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Flashcard 3961195465996

Question
what is the main objective of this chapter?
Answer
This chapter contains information that is essential in understanding how to do an experimental project


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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#40 #Aménorrhée #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine

Syndrome des ovaires polykystiques

  • Le SOPK est la cause la plus fréquente d'anovulation, d'infécondité et d'hyperandrogénie chez la femme.
  • 5 à 10 % des femmes en âge de procréer en sont affectées

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#40 #Aménorrhée #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine

Rappelons que chez l'adulte, les critères retenus par la conférence de consensus de Rotterdam pour le diagnostic de SOPK sont les suivants :

  • Oligo- et/ou anovulation
  • Hyperandrogénie clinique et/ou biologique
  • Aspect échographique d'ovaires polymicrokystiques (présence de 12 follicules de 2 à 9 mm de diamètre dans chaque ovaire et/ou augmentation du volume ovarien > 10 mL).

Deux critères sur trois sont suffisants pour retenir le diagnostic de SOPK, après exclusion des autres étiologies d'hyperandrogénie et/ou de dysovulation.

  • Un dosage de la 17-hydroxyprogestérone est donc indispensable pour éliminer un bloc en 21-hydroxylase, diagnostic différentiel principal du SOPK concernant l'hyperandrogénie.

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#40 #Aménorrhée #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine

L'AMH, sécrétée par les cellules de la granulosa des petits follicules antraux, peut être une aide au diagnostic du SOPK, en particulier lorsque l'échographie est peu contributive.

L'AMH est en effet très bien corrélée au nombre de petits follicules antraux et peut donc donner une information similaire au compte folliculaire antral échographique.

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#37 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Stérilité

Ce bilan, réalisé entre les 2 e et 4 e jours du cycle +++, permet d'explorer l'axe gonadotrope et d'estimer la quantité de la réserve ovarienne folliculaire :

  • FSH
  • LH
  • œstradiol

En 2 e intention ou en cas de doute sur la réserve ovarienne, il est parfois intéressant de doser l'hormone antimüllérienne ou AMH (dosage non pris en charge par la sécurité sociale).

Il n'y a plus d'indication à doser l'inhibine B chez la femme au XXI e siècle

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#37 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Stérilité

  • L'AMH est sécrétée par les petits follicules en croissance.
  • Elle peut être dosée à tout moment du cycle.
  • Le taux d'AMH est corrélé de façon quantitative à la réserve ovarienne folliculaire.

C'est aujourd'hui l'un des marqueurs quantitatifs les plus fiables de la réserve ovarienne avec le compte des follicules antraux à l'échographie.

Cependant, l'AMH n'est pas un marqueur de fertilité spontanée et ne doit pas être dosée « en tout-venant » en dehors des recommandations du CNGOF chez les femmes non infertiles.
Son dosage n'est actuellement pas pris en charge par la CPAM

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#38 #AMP #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine

Les pratiques d'assistance médicale à la procréation incluent :

  • La prise en charge thérapeutique des couples par une induction simple de l'ovulation avec des rapports sexuels « programmés »
  • Les inséminations artificielles (IAC avec sperme du conjoint, ou IAD avec sperme de donneur)
  • La fécondation in vitro (FIV) simple ou assistée (ICSI : Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection) et le transfert d'embryonnaire
  • Le diagnostic génétique préimplantatoire (diagnostic génétique réalisé sur une cellule embryonnaire extraite de l'embryon entre le 3 e et 5 e jour de développement)
  • La congélation embryonnaire ainsi que la décongélation et le transfert embryonnaire
  • Le don de gamètes (don d'ovocyte ou don de sperme) et d'embryon
    • En France, le don de gamète est anonyme et gratuit.
      Il existe très peu de candidat(e)s au don en France, alors que de nombreux couples en auraient besoin (insuffisance ovarienne prématurée, azoospermie, échecs multiples de FIV, etc.)
  • Des techniques plus rarement mises en œuvre comme la maturation in vitro (MIV) et l'IMSI (ICSI avec spermatozoïde morphologiquement sélectionné)

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#38 #AMP #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine

Conditions de prise en charge par l'assurance santé :

  • L'infertilité est prise en charge à 100 % mais une demande d'entente préalable doit être établie par le médecin pour chacune des techniques envisagées.

  • Six tentatives d'insémination sont remboursées ; au-delà et en cas d'échec (aucune naissance), la prise en charge sera aux frais du couple.
  • Lorsque l'indication de fécondation in vitro est posée (FIV ou ICSI), le couple est pris en charge à 100 % pour 4 tentatives ; au-delà et en cas d'échec (aucune naissance), la prise en charge sera aux frais du couple.

  • À noter qu'en cas de réussite, « le compteur est remis à zéro »

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#38 #AMP #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine

Stimulation de l'ovulation

L'IA peut nécessiter une stimulation de l'ovulation.

  • L'ovaire est alors stimulé par administration de gonadotrophines de type FSH (recombinantes, ou d'origine humaine urinaire, purifiées, dites HMG) pour produire un, deux, voire trois follicules matures.
  • Ce traitement nécessite une surveillance, ou monitoring, par dosages hormonaux et échographies répétées.

  • Une fois la maturité atteinte, l'ovulation est déclenchée artificiellement par administration d'un analogue de l'hCG (reproduisant l'effet de la LH).
  • Plus le nombre de follicules matures augmente, plus le risque de survenue d'une grossesse multiple s'accroît.

  • La survenue d'une grossesse multiple est considérée comme une complication de l'AMP

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#38 #AMP #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine

Protocoles de stimulation ovarienne

  • De nombreux protocoles de stimulation ovarienne existent.

  • Le principe consiste à bloquer l'axe hypothalamo-hypophysaire en utilisant des agonistes ou antagonistes de la GnRH.
  • Une fois le blocage obtenu, les protocoles reposent sur l'administration de gonadotrophines de type FSH (recombinantes ou d'origine humaine, extractives, purifiées).
  • L'ovulation est ensuite déclenchée artificiellement par administration d'analogues de l'hCG ou d'un agoniste de la GnRH

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#38 #AMP #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine

Surveillance du protocole de traitement : monitorage

  • Le monitorage correspond à la surveillance échographique (compte du nombre et mesure des follicules en croissance) et hormonale (taux sérique d'œstradiol) du développement folliculaire au cours de la stimulation ovarienne.
  • Lorsque suffisamment de follicules atteignent la maturité (16–20 mm de diamètre), le déclenchement de l'ovulation est décidé.

  • Durant le monitorage, il est important de cerner les situations à risque de survenue d'un syndrome d'hyperstimulation ovarienne ou les réponses ovariennes insuffisantes (peu de follicules entrent en croissance par rapport au nombre de follicules visualisés en début de traitement)

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#38 #AMP #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine

Complications potentiellement graves :

  • Allergie aux produits utilisés

  • Accidents thrombotiques : le plus souvent l'accident thrombotique survient à l'occasion d'un syndrome d'hyperstimulation

  • Syndrome d'hyperstimulation ovarienne (HSO) : c'est la complication majeure des traitements de stimulation de l'ovulation.
    • Un syndrome d'hyperstimulation grave survient dans environ 2 % des cycles stimulés en vue de fécondation in vitro.
    • L'HSO présente des degrés de gravité divers, mettant parfois en jeu le pronostic vital maternel.
    • Il peut associer :
      • Ascite majeure
      • Pleurésie
      • Syndrome de détresse respiratoire
      • Insuffisance rénale aiguë
      • Accidents thromboemboliques et eucocytose importante dans les formes les plus sévères

  • Torsion d'annexe : elle survient sur un ovaire stimulé avec de multiples follicules de grande taille.
    Elle met en jeu le pronostic fonctionnel de l'organe

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#machine-learning #software-engineering #unfinished
One possible mitigation strategy for prediction volatility is to isolate models and serve ensembles. This approach is useful in situations such as [8], in which sub-problems decompose naturally, or in which the cost of main- taining separate models is outweighed by the benefits of enforced modularity. However, in many large-scale settings such a strategy may prove unscalable. And within a given model, the issues of entanglement may still be present.

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#knowledge-base-construction #machine-learning #unfinished

LSTM [ 18 ] networks are a special type of RNN that introduce gates - a new structure.

LSTMs: gates control the flow of information and can capture long-term dependencies.

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#42 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Pelvienne #Tuméfaction

Étiologies

Les deux tuméfactions pelviennes les plus fréquentes chez la femme sont le fibrome utérin et le kyste de l'ovaire, sans oublier la grossesse à laquelle il faut toujours penser chez une femme en période d'activité génitale

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#42 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Pelvienne #Tuméfaction

Fibrome utérin

Le fibrome utérin, lorsqu'il est palpable, est le plus souvent :

  • sous-séreux (types 5, 6, 7 selon la classification FIGO)
  • interstitiel (types 3, 4)
  • rarement sous-muqueux et alors de types 2–5

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#42 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Pelvienne #Tuméfaction

Fibrome utérin :

  • C'est la plus fréquente des tumeurs de l'utérus
  • 20 à 30 % des femmes de plus de 35 ans en sont atteintes.
  • Il est important de souligner qu'environ 50 % des fibromes sont asymptomatiques et sont découverts au cours d'un examen gynécologique systématique, d'une échographie ou d'une technique d'imagerie pelvienne

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#42 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Pelvienne #Tuméfaction

Fibrome utérin

Ménorragies

C'est le principal signe révélateur et le plus pathognomonique

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#42 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Pelvienne #Tuméfaction

Fibrome utérin

Parfois, l'hyperplasie endométriale est associée dans un contexte d'insuffisance lutéale et majore les saignements.

En cas de fibrome sous-muqueux, les ménorragies sont en rapport avec des altérations de l'endomètre et une augmentation de la cavité utérine pouvant compromettre une rétraction correcte de l'utérus au moment des règles

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#42 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Pelvienne #Tuméfaction

Fibrome utérin

Complications hémorragiques :

  • Un fibrome sous-muqueux peut être responsable d'une hémorragie plus importante (surtout en présence d'un DIU), pouvant entraîner une anémie microcytaire hyposidérémique

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#42 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Pelvienne #Tuméfaction

Fibrome utérin

Complications douloureuses

  • La nécrobiose aseptique d'un fibrome est la principale cause des douleurs en cas de fibrome.
    • Elle est secondaire à l'ischémie du fibrome et se caractérise par :
      • Des douleurs pelviennes pouvant être très intenses avec une fièvre entre 38 et 39 °C
      • Parfois des métrorragies de sang noirâtre
      • Au toucher vaginal : une augmentation du fibrome, douloureux à la palpation
      • À l'échographie : une image en cocarde avec une hyperéchogénicité centrale

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#42 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Pelvienne #Tuméfaction

Fibrome utérin

Compression nerveuse responsable de sciatalgie, à la face postérieure de la cuisse, ou névralgie obturatrice, à la face interne de la cuisse

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#42 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Pelvienne #Tuméfaction

Complications gravidiques - Fibromes utérins

  • Ce sont :
    • La stérilité et les avortements spontanés à répétition, notamment en cas de fibrome sous-muqueux
    • La nécrobiose ; avec menace d'accouchement prématuré et risque de prématurité
    • La localisation praevia gênant un accouchement par voie basse
    • La présentation dystocique en cas de fibrome volumineux (interstitiel)
    • La dystocie dynamique ou l'hémorragie de la délivrance liée à une mauvaise rétraction utérine

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#42 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Pelvienne #Tuméfaction

Kyste organique ou fonctionnel

Les kystes fonctionnels de l'ovaire constituent la plus fréquente des tuméfactions pelviennes de la femme en période d'activité génitale

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#ANOFEL #Cours #Facultaires #Infectiologie #Maladies-infectieuses-et-tropicales #Médecine #Toxoplasmose

La toxoplasmose congénitale grave, rare en France, avec classiquement deux aspects :

  • Une encéphalo-méningo-myélite qui s'observe dès la naissance. L'enfant présente classiquement :
    • Une macrocéphalie avec hydrocéphalie
    • Des calcifications intracrâniennes
    • Une atteinte oculaire sous forme d'une rétinochoroïdite pigmentaire, voire d'une microphtalmie

  • Un tableau d'infection néonatale grave (fièvre, ictère, hépatosplénomégalie…), au pronostic péjoratif

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#ANOFEL #Cours #Facultaires #Infectiologie #Maladies-infectieuses-et-tropicales #Médecine #Toxoplasmose

La toxoplasmose congénitale latente (90 % des cas) concerne des nouveau-nés cliniquement normaux à la naissance chez qui le diagnostic est uniquement biologique.

Le traitement précoce de ces cas limite leur possible évolution secondaire vers une forme oculaire ou neurologique retardée.

  • L'atteinte oculaire secondaire est cependant possible tout au cours de la vie, dans environ 30 % des cas.
  • Le suivi clinique une fois par an est poursuivi jusqu'à l'âge adulte, avec contrôle systématique du fond d'œil jusqu'à 7 à 10 ans ou jusqu'à l'adolescence selon les équipes.

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#ANOFEL #Cours #Facultaires #Infectiologie #Maladies-infectieuses-et-tropicales #Médecine #Toxoplasmose

Toxoplasmose oculaire

L'atteinte oculaire peut s'observer dans trois circonstances :

  • Au cours de la toxoplasmose congénitale
  • Chez les patients immunodéprimés
  • Et au cours d'une toxoplasmose acquise post-natale de l'immunocompétent.
    • Dans ce dernier cas, les localisations oculaires peuvent être parfois retardées de plusieurs mois par rapport à la primo-infection.
    • Le diagnostic repose sur l'aspect du fond d'œil, mais peut nécessiter une confirmation biologique sur un prélèvement intraoculaire

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#ANOFEL #Cours #Facultaires #Infectiologie #Maladies-infectieuses-et-tropicales #Médecine #Toxoplasmose
L'échographie ne permettant que la visualisation d'anomalies déjà constituées, c'est l'amniocentèse avec la détection dans le liquide amniotique du parasite par PCR qui permet de confirmer l'atteinte fœtale ; ces examens doivent être réalisés dans un laboratoire agréé.

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#ANOFEL #Cours #Facultaires #Infectiologie #Maladies-infectieuses-et-tropicales #Médecine #Toxoplasmose

Toxoplasmose

En cas de séroconversion en cours de grossesse, le suivi échographique doit être mensuel, à la recherche de signes d'atteinte fœtale :

  • Dilatation ventriculaire
  • Calcifications cérébrales
  • Épaississement du placenta
  • Hépatomégalie
  • Ascite ou péricardite

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#21 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #examen #prénuptial
Cette consultation peut être menée par un médecin (généraliste, gynécologue médical, gynécologue-obstétricien) ou une sage-femme, que ce professionnel suive ou non la grossesse par la suite

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#21 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #examen #prénuptial

Anomalies liées à la prise de Distilbène ® (diéthylstilbestrol) par la mère : les filles nées de mères exposées à ce médicament entre 1950 à 1977 ont un risque augmenté de malformations utérines.

Actuellement, seules les femmes âgées de plus de 40 ans avec un projet de grossesse peuvent encore être concernées

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#21 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #examen #prénuptial

La détermination du groupe sanguin (A, B O, phénotypes rhésus complet et Kell) si la femme ne possède pas de carte de groupe sanguin complète (2 déterminations sont nécessaires)

  • En cas de rhésus négatif, il est proposé d'informer la femme de l'intérêt de la détermination du groupe sanguin du futur père.
    • Si ce dernier est rhésus positif, un génotypage du rhésus fœtal pourra être prescrit à partir de 11 SA (semaine d'aménorrhée)

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#21 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #examen #prénuptial
Sérologies de la toxoplasmose (en l'absence de preuve écrite de l'immunité) et de la rubéole (sauf si deux vaccinations documentées ont été antérieurement réalisées, quel que soit le résultat de la sérologie)

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#21 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #examen #prénuptial

La prévention des anomalies de fermeture du tube neural est assurée par un apport de folates : à partir du moment où la femme a un souhait de grossesse, les folates sont prescrits lors de la consultation préconceptionnelle et la prise est prolongée jusqu'à la 12ème SA à la dose de 0,4 mg/j (attention, certains antécédents ou pathologies particulières nécessitent la prescription de folates à la dose de 5 mg/j :

  • Antécédents de non-fermeture du tube neural
  • Surpoids (CNGOF p.544)
  • Épilepsie traitée, etc.

Adjonction vitamines B6 - B12 dans les cas à risque est souhaitable (CNGOF p.544)

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#21 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #examen #prénuptial

Rubéole

Il est nécessaire de vacciner les femmes dont la sérologie est négative (pour les femmes nées après 1980 : vaccin trivalent – rougeole, rubéole, oreillons – au lieu d'un vaccin rubéoleux seul)

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#21 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #examen #prénuptial

Vaccination Rubéole

  • En raison du risque tératogène, il est nécessaire de s'assurer de l'absence d'une grossesse débutante et d'éviter toute grossesse dans les 2 mois qui suivent la vaccination
    • Néanmoins, ce risque étant hypothétique, en cas de vaccination malencontreuse en début de grossesse, il n'y a pas lieu de recommander une interruption médicale de grossesse

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#21 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #examen #prénuptial

Vaccination Varicelle

  • La vaccination est possible si le test de grossesse est négatif
  • Selon les données de l'AMM (autorisation de mise sur le marché), une contraception efficace de 3 mois est recommandée après chaque dose de vaccin

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#22 #Cours #Facultaires #Grossesse #Gynécologie #Médecine #Normale

La déclaration de grossesse se fait sur un formulaire réglementaire (la déclaration est aujourd'hui possible en ligne).

  • Elle doit théoriquement être envoyée avant 14 semaines de grossesse.

  • Le médecin indique la date de la consultation, la date de début de grossesse et certifie qu'il a prescrit les examens obligatoires.

  • La gestante doit le compléter et en adresser 2 exemplaires à la caisse d'allocations familiales et 1 à sa caisse d'assurance maladie.
  • Cette déclaration permet à la gestante une prise en charge de ses 7 consultations prénatales (prise en charge à 100 % par l'assurance maladie des examens obligatoires jusqu'au 6ème mois et couverture médicale à 100 % à partir de 24 SA)

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#23 #Complications #Cours #Facultaires #Grossesse #Gynécologie #Hémorragie #Médecine

En faveur d'une grossesse môlaire (maladie trophoblastique)

Exceptionnelle en Occident, fréquente en Asie du Sud-Est, la grossesse môlaire se traduit par :

  • Des signes sympathiques de grossesse très intenses
  • Un utérus plus gros que ne le voudrait l'âge de la grossesse
  • Des taux plasmatiques d'hCG très élevés.

  • À l'échographie, l'utérus est occupé par une masse hétérogène, floconneuse, contenant de multiples petites vésicules et il existe deux gros ovaires polykystiques.
  • Il n'y a ni cavité ovulaire, ni embryon visible

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#23 #Complications #Cours #Facultaires #Grossesse #Gynécologie #Hémorragie #Médecine

Hémorragie du post-partum

  • C'est une urgence obstétricale.
  • Dans ses formes graves ou négligées, elle met en jeu le pronostic vital maternel.
  • Il s'agit de la première cause de mortalité maternelle actuellement en France.
  • Elle survient dans environ 7 % des naissances.
  • Son diagnostic précoce repose sur la surveillance rigoureuse de toute accouchée, en particulier pendant les 2 heures qui suivent l'accouchement

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#23 #Complications #Cours #Facultaires #Grossesse #Gynécologie #Hémorragie #Médecine

Hémorragie Post-Partum

Les facteurs de risques sont :

  • L'épisiotomie ou une déchirure périnéale importante
  • L'utérus cicatriciel
  • Les antécédents d'hémorragie du post-partum
  • Le placenta praevia
  • La grande multiparité
  • La naissance par forceps ou ventouse
  • Le travail déclenché
  • Le travail très rapide ou prolongé
  • L'absence d'injection d'utérotoniques (oxytocine 5 à 10 UI en IVD) dans les secondes qui suivent la naissance de l'enfant
  • L'hyperthermie (chorioamniotite)
  • La macrosomie, l'hydramnios, la grossesse multiple (surdistension utérine)
  • Les fibromes

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#23 #Complications #Cours #Facultaires #Grossesse #Gynécologie #Hémorragie #Médecine
Mais dans plus de la moitié des cas, aucun facteur de risque n'est retrouvé. Toute femme qui accouche présente donc un risque possible d'hémorragie de la délivrance

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#23 #Complications #Cours #Facultaires #Grossesse #Gynécologie #Hémorragie #Médecine #has-images

Il faut réaliser la délivrance artificielle en urgence si l'hémorragie survient avant l'expulsion du placenta.

  • Une main abdominale (gauche pour le droitier) empaume, abaisse et maintient le fond utérin.
  • L'autre main, gantée, remonte le long du cordon ombilical dans la position dite « en main d'accoucheur », pénètre dans la cavité utérine, cherche le bord du placenta, s'insinue dans le plan de clivage entre placenta et paroi utérine, décolle artificiellement le placenta et l'extrait en douceur de l'utérus, sans déchirer les membranes.

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#23 #Complications #Cours #Facultaires #Grossesse #Gynécologie #Hémorragie #Médecine #has-images

La délivrance est suivie :

  • D'une révision utérine (réalisée d'emblée en cas d'hémorragie survenant après l'expulsion du placenta) : révision manuelle, selon la même technique, s'assurant de la vacuité et de l'intégrité de l'utérus et ramenant, le cas échéant, les derniers caillots et débris placentaires.
    • Sauf exception (suspicion de placenta accreta), l'utérus doit être vide

  • D'un massage utérin énergique par mouvements circulaires à travers la paroi abdominale jusqu'à obtention d'un globe tonique

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#23 #Complications #Cours #Facultaires #Grossesse #Gynécologie #Hémorragie #Médecine
Il faut aussi réaliser systématiquement une inspection sous valves des voies génitales basses pour s'assurer de l'absence de déchirure du col ou des parois vaginales

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#23 #Complications #Cours #Facultaires #Grossesse #Gynécologie #Hémorragie #Médecine

Administration d'utérotoniques, après la révision utérine, qui permet d'obtenir une bonne rétraction utérine :

  • Oxytocine dans un premier temps (Syntocinon ® 10 UI en perfusion IV lente à renouveler une fois si nécessaire)

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#23 #Complications #Cours #Facultaires #Grossesse #Gynécologie #Hémorragie #Médecine

HPP

Le sondage urinaire à demeure (une vessie vide favorise un bon globe utérin)

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#23 #Complications #Cours #Facultaires #Grossesse #Gynécologie #Hémorragie #Médecine

En cas d'échec, apprécié si possible au maximum dans les 30 minutes, le traitement par les prostaglandines (sulprostone à la seringue électrique) en respectant les contre-indications doit être instauré.

Un traitement par acide tranexamique 1 g en IV est aujourd'hui aussi le plus souvent pratiqué

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#23 #Complications #Cours #Facultaires #Grossesse #Gynécologie #Hémorragie #Médecine

En dernier recours : une hystérectomie d'hémostase.

Il ne faut pas hésiter à la réaliser rapidement en cas d'hémodynamique instable ou de CIVD installée, car c'est alors le geste qui permet de sauve la vie de la patiente

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#23 #Complications #Cours #Facultaires #Grossesse #Gynécologie #Hémorragie #Médecine

Prévention de l'hémorragie du post-partum

Elle comprend :

  • Une délivrance dirigée, systématique : administration prophylactique d'oxytocine (APO) dès la sortie de l'enfant (5 à 10 UI IVL d'oxytocine)
  • La mise en place d'un sac de recueil des pertes sanguines, juste après l'expulsion permettant d'évaluer le volume des pertes sanguines
  • Une surveillance de la délivrance normale par la manœuvre de mobilisation utérine vers le haut
  • Une surveillance systématique de toute accouchée 2 heures en salle de travail
  • Une délivrance artificielle en cas de non-décollement placentaire 30 minutes après l'accouchement avec vérification macroscopique du placenta et des membranes

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#23 #Complications #Cours #Facultaires #Grossesse #Gynécologie #Hémorragie #Médecine
La principale cause de l'hémorragie du post-partum est l'atonie utérine

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#23 #Complications #Cours #Facultaires #Gravidique #Grossesse #Gynécologie #HTA #Médecine

Prééclampsie

  • Les signes cliniques de gravité :
    • Signes fonctionnels d'HTA :
      • Céphalées
      • Troubles visuels (phosphènes)
      • Auditifs (acouphènes)
      • Barre épigastrique
    • PAS ≥ 160 mmHg ou PAD ≥ 110 mmHg
    • Réflexes ostéotendineux vifs, diffusés et polycinétiques
    • Protéinurie massive à la bandelette urinaire

  • L'existence d'un retentissement fœtal :
    • Diminution des mouvements actifs fœtaux
    • Hauteur utérine inférieure à la normale pour l'âge gestationnel, faisant suspecter un RCIU

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Flashcard 4871718833420

Question
Not only do we have to manage the software code artifacts but also the data sets, the machine learning models, and the [...].
Answer
parameters and hyperparameters used by such models


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Not only do we have to manage the software code artifacts but also the data sets, the machine learning models, and the parameters and hyperparameters used by such models. All these artifacts have to be managed, versioned and promoted through different stages until they’re deployed to production.

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Sato,Wider,Windheuser_2019_Continuous-delivery_thoughtworks
icient collaboration and alignment. However, this integration also brings new challenges when compared to traditional software development. These include: A higher number of changing artifacts. <span>Not only do we have to manage the software code artifacts but also the data sets, the machine learning models, and the parameters and hyperparameters used by such models. All these artifacts have to be managed, versioned and promoted through different stages until they’re deployed to production. It’s harder to achieve versioning, quality control, reliability, repeatability and audibility in that process. Size and portability: Training data and machine learning models usually co







#machine-learning #software-engineering #unfinished
In systems that are used to take actions in the real world, it can be useful to set and enforce action limits as a sanity check. Action limits for systems should be broad enough not to trigger spuriously. If the system hits a limit for a given action, automated alerts should fire and trigger manual intervention or investigation.

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#29 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Prématurité #RCIU

Mesure de la hauteur utérine (HU)

  • Entre 20 et 32 SA, la hauteur utérine normale (en cm) est égale au nombre de semaines moins 4.
    • On attend donc 24 cm à 28 SA et 28 cm à 32 SA.

  • Après 32 SA, la hauteur utérine augmente de 1 cm toutes les 2 semaines :
    • 29 cm à 34 SA, 30 cm à 36 SA, etc.

  • Une HU inférieure à ces valeurs impose un contrôle échographique

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#339 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Prééclampsie

Il existe néanmoins des critères objectifs imposant l'extraction fœtale en urgence et sans délais.

  • Critères maternels :
    • Crise d'éclampsie
    • HTA sévère et non contrôlée par une bithérapie antihypertensive
    • Céphalées ou troubles visuels
    • HRP (clinique ou échographique)
    • CIVD
    • HELLP Sd

  • Critères fœtaux :
    • Rythme cardiaque fœtal pathologique
    • RCIU important, arrêt de croissance,
    • Doppler fœtal ombilical pathologique
    • Oligoamnios sévère

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#24 #Cours #Facultaires #GEU #Gynécologie #Médecine

  • Si les β-hCG sont à plus de 1 500 UI/L avec une vacuité utérine à l'échographie endovaginale, le diagnostic de GEU est très probable.
  • Si les β-hCG sont à moins de 1 500 UI/L et en l'absence de signes de gravité, il faut répéter le dosage à 48 heures pour évaluer la cinétique

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#24 #Cours #Facultaires #GEU #Gynécologie #Médecine
Dans la grossesse intra-utérine les taux de β-hCG doublent dans les 48 heures

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Flashcard 4896573230348

Tags
#bert #knowledge-base-construction #nlp #unfinished
Question
Recently, deep neural networks have applied to relation classification. These methods usually use some features derived from lexical resources such as Word-Net or NLP tools such as [...] and named entity rec- ognizers (NER)
Answer
dependency parsers


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Zeng et al., 2014; Yu et al., 2014; dos Santos et al., 2015; Shen and Huang, 2016; Lee et al., 2019). These methods usually use some features derived from lexical resources such as Word-Net or <span>NLP tools such as dependency parsers and named entity rec- ognizers (NER). <span>

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Flashcard 4920396090636

Tags
#knowledge-base-construction #machine-learning #unfinished
Question
Fonduer: In pro- duction, the LFs are applied to [...] candidates.
Answer
the entire set


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In practice, ap- proximately 20 iterations are adequate for our users to generate a sufficiently tuned set of labeling functions (see Section 6). In pro- duction, the finalized LFs are applied to the entire set of candidates, and learning and inference are performed only once to generate the final KB

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Flashcard 4920410508556

Question
The term Pasteur's quadrant was introduced by Donald E. Stokes in [...][
Answer
his book, Pasteur's Quadrant.


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society. Louis Pasteur 's research is thought to exemplify this type of method, which bridges the gap between "basic " and "applied " research.[1] The term was introduced by Donald E. Stokes in <span>his book, Pasteur's Quadrant.[ <span>

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Pasteur's quadrant - Wikipedia
Pasteur's quadrant - Wikipedia Pasteur's quadrant From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Pasteur's quadrant is a classification of scientific research projects that seek fundamental understanding of scientific problems, while also having immediate use for society. Louis Pasteur 's research is thought to exemplify this type of method, which bridges the gap between "basic " and "applied " research.[1] The term was introduced by Donald E. Stokes in his book, Pasteur's Quadrant.[2] Applied and basic research[edit ] As shown in the following table, scientific research can be classified by whether it advances human knowledge by seeking a fundamental understanding







#machine-learning #software-engineering #unfinished

Mathematical #abstractions#do#not#leak - When#we#use#a#theorem,#we#do#not#need#to#revisit#its#proof

In theory, Compu ter#programs#are#similar#to#mathematic al#proo fs, so we Desi gn #wi th#contracts. •

In theory, Compu ter#programs#are#similar#to#mathematic al#proo fs, In#practice,#there#are#abstraction#leaks#.

Abstractions in computer programs leak, but less than those in machine learning

Desi gn #wi th#contracts – kn owi ng#th e#specification#of#a#module#is#enou gh.

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Flashcard 4954909969676

Question
Machine learning packages may often be treated as black boxes, resulting in large masses of “glue code” or calibra- tion layers that can [...] assumptions.
Answer
lock in


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Machine learning packages may often be treated as black boxes, resulting in large masses of “glue code” or calibra- tion layers that can lock in assumptions.

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Behind the Agile manifesto: What the authors came to value after developing software by doing it and helping others do it.

Manifesto for Agile Software Development: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
Manifesto for Agile Software Development: Working software over comprehensive documentation
Manifesto for Agile Software Development: Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
Manifesto for Agile Software Development: Responding to change over following a plan

Manifesto for Agile Software Development: X "over" Y means that while there is value in X, Agile authors value Y more.

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Unknown title
Manifesto for Agile Software Development Manifesto for Agile Software Development We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. Kent Beck Mike Beedle Arie van Bennekum Alistair Cockburn Ward Cunningham Martin Fowler James Grenning Jim Highsmith Andrew Hunt Ron Jeffries Jon Kern Brian Marick Robert C. Martin Stev




If you keep a critical eye on industry developments and experiment with ideas that might actually be useful to you, that's great.

Sometimes new ideas come along from industry developments that really are helpful.

But, in software engineeing, if you go looking for a pot of gold every time someone says they saw a rainbow, you'll soon lose sight of what actually matters: making useful and/or entertaining stuff.

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AGILE must be destroyed, once and for all - Erik Meijer : programming
ne forums and don't go to all the cool conferences, and instead you just carry on making software that works using boring, tried and tested tools and techniques, things will turn out just fine. <span>If you keep a critical eye on industry developments and experiment with ideas that might actually be useful to you, that's great too. Sometimes new ideas come along that really are helpful and you do better if you adopt them. But if you go looking for a pot of gold every time someone says they saw a rainbow in this business, you'll soon lose sight of what actually matters: making useful and/or entertaining stuff. Continue this thread level 2 DevIceMan 2 points · 4 years ago I've worked in businesses and industries where the process is designed around the project/problem/business. In fact, that's




Flashcard 4967541640460

Question
Softmax is implemented through a neural network layer [...] the output layer.
Answer
just before


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Softmax is implemented through a neural network layer just before the output layer.

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Multi-Class Neural Networks: Softmax | Machine Learning Crash Course
analysis we saw in Figure 1, Softmax might produce the following likelihoods of an image belonging to a particular class: Class Probability apple 0.001 bear 0.04 candy 0.008 dog 0.95 egg 0.001 <span>Softmax is implemented through a neural network layer just before the output layer. The Softmax layer must have the same number of nodes as the output layer. Figure 2. A Softmax layer within a neural network. Click the plus icon to see the Softmax equation. The Softmax







#knowledge-base-construction #machine-learning #unfinished
Fonduer: we introduce a multimodal LSTM network that combines textual context with universal features that correspond to structural and visual properties of the input documents.

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ng deep-learning models [ 46 ] tailored for text information extraction (such as long short-term mem- ory (LSTM) networks [ 18 ]) struggle to capture the multimodality of richly formatted data. <span>We introduce a multimodal LSTM network that combines textual context with universal features that correspond to structural and visual properties of the input documents. These features are inherently captured by Fonduer ’s data model and are generated automatically (see Section 4.2). We also introduce a series of data layout optimizations to ensure the

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Flashcard 4967615040780

Tags
#knowledge-base-construction #machine-learning
Question
Apache Spark allows Snorkel pro- cesses to be distributed to many nodes, thus [...] learning
Answer
reducing the time for


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Apache Spark allows Snorkel pro- cesses to be distributed to many nodes, thus reducing the time for learning

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Flashcard 4974107036940

Question
What is the territorial competition
Answer
The notion of territorial competition refers to a form of collective action, undertaken on behalf of economic interests within a partic- ular territory, which serves to advance these in competition with those of interests located in (some or all) other territories (Cheshire and Gordon, 1995, 1996).


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Communalist Approach The historians of this school, relying completely on the colonial historiography of medieval India and colonial era textbooks, viewed Hindus and Muslims as permanent hostile groups whose interests were mutually different and antagonistic to each other.

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In 1741, Dupleix became the Governor-General of Pondicherry.

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Dupleix was the first European to interfere in the internal politics of the Indian rulers.

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Dupleix was, in fact, the originator of the practice of subsidiary alliance in India. He placed a French army at Hyderabad at the expense of the subahdar.

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Dupleix was recalled in 1754 due to the initial defeat of the French army in the Second Carnatic War and the heavy cost incurred by the company due to Dupleix’s political decisions

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The French authorities, annoyed at the heavy financial losses that Dupleix’s policy involved, decided to recall him in 1754. Godeheu succeeded Dupleix as the French Governor-General in India. Godeheu adopted a policy of negotiations with the English and concluded a treaty with them. The English and the French agreed not to interfere in the quarrels of native princes.

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Third Carnatic War (1758-63)

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Battle of Wandiwash The decisive battle of the Third Carnatic War was won by the English on January 22, 1760 at Wandiwash (or Vandavasi) in Tamil Nadu. General Eyre Coote of the English totally routed the French army under Count Thomas Arthur de Lally and took Bussy as prisoner.

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Although the Treaty of Peace of Paris (1763) restored to the French their factories in India, the French political influence disappeared after the war.

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he Battle of Plassey, in 1757, is usually regarded by historians as the decisive event that brought about ultimate British rule over India. However, one cannot quite ignore the view that the true turning point for control of the subcontinent was the victory of British forces over the French forces at Wandiwash in 1760.

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n the Battle of Wandiwash, natives served in both the armies as sepoys.

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In China, Japan and the Indonesian archipelago, Indian cotton was popular for its lightweight, yet strong qualities. When the Dutch, English and French acquired materials from India, it was not only for their home countries, but for transport to Malacca or Java, for example, where they were traded for spices.

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When the French East India Company started trading in India, they entered an already well established, complex economic system, an intricate network of production, negotiation, delivery, and distribution. Large commercial fleets as well as prosperous shore-based businesses were run by Indian merchants. Weavers and merchants worked with overland freight operators and brokers, who worked with exporters and ship owners. These agents had also to negotiate with local state officials for commercial privileges. The European traders had to learn well established rules and practices and successfully collaborate with indigenous envoys.

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The English navy was superior to the French navy

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The Danes are better known for their missionary activities than for commerce.

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The Danes The Danish East India Company was established in 1616 and, in 1620

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The Industrial Revolution started in England in the early 18th century, with the invention of new machines like the spinning Jenny, steam engine, the power loom and several others.

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Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, significantly weakened France’s position and from then on it was forced to side with Britain.

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The world’s first central bank—the Bank of England—was established to sell government debt to the money markets on the promise of a decent return on Britain’s defeating rival countries like France and Spain.

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Why a Sea Route to India (i) Spirit of renaissance in the 15th-century Europe. (ii) European economy growing rapidly, leading to prosperity and demand for luxury goods; increase in the supply of meat requiring spices for preservation. (iii) Capture of Constantinople in 1453, and Syria and Egypt later by the Ottoman Turks calling for a new route to reach India without dealing with Arabs and Turks. (iv) Venice and Genoa too small to stand up to the Turks. (v) Spain and Portugal aided with money and men by the North Europeans and by ships and technical knowledge by the Genoese. (vi) The Portuguese the pioneers followed by the Dutch, English, Danes and the French respectively to reach India.

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Francisco de Almeida (1505-09) First governor, initiated the blue water policy (cartaze system). Alfonso de Albuquerque (1509-1515) Considered to be the founder of the Portuguese power in India: captured Goa from Bijapur; persecuted Muslims; captured Bhatkal from Sri Krishna Deva Rai (1510) of the Vijayanagar; and initiated the policy of marrying with the natives of India and banned the practice of sati in his area of influence.

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#Apprentissage #Culture #Sommeil

Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome

Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) is a sleep disorder in which an individual finds it difficult to fall asleep late in the night, and sleeps well into the afternoon if not awakened. DSPS has only been characterized in 1982, but increasing data indicates that various degrees of DSPS occur with epidemic frequency, esp. among high school and university students

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SleepChart: Formula for Healthy Sleep
orce your body and your body clock to do what you wish. It is far easier to do the opposite: adapt your life to your body clock. This article is intended to help you understand your body clock. <span>Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) is a sleep disorder in which an individual finds it difficult to fall asleep late in the night, and sleeps well into the afternoon if not awakened. DSPS has only been characterized in 1982, but increasing data indicates that various degrees of DSPS occur with epidemic frequency, esp. among high school and university students. DSPS individuals often like to keep on learning late into the night, go to sleep very late (for example, 4-6 am), and find it very hard to wake up early on a regular basis. For example




#Apprentissage #Culture #Sommeil

The main factors contributing to DSPS:

  • increased period of the body clock (well above 25 hours)
  • reduced or increased sensitivity to factors that reset or advance body clock (e.g. light, activity, stress, etc.)
  • electric lighting, 24-hour economy and the resulting "want to do more" lifestyle

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SleepChart: Formula for Healthy Sleep
ull mental powers. DSPS students feel best after midnight when everyone else is asleep and they can focus on learning or other activities (reading, Internet, watching TV, computer games, etc.). <span>The main factors contributing to DSPS: increased period of the body clock (well above 25 hours) reduced or increased sensitivity to factors that reset or advance body clock (e.g. light, activity, stress, etc.) electric lighting, 24-hour economy and the resulting "want to do more" lifestyle A normal individual has a body clock running with a period slightly longer than 24 hours. The clock is reset in the morning with activity and bright light. Thus a normal individual easi




#Apprentissage #Culture #Sommeil

Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome

Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome (ASPS) is the opposite of DSPS. People suffering from ASPS get very sleepy early in the evening and wake up very early in the night. They circadian clock runs at less than 24 hour period. As they constantly struggle to survive to a reasonable evening hour, they sleep less, awake early and experience increased tiredness during the day. While a typical DSPS person is an adolescent student, a typical ASPS person is a retiree or a middle age low stress tolerance woman

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SleepChart: Formula for Healthy Sleep
nges painless to individuals affected with the condition. If this description fits your problem, you may diagnose the degree of your DSPS with SleepChart freeware at the bottom of this article. <span>Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome (ASPS) is the opposite of DSPS. People suffering from ASPS get very sleepy early in the evening and wake up very early in the night. They circadian clock runs at less than 24 hour period. As they constantly struggle to survive to a reasonable evening hour, they sleep less, awake early and experience increased tiredness during the day. While a typical DSPS person is an adolescent student, a typical ASPS person is a retiree or a middle age low stress tolerance woman. The link between the age and sleep phase disorders may be related to aging itself; however, it may also be a result of lifestyle changes that come with age. Correlates of sleep phase s




#Apprentissage #Culture #Sommeil

Sleep control components:

  • circadian clock - circadian clock produces sleepiness in 24 hour cycles
  • homeostatic control - wake-meter measures the period in which we stay awake and triggers sleepiness after we stay up for long enough

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SleepChart: Formula for Healthy Sleep
piness with prolonged wakefulness (i.e. the longer we do not sleep, the sleepier we are). In sleep literature, these two mechanisms are called the circadian and homeostatic regulation of sleep. <span>Sleep control components: circadian clock - circadian clock produces sleepiness in 24 hour cycles homeostatic control - wake-meter measures the period in which we stay awake and triggers sleepiness after we stay up for long enough In DSPS or ASPS people, there may exist a combination of several factors that make it harder to get good sleep: Circadian clock runs in periods far different from 24 hours. In DSPS peop




#Apprentissage #Culture #Sommeil

In DSPS or ASPS people, there may exist a combination of several factors that make it harder to get good sleep:

  • Circadian clock runs in periods far different from 24 hours. In DSPS people, the circadian clock may be set to 25-26 hours. In ASPS people, it could be 23 hours
  • Circadian clock is not sensitive to time resetting factors (professionally termed zeitgebers). Normal people reset their clock in the morning by light and activity. In addition, darkness and inactivity in the evening provide further clues for the clock. Normal people with normal lifestyles can easily synchronize their sleep with the day-night cycle
  • Homeostatic wake-meter shows changed sensitivity. Sensitive wake-meter will make people get tired very quickly after awakening. Insensitive wake-meter may make people tend to stay up for long
  • Lifestyle has a dramatic effect on the behavior of the circadian and homeostatic sleep regulation mechanisms. The same individual will show different sleep rhythm depending on such factors as: using artificial lighting, exercise, level of stress, timing of exciting activities, napping, diet, climate, changes in ambient temperature, health status, etc

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SleepChart: Formula for Healthy Sleep
lock - circadian clock produces sleepiness in 24 hour cycles homeostatic control - wake-meter measures the period in which we stay awake and triggers sleepiness after we stay up for long enough <span>In DSPS or ASPS people, there may exist a combination of several factors that make it harder to get good sleep: Circadian clock runs in periods far different from 24 hours. In DSPS people, the circadian clock may be set to 25-26 hours. In ASPS people, it could be 23 hours Circadian clock is not sensitive to time resetting factors (professionally termed zeitgebers). Normal people reset their clock in the morning by light and activity. In addition, darkness and inactivity in the evening provide further clues for the clock. Normal people with normal lifestyles can easily synchronize their sleep with the day-night cycle Homeostatic wake-meter shows changed sensitivity. Sensitive wake-meter will make people get tired very quickly after awakening. Insensitive wake-meter may make people tend to stay up for long Lifestyle has a dramatic effect on the behavior of the circadian and homeostatic sleep regulation mechanisms. The same individual will show different sleep rhythm depending on such factors as: using artificial lighting, exercise, level of stress, timing of exciting activities, napping, diet, climate, changes in ambient temperature, health status, etc. Examples of different sleeping rhythms Freeware SleepChart application that comes with this article (bottom) makes it possible to take a snapshot of sleep that graphically illustrates




he American Constitution was the first to begin with a Preamble.

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The term ‘preamble’ refers to the introduction or preface to the Constitution. It contains the summary or essence of the Constitution.

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Preamble reveals four ingredients or components: 1. Source of authority of the Constitution: The Preamble states that the Constitution derives its authority from the people of India. 2. Nature of Indian State: It declares India to be of a sovereign, socialist, secular democratic and republican polity. 3. Objectives of the Constitution: It specifies justice, liberty, equality and fraternity as the objectives. 4. Date of adoption of the Constitution: It stipulates November 26, 1949 as the date.

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Flashcard 4986099600652

Question
Preamble reveals four ingredients or components: 1. Source of authority of the Constitution: The Preamble states that the Constitution derives its authority from the [...]. 2. Nature of Indian State: It declares India to be of a sovereign, socialist, secular democratic and republican polity. 3. Objectives of the Constitution: It specifies justice, liberty, equality and fraternity as the objectives. 4. Date of adoption of the Constitution: It stipulates November 26, 1949 as the date.
Answer
people of India


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Preamble reveals four ingredients or components: 1. Source of authority of the Constitution: The Preamble states that the Constitution derives its authority from the people of India. 2. Nature of Indian State: It declares India to be of a sovereign, socialist, secular democratic and republican polity. 3. Objectives of the Constitution: It specifies justice, liberty

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Flashcard 4986101173516

Question
Preamble reveals four ingredients or components: 1. Source of authority of the Constitution: The Preamble states that the Constitution derives its authority from the people of India. 2. Nature of Indian State: It declares India to be of a sovereign, socialist, secular democratic and republican polity. 3. Objectives of the Constitution: It specifies justice, liberty, equality and fraternity as the [...]. 4. Date of adoption of the Constitution: It stipulates November 26, 1949 as the date.
Answer
objectives


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te: It declares India to be of a sovereign, socialist, secular democratic and republican polity. 3. Objectives of the Constitution: It specifies justice, liberty, equality and fraternity as the <span>objectives. 4. Date of adoption of the Constitution: It stipulates November 26, 1949 as the date. <span>

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the Indian brand of socialism is a ‘democratic socialism’ and not a ‘communistic socialism’ (also known as ‘state socialism’) which involves the nationalisation of all means of production and distribution and the abolition of private property.

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Flashcard 4986104581388

Question
the Indian brand of socialism is a ‘[...]’ and not a ‘communistic socialism’ (also known as ‘state socialism’) which involves the nationalisation of all means of production and distribution and the abolition of private property.
Answer
democratic socialism


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the Indian brand of socialism is a ‘democratic socialism’ and not a ‘communistic socialism’ (also known as ‘state socialism’) which involves the nationalisation of all means of production and distribution and the abolition of private property

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polity, as stipulated in the Preamble, is based on the doctrine of popular sovereignty, that is, possession of supreme power by the people.

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Flashcard 4986107727116

Question
polity, as stipulated in the Preamble, is based on the doctrine of popular [...], that is, possession of supreme power by the people.
Answer
sovereignty


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polity, as stipulated in the Preamble, is based on the doctrine of popular sovereignty, that is, possession of supreme power by the people.

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Universal adult franchise, periodic elections, rule of law, independence of judiciary, and absence of discrimination on certain grounds are the manifestations of the democratic character of the Indian polity.

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Flashcard 4986110872844

Question
Universal adult franchise, periodic elections, rule of [...], independence of judiciary, and absence of discrimination on certain grounds are the manifestations of the democratic character of the Indian polity.
Answer
law


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Universal adult franchise, periodic elections, rule of law, independence of judiciary, and absence of discrimination on certain grounds are the manifestations of the democratic character of the Indian polity.

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Flashcard 4986112445708

Question
Universal adult franchise, periodic elections, rule of law, independence of [...], and absence of discrimination on certain grounds are the manifestations of the democratic character of the Indian polity.
Answer
judiciary


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Universal adult franchise, periodic elections, rule of law, independence of judiciary, and absence of discrimination on certain grounds are the manifestations of the democratic character of the Indian polity.

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The term ‘democratic’ is used in the Preamble in the broader sense embracing not only political democracy but also social and economic democracy.

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A republic also means two more things: one, vesting of political sovereignty in the people and not in a single individual like a king; second, the absence of any privileged class and hence all public offices being opened to every citizen without any discrimination.

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Flashcard 4986117164300

Question
A [...] also means two more things: one, vesting of political sovereignty in the people and not in a single individual like a king; second, the absence of any privileged class and hence all public offices being opened to every citizen without any discrimination.
Answer
republic


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A republic also means two more things: one, vesting of political sovereignty in the people and not in a single individual like a king; second, the absence of any privileged class and hence all pub

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A combination of social justice and economic justice denotes what is known as ‘distributive justice’. Political justice implies that all citizens should have equal political rights, equal access to all political offices and equal voice in the government.

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Flashcard 4986120310028

Question
A combination of social justice and economic justice denotes what is known as ‘[...]’. Political justice implies that all citizens should have equal political rights, equal access to all political offices and equal voice in the government.
Answer
distributive justice


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A combination of social justice and economic justice denotes what is known as ‘distributive justice’. Political justice implies that all citizens should have equal political rights, equal access to all political offices and equal voice in the government.

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The ideal of justice—social, economic and political—has been taken from the Russian Revolution (1917).

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The Preamble secures to all citizens of India liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship, through their Fundamental Rights

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The Preamble declares that fraternity has to assure two things—the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation

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Flashcard 4986126601484

Question
The Preamble declares that [...] has to assure two things—the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation
Answer
fraternity


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The Preamble declares that fraternity has to assure two things—the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation

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The Preamble is neither a source of power to legislature nor a prohibition upon the powers of legislature. 2. It is non-justiciable, that is, its provisions are not enforceable in courts of law.

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The Preamble has been amended only once so far, in 1976, by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, which has added three new words— Socialist, Secular and Integrity—to the Preamble

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1 to 4 under Part-I of the Constitution deal with the Union and its territory.

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Flashcard 4986132892940

Question
[...] of the Constitution deal with the Union and its territory.
Answer
1 to 4 under Part-I


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1 to 4 under Part-I of the Constitution deal with the Union and its territory.

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rticles 1 to 4 under Part-I of the Constitution deal with the Union and its territory.

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Flashcard 4986136038668

Question
rticles [...] of the Constitution deal with the Union and its territory.
Answer
1 to 4 under Part-I


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rticles 1 to 4 under Part-I of the Constitution deal with the Union and its territory.

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According to Dr B R Ambedkar, the phrase ‘Union of States’ has been preferred to ‘Federation of States’

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At the recent meeting of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD COP 14), a researcher from the Indian delegation pronounced desertification as the primary cause of the extinction of the cheetah (and also the still-extant great Indian bustard) in India.

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counterpart, was shot in 1947 by Maharaja Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo of the little-known princely state of Koriya in present-day Chhattisgarh. But what really sealed the fate of India’s cheetahs? <span>At the recent meeting of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD COP 14), a researcher from the Indian delegation pronounced desertification as the primary cause of the extinction of the cheetah (and also the still-extant great Indian bustard) in India. This generated great debate and critique, but also for many people a realisation that cheetahs indeed no longer existed in the country: in many Indian languages, the word cheeta is stil




#47 #Cours #Facultaires #Gynécologie #Médecine #Puberté

COP :

Évaluation/surveillance

  • Une consultation après 3 mois puis tous les ans est indiquée.
  • Examen mammaire, poids, taille, TA

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Legally, sale, storage, transportation and usage of unapproved GM seeds is a punishable offence under the Rules of Environmental Protection Act 1989. Also, sale of unapproved seeds can attract action under the Seed Act of 1966 and the Cotton Act of 1957.

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Improved yields: Farmers claim that the HtBt variety can withstand the spray of glyphosate, a herbicide that is used to remove weeds, substantially improving the yield.

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Flashcard 4994645757196

Question
Improved yields: Farmers claim that the HtBt variety can withstand the spray of [...], a herbicide that is used to remove weeds, substantially improving the yield.
Answer
glyphosate


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Improved yields: Farmers claim that the HtBt variety can withstand the spray of glyphosate, a herbicide that is used to remove weeds, substantially improving the yield.

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anada and the US allowed GM crops to be grown commercially in 1996

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GM cotton permitted to be grown in India are hybrids/varieties that contain ‘cry1Ac’ and ‘cry2Ab’ genes, isolated from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and coding for proteins toxic to bollworm insect pests.

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GEAC established under Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) is the apex body for approval of activities involving large scale use of hazardous microorganisms and recombinants in research and industrial production from the environmental angle. • The GEAC is also responsible for approval of proposals relating to release of genetically engineered organisms and products into the environment including experimental field trials. Ht-bt cotton

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A study by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) estimated that the economic losses from land degradation and change of land use in 2014-’15 stood at 2.54% of India’s GDP.

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Flashcard 4995650030860

Tags
#knowledge-base-construction #machine-learning #unfinished
Question
Fonduer: In pro- duction, the finalized LFs are applied to the entire set of [...]
Answer
candidates


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In practice, ap- proximately 20 iterations are adequate for our users to generate a sufficiently tuned set of labeling functions (see Section 6). In pro- duction, the finalized LFs are applied to the entire set of candidates, and learning and inference are performed only once to generate the final KB

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Flashcard 4995656322316

Question
Machine learning packages may often be treated as black boxes, resulting in large masses of “glue code” or calibra- tion layers that can lock in [...].
Answer
assumptions


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Machine learning packages may often be treated as black boxes, resulting in large masses of “glue code” or calibra- tion layers that can lock in assumptions.

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Flashcard 4995659205900

Tags
#bert #knowledge-base-construction #nlp #unfinished
Question
Recently, deep neural networks have applied to relation classification. These methods usually use some features derived from lexical resources such as Word-Net or NLP tools such as dependency parsers and [...].
Answer
named entity rec- ognizers (NER)


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Zeng et al., 2014; Yu et al., 2014; dos Santos et al., 2015; Shen and Huang, 2016; Lee et al., 2019). These methods usually use some features derived from lexical resources such as Word-Net or <span>NLP tools such as dependency parsers and named entity rec- ognizers (NER). <span>

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Flashcard 4995662613772

Question
Softmax is implemented through a neural network layer just before the [...].
Answer
output layer


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Softmax is implemented through a neural network layer just before the output layer.

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Multi-Class Neural Networks: Softmax | Machine Learning Crash Course
analysis we saw in Figure 1, Softmax might produce the following likelihoods of an image belonging to a particular class: Class Probability apple 0.001 bear 0.04 candy 0.008 dog 0.95 egg 0.001 <span>Softmax is implemented through a neural network layer just before the output layer. The Softmax layer must have the same number of nodes as the output layer. Figure 2. A Softmax layer within a neural network. Click the plus icon to see the Softmax equation. The Softmax







Flashcard 4995669429516

Tags
#knowledge-base-construction #machine-learning
Question
Apache Spark allows Snorkel pro- cesses to be distributed to many nodes, thus reducing the time for [...]
Answer
learning


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Apache Spark allows Snorkel pro- cesses to be distributed to many nodes, thus reducing the time for learning

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If you keep a critical eye on industry developments and experiment with ideas that might actually be useful to you, that's great.

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If you keep a critical eye on industry developments and experiment with ideas that might actually be useful to you, that's great. Sometimes new ideas come along from industry developments that really are helpful. But, in software engineeing, if you go looking for a pot of gold every time someone says they saw a ra

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AGILE must be destroyed, once and for all - Erik Meijer : programming
ne forums and don't go to all the cool conferences, and instead you just carry on making software that works using boring, tried and tested tools and techniques, things will turn out just fine. <span>If you keep a critical eye on industry developments and experiment with ideas that might actually be useful to you, that's great too. Sometimes new ideas come along that really are helpful and you do better if you adopt them. But if you go looking for a pot of gold every time someone says they saw a rainbow in this business, you'll soon lose sight of what actually matters: making useful and/or entertaining stuff. Continue this thread level 2 DevIceMan 2 points · 4 years ago I've worked in businesses and industries where the process is designed around the project/problem/business. In fact, that's




Sometimes new ideas come along from industry developments that really are helpful.

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If you keep a critical eye on industry developments and experiment with ideas that might actually be useful to you, that's great. Sometimes new ideas come along from industry developments that really are helpful. But, in software engineeing, if you go looking for a pot of gold every time someone says they saw a rainbow, you'll soon lose sight of what actually matters: making useful and/or entert

Original toplevel document

AGILE must be destroyed, once and for all - Erik Meijer : programming
ne forums and don't go to all the cool conferences, and instead you just carry on making software that works using boring, tried and tested tools and techniques, things will turn out just fine. <span>If you keep a critical eye on industry developments and experiment with ideas that might actually be useful to you, that's great too. Sometimes new ideas come along that really are helpful and you do better if you adopt them. But if you go looking for a pot of gold every time someone says they saw a rainbow in this business, you'll soon lose sight of what actually matters: making useful and/or entertaining stuff. Continue this thread level 2 DevIceMan 2 points · 4 years ago I've worked in businesses and industries where the process is designed around the project/problem/business. In fact, that's




But, in software engineeing, if you go looking for a pot of gold every time someone says they saw a rainbow, you'll soon lose sight of what actually matters

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cal eye on industry developments and experiment with ideas that might actually be useful to you, that's great. Sometimes new ideas come along from industry developments that really are helpful. <span>But, in software engineeing, if you go looking for a pot of gold every time someone says they saw a rainbow, you'll soon lose sight of what actually matters: making useful and/or entertaining stuff. <span>

Original toplevel document

AGILE must be destroyed, once and for all - Erik Meijer : programming
ne forums and don't go to all the cool conferences, and instead you just carry on making software that works using boring, tried and tested tools and techniques, things will turn out just fine. <span>If you keep a critical eye on industry developments and experiment with ideas that might actually be useful to you, that's great too. Sometimes new ideas come along that really are helpful and you do better if you adopt them. But if you go looking for a pot of gold every time someone says they saw a rainbow in this business, you'll soon lose sight of what actually matters: making useful and/or entertaining stuff. Continue this thread level 2 DevIceMan 2 points · 4 years ago I've worked in businesses and industries where the process is designed around the project/problem/business. In fact, that's




In this paper, a self-guiding multimodal LSTM (sgLSTM) image captioning model is proposed to handle an uncontrolled imbalanced real-world image-sentence dataset. We collect a FlickrNYC dataset from Flickr as our testbed with 306,165 images and the original text descriptions uploaded by the users are utilized as the ground truth for training. Descriptions in the FlickrNYC dataset vary dramatically ranging from short term-descriptions to long paragraph-descriptions and can describe any visual aspects, or even refer to objects that are not depicted. To deal with the imbalanced and noisy situation and to fully explore the dataset itself, we propose a novel guiding textual feature extracted utilizing a multimodal LSTM (mLSTM) model. Training of mLSTM is based on the portion of data in which the image content and the corresponding descriptions are strongly bonded. Afterward, during the training of sgLSTM on the rest training data, this guiding information serves as additional input to the network along with the image representations and the ground-truth descriptions. By integrating these input components into a multimodal block, we aim to form a training scheme with the textual information tightly coupled with the image content. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sgLSTM model outperforms the traditional state-of-the-art multimodal RNN captioning framework in successfully describing the key components of the input images.

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Nov;28(11):5241-5252. doi: 10.1109/TIP.2019.2917229. Epub 2019 May 22. Self-Guiding Multimodal LSTM-When We Do Not Have a Perfect Training Dataset for Image Captioning. Xian Y, Tian Y. Abstract <span>In this paper, a self-guiding multimodal LSTM (sgLSTM) image captioning model is proposed to handle an uncontrolled imbalanced real-world image-sentence dataset. We collect a FlickrNYC dataset from Flickr as our testbed with 306,165 images and the original text descriptions uploaded by the users are utilized as the ground truth for training. Descriptions in the FlickrNYC dataset vary dramatically ranging from short term-descriptions to long paragraph-descriptions and can describe any visual aspects, or even refer to objects that are not depicted. To deal with the imbalanced and noisy situation and to fully explore the dataset itself, we propose a novel guiding textual feature extracted utilizing a multimodal LSTM (mLSTM) model. Training of mLSTM is based on the portion of data in which the image content and the corresponding descriptions are strongly bonded. Afterward, during the training of sgLSTM on the rest training data, this guiding information serves as additional input to the network along with the image representations and the ground-truth descriptions. By integrating these input components into a multimodal block, we aim to form a training scheme with the textual information tightly coupled with the image content. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sgLSTM model outperforms the traditional state-of-the-art multimodal RNN captioning framework in successfully describing the key components of the input images. PMID: 31135361 DOI: 10.1109/TIP.2019.2917229 Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Google+ LinkOut - more resources Full Text Sources IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Soci




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Question
In multimodal LSTM, what does "multimodal" mean?
Answer
The LSTM uses input from multiple modalities.


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#bert
The original pre-training objectives of BERT were next sentence prediction and masked LM.

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#bert #nlp

LM in masked LM stands for Language Model.

Masked LM is a method to train NLP models by masking of k% of the input words, and then predicting the masked words

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Wireframing

A wireframe is a two-dimensional illustration of a page’s interface that specifically focuses on space allocation and prioritization of content, functionalities available, and intended behaviors. For these reasons, wireframes typically do not include any styling, color, or graphics. Wireframes also help establish relationships between a website’s various templates.

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Wireframing | Usability.gov
e User Experience Search What & Why of Usability How To & Tools Wireframing Get Involved Methods Templates & Documents Guidelines Home > How To & Tools > Wireframing Share <span>Wireframing A wireframe is a two-dimensional illustration of a page’s interface that specifically focuses on space allocation and prioritization of content, functionalities available, and intended behaviors. For these reasons, wireframes typically do not include any styling, color, or graphics. Wireframes also help establish relationships between a website’s various templates. The Value of Wireframes Wireframes serve multiple purposes by helping to: Connect the site’s information architecture to its visual design by showing paths between pages Clarify consist




  • Wireframes help to: Connect the site’s information architecture to its visual design by showing paths between pages
  • Wireframes help to: Clarify consistent ways for displaying particular types of information on the user interface
  • Wireframes help to: Determine intended functionality in the interface
  • Wireframes help to: Prioritize content through the determination of how much space to allocate to a given item and where that item is located

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Wireframing | Usability.gov
d intended behaviors. For these reasons, wireframes typically do not include any styling, color, or graphics. Wireframes also help establish relationships between a website’s various templates. <span>The Value of Wireframes Wireframes serve multiple purposes by helping to: Connect the site’s information architecture to its visual design by showing paths between pages Clarify consistent ways for displaying particular types of information on the user interface Determine intended functionality in the interface Prioritize content through the determination of how much space to allocate to a given item and where that item is located Creating Wireframes It’s important to keep in mind that wireframes are guides to where the major navigation and content elements of your site are going to appear on the page. Since the




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heterogeneity

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heterogeneity of contexts in richly formatted data magni- fies the need for large amounts of training data.

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contexts

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richly

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formatted

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magni- fies

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need for

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large amounts

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training data

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artifacts

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Examples of artifacts would be design documents, data models, workflow diagrams, test matrices and plans, setup scripts.

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terminology - What does artifact mean? - Software Engineering Stack Exchange
can call anything produced or created while programming or upon execution, an artifact. – TheLegendaryCopyCoder Jul 21 '17 at 9:35 add a comment | 7 Answers 7 active oldest votes 66 [emptylink] <span>In software development life cycle (SDLC), artifact usually refers to "things" that are produced by people involved in the process. Examples would be design documents, data models, workflow diagrams, test matrices and plans, setup scripts, ... like an archaeological site, any thing that is created could be an artifact. In most software development cycles, there's usually a list of specific required artifacts that someone must produce and put on a shared drive or document repository for other people to




A data model (or datamodel[1][2][3][4][5]) is an abstract model that organizes elements of data and standardizes how they relate to one another and to the properties of real-world entities. For instance, a data model may specify that the data element representing a car be composed of a number of other elements which, in turn, represent the color and size of the car and define its owner.

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Data model - Wikipedia
Data model - Wikipedia Wiki Loves Love Photograph your local culture, help Wikipedia and win! Data model From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search A data model (or datamodel[1][2][3][4][5]) is an abstract model that organizes elements of data and standardizes how they relate to one another and to the properties of real-world entities. For instance, a data model may specify that the data element representing a car be composed of a number of other elements which, in turn, represent the color and size of the car and define its owner. The term data model can refer to two distinct but closely related concepts. Sometimes it refers to an abstract formalization of the objects and relationships found in a particular appli




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In systems that are used to take actions in the real world, it can be useful to set and enforce action limits as a sanity check.

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In systems that are used to take actions in the real world, it can be useful to set and enforce action limits as a sanity check. Action limits for systems should be broad enough not to trigger spuriously. If the system hits a limit for a given action, automated alerts should fire and trigger manual intervention o

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LSTM [ 18 ] networks are a special type of RNN that introduce gates - a new structure.

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LSTM [ 18 ] networks are a special type of RNN that introduce gates - a new structure. LSTMs: gates control the flow of information and can capture long-term dependencies.

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LSTMs: gates control the flow of information and can capture long-term dependencies

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LSTM [ 18 ] networks are a special type of RNN that introduce gates - a new structure. LSTMs: gates control the flow of information and can capture long-term dependencies.

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One possible mitigation strategy for prediction volatility is to isolate models and serve ensembles.

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One possible mitigation strategy for prediction volatility is to isolate models and serve ensembles. This approach is useful in situations such as [8], in which sub-problems decompose naturally, or in which the cost of main- taining separate models is outweighed by the benefits of enfo

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Open information extraction tries to address this challenge, but typically assumes that facts are expressed with verb phrases, and there- fore has had difficulty extracting facts for noun-based relations.

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ReNoun, an open information extraction system that complements pre- vious efforts by focusing on nominal at- tributes and on the long tail.

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ReNoun’s ap- proach is based on leveraging a large on- tology of noun attributes mined from a text corpus and from user queries.

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ReNoun creates a seed set of training data by us- ing specialized patterns and requiring that the facts mention an attribute in the ontol- ogy. ReNoun then generalizes from this seed set to produce a much larger set of ex- tractions that are then scored.

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We describe experiments that show that we extract facts with high precision

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