costs evolve primarily from investments in such fixed assets as real estate, production facilities, and equipment. As a firm grows in size, fixed asset expansion occurs along with a related increase in fixed cost. However, fixed cost cannot be arbitrarily cut when production declines. Regardless of the volume of output, an investment in a given level of fixed assets locks the firm into a certain amount of fixed cost that is used to finance the physical capital base, technology, and other capital assets. When a firm downsizes, the last expense to be cut is usually fixed cost. Total variable cost (TVC), which is the summation of all variable expenses, has a direct relationship with quantity. When quantity increases, total variable cost increases

#### Flashcard 1453621906700

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#conversation-tactics
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Even if you are listening intently, it’s still easy for others to feel like you are not. Namely, when you [...]
jump in immediately after they have finished speaking.

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Even if you are listening intently, it’s still easy for others to feel like you are not. Namely, when you jump in immediately after they have finished speaking. Why is this negative? The other person who just stopped speaking will likely come to the conclusion that you did not really listen to him or her. You appeared to b

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#### Flashcard 1473837665548

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For [...], an example of an increase is a new issuance of equity and an example of a decrease is a repurchase of previously issued stock.
paid-in capital

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For paid-in capital, an example of an increase is a new issuance of equity and an example of a decrease is a repurchase of previously issued stock.

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3.1.3. Statement of Changes in Equity
ents of retained earnings. The statement of changes in equity is organized to present, for each component of equity, the beginning balance, any increases during the period, any decreases during the period, and the ending balance. <span>For paid-in capital, an example of an increase is a new issuance of equity and an example of a decrease is a repurchase of previously issued stock. For retained earnings, income (both net income as reported on the income statement and other comprehensive income) is the most common increase and a dividend payment is the most common

#### Flashcard 1474146995468

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a [...] occurs when, for some reason, such as a scope limitation, the auditors are unable to issue an opinion.
disclaimer of opinion

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a disclaimer of opinion occurs when, for some reason, such as a scope limitation, the auditors are unable to issue an opinion.

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3.1.7. Auditor’s Reports
art from accounting standards and are not fairly presented. An adverse opinion makes analysis of the financial statements easy: Do not bother analyzing these statements, because the company’s financial statements cannot be relied on. Finally, <span>a disclaimer of opinion occurs when, for some reason, such as a scope limitation, the auditors are unable to issue an opinion. Exhibit 10 presents the independent auditor’s report for Volkswagen. Note that Volkswagen received an unqualified or clean audit opinion from PricewaterhouseCoopers for the company’s fi

#### Flashcard 1474400750860

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Business activities may be classified into three groups for financial reporting purposes: [...]
operating, investing, and financing activities.

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Business activities may be classified into three groups for financial reporting purposes: operating, investing, and financing activities.

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2. THE CLASSIFICATION OF BUSINESS ACTIVITIES
ilar accounting treatment to similar types of business transactions. Therefore, a first step in understanding financial reporting mechanics is to understand how business activities are classified for financial reporting purposes. <span>Business activities may be classified into three groups for financial reporting purposes: operating, investing, and financing activities. Operating activities are those activities that are part of the day-to-day business functioning of an entity. Examples include the sale of meals by a restaurant, th

#### Flashcard 1474582940940

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[...] are very liquid short-term investments, usually maturing in 90 days or less.

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f merchandise). Other receivables represent amounts owed to the company from parties other than customers. Cash refers to cash on hand (e.g., petty cash and cash not yet deposited to the bank) and in the bank. <span>Cash equivalents are very liquid short-term investments, usually maturing in 90 days or less. The presentation of assets as current or non-current will vary from industry to industry and from

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3.1. Financial Statement Elements and Accounts
ldings); other property held for investment, and investments in the securities of other companies. Current assets are those that are expected to be consumed or converted into cash in the near future, typically one year or less. <span>Inventory is the unsold units of product on hand (sometimes referred to as inventory stock). Trade receivables (also referred to as commercial receivables , or simply accounts receivable ) are amounts customers owe the company for products that have been sold as well as amounts that may be due from suppliers (such as for returns of merchandise). Other receivables represent amounts owed to the company from parties other than customers. Cash refers to cash on hand (e.g., petty cash and cash not yet deposited to the bank) and in the bank. Cash equivalents are very liquid short-term investments, usually maturing in 90 days or less. The presentation of assets as current or non-current will vary from industry to industry and from country to country. Some industries present current assets first, whereas others list non-current assets first. This is discussed further in later readings. <span><body><html>

#### Flashcard 1477983472908

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The format for the operating cash section which begins with net income and shows adjustments to derive operating cash flow, is known as the [...] .
indirect format

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The format for the operating cash section which begins with net income and shows adjustments to derive operating cash flow, is known as the indirect format .

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In the cashflow statement direct format , which refers to the operating cash section appearing simply as operating cash receipts less operating cash disbursements. An alternative format for the operating cash section, which begins with net income and shows adjustments to derive operating cash flow, is known as the indirect format . The alternative formats and detailed rules are discussed in the reading on understanding the statement of cash flows.

#### Flashcard 1478051368204

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What is the accrued expenses accounting treatment for the account of wages payable?
An originating entry to record wage expense and the corresponding liability for wages payable.

A future adjusting entry to eliminate the liability decreasing wages payable and asset account decreasing cash.

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lustration, the company had incurred wage expenses at month end, but the payment would not be made until after the end of the month (Transaction 11). To reflect the company’s position at the end of the month, the accounting treatment involved <span>an originating entry to record wage expense and the corresponding liability for wages payable, and a future adjusting entry to eliminate the liability when cash is paid (not shown because wages will be paid only in February). Similarly, the IAL illustration included interest accrual on the company’s bank borrowing. (See the boxes showing the accounting treatment of Transaction 8, where Transaction 8 refers

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ved and the corresponding liability to deliver newsletters) and, subsequently, 12 future adjusting entries, the first one of which was illustrated as Transaction 12. Each adjusting entry reduces the liability and records revenue. <span>In practice, a large amount of unearned revenue may cause some concern about a company’s ability to deliver on this future commitment. Conversely, a positive aspect is that increases in unearned revenue are an indicator of future revenues. For example, a large liability on the balance sheet of an airline relates to cash received for future airline travel. Revenue will be recognized as the travel occurs, so an increase in this liability is an indicator of future increases in revenue. <span><body><html>

#### Flashcard 1478133681420

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The financial statements, a final product of the accounting system, are prepared based on the account totals from an [...] .

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#### Flashcard 1478487313676

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Selling, general, administrative, and research and development are examples of [...]
Operating expenses

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Operating profit results from deducting operating expenses such as selling, general, administrative, and research and development expenses from gross profit.

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2. COMPONENTS AND FORMAT OF THE INCOME STATEMENT
oods or services. Other expenses related to running the business are subtracted after gross profit. Another important subtotal which may be shown on the income statement is operating profit (or, synonymously, operating income). <span>Operating profit results from deducting operating expenses such as selling, general, administrative, and research and development expenses from gross profit. Operating profit reflects a company’s profits on its usual business activities before deducting taxes, and for non-financial companies, before deducting interest expense. For financial

#### Flashcard 1481584807180

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[...] requires that a company recognizes cost of goods sold in the same period as revenues from the sale of the goods.
Matching

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4.1. General Principles
ade from inventory purchased in a previous period or previous periods. It is also likely that some of the inventory purchased in the current period will remain unsold at the end of the current period and so will be sold in a following period. <span>Matching requires that a company recognizes cost of goods sold in the same period as revenues from the sale of the goods. Period costs , expenditures that less directly match revenues, are reflected in the period when a company makes the expenditure or incurs the liability to pay. Administrati

#### Flashcard 1497102683404

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The [...] is how a firm finances its overall operations and growth by using different sources of funds.
capital structure

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Capital Structure Definition | Investopedia
What is a 'Capital Structure' <span>The capital structure is how a firm finances its overall operations and growth by using different sources of funds. Debt comes in the form of bond issues or long-term notes payable, while equity is classified as common stock, preferred stock or retained earnings. Short-term debt such as working capit

#### Flashcard 1497406508300

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[...] is defined as a sale price agreed to by a willing buyer and seller, assuming both parties enter the transaction freely.
Fair value

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Fair value is defined as a sale price agreed to by a willing buyer and seller, assuming both parties enter the transaction freely. Many investments have a fair value determined by a market where t

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Fair Value Definition | Investopedia
What is 'Fair Value' <span>Fair value is defined as a sale price agreed to by a willing buyer and seller, assuming both parties enter the transaction freely. Many investments have a fair value determined by a market where the security is traded. Fair value also represents the value of a company’s assets and liabilities when a subsidiary company’s financial statements are consolidated with a parent company. BREAKING DOWN 'Fair Value' The most reliable way to determine an investment’s fair value is to list the security on an exchange. If XYZ stock trad

#### Flashcard 1598502604044

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#cfa-level-1 #financial-reporting-and-analysis #non-recurring-non-operating-items #understanding-income-statement
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Expropriations by foreign governments is an example of [...]
An extraordinary item

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dinary items Extraordinary items are BOTH unusual in nature AND infrequent in occurrence, and material in amount. They must be reported separately (below the line) net of income tax. Common examples are: <span>Expropriations by foreign governments. Uninsured losses from earthquakes, eruptions, and tornadoes. Note that gains and losses from the early retirement of debt used to be treated as extraordinary items; SFAS No

#### Original toplevel document

Subject 6. Non-Recurring Items and Non-Operating Items
. Subsidiaries and investees also qualify as separate components. Disposal of a portion of a business component does not qualify as discontinued operations. Instead, this is recorded as an unusual or infrequent item. <span>2. Extraordinary items Extraordinary items are BOTH unusual in nature AND infrequent in occurrence, and material in amount. They must be reported separately (below the line) net of income tax. Common examples are: Expropriations by foreign governments. Uninsured losses from earthquakes, eruptions, and tornadoes. Note that gains and losses from the early retirement of debt used to be treated as extraordinary items; SFAS No. 145 now requires them to be treated as part of continuing operations. 3. Unusual or infrequent items These are either unusual in nature OR infrequent in occurrence but not both. They may be disclosed separately (as a single-line

#### Flashcard 1602913176844

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Comprehensive income includes items like an unrealized holding gain or loss from available-for-sale securities and [...] gains or losses.
foreign currency translation

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Comprehensive income
Comprehensive income includes both net income and other revenue and expense items that are excluded from the net income calculation. Comprehensive income is the sum of net income and other items that must bypass the income statement because they have not been realized, including items like an unrealized holding gain or loss from available-for-sale securities and foreign currency translation gains or losses. These items are not part of net income, yet are important enough to be included in comprehensive income, giving the user a bigger, more comprehensive picture of the organization as a wh

#### Flashcard 1602915011852

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Minimum pension liability adjustment is an example of [...]
Comprehensive income

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Comprehensive income
sition of comprehensive income. It begins with net income and then includes those items affecting stockholders' equity that do not flow through the income statement. For 3M, these items include: Cumulative translation adjustment. <span>Minimum pension liability adjustment. Unrealized gains (losses) on available-for-sale investments. Unrealized gains (losses) on derivative investments. FASB has taken the position that income for a period shoul

#### Flashcard 1602974780684

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BALANCE SHEET COMPONENTS

Cash and other assets expected to be converted into cash, sold, or consumed either in one year or in the operating cycle, whichever is longer.
Current Assets

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Subject 1. Components and Format of the Balance Sheet
he left and liabilities and equity at the right of a central dividing line. A report format balance sheet lists assets, liabilities, and equity in a single column. Balance Sheet Components Current Assets <span>These are cash and other assets expected to be converted into cash, sold, or consumed either in one year or in the operating cycle, whichever is longer. The operating cycle is the average time between the acquisition of materials and supplies and the realization of cash through sales of the product for which the materials and supplies w

#### Flashcard 1602996014348

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Balance sheet component

These are properties of a durable nature used in the regular operations of the business.

Property, Plant, and Equipment

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Subject 1. Components and Format of the Balance Sheet
stments set aside in special funds, such as a sinking fund, pension fund, or plant expansion fund. The cash surrender value of life insurance is included here. Investments in non-consolidated subsidiaries or affiliated companies. <span>Property, Plant, and Equipment These are properties of a durable nature used in the regular operations of the business. With the exception of land, most assets are either depreciable (such as a building) or consumable. Intangible Assets These lack physical substance and usually have a high degree of uncertainty concerning their future benefits. They include patents, copyright

#### Flashcard 1603172175116

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[...] is an example of an unidentifiable intangible asset which cannot be acquired singly.
Goodwill

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Subject 2. Measurement Bases of Assets and Liabilities
feasibility) are met. A company should assess whether the useful life of an intangible asset is finite or infinite and, if finite, the length of its life. The straight-line method is typically used for amortization. <span>Goodwill is an example of an unidentifiable intangible asset which cannot be acquired singly and typically possesses an indefinite benefit period. It stems from such factors as a good reputation, loyal customers, and superior management. Any business that earns significantly more than a normal rate of return actually has goodwill.

#### Flashcard 1603218050316

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Available-for-sale securities.

Unrealized gains and losses are reported as part of [...] (in contrast, the unrealized gains or losses of trading securities are reported in the income statement as part of net income).
other comprehensive income

Other than that, they are accounted for in the same way as trading securities.

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Subject 3. Financial Instruments: Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
me statement. Realized gains and losses are not affected by any unrealized gains or losses recognized before. Available-for-sale securities. Debt and equity securities not classified as held-to-maturity or trading securities. <span>Unrealized gains and losses are reported as part of other comprehensive income (in contrast, the unrealized gains or losses of trading securities are reported in the income statement as part of net income). Other than that, they are accounted for in the same way as trading securities. <span><body><html>

#### Flashcard 1611303095564

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When is the quick ratio specially a better indicator of liquidity?

If inventory is not moving

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Subject 5. Uses and Analysis of the Balance Sheet
less than 1 indicates the company has negative working capital. Quick Ratio (Acid-Test Ratio) eliminates less liquid assets, such as inventory and pre-paid expenses, from the current ratio. <span>If inventory is not moving, the quick ratio is a better indicator of cash and near-cash items that will be available to meet current obligations. Cash Ratio is the most conservative liquidity ratio, determined by eliminating receivables from the quick ratio. As with the elimination of

#### Flashcard 1614198738188

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What is the most difficult section of the balance sheet to understand
owner's equity

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Subject 1. Components and Format of the Balance Sheet
dent upon the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more future events to confirm the amount payable, or the payee, or the date payable, such as services or product warranties and other contingencies. Owner's Equity <span>The complexity of capital stock agreements and the various restrictions on residual equity imposed by state corporation laws, liability agreements, and boards of directors make the owner's equity section one of the most difficult sections to prepare and understand. This section is usually divided into three parts: Capital stock: the par or stated value of the shares issued. Additional paid-in capital: the excess of amounts paid in ove

#### Flashcard 1615947500812

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There are two methods of converting the income statement from an accrual basis to a cash basis. [...]
The direct method and the indirect method

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Subject 2. Preparing the Cash Flow Statement
ccurrence of the underlying cash flows. Finally, non-operating gains and losses enter into the determination of net income, but the related cash flows are classified as investing or financing activities, not operating activities. <span>There are two methods of converting the income statement from an accrual basis to a cash basis. Companies can use either the direct or the indirect method for reporting their operating cash flow. The direct method discloses operating cash inflows by source (e.g., cash

#### Flashcard 1615964802316

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Which method shows why net income and operating cash flows differ?
indirect method

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Subject 2. Preparing the Cash Flow Statement
average reader. The indirect method reconciles net income to net cash flow from operating activities by adjusting net income for all non-cash items and the net changes in the operating working capital accounts. <span>It shows why net income and operating cash flows differ. It is used by most companies. The direct and indirect methods are alternative formats for reporting net cash flows from operating activities. Both methods produc

#### Flashcard 1619910855948

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#fucked-up-questions
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In which statement should an increase in prepaid expenses be added to calculate the cash payments?
The income statement

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In calculating the cash payments for other operating expenses, which of the following items must a company add to the other operating expenses reported on the income statement?
An increase in prepaid expenses must be added to the other operating expenses reported on the income statement to calculate the cash payments for other operating expenses. An increase in prepaid expenses represents an outflow of cash that is not yet reported on the income statement as an expense.

#### Flashcard 1620805553420

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Name which financial statement element does the account belong to:

Accounts receivable.
Assets

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Exhibit 2. Common Accounts Assets Cash and cash equivalents Accounts receivable, trade receivables Prepaid expenses Inventory Property, plant, and equipment Investment propert

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3.1. Financial Statement Elements and Accounts
ounting periods), and sales returns and allowances (an offset to revenue reflecting any cash refunds, credits on account, and discounts from sales prices given to customers who purchased defective or unsatisfactory items). <span>Exhibit 2. Common Accounts Assets Cash and cash equivalents Accounts receivable, trade receivables Prepaid expenses Inventory Property, plant, and equipment Investment property Intangible assets (patents, trademarks, licenses, copyright, goodwill) Financial assets, trading securities, investment securities Investments accounted for by the equity method Current and deferred tax assets [for banks, Loans (receivable)] Liabilities Accounts payable, trade payables Provisions or accrued liabilities Financial liabilities Current and deferred tax liabilities Reserves Unearned revenue Debt payable Bonds (payable) [for banks, Deposits] Owners’ Equity Capital, such as common stock par value Additional paid-in capital Retained earnings Other comprehensive income Minority interest Revenue Revenue, sales Gains Investment income (e.g., interest and dividends) Expense Cost of goods sold Selling, general, and administrative expenses “SG&A” (e.g., rent, utilities, salaries, advertising) Depreciation and amortization Interest expense Tax expense Losses For presentation purposes, assets are sometimes categorized as “current” or “non-current.” For example, Tesco (a large European retailer) prese

#### Flashcard 1620834651404

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Name the account's financial statement element

Reserves
Liabilities

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Exhibit 2. Common Accounts Assets Cash and cash equivalents Accounts receivable, trade receivables Prepaid expenses Inventory Property, plant, and equipment Investment propert

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3.1. Financial Statement Elements and Accounts
ounting periods), and sales returns and allowances (an offset to revenue reflecting any cash refunds, credits on account, and discounts from sales prices given to customers who purchased defective or unsatisfactory items). <span>Exhibit 2. Common Accounts Assets Cash and cash equivalents Accounts receivable, trade receivables Prepaid expenses Inventory Property, plant, and equipment Investment property Intangible assets (patents, trademarks, licenses, copyright, goodwill) Financial assets, trading securities, investment securities Investments accounted for by the equity method Current and deferred tax assets [for banks, Loans (receivable)] Liabilities Accounts payable, trade payables Provisions or accrued liabilities Financial liabilities Current and deferred tax liabilities Reserves Unearned revenue Debt payable Bonds (payable) [for banks, Deposits] Owners’ Equity Capital, such as common stock par value Additional paid-in capital Retained earnings Other comprehensive income Minority interest Revenue Revenue, sales Gains Investment income (e.g., interest and dividends) Expense Cost of goods sold Selling, general, and administrative expenses “SG&A” (e.g., rent, utilities, salaries, advertising) Depreciation and amortization Interest expense Tax expense Losses For presentation purposes, assets are sometimes categorized as “current” or “non-current.” For example, Tesco (a large European retailer) prese

#### Flashcard 1620861390092

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Name if the financial statement element

Cost of goods sold
Expense

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Exhibit 2. Common Accounts Assets Cash and cash equivalents Accounts receivable, trade receivables Prepaid expenses Inventory Property, plant, and equipment Investment propert

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3.1. Financial Statement Elements and Accounts
ounting periods), and sales returns and allowances (an offset to revenue reflecting any cash refunds, credits on account, and discounts from sales prices given to customers who purchased defective or unsatisfactory items). <span>Exhibit 2. Common Accounts Assets Cash and cash equivalents Accounts receivable, trade receivables Prepaid expenses Inventory Property, plant, and equipment Investment property Intangible assets (patents, trademarks, licenses, copyright, goodwill) Financial assets, trading securities, investment securities Investments accounted for by the equity method Current and deferred tax assets [for banks, Loans (receivable)] Liabilities Accounts payable, trade payables Provisions or accrued liabilities Financial liabilities Current and deferred tax liabilities Reserves Unearned revenue Debt payable Bonds (payable) [for banks, Deposits] Owners’ Equity Capital, such as common stock par value Additional paid-in capital Retained earnings Other comprehensive income Minority interest Revenue Revenue, sales Gains Investment income (e.g., interest and dividends) Expense Cost of goods sold Selling, general, and administrative expenses “SG&A” (e.g., rent, utilities, salaries, advertising) Depreciation and amortization Interest expense Tax expense Losses For presentation purposes, assets are sometimes categorized as “current” or “non-current.” For example, Tesco (a large European retailer) prese

#### Flashcard 1621185400076

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#cashflow-statement
Question
WCInv: [...]
Investment in working capital

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Subject 3. Cash Flow Statement Analysis
3; The add-back is after-tax, because the discount rate in the FCFF model (WACC) is also calculated on an after-tax basis. FCInv: Investment in fixed capital. It equals capital expenditures for PP&E minus sales of fixed assets. <span>WCInv: Investment in working capital. It equals the increase in short-term operating assets net of operating liabilities. Example Quinton is evaluating Proust Company for 2014. Quinton has gathered the following information (in millions):

#### Flashcard 1622008794380

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#tvm
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An [...] has a first cash flow that occurs one period from now (indexed at t = 1).

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#### Flashcard 1622737554700

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#tvm
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Growth rate formula con raiz
g = N√(FVN / PV) – 1

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#### Flashcard 1622883306764

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#tvm
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The principle that the approximate number of years necessary for an investment to double is [...] .
72 divided by the stated interest rate

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#### Flashcard 1622886976780

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#summary #tvm
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The FV, is the PV, times the future value factor, [...]
(1 + r)N.

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An interest rate can be viewed as the sum of the real risk-free interest rate and a set of premiums that compensate lenders for risk: an inflation premium, a default risk premium, a liquidity premium, and a maturity premium. <span>The future value, FV, is the present value, PV, times the future value factor, (1 + r) N . The interest rate, r, makes current and future currency amounts equivalent based on their time value. The stated annual interest rate is a quoted interes

#### Flashcard 1623805005068

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#discounted-cashflow-applications
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In investment management applications, the internal rate of return is called the [...]
money-weighted rate of return

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#### Flashcard 1623820995852

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#discounted-cashflow-applications
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performance measurement involves [...] manner.

calculating returns in a logical and consistent

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#### Flashcard 1625076403468

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In order to receive a single future cash flow N years from now, you must make an investment today in the following amount:

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subject 3. The Future Value and Present Value of a Single Cash Flow
e n PV = present value r = interest rate per period N = number of years A key assumption of the future value formula is that interim interest earned is reinvested at the given interest rate (r). This is known as compounding. <span>In order to receive a single future cash flow N years from now, you must make an investment today in the following amount: Notice that the future cash flow is discounted back to the present. Therefore, the interest rate is called the discount rate. You sh

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When compounding periods are other than annual the formula is:

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subject 3. The Future Value and Present Value of a Single Cash Flow

#### Flashcard 1652342263052

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The combination formula is also called the [...]
binomial formula

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>A combination is a listing in which the order of listing does not matter. This describes the number of ways that we can choose r objects from a total of n objects, where the order in which the r objects is listed does not matter (The combination formula, or the binomial formula): <body><html>

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Subject 10. Principles of Counting
nlike the multiplication rule, factorial involves only a single group. It involves arranging items within a group, and the order of the arrangement does matter. The arrangement of ABCDE is different from the arrangement of ACBDE. <span>A combination is a listing in which the order of listing does not matter. This describes the number of ways that we can choose r objects from a total of n objects, where the order in which the r objects is listed does not matter (The combination formula, or the binomial formula): For example, if you select two of the ten stocks you are analyzing, how many ways can you select the stocks? 10! / [(10 - 2)! x 2!] = 45. &

#### Flashcard 1652353535244

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Looking at the dispersion or variance of portfolio return, we see that the way individual security returns move together or [...] is important.
covary

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Open it
To analyze a portfolio’s expected return and variance of return, we must understand these quantities are a function of characteristics of the individual securities’ returns. Looking at the dispersion or variance of portfolio return, we see that the way individual security returns move together or covary is important. To understand the significance of these movements, we need to explore some new concepts, covariance and correlation.

#### Flashcard 1652396002572

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Question
Do I want to count the number of ways that I can choose r objects from a total of n, when the order in which I list the r objects does not matter? If the answer to these questions is yes, use the [...]
combination formula

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Counting
question. Do I want to count the number of ways to apply one of three or more labels to each member of a group? If the answer is yes, use the multinomial formula. If the answer is no, go to the fourth question. <span>Do I want to count the number of ways that I can choose r objects from a total of n, when the order in which I list the r objects does not matter (can I give the r objects a label)? If the answer to these questions is yes, the combination formula applies. If the answer is no, go to the fifth question. Do I want to count the number of ways I can choose r objects from a total of n, when the order in which I list the r objec

#### Flashcard 1655394143500

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Question

For any random variable, it is necessary to know two things:

• the list of all possible values that the random variable can take on.
• the [...] .
probability of each value occurring

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Subject 1. Basic Definitions
rn depends on the desired number of decimal spaces. Statistics computed from discrete variables are continuous. The mean on a five-point scale could be 3.117 even though 3.117 is not possible for an individual score. <span>For any random variable, it is necessary to know two things: the list of all possible values that the random variable can take on. the probability of each value occurring. These give a probability distribution. The first item on the list is called the range. With regard to the range of possible outcomes of a specified random variable: &#

#### Flashcard 1656383212812

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What is Deviation?
The distance between the mean and an observation in the data set.

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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
thmetic mean computation. A data set has only one arithmetic mean. This indicates that the mean is unique. The arithmetic mean is the only measure of central tendency where the sum of the deviations of each value from the mean is always zero. <span>Deviation from the arithmetic mean is the distance between the mean and an observation in the data set. The arithmetic mean has the following disadvantages: The mean can be affected by extremes, that is, unusually large or small values. The mean cannot be determi

#### Flashcard 1706274983180

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For whom is financial reporting providing information?
for use by parties both internal and external

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The role of financial reporting is to provide information about a company's financial position and performance for use by parties both internal and external to the company.

#### Original toplevel document

Subject 1. The Roles of Financial Reporting and Financial Statement Analysis
The role of financial reporting is to provide information about a company's financial position and performance for use by parties both internal and external to the company. Financial statements are issued by management, who is responsible for their form and content. The role of financial statement analysis, on the other hand, is to take these

#### Flashcard 1706416540940

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If the company can repay its sources of capital and save a cost of r, then r is the company’s [...]
opportunity cost of funds.

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If the company can invest elsewhere and earn a return of r, or if the company can repay its sources of capital and save a cost of r, then r is the company’s opportunity cost of funds.

#### Original toplevel document

3. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CAPITAL BUDGETING
he “required rate of return.” The required rate of return is the discount rate that investors should require given the riskiness of the project. This discount rate is frequently called the “opportunity cost of funds” or the “cost of capital.” <span>If the company can invest elsewhere and earn a return of r, or if the company can repay its sources of capital and save a cost of r, then r is the company’s opportunity cost of funds. If the company cannot earn more than its opportunity cost of funds on an investment, it should not undertake that investment. Unless an investment earns more than the cost of funds from

#### Flashcard 1706419424524

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Who is responsible for the form and content of a company's Financial statements?

management

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Financial statements are issued by management, who is responsible for their form and content.

#### Original toplevel document

Subject 1. The Roles of Financial Reporting and Financial Statement Analysis
The role of financial reporting is to provide information about a company's financial position and performance for use by parties both internal and external to the company. Financial statements are issued by management, who is responsible for their form and content. The role of financial statement analysis, on the other hand, is to take these financial statements and other information to evaluate the company's past, current, and prosp

#### Flashcard 1706423094540

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Having enough cash available to pay debts when they are due is reffered to as [...]
Liquidity

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Liquidity refers to the "nearness to cash" of assets and liabilities, or having enough cash available to pay debts when they are due.

#### Original toplevel document

Subject 2. Major Financial Statements
creditors. Equity ownership is the owner's investments and the total earnings retained from the commencement of the company. Equity represents the source of financing provided to the company by the owners. <span>Cash Flow Statement The primary purpose of the cash flow statement is to provide information about a company's cash receipts and cash payments during a period. It reports the cash receipts and cash outflows classified according to operating, investment, and financing activities. The cash flow statement is useful because it provides answers to the following simple yet important questions: Where did the cash come from during the period? What was the cash used for during the period? What was the change in the cash balance during the period? The statement's value is that it helps users evaluate liquidity, solvency, and financial flexibility. Liquidity refers to the "nearness to cash" of assets and liabilities, or having enough cash available to pay debts when they are due. Solvency refers to the company's ability to pay its debts as they mature. Cash flows reflect the company's liquidity and long-term solvency. Financial flexibility refers to a company's ability to respond and adapt to financial adversity and unexpected needs and opportunities. For example, cash flow information can be used to evaluate the effects of major investment and financing decisions. The details of income statements, balance sheets and cash flow statements will be covered in Study Session 8. Statement of Changes in Owners' Equity This statement reports the amounts and sources of changes in equity from capital transactions with owners.

#### Flashcard 1708344872204

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Question
Which 2 theories are involved in CG?
Shareholder and Stakeholder theories

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A particular shareholder or block of shareholders holding a percentage of shares that gives them significant voting power.
Controlling Shareholders

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A particular shareholder or block of shareholders holding a small proportion of a company’s outstanding shares, resulting in a limited ability to exercise control in voting activities.
Minority Shareholders

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#### Flashcard 1708445273356

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A relationship in which a principal hires an agent to perform a particular task or service.
Principal-Agent relationship

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also known as an agency relationship.
Principal-Agent relationship

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A shareholder voting process in which shareholders receive one vote for each share owned.
Straight Voting

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#### Flashcard 1708460739852

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How is a multiple-class structure traditionally called when there are two share classes?
dual-class structure

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#### Flashcard 1708467293452

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How do creditors exert control in a company?
With Covenants that restrict activities to borrower.

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#### Flashcard 1708469128460

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In this reading, unless specified otherwise, the term “board” refers to the [...] in a one-tier structure and the [...] in a two-tier structure.
The single board of directors

supervisory board

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#### Flashcard 1708523916556

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The identification, prioritization, and understanding of the interests of stakeholder groups, and managing the company’s relationships with these groups.

# STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT

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#### Flashcard 1708526537996

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The general meetings are also known as [...]

general assemblies

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#### Flashcard 1708780555532

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[...] is a common thread found in many company failures.
Weak Corporate Governance

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Introduction
Weak CG is a common thread found in many company failures. A lack of proper oversight by the board of directors, inadequate protection for minority shareholders, and incentives at companies that promote excessive risk taking are a few examples

#### Flashcard 1708782914828

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Some examples of problems in a weak CG are:

A lack of [...]

inadequate protection for [...] , and

incentives at companies that promote excessive risk taking
proper oversight by the board of directors

minority shareholders

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Introduction
Weak CG is a common thread found in many company failures. A lack of proper oversight by the board of directors, inadequate protection for minority shareholders, and incentives at companies that promote excessive risk taking are a few examples of problems. Poor corporate governance practices have been cited as significantly contributing to the 2008–2009 global financial crisis. In response to these company failures, regulations

#### Flashcard 1708785274124

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Poor corporate governance practices have been cited as significantly contributing to [...] .
the 2008–2009 global financial crisis

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Introduction
ommon thread found in many company failures. A lack of proper oversight by the board of directors, inadequate protection for minority shareholders, and incentives at companies that promote excessive risk taking are a few examples of problems. <span>Poor corporate governance practices have been cited as significantly contributing to the 2008–2009 global financial crisis. In response to these company failures, regulations have been introduced to promote stronger governance practices and protect financial markets and investors. Academics, polic

#### Flashcard 1710316981516

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Beliefs are assumptions or thoughts we [...]

hold to be true.

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[...] are assumptions or thoughts we hold to be true.

Beliefs

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Our beliefs form our [...]

values

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Values are [...]

things we consider to have worth.

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Ethos means [...]

character

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#six-tips-for-working-with-the-brain
Question
[...] are the key to moving conceptual learning into memory.
Retrievals

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Although retrievals are the key to moving conceptual learning into memory, repetition is the key for habit design.

#### Original toplevel document

Unknown title
as links to TED Talks, articles, and assignments to further hone their skills. This blended approach allows me to create three retrievals spaced with sleep, and it also starts to build the habits of the behaviors I am trying to cultivate. <span>Tip #6: Be a habit designer Ultimately, the goal of most learning activities is behavior change. No matter the topic, we are trying to elicit new and better behaviors in the learner. Charles Duhigg's The Power of Habit changed the way I see my work. He shares the science of how the basal ganglia in the brain builds habit loops that include a cue or trigger, the routine of behavior, and the reward for completing that routine. Over time, habits become well-grooved neural pathways that almost happen on autopilot, for example how you currently log in to your computer or how you get to work. When we are trying to create behavior change, we need to think about the habits that are currently in place and how to design new, better habits that will be more compelling than the comfort of the current ones. I now think of myself as a habit designer. All of my learning design starts with identifying the habit loop I hope to instill, and I work backward from there. Although retrievals are the key to moving conceptual learning into memory, repetition is the key for habit design. The more we fire neurons together, the stronger that neural pathway becomes, to the point that researchers can measure the neurons growing thicker. As talent development professionals, we are in the business of cultivating potential. Your organization as a whole—as well as every person in it—have unrealized ability, and your job is to cultivate that potential through the learning experiences you create. Work with the natural processes of the brain and nervous system to maximize the impact of your great work. Brain Science Resources Brain science is a burgeoning field and, within it, you will find a wide range of defined specialties from neurology to psychology to biology. This is a lis

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A profession may adopt [...] to enhance and clarify the code of ethics.
standards of conduct

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#### Flashcard 1713608985868

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#html #programming
Question
Mayweather en una patineta comiendo capsulas con clingfilm en la espalda y con un plumón apunta en un cuaderno
HTML consists of a series of elements, which you use to enclose, wrap, or mark up different parts of the content to make it appear or act a certain way.

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HTML consists of a series of elements, which you use to enclose, wrap, or mark up different parts of the content to make it appear or act a certain way.

#### Original toplevel document

Getting started with HTML - Learn web development | MDN
is HTML? HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is not a programming language; it is a markup language used to tell your browser how to structure the webpages you visit. It can be as complicated or as simple as the web developer wishes it to be. <span>HTML consists of a series of elements, which you use to enclose, wrap, or mark up different parts of the content to make it appear or act a certain way. The enclosing tags can make a bit of content into a hyperlink to link to another page on the web, italicize words, and so on. For example, take the following line of content: My cat

#### Flashcard 1713611345164

Tags
#html #programming
Question
Tony Hawk patinando en tacones con una etiqueta en la cabeza que tiene dibujada una pastrana, otra etiqueta en el cuello que no lo deja respirar, un cinturon con hebilla de contenedor y una patineta gigante.

The main parts of our element are:

1. The opening tag
2. The closing tag
3. The content
4. The element

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The main parts of our element are: The opening tag: This consists of the name of the element (in this case, p), wrapped in opening and closing angle brackets . This states where the element begins, or starts to take effect — in this case where the start of the paragraph is. The closing tag: This is the same as the opening tag, except that it includes a forward slash before the element name. This states where the element ends — in this case where the end of the paragraph is. Failing to include a closing tag is a common beginner error and can lead to strange results. The content: This is the content of the element, which in this case is just text. The element: The opening tag plus the closing tag plus the content equals the element.

#### Original toplevel document

Getting started with HTML - Learn web development | MDN
d by itself, we could specify that it is a paragraph by enclosing it in a paragraph tag (

) element:

My cat is very grumpy

Anatomy of an HTML element Let's explore our paragraph element a bit further: The main parts of our element are: The opening tag: This consists of the name of the element (in this case, p), wrapped in opening and closing angle brackets . This states where the element begins, or starts to take effect — in this case where the start of the paragraph is. The closing tag: This is the same as the opening tag, except that it includes a forward slash before the element name. This states where the element ends — in this case where the end of the paragraph is. Failing to include a closing tag is a common beginner error and can lead to strange results. The content: This is the content of the element, which in this case is just text. The element: The opening tag plus the closing tag plus the content equals the element. Active learning: creating your first HTML element Edit the line below in the Input area by wrapping it with the tags and (put before it to open

#### Flashcard 1713613704460

Tags
#html #programming
Question
una etiqueta con una pastrana dibujada con una camisetita element colgada de un angel con brackets.
The opening tag: This consists of the name of the element, wrapped in opening and closing angle brackets. This states where the element begins, or starts to take effect — in this case where the start of the paragraph is.

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Open it
The main parts of our element are: The opening tag: This consists of the name of the element (in this case, p), wrapped in opening and closing angle brackets . This states where the element begins, or starts to take effect — in this case where the start of the paragraph is. The closing tag: This is the same as the opening tag, except that it includes a forward slash before the element name. This states where the element ends — in this case where the end o

#### Original toplevel document

Getting started with HTML - Learn web development | MDN
d by itself, we could specify that it is a paragraph by enclosing it in a paragraph tag (

) element:

My cat is very grumpy

Anatomy of an HTML element Let's explore our paragraph element a bit further: The main parts of our element are: The opening tag: This consists of the name of the element (in this case, p), wrapped in opening and closing angle brackets . This states where the element begins, or starts to take effect — in this case where the start of the paragraph is. The closing tag: This is the same as the opening tag, except that it includes a forward slash before the element name. This states where the element ends — in this case where the end of the paragraph is. Failing to include a closing tag is a common beginner error and can lead to strange results. The content: This is the content of the element, which in this case is just text. The element: The opening tag plus the closing tag plus the content equals the element. Active learning: creating your first HTML element Edit the line below in the Input area by wrapping it with the tags and (put before it to open

#### Flashcard 1713616063756

Tags
#html #programming
Question
La cabeza de slash de G&R saliendo del suello con una etiqueta ahorcandola.
The closing tag: This is the same as the opening tag, except that it includes a forward slash before the element name. This states where the element ends — in this case where the end of the paragraph is. Failing to include a closing tag is a common beginner error and can lead to strange results.

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Open it
The opening tag: This consists of the name of the element (in this case, p), wrapped in opening and closing angle brackets . This states where the element begins, or starts to take effect — in this case where the start of the paragraph is. <span>The closing tag: This is the same as the opening tag, except that it includes a forward slash before the element name. This states where the element ends — in this case where the end of the paragraph is. Failing to include a closing tag is a common beginner error and can lead to strange results. The content: This is the content of the element, which in this case is just text. The element: The opening tag plus the closing tag plus the content equals the element.<span><

#### Original toplevel document

Getting started with HTML - Learn web development | MDN
d by itself, we could specify that it is a paragraph by enclosing it in a paragraph tag (

) element:

My cat is very grumpy

Anatomy of an HTML element Let's explore our paragraph element a bit further: The main parts of our element are: The opening tag: This consists of the name of the element (in this case, p), wrapped in opening and closing angle brackets . This states where the element begins, or starts to take effect — in this case where the start of the paragraph is. The closing tag: This is the same as the opening tag, except that it includes a forward slash before the element name. This states where the element ends — in this case where the end of the paragraph is. Failing to include a closing tag is a common beginner error and can lead to strange results. The content: This is the content of the element, which in this case is just text. The element: The opening tag plus the closing tag plus the content equals the element. Active learning: creating your first HTML element Edit the line below in the Input area by wrapping it with the tags and (put before it to open

#### Flashcard 1713618423052

Tags
#html #programming
Question
un contenedor
The content: This is the content of the element, which in this case is just text.

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except that it includes a forward slash before the element name. This states where the element ends — in this case where the end of the paragraph is. Failing to include a closing tag is a common beginner error and can lead to strange results. <span>The content: This is the content of the element, which in this case is just text. The element: The opening tag plus the closing tag plus the content equals the element.<span><body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

Getting started with HTML - Learn web development | MDN
d by itself, we could specify that it is a paragraph by enclosing it in a paragraph tag (

) element:

My cat is very grumpy

Anatomy of an HTML element Let's explore our paragraph element a bit further: The main parts of our element are: The opening tag: This consists of the name of the element (in this case, p), wrapped in opening and closing angle brackets . This states where the element begins, or starts to take effect — in this case where the start of the paragraph is. The closing tag: This is the same as the opening tag, except that it includes a forward slash before the element name. This states where the element ends — in this case where the end of the paragraph is. Failing to include a closing tag is a common beginner error and can lead to strange results. The content: This is the content of the element, which in this case is just text. The element: The opening tag plus the closing tag plus the content equals the element. Active learning: creating your first HTML element Edit the line below in the Input area by wrapping it with the tags and (put before it to open

#### Flashcard 1713702571276

Tags
#html #programming
Question
una patineta
The element: The opening tag plus the closing tag plus the content equals the element.

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
the element ends — in this case where the end of the paragraph is. Failing to include a closing tag is a common beginner error and can lead to strange results. The content: This is the content of the element, which in this case is just text. <span>The element: The opening tag plus the closing tag plus the content equals the element.<span><body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

Getting started with HTML - Learn web development | MDN
d by itself, we could specify that it is a paragraph by enclosing it in a paragraph tag (

) element:

My cat is very grumpy

Anatomy of an HTML element Let's explore our paragraph element a bit further: The main parts of our element are: The opening tag: This consists of the name of the element (in this case, p), wrapped in opening and closing angle brackets . This states where the element begins, or starts to take effect — in this case where the start of the paragraph is. The closing tag: This is the same as the opening tag, except that it includes a forward slash before the element name. This states where the element ends — in this case where the end of the paragraph is. Failing to include a closing tag is a common beginner error and can lead to strange results. The content: This is the content of the element, which in this case is just text. The element: The opening tag plus the closing tag plus the content equals the element. Active learning: creating your first HTML element Edit the line below in the Input area by wrapping it with the tags and (put before it to open

#### Flashcard 1716397935884

Question
Artículo 83.- El Poder Legisla tivo será ejercido por
la Asamblea General.

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#### pdf

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Question
Artículo 84.- Esta (la Asamblea General) se compondrá de dos Cámaras:
una de Representantes y otra de Senadores, las que actuarán separada o conjuntamente, según las distintas disposiciones de la presente Constitución.

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Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete: 1º) Formar y mandar publicar
los Códigos.

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Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete
2º) Establecer los Tribunales y arreglar la Administración de
Justicia y de lo Contencioso Administrativo.

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Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete

3º) Expedir leyes relativas a

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Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete
protección de todos los derechos individuales y fomento de
la ilustración, agricultura, industria, comercio interior y exterior.

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#### Flashcard 1716415761676

Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete

4º) Establecer las contribuciones necesarias para
cubrir los presupuestos, su distribución, el orden de su recaudación e
inversión, y suprimir, modificar o aumentar las existentes.

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Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete
5º) Aprobar o reprobar, en todo o en parte, [...] que presente el Poder Ejecutivo.
las cuentas

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#### Flashcard 1716425461004

Question

Artículo 85
A la Asamblea General compete

6º) Autorizar, a iniciativa del Poder Ejecutivo, [...] , consolidarla, designar sus garantías
y reglamentar [...] , requiriéndose, en los tres primeros casos, [...] .

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Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete:

8º) Designar todos los años la fuerza armada necesaria.
Los efectivos militares sólo podrán ser aumentados por [...] .
[default - edit me]

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Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete:

9º) Crear nuevos Departamentos por [...] ;
fijar sus límites; habilitar puertos; establecer aduanas y derechos de exportación e importación aplicándose, en
cuanto a estos últimos, lo dispuesto en el artículo 87; así como declarar de interés nacional zonas turísticas,
que serán atendidas por el Ministerio respectivo.
[default - edit me]

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Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete:

10) Justificar [...] de las monedas; fijar el tipo
y denominación de las mismas, y arreglar el sistema de
pesas y medidas.
[default - edit me]

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Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete:

11) Permitir o prohibir [...] , determinando para el primer caso,
[...] . Se exceptúan las [...] , cuya entrada
será autorizada por el Poder Ejecutivo.
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Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete:

12) Negar o conceder [...] , señalando,
para este caso, el tiempo de su regreso a ella

[...]
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Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete:

13) Crear o suprimir [...] , determinando sus dotaciones o retiros; y aprobar, reprobar o disminuir
[...] , acordar pensiones y recompensas pecuniarias o de otra
clase y decretar honores públicos a los grandes servicios.
[default - edit me]

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Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete:

14) Conceder indultos por [...] la
Asamblea General en reunión de ambas Cámaras,

y acordar amnistías en casos extraordinarios, por [...] Cámara.
[default - edit me]

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Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete:

15) Hacer los reglamentos de milicias y determinar [...] en que deben reunirse.
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#### Flashcard 1716451151116

Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete:

16) Elegir el lugar [...] las primeras autoridades de la Nación.

[...]
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#### Flashcard 1716454034700

Question
Artículo 85.- A la Asamblea General compete:

17) Conceder monopolios, requiriéndose para ello [...] .
Para instituirlos en favor del Estado o de los Gobiernos Departamentales, se requerirá
[...] .

[...]