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Flashcard 1473951960332

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #reading-22-financial-statement-analysis-intro
Question
The [...] disclose the basis of preparationfor the financial statements.
Answer
notes

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The notes disclose the basis of preparation for the financial statements.

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3.1.5. Financial Notes and Supplementary Schedules
ete set of financial statements. The notes provide information that is essential to understanding the information provided in the primary statements. Volkswagen’s 2009 financial statements, for example, include 91 pages of notes. <span>The notes disclose the basis of preparation for the financial statements. For example, Volkswagen discloses in its first note that its fiscal year corresponds to the calendar year, that its financial statements are prepared in accordance with IFRS as adopted







Flashcard 1479185141004

Tags
#daniel-goleman #emotional-brain #emotional-iq #how-the-brain-grew #what-are-emotions-for #when-passions-overwhelm-reasons
Question
The more complex the social system, the more essential is [...]
Answer
flexibility in emotional responses.

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The more complex the social system, the more essential is such flexibility in emotional responses.

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Flashcard 1621266664716

Tags
#cashflow-statement
Question
FCF accounts for Capex and [...]
Answer
dividend payments

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Subject 3. Cash Flow Statement Analysis
CFO. CFO does not include cash outlays for replacing old equipment. Free Cash Flow (FCF) is intended to measure the cash available to a company for discretionary uses after making all required cash outlays. <span>It accounts for capital expenditures and dividend payments, which are essential to the ongoing nature of the business. The basic definition is cash from operations less the amount of capital expenditures required to maintain the company's present productive capacity. &#







Flashcard 1637218127116

Tags
#reading-9-probability-concepts
Question
If A = 0.7 and B 0.8, then P(A | B) = [...] = 0.875.
Answer
0.70/0.80

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Flashcard 1729440386316

Question
Probabilistic principal components analysis (PCA) analyzes data via a [...] (Tipping & Bishop, 1999) .
Answer
lower dimensional latent space

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Probabilistic principal components analysis (PCA) is a dimensionality reduction technique that analyzes data via a lower dimensional latent space (Tipping & Bishop, 1999) .

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Edward – Probabilistic PCA
ahora Edward [imagelink] Getting Started Tutorials API Community Contributing Github [imagelink] Probabilistic PCA <span>Probabilistic principal components analysis (PCA) is a dimensionality reduction technique that analyzes data via a lower dimensional latent space (Tipping & Bishop, 1999). It is often used when there are missing values in the data or for multidimensional scaling. We demonstrate with an example in Edward. An interactive version with Jupyter notebook is a







Flashcard 1729626770700

Tags
#gaussian-process
Question
In Gaussian process, the non-negative definiteness of the covariance function enables its [...] using the Karhunen–Loeve expansion.
Answer
spectral decomposition

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head> if a Gaussian process is assumed to have mean zero, defining the covariance function completely defines the process' behaviour. Importantly the non-negative definiteness of this function enables its spectral decomposition using the Karhunen–Loeve expansion. <html>

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Gaussian process - Wikipedia
} can be shown to be the covariances and means of the variables in the process. [3] Covariance functions[edit source] A key fact of Gaussian processes is that they can be completely defined by their second-order statistics. [4] Thus, <span>if a Gaussian process is assumed to have mean zero, defining the covariance function completely defines the process' behaviour. Importantly the non-negative definiteness of this function enables its spectral decomposition using the Karhunen–Loeve expansion. Basic aspects that can be defined through the covariance function are the process' stationarity, isotropy, smoothness and periodicity. [5] [6] Stationarity refers to the process' beha







Flashcard 1731644755212

Tags
#matrices #spectral-theorem
Question
[...] is a result about when a linear operator or matrix can be diagonalized
Answer
spectral theorem

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In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, a spectral theorem is a result about when a linear operator or matrix can be diagonalized (that is, represented as a diagonal matrix in some basis).

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Spectral theorem - Wikipedia
for more information. [imagelink] [Help with translations!] Spectral theorem From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search <span>In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, a spectral theorem is a result about when a linear operator or matrix can be diagonalized (that is, represented as a diagonal matrix in some basis). This is extremely useful because computations involving a diagonalizable matrix can often be reduced to much simpler computations involving the corresponding diagonal matrix. The concep







Flashcard 1731649735948

Tags
#computer-science #mathematics
Question
a [...] form of a mathematical object is a standard way of presenting that object as a mathematical expression.
Answer
canonical, normal, or standard form

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In mathematics and computer science, a canonical, normal, or standard form of a mathematical object is a standard way of presenting that object as a mathematical expression.

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Canonical form - Wikipedia
strings " madam curie " and " radium came " are given as C arrays. Each one is converted into a canonical form by sorting. Since both sorted strings literally agree, the original strings were anagrams of each other. <span>In mathematics and computer science, a canonical, normal, or standard form of a mathematical object is a standard way of presenting that object as a mathematical expression. The distinction between "canonical" and "normal" forms varies by subfield. In most fields, a canonical form specifies a unique representation for every object, while







Flashcard 1731734408460

Tags
#stochastics
Question

The Wiener process has independent increments: for every [...

Answer
the future increments , are independent of the past values ,

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The Wiener process is characterised by the following properties: [1] a.s. has independent increments: for every the future increments , are independent of the past values , has Gaussian increments: is normally distributed with mean and variance , has continuous paths: With probability , is continuous in .

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Wiener process - Wikipedia
Brownian motion 4.3 Time change 4.4 Change of measure 4.5 Complex-valued Wiener process 4.5.1 Self-similarity 4.5.2 Time change 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links Characterisations of the Wiener process[edit source] <span>The Wiener process W t {\displaystyle W_{t}} is characterised by the following properties: [1] W 0 = 0 {\displaystyle W_{0}=0} a.s. W {\displaystyle W} has independent increments: for every t > 0 , {\displaystyle t>0,} the future increments W t + u − W t , {\displaystyle W_{t+u}-W_{t},} u ≥ 0 , {\displaystyle u\geq 0,} , are independent of the past values W s {\displaystyle W_{s}} , s ≤ t . {\displaystyle s\leq t.} W {\displaystyle W} has Gaussian increments: W t + u − W t {\displaystyle W_{t+u}-W_{t}} is normally distributed with mean 0 {\displaystyle 0} and variance u {\displaystyle u} , W t + u − W t ∼ N ( 0 , u ) . {\displaystyle W_{t+u}-W_{t}\sim {\mathcal {N}}(0,u).} W {\displaystyle W} has continuous paths: With probability 1 {\displaystyle 1} , W t {\displaystyle W_{t}} is continuous in t {\displaystyle t} . The independent increments means that if 0 ≤ s 1 < t 1 ≤ s 2 < t 2 then W t 1 −W s 1 and W t 2 −W s 2 are independent random variables, and the similar condition holds for







Flashcard 1735806291212

Question
Deep Gaussian processes are formally equivalent to neural networks with [...] .
Answer
multiple, infinitely wide hidden layers

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Deep Gaussian processes (DGPs) are multi-layer hierarchical generalisations of Gaussian pro- cesses (GPs) and are formally equivalent to neural networks with multiple, infinitely wide hidden layers.

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Flashcard 1735821233420

Tags
#history #logic
Question
Johannes Gutenberg introduced new printing techniques in Europe around [...].
Answer
1440

You can't terrorise Aristotle!

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It is also not happenstance that the downfall of the disputational culture roughly coincided with the introduction of new printing techniques in Europe by Johannes Gutenberg, around 1440.

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The rise and fall and rise of logic | Aeon Essays
ich is thoroughly disputational, with Meditations on First Philosophy (1641) by Descartes, a book argued through long paragraphs driven by the first-person singular. The nature of intellectual enquiry shifted with the downfall of disputation. <span>It is also not happenstance that the downfall of the disputational culture roughly coincided with the introduction of new printing techniques in Europe by Johannes Gutenberg, around 1440. Before that, books were a rare commodity, and education was conducted almost exclusively by means of oral contact between masters and pupils in the form of expository lectures in which







Flashcard 1735985859852

Tags
#stochastics
Question
Viewed from a function analysis perspective, a single outcome of a stochastic process can be called a [...]
Answer
sample function

Again, remember a function is just a vector with infinite length, and a topology for the notion of proximity and continuity.

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A stochastic process can have many outcomes, due to its randomness, and a single outcome of a stochastic process is called, among other names, a sample function or realization

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Stochastic process - Wikipedia
r n {\displaystyle n} -dimensional Euclidean space. [1] [5] An increment is the amount that a stochastic process changes between two index values, often interpreted as two points in time. [48] [49] <span>A stochastic process can have many outcomes, due to its randomness, and a single outcome of a stochastic process is called, among other names, a sample function or realization. [28] [50] [imagelink] A single computer-simulated sample function or realization, among other terms, of a three-dimensional Wiener or Brownian motion process for time 0 ≤ t ≤ 2.








#has-images #puerquito-session #reading-puerquito-verde
Information asymmetry. Managers almost always have more information than shareholders. Thus, it is difficult for shareholders to measure managers' performance or to hold them accountable for their performance.
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a way to understand why managers do not always act in the best interests of stakeholders. Managers and shareholders may have different goals. They may also have different attitudes towards risk. <span>Information asymmetry. Managers almost always have more information than shareholders. Thus, it is difficult for shareholders to measure managers' performance or to hold them accountable for their performance. <span><body><html>

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Subject 3. Principal-Agent and Other Relationships in Corporate Governance
Shareholder and Manager/Director Relationships Problems can arise in a business relationship when one person delegates decision-making authority to another. The principal is the person delegating authority, and the agent is the person to whom the authority is delegated. Agency theory offers a way to understand why managers do not always act in the best interests of stakeholders. Managers and shareholders may have different goals. They may also have different attitudes towards risk. Information asymmetry. Managers almost always have more information than shareholders. Thus, it is difficult for shareholders to measure managers' performance or to hold them accountable for their performance. Controlling and Minority Shareholder Relationships Ownership structure is one of the main dimensions of corporate governance. For firms with controllin





#has-images #puerquito-session #reading-puerquito-verde #stakeholder-management
Employee laws, contracts, codes of ethics and business conduct and compliance offer(s) are all means a company can use to manage its relationship with its employees.
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tives employed by the company should be compensated. Contractual agreements with creditors ; indentures, covenants, collaterals and credit committees are tools used by creditors to protect their interests. <span>Employee laws, contracts, codes of ethics and business conduct , and compliance offer(s) are all means a company can use to manage its relationship with its employees. Contractual agreements with customers and suppliers . Laws and regulations a company must follow to protect the rights of specific groups. </sp

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Subject 4. Stakeholder Management
groups and on that basis managing the company's relationships with stakeholders. The framework of corporate governance and stakeholder management reflects a legal, contractual, organizational, and governmental infrastructure. <span>Mechanisms of Stakeholder Management Mechanisms of stakeholder management may include: • General meetings. o The right to participate in general shareholder meetings is a fundamental shareholder right. Shareholders, especially minority shareholders, should have the opportunity to ask questions of the board, to place items on the agenda and to propose resolutions, to vote on major corporate matters and transactions, and to participate in key corporate governance decisions, such as the nomination and election of board members. o Shareholders should be able to vote in person or in absentia, and equal consideration should be given to votes cast in person or in absentia. A board of directors, which serves as a link between shareholders and managers, acts as the shareholders' monitoring tool within the company. The audit function. It plays a critical role in ensuring the corporation's financial integrity and consideration of legal and compliance issues. The primary objective is to ensure that the financial information reported by the company to shareholders is complete, accurate, reliable, relevant, and timely. Company reporting and transparency. It helps reduce of information asymmetry and agency costs. Related-party transactions. Related-party transactions involve buying, selling, and other transactions with board members, managers, employees, family members, and so on. They can create an inherent conflict of interest. Policies should be established to disclose, mitigate, and manage such transactions. Remuneration policies. Does the company's remuneration strategy reward long-term or short-term growth? Are equity-based compensation plans linked to the long-term performance of the company? o Say on pay is the ability of shareholders in a company to actively vote on how much executives employed by the company should be compensated. Contractual agreements with creditors; indentures, covenants, collaterals and credit committees are tools used by creditors to protect their interests. Employee laws, contracts, codes of ethics and business conduct, and compliance offer(s) are all means a company can use to manage its relationship with its employees. Contractual agreements with customers and suppliers. Laws and regulations a company must follow to protect the rights of specific groups. <span><body><html>




Flashcard 1742678134028

Tags
#has-images #puerquito-session #reading-puerquito-verde #stakeholder-management-mechanisms


Question
What is the shareholders' monitoring tool within the company?
Answer
A board of directors

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A board of directors , which serves as a link between shareholders and managers, acts as the shareholders' monitoring tool within the company.

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Subject 4. Stakeholder Management
groups and on that basis managing the company's relationships with stakeholders. The framework of corporate governance and stakeholder management reflects a legal, contractual, organizational, and governmental infrastructure. <span>Mechanisms of Stakeholder Management Mechanisms of stakeholder management may include: • General meetings. o The right to participate in general shareholder meetings is a fundamental shareholder right. Shareholders, especially minority shareholders, should have the opportunity to ask questions of the board, to place items on the agenda and to propose resolutions, to vote on major corporate matters and transactions, and to participate in key corporate governance decisions, such as the nomination and election of board members. o Shareholders should be able to vote in person or in absentia, and equal consideration should be given to votes cast in person or in absentia. A board of directors, which serves as a link between shareholders and managers, acts as the shareholders' monitoring tool within the company. The audit function. It plays a critical role in ensuring the corporation's financial integrity and consideration of legal and compliance issues. The primary objective is to ensure that the financial information reported by the company to shareholders is complete, accurate, reliable, relevant, and timely. Company reporting and transparency. It helps reduce of information asymmetry and agency costs. Related-party transactions. Related-party transactions involve buying, selling, and other transactions with board members, managers, employees, family members, and so on. They can create an inherent conflict of interest. Policies should be established to disclose, mitigate, and manage such transactions. Remuneration policies. Does the company's remuneration strategy reward long-term or short-term growth? Are equity-based compensation plans linked to the long-term performance of the company? o Say on pay is the ability of shareholders in a company to actively vote on how much executives employed by the company should be compensated. Contractual agreements with creditors; indentures, covenants, collaterals and credit committees are tools used by creditors to protect their interests. Employee laws, contracts, codes of ethics and business conduct, and compliance offer(s) are all means a company can use to manage its relationship with its employees. Contractual agreements with customers and suppliers. Laws and regulations a company must follow to protect the rights of specific groups. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1743952678156

Tags
#state-space-models
Question
[...] is also known as sum-product message passing
Answer
Belief propagation

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Belief propagation, also known as sum-product message passing, is a message-passing algorithm for performing inference on graphical models, such as Bayesian networks and Markov random fields. </sp

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Belief propagation - Wikipedia
st of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (April 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) <span>Belief propagation, also known as sum-product message passing, is a message-passing algorithm for performing inference on graphical models, such as Bayesian networks and Markov random fields. It calculates the marginal distribution for each unobserved node, conditional on any observed nodes. Belief propagation is commonly used in artificial intelligence and information theor







Flashcard 1744130936076

Tags
#state-space-models
Question
Belief propagation is also known as [...]
Answer
sum-product message passing

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Belief propagation, also known as sum-product message passing, is a message-passing algorithm for performing inference on graphical models, such as Bayesian networks and Markov random fields.

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Belief propagation - Wikipedia
st of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (April 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) <span>Belief propagation, also known as sum-product message passing, is a message-passing algorithm for performing inference on graphical models, such as Bayesian networks and Markov random fields. It calculates the marginal distribution for each unobserved node, conditional on any observed nodes. Belief propagation is commonly used in artificial intelligence and information theor







Flashcard 1744147189004

Tags
#inner-product-space #vector-space
Question
Among the topologies of vector spaces, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used, as having a notion of [...].
Answer
distance between two vectors
Norm can be understood as the inner product of a vector with itself.

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Among the topologies of vector spaces, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used, as having a notion of distance between two vectors.

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Vector space - Wikipedia
roperties, which in some cases can be visualized as arrows. Vector spaces are the subject of linear algebra and are well characterized by their dimension, which, roughly speaking, specifies the number of independent directions in the space. <span>Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces, whose vectors are functions. These vector spaces are generally endowed with additional structure, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity. Among these topologies, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used, as having a notion of distance between two vectors. This is particularly the case of Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces, which are fundamental in mathematical analysis. Historically, the first ideas leading to vector spaces can be traced back as far as the 17th century's analytic geometry, matrices, systems of linear equations, and Euclidean vectors.







Flashcard 1744159247628

Tags
#lebesgue-integration
Question
Riemann integral considers the area under a curve as made out of [...shape...]
Answer
vertical rectangles

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While the Riemann integral considers the area under a curve as made out of vertical rectangles, the Lebesgue definition considers horizontal slabs that are not necessarily just rectangles, and so it is more flexible.

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Lebesgue integration - Wikipedia
es, Fourier transforms, and other topics. The Lebesgue integral is better able to describe how and when it is possible to take limits under the integral sign (via the powerful monotone convergence theorem and dominated convergence theorem). <span>While the Riemann integral considers the area under a curve as made out of vertical rectangles, the Lebesgue definition considers horizontal slabs that are not necessarily just rectangles, and so it is more flexible. For this reason, the Lebesgue definition makes it possible to calculate integrals for a broader class of functions. For example, the Dirichlet function, which is 0 where its argument is







Flashcard 1744162393356

Tags
#lebesgue-integration
Question
it is actually impossible to assign a length to [...] in a way that preserves some natural additivity and translation invariance properties.
Answer
all subsets of ℝ

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As later set theory developments showed (see non-measurable set), it is actually impossible to assign a length to all subsets of ℝ in a way that preserves some natural additivity and translation invariance properties. This suggests that picking out a suitable class of measurable subsets is an essential prerequisite

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Lebesgue integration - Wikipedia
a useful abstraction of the notion of length of subsets of the real line—and, more generally, area and volume of subsets of Euclidean spaces. In particular, it provided a systematic answer to the question of which subsets of ℝ have a length. <span>As later set theory developments showed (see non-measurable set), it is actually impossible to assign a length to all subsets of ℝ in a way that preserves some natural additivity and translation invariance properties. This suggests that picking out a suitable class of measurable subsets is an essential prerequisite. The Riemann integral uses the notion of length explicitly. Indeed, the element of calculation for the Riemann integral is the rectangle [a, b] × [c, d], whose area is calculated to be








#functions-of-money #globo-terraqueo-session #has-images #monetary-policy #money #reading-agustin-carsten
The most generic definition of money is that it is any generally accepted medium of exchange. A medium of exchange is any asset that can be used to purchase goods and services or to repay debts. Money can thus eliminate the debilitating double coincidence of the “wants” problem that exists in a barter economy. When this medium of exchange exists, a farmer wishing to sell wheat for wine does not need to identify a wine producer in search of wheat. Instead, he can sell wheat to those who want wheat in exchange for money. The farmer can then exchange this money for wine with a wine producer, who in turn can exchange that money for the goods or services that she wants.
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The most generic definition of money is that it is any generally accepted medium of exchange. A medium of exchange is any asset that can be used to purchase goods and services or to repay debts. Money can thus eliminate the debilitating double coincidence of the “wants” problem that exists in a barter economy. When this medium of exchange exists, a farmer wishing to sell wheat for wine does not need to identify a wine producer in search of wheat. Instead, he can sell wheat to those who want wheat in exchange for money. The farmer can then exchange this money for wine with a wine producer, who in turn can exchange that money for the goods or services that she wants. However, for money to act as this liberating medium of exchange, it must possess certain qualities. It must: be readily acceptable, hav

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Money
: the price of oranges in terms of pears; of pears in terms of bread; of bread in terms of milk; or of milk in terms of oranges. A barter economy has no common measure of value that would make multiple transactions simple. <span>2.1.1. The Functions of Money The most generic definition of money is that it is any generally accepted medium of exchange. A medium of exchange is any asset that can be used to purchase goods and services or to repay debts. Money can thus eliminate the debilitating double coincidence of the “wants” problem that exists in a barter economy. When this medium of exchange exists, a farmer wishing to sell wheat for wine does not need to identify a wine producer in search of wheat. Instead, he can sell wheat to those who want wheat in exchange for money. The farmer can then exchange this money for wine with a wine producer, who in turn can exchange that money for the goods or services that she wants. However, for money to act as this liberating medium of exchange, it must possess certain qualities. It must: be readily acceptable, have a known value, be easily divisible, have a high value relative to its weight, and be difficult to counterfeit. Qualities (i) and (ii) are closely related; the medium of exchange will only be acceptable if it has a known value. If the medium of exchange has quality (iii), then it can be used to purchase items of relatively little value and of relatively large value with equal ease. Having a high value relative to its weight is a practical convenience, meaning that people can carry around sufficient wealth for their transaction needs. Finally, if the medium of exchange can be counterfeited easily, then it would soon cease to have a value and would not be readily acceptable as a means of effecting transactions; in other words, it would not satisfy qualities (i) and (ii). Given the qualities that money needs to have, it is clear why precious metals (particularly gold and silver) often fulfilled the role of medium of exchange in early societies, and as recently as the early part of the twentieth century. Precious metals were acceptable as a medium of exchange because they had a known value, were easily divisible, had a high value relative to their weight, and could not be easily counterfeited. Thus, precious metals were capable of acting as a medium of exchange. But they also fulfilled two other useful functions that are essential for the characteristics of money. In a barter economy, it is difficult to store wealth from one year to the next when one’s produce is perishable, or indeed, if it requires large warehouses in which to store it. Because precious metals like gold had a high value relative to their bulk and were not perishable, they could act as a store of wealth . However, their ability to act as a store of wealth not only depended on the fact that they did not perish physically over time, but also on the belief that others would always value precious metals. The value from year to year of precious metals depended on people’s continued demand for them in ornaments, jewellery, and so on. For example, people were willing to use gold as a store of wealth because they believed that it would remain highly valued. However, if gold became less valuable to people relative to other goods and services year after year it would not be able to fulfill its role as a store of value , and as such might also lose its status as a medium of exchange. Another important characteristic of money is that it can be used as a universal unit of account. As such, it can create a single unitary measure of value for all goods and services. In an economy where gold and silver are the accepted medium of exchange, all prices, debts, and wealth can be recorded in terms of their gold or silver coin exchange value. Money, in its role as a unit of account, drastically reduces the number of prices in an economy compared to barter, which requires that prices be established for a good in terms of all other goods for which it might be exchanged. In summary, money fulfills three important functions, it: acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. 2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money





#function-of-money #globo-terraqueo-session #has-images #monetary-policy #money #reading-agustin-carsten

for money to act as this liberating medium of exchange, it must possess certain qualities. It must:

  1. be readily acceptable,

  2. have a known value,

  3. be easily divisible,

  4. have a high value relative to its weight, and

  5. be difficult to counterfeit.

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stead, he can sell wheat to those who want wheat in exchange for money. The farmer can then exchange this money for wine with a wine producer, who in turn can exchange that money for the goods or services that she wants. However, <span>for money to act as this liberating medium of exchange, it must possess certain qualities. It must: be readily acceptable, have a known value, be easily divisible, have a high value relative to its weight, and be difficult to counterfeit. Qualities (i) and (ii) are closely related; the medium of exchange will only be acceptable if it has a known value. If the medium of exchange has quality (iii), the

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Money
: the price of oranges in terms of pears; of pears in terms of bread; of bread in terms of milk; or of milk in terms of oranges. A barter economy has no common measure of value that would make multiple transactions simple. <span>2.1.1. The Functions of Money The most generic definition of money is that it is any generally accepted medium of exchange. A medium of exchange is any asset that can be used to purchase goods and services or to repay debts. Money can thus eliminate the debilitating double coincidence of the “wants” problem that exists in a barter economy. When this medium of exchange exists, a farmer wishing to sell wheat for wine does not need to identify a wine producer in search of wheat. Instead, he can sell wheat to those who want wheat in exchange for money. The farmer can then exchange this money for wine with a wine producer, who in turn can exchange that money for the goods or services that she wants. However, for money to act as this liberating medium of exchange, it must possess certain qualities. It must: be readily acceptable, have a known value, be easily divisible, have a high value relative to its weight, and be difficult to counterfeit. Qualities (i) and (ii) are closely related; the medium of exchange will only be acceptable if it has a known value. If the medium of exchange has quality (iii), then it can be used to purchase items of relatively little value and of relatively large value with equal ease. Having a high value relative to its weight is a practical convenience, meaning that people can carry around sufficient wealth for their transaction needs. Finally, if the medium of exchange can be counterfeited easily, then it would soon cease to have a value and would not be readily acceptable as a means of effecting transactions; in other words, it would not satisfy qualities (i) and (ii). Given the qualities that money needs to have, it is clear why precious metals (particularly gold and silver) often fulfilled the role of medium of exchange in early societies, and as recently as the early part of the twentieth century. Precious metals were acceptable as a medium of exchange because they had a known value, were easily divisible, had a high value relative to their weight, and could not be easily counterfeited. Thus, precious metals were capable of acting as a medium of exchange. But they also fulfilled two other useful functions that are essential for the characteristics of money. In a barter economy, it is difficult to store wealth from one year to the next when one’s produce is perishable, or indeed, if it requires large warehouses in which to store it. Because precious metals like gold had a high value relative to their bulk and were not perishable, they could act as a store of wealth . However, their ability to act as a store of wealth not only depended on the fact that they did not perish physically over time, but also on the belief that others would always value precious metals. The value from year to year of precious metals depended on people’s continued demand for them in ornaments, jewellery, and so on. For example, people were willing to use gold as a store of wealth because they believed that it would remain highly valued. However, if gold became less valuable to people relative to other goods and services year after year it would not be able to fulfill its role as a store of value , and as such might also lose its status as a medium of exchange. Another important characteristic of money is that it can be used as a universal unit of account. As such, it can create a single unitary measure of value for all goods and services. In an economy where gold and silver are the accepted medium of exchange, all prices, debts, and wealth can be recorded in terms of their gold or silver coin exchange value. Money, in its role as a unit of account, drastically reduces the number of prices in an economy compared to barter, which requires that prices be established for a good in terms of all other goods for which it might be exchanged. In summary, money fulfills three important functions, it: acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. 2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money





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the medium of exchange will only be acceptable if it has a known value. If the medium of exchange has quality (iii), then it can be used to purchase items of relatively little value and of relatively large value with equal ease.
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13; have a known value, be easily divisible, have a high value relative to its weight, and be difficult to counterfeit. Qualities (i) and (ii) are closely related; <span>the medium of exchange will only be acceptable if it has a known value. If the medium of exchange has quality (iii), then it can be used to purchase items of relatively little value and of relatively large value with equal ease. Having a high value relative to its weight is a practical convenience, meaning that people can carry around sufficient wealth for their transaction needs. Finally, if the medium of exch

Original toplevel document

Money
: the price of oranges in terms of pears; of pears in terms of bread; of bread in terms of milk; or of milk in terms of oranges. A barter economy has no common measure of value that would make multiple transactions simple. <span>2.1.1. The Functions of Money The most generic definition of money is that it is any generally accepted medium of exchange. A medium of exchange is any asset that can be used to purchase goods and services or to repay debts. Money can thus eliminate the debilitating double coincidence of the “wants” problem that exists in a barter economy. When this medium of exchange exists, a farmer wishing to sell wheat for wine does not need to identify a wine producer in search of wheat. Instead, he can sell wheat to those who want wheat in exchange for money. The farmer can then exchange this money for wine with a wine producer, who in turn can exchange that money for the goods or services that she wants. However, for money to act as this liberating medium of exchange, it must possess certain qualities. It must: be readily acceptable, have a known value, be easily divisible, have a high value relative to its weight, and be difficult to counterfeit. Qualities (i) and (ii) are closely related; the medium of exchange will only be acceptable if it has a known value. If the medium of exchange has quality (iii), then it can be used to purchase items of relatively little value and of relatively large value with equal ease. Having a high value relative to its weight is a practical convenience, meaning that people can carry around sufficient wealth for their transaction needs. Finally, if the medium of exchange can be counterfeited easily, then it would soon cease to have a value and would not be readily acceptable as a means of effecting transactions; in other words, it would not satisfy qualities (i) and (ii). Given the qualities that money needs to have, it is clear why precious metals (particularly gold and silver) often fulfilled the role of medium of exchange in early societies, and as recently as the early part of the twentieth century. Precious metals were acceptable as a medium of exchange because they had a known value, were easily divisible, had a high value relative to their weight, and could not be easily counterfeited. Thus, precious metals were capable of acting as a medium of exchange. But they also fulfilled two other useful functions that are essential for the characteristics of money. In a barter economy, it is difficult to store wealth from one year to the next when one’s produce is perishable, or indeed, if it requires large warehouses in which to store it. Because precious metals like gold had a high value relative to their bulk and were not perishable, they could act as a store of wealth . However, their ability to act as a store of wealth not only depended on the fact that they did not perish physically over time, but also on the belief that others would always value precious metals. The value from year to year of precious metals depended on people’s continued demand for them in ornaments, jewellery, and so on. For example, people were willing to use gold as a store of wealth because they believed that it would remain highly valued. However, if gold became less valuable to people relative to other goods and services year after year it would not be able to fulfill its role as a store of value , and as such might also lose its status as a medium of exchange. Another important characteristic of money is that it can be used as a universal unit of account. As such, it can create a single unitary measure of value for all goods and services. In an economy where gold and silver are the accepted medium of exchange, all prices, debts, and wealth can be recorded in terms of their gold or silver coin exchange value. Money, in its role as a unit of account, drastically reduces the number of prices in an economy compared to barter, which requires that prices be established for a good in terms of all other goods for which it might be exchanged. In summary, money fulfills three important functions, it: acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. 2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money





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The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers. This practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking
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h the flow of commerce over time. A certain proportion of the gold that was not being withdrawn and used directly for commerce could therefore be lent to others at a rate of interest. By doing this, the early banks created money. <span>The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers. This practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking . We can illustrate how it works through a simple example. Suppose that the bankers in an economy come to the view that they need to retain only 10 percent of any money dep

Original toplevel document

Money
3; acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. <span>2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money relatively well for many years, and although carrying gold coins around was easier than carrying around one’s physical produce, it was not necessarily a safe way to conduct business. A crucial development in the history of money was the promissory note . The process began when individuals began leaving their excess gold with goldsmiths, who would look after it for them. In turn the goldsmiths would give the depositors a receipt, stating how much gold they had deposited. Eventually these receipts were traded directly for goods and services, rather than there being a physical transfer of gold from the goods buyer to the goods seller. Of course, both the buyer and seller had to trust the goldsmith because the goldsmith had all the gold and the goldsmith’s customers had only pieces of paper. These depository receipts represented a promise to pay a certain amount of gold on demand. This paper money therefore became a proxy for the precious metals on which they were based, that is, they were directly related to a physical commodity. Many of these early goldsmiths evolved into banks, taking in excess wealth and in turn issuing promissory notes that could be used in commerce. In taking in other people’s gold and issuing depository receipts and later promissory notes, it became clear to the goldsmiths and early banks that not all the gold that they held in their vaults would be withdrawn at any one time. Individuals were willing to buy and sell goods and services with the promissory notes, but the majority of the gold that backed the notes just sat in the vaults—although its ownership would change with the flow of commerce over time. A certain proportion of the gold that was not being withdrawn and used directly for commerce could therefore be lent to others at a rate of interest. By doing this, the early banks created money. The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers. This practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking . We can illustrate how it works through a simple example. Suppose that the bankers in an economy come to the view that they need to retain only 10 percent of any money deposited with them. This is known as the reserve requirement .2 Now consider what happens when a customer deposits €100 in the First Bank of Nations. This deposit changes the balance sheet of First Bank of Nations, as shown in Exhibit 2, and it represents a liability to the bank because it is effectively loaned to the bank by the customer. By lending 90 percent of this deposit to another customer the bank has two types of assets: (1) the bank’s reserves of €10, and (2) the loan equivalent to €90. Notice that the balance sheet still balances; €100 worth of assets and €100 worth of liabilities are on the balance sheet. Now suppose that the recipient of the loan of €90 uses this money to purchase some goods of this value and the seller of the goods deposits this €90 in another bank, the Second Bank of Nations. The Second Bank of Nations goes through the same process; it retains €9 in reserve and loans 90 percent of the deposit (€81) to another customer. This customer in turn spends €81 on some goods or services. The recipient of this money deposits it at the Third Bank of Nations, and so on. This example shows how money is created when a bank makes a loan. Exhibit 2. Money Creation via Fractional Reserve Banking First Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €10 Deposits €100 Loans €90 Second Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €9 Deposits €90 Loans €81 Third Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €8.1 Deposits €81 Loans €72.9 This process continues until there is no more money left to be deposited and loaned out. The total amount of money ‘created’ from this one deposit of €100 can be calculated as: Equation (1)  New deposit/Reserve requirement = €100/0.10 = €1,000 It is the sum of all the deposits now in the banking system. You should also note that the original deposit of €100, via the practice of reserve banking, was the catalyst for €1,000 worth of economic transactions. That is not to say that economic growth would be zero without this process, but instead that it can be an important component in economic activity. The amount of money that the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier .3 In the case just examined, the money multiplier is 1/0.10 = 10. Equation 1 implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect. In our simplistic example, we assumed that the banks themselves set their own reserve requirements. However, in some economies, the central bank sets the reserve requirement, which is a potential means of affecting money growth. In any case, a prudent bank would be wise to have sufficient reserves such that the withdrawal demands of their depositors can be met in stressful economic and credit market conditions. Later, when we discuss central banks and central bank policy, we will see how central banks can use the mechanism just described to affect the money supply. Specifically, the central bank could, by purchasing €100 in government securities credited to the bank account of the seller, seek to initiate an increase in the money supply. The central bank may also lend reserves directly to banks, creating excess reserves (relative to any imposed or self-imposed reserve requirement) that can support new loans and money expansion. 2.1.3. Definitions of Money The process of money creation raises a fundamental issue: What is money? In an economy with money but without promisso





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The amount of money that the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier. In the case just examined, the money multiplier is 1/0.10 = 10. This equation implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect.
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e of reserve banking, was the catalyst for €1,000 worth of economic transactions. That is not to say that economic growth would be zero without this process, but instead that it can be an important component in economic activity. <span>The amount of money that the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier .3 In the case just examined, the money multiplier is 1/0.10 = 10. Equation 1 implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect. In our simplistic example, we assumed that the banks themselves set their own reserve requirements. However, in some economies, the central bank sets the reserve requiremen

Original toplevel document

Money
3; acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. <span>2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money relatively well for many years, and although carrying gold coins around was easier than carrying around one’s physical produce, it was not necessarily a safe way to conduct business. A crucial development in the history of money was the promissory note . The process began when individuals began leaving their excess gold with goldsmiths, who would look after it for them. In turn the goldsmiths would give the depositors a receipt, stating how much gold they had deposited. Eventually these receipts were traded directly for goods and services, rather than there being a physical transfer of gold from the goods buyer to the goods seller. Of course, both the buyer and seller had to trust the goldsmith because the goldsmith had all the gold and the goldsmith’s customers had only pieces of paper. These depository receipts represented a promise to pay a certain amount of gold on demand. This paper money therefore became a proxy for the precious metals on which they were based, that is, they were directly related to a physical commodity. Many of these early goldsmiths evolved into banks, taking in excess wealth and in turn issuing promissory notes that could be used in commerce. In taking in other people’s gold and issuing depository receipts and later promissory notes, it became clear to the goldsmiths and early banks that not all the gold that they held in their vaults would be withdrawn at any one time. Individuals were willing to buy and sell goods and services with the promissory notes, but the majority of the gold that backed the notes just sat in the vaults—although its ownership would change with the flow of commerce over time. A certain proportion of the gold that was not being withdrawn and used directly for commerce could therefore be lent to others at a rate of interest. By doing this, the early banks created money. The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers. This practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking . We can illustrate how it works through a simple example. Suppose that the bankers in an economy come to the view that they need to retain only 10 percent of any money deposited with them. This is known as the reserve requirement .2 Now consider what happens when a customer deposits €100 in the First Bank of Nations. This deposit changes the balance sheet of First Bank of Nations, as shown in Exhibit 2, and it represents a liability to the bank because it is effectively loaned to the bank by the customer. By lending 90 percent of this deposit to another customer the bank has two types of assets: (1) the bank’s reserves of €10, and (2) the loan equivalent to €90. Notice that the balance sheet still balances; €100 worth of assets and €100 worth of liabilities are on the balance sheet. Now suppose that the recipient of the loan of €90 uses this money to purchase some goods of this value and the seller of the goods deposits this €90 in another bank, the Second Bank of Nations. The Second Bank of Nations goes through the same process; it retains €9 in reserve and loans 90 percent of the deposit (€81) to another customer. This customer in turn spends €81 on some goods or services. The recipient of this money deposits it at the Third Bank of Nations, and so on. This example shows how money is created when a bank makes a loan. Exhibit 2. Money Creation via Fractional Reserve Banking First Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €10 Deposits €100 Loans €90 Second Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €9 Deposits €90 Loans €81 Third Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €8.1 Deposits €81 Loans €72.9 This process continues until there is no more money left to be deposited and loaned out. The total amount of money ‘created’ from this one deposit of €100 can be calculated as: Equation (1)  New deposit/Reserve requirement = €100/0.10 = €1,000 It is the sum of all the deposits now in the banking system. You should also note that the original deposit of €100, via the practice of reserve banking, was the catalyst for €1,000 worth of economic transactions. That is not to say that economic growth would be zero without this process, but instead that it can be an important component in economic activity. The amount of money that the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier .3 In the case just examined, the money multiplier is 1/0.10 = 10. Equation 1 implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect. In our simplistic example, we assumed that the banks themselves set their own reserve requirements. However, in some economies, the central bank sets the reserve requirement, which is a potential means of affecting money growth. In any case, a prudent bank would be wise to have sufficient reserves such that the withdrawal demands of their depositors can be met in stressful economic and credit market conditions. Later, when we discuss central banks and central bank policy, we will see how central banks can use the mechanism just described to affect the money supply. Specifically, the central bank could, by purchasing €100 in government securities credited to the bank account of the seller, seek to initiate an increase in the money supply. The central bank may also lend reserves directly to banks, creating excess reserves (relative to any imposed or self-imposed reserve requirement) that can support new loans and money expansion. 2.1.3. Definitions of Money The process of money creation raises a fundamental issue: What is money? In an economy with money but without promisso





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Later, when we discuss central banks and central bank policy, we will see how central banks can use the money creation mechanism to affect the money supply. Specifically, the central bank could, by purchasing $100 in government securities credited to the bank account of the seller, seek to initiate an increase in the money supply. The central bank may also lend reserves directly to banks, creating excess reserves (relative to any imposed or self-imposed reserve requirement) that can support new loans and money expansion.
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potential means of affecting money growth. In any case, a prudent bank would be wise to have sufficient reserves such that the withdrawal demands of their depositors can be met in stressful economic and credit market conditions. <span>Later, when we discuss central banks and central bank policy, we will see how central banks can use the mechanism just described to affect the money supply. Specifically, the central bank could, by purchasing €100 in government securities credited to the bank account of the seller, seek to initiate an increase in the money supply. The central bank may also lend reserves directly to banks, creating excess reserves (relative to any imposed or self-imposed reserve requirement) that can support new loans and money expansion. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Money
3; acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. <span>2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money relatively well for many years, and although carrying gold coins around was easier than carrying around one’s physical produce, it was not necessarily a safe way to conduct business. A crucial development in the history of money was the promissory note . The process began when individuals began leaving their excess gold with goldsmiths, who would look after it for them. In turn the goldsmiths would give the depositors a receipt, stating how much gold they had deposited. Eventually these receipts were traded directly for goods and services, rather than there being a physical transfer of gold from the goods buyer to the goods seller. Of course, both the buyer and seller had to trust the goldsmith because the goldsmith had all the gold and the goldsmith’s customers had only pieces of paper. These depository receipts represented a promise to pay a certain amount of gold on demand. This paper money therefore became a proxy for the precious metals on which they were based, that is, they were directly related to a physical commodity. Many of these early goldsmiths evolved into banks, taking in excess wealth and in turn issuing promissory notes that could be used in commerce. In taking in other people’s gold and issuing depository receipts and later promissory notes, it became clear to the goldsmiths and early banks that not all the gold that they held in their vaults would be withdrawn at any one time. Individuals were willing to buy and sell goods and services with the promissory notes, but the majority of the gold that backed the notes just sat in the vaults—although its ownership would change with the flow of commerce over time. A certain proportion of the gold that was not being withdrawn and used directly for commerce could therefore be lent to others at a rate of interest. By doing this, the early banks created money. The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers. This practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking . We can illustrate how it works through a simple example. Suppose that the bankers in an economy come to the view that they need to retain only 10 percent of any money deposited with them. This is known as the reserve requirement .2 Now consider what happens when a customer deposits €100 in the First Bank of Nations. This deposit changes the balance sheet of First Bank of Nations, as shown in Exhibit 2, and it represents a liability to the bank because it is effectively loaned to the bank by the customer. By lending 90 percent of this deposit to another customer the bank has two types of assets: (1) the bank’s reserves of €10, and (2) the loan equivalent to €90. Notice that the balance sheet still balances; €100 worth of assets and €100 worth of liabilities are on the balance sheet. Now suppose that the recipient of the loan of €90 uses this money to purchase some goods of this value and the seller of the goods deposits this €90 in another bank, the Second Bank of Nations. The Second Bank of Nations goes through the same process; it retains €9 in reserve and loans 90 percent of the deposit (€81) to another customer. This customer in turn spends €81 on some goods or services. The recipient of this money deposits it at the Third Bank of Nations, and so on. This example shows how money is created when a bank makes a loan. Exhibit 2. Money Creation via Fractional Reserve Banking First Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €10 Deposits €100 Loans €90 Second Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €9 Deposits €90 Loans €81 Third Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €8.1 Deposits €81 Loans €72.9 This process continues until there is no more money left to be deposited and loaned out. The total amount of money ‘created’ from this one deposit of €100 can be calculated as: Equation (1)  New deposit/Reserve requirement = €100/0.10 = €1,000 It is the sum of all the deposits now in the banking system. You should also note that the original deposit of €100, via the practice of reserve banking, was the catalyst for €1,000 worth of economic transactions. That is not to say that economic growth would be zero without this process, but instead that it can be an important component in economic activity. The amount of money that the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier .3 In the case just examined, the money multiplier is 1/0.10 = 10. Equation 1 implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect. In our simplistic example, we assumed that the banks themselves set their own reserve requirements. However, in some economies, the central bank sets the reserve requirement, which is a potential means of affecting money growth. In any case, a prudent bank would be wise to have sufficient reserves such that the withdrawal demands of their depositors can be met in stressful economic and credit market conditions. Later, when we discuss central banks and central bank policy, we will see how central banks can use the mechanism just described to affect the money supply. Specifically, the central bank could, by purchasing €100 in government securities credited to the bank account of the seller, seek to initiate an increase in the money supply. The central bank may also lend reserves directly to banks, creating excess reserves (relative to any imposed or self-imposed reserve requirement) that can support new loans and money expansion. 2.1.3. Definitions of Money The process of money creation raises a fundamental issue: What is money? In an economy with money but without promisso





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The process of money creation raises a fundamental issue: What is money? In an economy with money but without promissory notes and fractional reserve banking, money is relatively easy to define: Money is the total amount of gold and silver coins in circulation, or their equivalent. The money creation process above, however, indicates that a broader definition of money might encompass all the notes and coins in circulation plus all bank deposits.
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Definitions of Money The process of money creation raises a fundamental issue: What is money? In an economy with money but without promissory notes and fractional reserve banking, money is relatively easy to define: Money is the total amount of gold and silver coins in circulation, or their equivalent. The money creation process above, however, indicates that a broader definition of money might encompass all the notes and coins in circulation plus all bank deposits. More generally, we might define money as any medium that can be used to purchase goods and services. Notes and coins can be used to fulfill this purpose, and yet such curre

Original toplevel document

Money
e in the money supply. The central bank may also lend reserves directly to banks, creating excess reserves (relative to any imposed or self-imposed reserve requirement) that can support new loans and money expansion. <span>2.1.3. Definitions of Money The process of money creation raises a fundamental issue: What is money? In an economy with money but without promissory notes and fractional reserve banking, money is relatively easy to define: Money is the total amount of gold and silver coins in circulation, or their equivalent. The money creation process above, however, indicates that a broader definition of money might encompass all the notes and coins in circulation plus all bank deposits. More generally, we might define money as any medium that can be used to purchase goods and services. Notes and coins can be used to fulfill this purpose, and yet such currency is not the only means of purchasing goods and services. Personal cheques can be written based on a bank chequing account, while debit cards can be used for the same purpose. But what about time deposits or savings accounts? Nowadays transfers can be made relatively easily from a savings account to a current account; therefore, these savings accounts might also be considered as part of the stock of money. Credit cards are also used to pay for goods and services; however, there is an important difference between credit card payments and those made by cheques and debit cards. Unlike a cheque or debit card payment, a credit card payment involves a deferred payment. Basically, the greater the complexity of any financial system, the harder it is to define money. The monetary authorities in most modern economies produce a range of measures of money (see Exhibit 3). But generally speaking, the money stock consists of notes and coins in circulation, plus the deposits in banks and other financial institutions that can be readily used to make purchases of goods and services in the economy. In this regard, economists often speak of the rate of growth of narrow money and/or broad money . By narrow money, they generally mean the notes and coins in circulation in an economy, plus other very highly liquid deposits. Broad money encompasses narrow money but also includes the entire range of liquid assets that can be used to make purchases. Because financial systems, practice, and institutions vary from economy to economy, so do definitions of money; thus, it is difficult to make international comparisons. Still, most central banks produce both a narrow and broad measure of money, plus some intermediate ones too. Exhibit 3 shows the money definitions in four economies. <span><body><html>





Money Measures in the United Kingdom
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Money Measures in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom produces a set of four measures of the money stock. M0 is the narrowest measure and comprises notes and coins held outside the Bank of England, plus Bankers’ deposits at the Bank of England. M2includes M0, plus (effectively) all retail bank deposits. M4 includes M2, plus wholesale bank and building society deposits and also certificates of deposit. Finally, the Bank of England produces another measure called M3H, which is a measure created to be comparable with money definitions in the EU (see above). M3H includes M4, plus UK residents’ and corporations’ foreign currency deposits in banks and building societies.

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plus other savings and deposits with financial institutions. There is also a “broad measure of liquidity” that encompasses M3 as well as a range of other liquid assets, such as government bonds and commercial paper. <span>Money Measures in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom produces a set of four measures of the money stock. M0 is the narrowest measure and comprises notes and coins held outside the Bank of England, plus Bankers’ deposits at the Bank of England. M2includes M0, plus (effectively) all retail bank deposits. M4 includes M2, plus wholesale bank and building society deposits and also certificates of deposit. Finally, the Bank of England produces another measure called M3H, which is a measure created to be comparable with money definitions in the EU (see above). M3H includes M4, plus UK residents’ and corporations’ foreign currency deposits in banks and building societies. <span><body><html>

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Money
e in the money supply. The central bank may also lend reserves directly to banks, creating excess reserves (relative to any imposed or self-imposed reserve requirement) that can support new loans and money expansion. <span>2.1.3. Definitions of Money The process of money creation raises a fundamental issue: What is money? In an economy with money but without promissory notes and fractional reserve banking, money is relatively easy to define: Money is the total amount of gold and silver coins in circulation, or their equivalent. The money creation process above, however, indicates that a broader definition of money might encompass all the notes and coins in circulation plus all bank deposits. More generally, we might define money as any medium that can be used to purchase goods and services. Notes and coins can be used to fulfill this purpose, and yet such currency is not the only means of purchasing goods and services. Personal cheques can be written based on a bank chequing account, while debit cards can be used for the same purpose. But what about time deposits or savings accounts? Nowadays transfers can be made relatively easily from a savings account to a current account; therefore, these savings accounts might also be considered as part of the stock of money. Credit cards are also used to pay for goods and services; however, there is an important difference between credit card payments and those made by cheques and debit cards. Unlike a cheque or debit card payment, a credit card payment involves a deferred payment. Basically, the greater the complexity of any financial system, the harder it is to define money. The monetary authorities in most modern economies produce a range of measures of money (see Exhibit 3). But generally speaking, the money stock consists of notes and coins in circulation, plus the deposits in banks and other financial institutions that can be readily used to make purchases of goods and services in the economy. In this regard, economists often speak of the rate of growth of narrow money and/or broad money . By narrow money, they generally mean the notes and coins in circulation in an economy, plus other very highly liquid deposits. Broad money encompasses narrow money but also includes the entire range of liquid assets that can be used to make purchases. Because financial systems, practice, and institutions vary from economy to economy, so do definitions of money; thus, it is difficult to make international comparisons. Still, most central banks produce both a narrow and broad measure of money, plus some intermediate ones too. Exhibit 3 shows the money definitions in four economies. <span><body><html>





External Factors Affecting Working Capital Needs
#has-images #introduction #pie-de-cabra-session #reading-molo
  • Banking services
  • Interest rates
  • New technologies and products
  • Competitors
  • Economy
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Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capital Needs Internal Factors (Bill Cosby) <span>External Factors Company size and growth rates Organizational structure Sophistication of working capital management Borrowing and investing positions/activities/capacities Banking services Interest rates New technologies and new products The economy Competitors <span><body><html>

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Reading 38  Working Capital Management Intro
and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. <span>Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capital Needs Internal Factors External Factors Company size and growth rates Organizational structure Sophistication of working capital management Borrowing and investing positions/activities/capacities Banking services Interest rates New technologies and new products The economy Competitors The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment. Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively. Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented. Focus requires that organizations of all sizes today must have a global viewpoint with strong emphasis on liquidity. In this reading, we examine the different types of working capital and the management issues associated with each. We also look at methods of evaluating the effectiveness of working capital management. <span><body><html>





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Because analyzing vast amounts of data can be both time consuming and difficult, investors often use a single measure that consolidates this information and reflects the performance of an entire security market.
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Investors gather and analyze vast amounts of information about security markets on a continual basis. Because this work can be both time consuming and data intensive, investors often use a single measure that consolidates this information and reflects the performance of an entire security market. Security market indexes were first introduced as a simple measure to reflect the performance of the US stock market. Since then, security market indexes have evolved into i

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Reading 45  Security Market Indexes (Intro)
Investors gather and analyze vast amounts of information about security markets on a continual basis. Because this work can be both time consuming and data intensive, investors often use a single measure that consolidates this information and reflects the performance of an entire security market. Security market indexes were first introduced as a simple measure to reflect the performance of the US stock market. Since then, security market indexes have evolved into important multi-purpose tools that help investors track the performance of various security markets, estimate risk, and evaluate the performance of investment managers. They also form the basis for new investment products.   in·dex, noun (pl. in·dex·es or in·di·ces) Latin indic-, index, from indicare to indicate: an indicator, sign, or measure of something. ORIGIN OF MARKET INDEXES Investors had access to regularly published data on individual security prices in London as early as 1698, but nearly 200 years passed before they had access to a simple indicator to reflect security market information.1 To give readers a sense of how the US stock market in general performed on a given day, publishers Charles H. Dow and Edward D. Jones introduced the Dow Jones Average, the world’s first security market index, in 1884.2 The index, which appeared in The Customers’ Afternoon Letter, consisted of the stocks of nine railroads and two industrial companies. It eventually became the Dow Jones Transportation Average.3Convinced that industrial companies, rather than railroads, would be “the great speculative market” of the future, Dow and Jones introduced a second index in May 1896—the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA). It had an initial value of 40.94 and consisted of 12 stocks from major US industries.4 , 5 Today, investors can choose from among thousands of indexes to measure and monitor different security markets and asset classes. This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 defines a security market index and explains how to calculate the price return and total return of an index for a single per




Flashcard 1744635563276

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Question
Corporate governance can be defined as: [...] .


Answer
“the system of internal controls and procedures by which individual companies are managed

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Corporate Governance Overview
Corporate governance can be defined as: “the system of internal controls and procedures by which individual companies are managed. It provides a framework that defines the rights, roles and responsibilities of various groups . . . within an organization. At its core, corporate governance is the arrangement of check







Flashcard 1746646207756

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Question
[...] theory is concerned with resolving problems that can exist between stakeholders due to unaligned goals or different aversion levels to risk.
Answer
Agency

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The agency theory is a supposition that explains the relationship between principals and agents in business. Agency theory is concerned with resolving problems that can exist in agency relationships due to unaligned goals or different aversion levels to risk. The most common agency relationship in finance occurs between shareholders (principal) and company executives (agents).

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Agency Theory
What is the 'Agency Theory' <span>The agency theory is a supposition that explains the relationship between principals and agents in business. Agency theory is concerned with resolving problems that can exist in agency relationships due to unaligned goals or different aversion levels to risk. The most common agency relationship in finance occurs between shareholders (principal) and company executives (agents). BREAKING DOWN 'Agency Theory' Agency theory addresses problems that arise due to differences between the goals or desires between the principal and a








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Whatever the approach(Top-Down or Bottom-up), an analyst who estimates the intrinsic value of an equity security is implicitly questioning the accuracy of the market price as an estimate of value.
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ties of companies from previously identified attractive sectors. In a bottom-up approach, an analyst typically follows an industry or industries and forecasts fundamentals for the companies in those industries in order to determine valuation. <span>Whatever the approach, an analyst who estimates the intrinsic value of an equity security is implicitly questioning the accuracy of the market price as an estimate of value. Valuation is particularly important in active equity portfolio management, which aims to improve on the return–risk trade-off of a portfolio’s benchmark by identifying mispriced securit

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Reading 49  Equity Valuation: Concepts and Basic Tools (Intro)
Analysts gather and process information to make investment decisions, including buy and sell recommendations. What information is gathered and how it is processed depend on the analyst and the purpose of the analysis. Technical analysis uses such information as stock price and trading volume as the basis for investment decisions. Fundamental analysis uses information about the economy, industry, and company as the basis for investment decisions. Examples of fundamentals are unemployment rates, gross domestic product (GDP) growth, industry growth, and quality of and growth in company earnings. Whereas technical analysts use information to predict price movements and base investment decisions on the direction of predicted change in prices, fundamental analysts use information to estimate the value of a security and to compare the estimated value to the market price and then base investment decisions on that comparison. This reading introduces equity valuation models used to estimate the intrinsic value (synonym: fundamental value ) of a security; intrinsic value is based on an analysis of investment fundamentals and characteristics. The fundamentals to be considered depend on the analyst’s approach to valuation. In a top-down approach, an analyst examines the economic environment, identifies sectors that are expected to prosper in that environment, and analyzes securities of companies from previously identified attractive sectors. In a bottom-up approach, an analyst typically follows an industry or industries and forecasts fundamentals for the companies in those industries in order to determine valuation. Whatever the approach, an analyst who estimates the intrinsic value of an equity security is implicitly questioning the accuracy of the market price as an estimate of value. Valuation is particularly important in active equity portfolio management, which aims to improve on the return–risk trade-off of a portfolio’s benchmark by identifying mispriced securities. This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the implications of differences between estimated value and market price. Section 3 introduces three major categor




Flashcard 1748455263500

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Question
[...] is the analysis of a specific branch of manufacturing, service, or trade.



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Industry analysis is the analysis of a specific branch of manufacturing, service, or trade. Understanding the industry in which a company operates provides an essential framework for the analysis of the individual company—that is, company analysis . Equity analysis and credit

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Reading 48  Introduction to Industry and Company Analysis (Intro)
Industry analysis is the analysis of a specific branch of manufacturing, service, or trade. Understanding the industry in which a company operates provides an essential framework for the analysis of the individual company—that is, company analysis . Equity analysis and credit analysis are often conducted by analysts who concentrate on one or several industries, which results in synergies and efficiencies in gathering and interpreting information. Among the questions we address in this reading are the following: What are the similarities and differences among industry classification systems? How does an analyst go about choosing a peer group of companies? What are the key factors to consider when analyzing an industry? What advantages are enjoyed by companies in strategically well-positioned industries? After discussing the uses of industry analysis in the next section, Sections 3 and 4 discuss, respectively, approaches to identifying similar companies and industry








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The money multiplier is the amount by which a change in the monetary base is multiplied to calculate the final change in the money supply. Money Multiplier = 1/b, where b is the required reserve ratio. In our example, b is 0.2, so money multiplier = 1/0.2 = 5.
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n out $640 to another person. Thus, BOA creates $640 of money supply. The process goes on and on. With each deposit and loan, more money is created. However, the money creation process does not create an infinite amount of money. <span>The money multiplier is the amount by which a change in the monetary base is multiplied to calculate the final change in the money supply. Money Multiplier = 1/b, where b is the required reserve ratio. In our example, b is 0.2, so money multiplier = 1/0.2 = 5. <span><body><html>

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Subject 1. What is Money?
liquid of all assets, due to its function as the medium of exchange. However, many methods of holding money do not yield an interest return and the purchase power of money will decline during a time of inflation. <span>The Money Creation Process Reserves are the cash in a bank's vault and deposits at Federal Reserve Banks. Under the fractional reserve banking system, a bank is obligated to hold a minimum amount of reserves to back up its deposits. Reserves held for that purpose, which are expressed as a percentage of a bank's demand deposits, are called required reserves. Therefore, the required reserve ratio is the percentage of a bank's deposits that are required to be held as reserves. Banks create deposits when they make loans; the new deposits created are new money. Example Suppose the required reserve ratio in the U.S. is 20%, and then suppose that you deposit $1,000 cash with Citibank. Citibank keeps $200 of the $1,000 in reserves. The remaining $800 of excess reserves can be loaned out to, say, John. After the loan is made, the money supply increases by $800 (your $1,000 + John's $800). After getting the loan, John deposits the $800 with Bank of America (BOA). BOA keeps $160 of the $800 in reserves and can now loan out $640 to another person. Thus, BOA creates $640 of money supply. The process goes on and on. With each deposit and loan, more money is created. However, the money creation process does not create an infinite amount of money. The money multiplier is the amount by which a change in the monetary base is multiplied to calculate the final change in the money supply. Money Multiplier = 1/b, where b is the required reserve ratio. In our example, b is 0.2, so money multiplier = 1/0.2 = 5. Definitions of Money There are different definitions of money. The two most widely used measures of money in the U.S. are: The M1 Money Su





#has-images #microscopio-session #reading-calculadora
Macroeconomics focuses on national aggregates, such as:
  1. Total
    investment
  2. Total
    consumption
  3. The rate of change in the general level of prices
  4. The overall level of interest rates.
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the economic activity and behavior of individual economic units, such as a household, a company, or a market for a particular good or service, and macroeconomics is the study of the aggregate activities of households, companies, and markets. <span>Macroeconomics focuses on national aggregates, such as total investment, the amount spent by all businesses on plant and equipment; total consumption, the amount spent by all households on goods and services; the rate of change in the general level of prices; and the overall level of interest rates. <span><body><html>

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Reading 16  Aggregate Output, Prices, and Economic Growth Introduction
In the field of economics, microeconomics is the study of the economic activity and behavior of individual economic units, such as a household, a company, or a market for a particular good or service, and macroeconomics is the study of the aggregate activities of households, companies, and markets. Macroeconomics focuses on national aggregates, such as total investment, the amount spent by all businesses on plant and equipment; total consumption, the amount spent by all households on goods and services; the rate of change in the general level of prices; and the overall level of interest rates. Macroeconomic analysis examines a nation’s aggregate output and income, its competitive and comparative advantages, the productivity of its labor force, its price level and inflation rate, and the actions of its national government and central bank. The objective of macroeconomic analysis is to address such fundamental questions as: What is an economy’s aggregate output, and how is aggregate income measured? What factors determine the level of aggregate output/income for an economy? What are the levels of aggregate demand and aggregate supply of goods and services within the country? Is the level of output increasing or decreasing, and at what rate? Is the general price level stable, rising, or falling? Is unemployment rising or falling? Are households spending or saving more? Are workers able to produce more output for a given level of inputs? Are businesses investing in and expanding their productive capacity? Are exports (imports) rising or falling? From an investment perspective, investors must be able to evaluate a country’s current economic environment and to forecast its future economic environment in order to identify asset classes and securities that will benefit from economic trends occurring within that country. Macroeconomic variables—such as the level of inflation, unemployment, consumption, government spending, and investment—affect the overall level of activity within a country. They also have different impacts on the growth and profitability of industries within a country, the companies within those industries, and the returns of the securities issued by those companies. This reading is organized as follows: Section 2 describes gross domestic product and related measures of domestic output and income. Section 3 discusses short-run and long-




#fourier-analysis #functional-analysis #harmonic-analysis #hilbert-space
Fourier series can be conveniently studied in the context of Hilbert spaces, which provides a connection between harmonic analysis and functional analysis.
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Harmonic analysis - Wikipedia
pport (these include functions of compact support), then its Fourier transform is never compactly supported. This is a very elementary form of an uncertainty principle in a harmonic analysis setting. See also: Convergence of Fourier series. <span>Fourier series can be conveniently studied in the context of Hilbert spaces, which provides a connection between harmonic analysis and functional analysis. Contents [hide] 1 Applied harmonic analysis 2 Abstract harmonic analysis 3 Other branches 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links Applied harmonic analy




Flashcard 1749098827020

Question
A Hilbert space is an abstract vector space possessing the structure of [...] that allows length and angle to be measured.
Answer

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A Hilbert space is an abstract vector space possessing the structure of an inner product that allows length and angle to be measured.

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Hilbert space - Wikipedia
e state of a vibrating string can be modeled as a point in a Hilbert space. The decomposition of a vibrating string into its vibrations in distinct overtones is given by the projection of the point onto the coordinate axes in the space. <span>The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space. It extends the methods of vector algebra and calculus from the two-dimensional Euclidean plane and three-dimensional space to spaces with any finite or infinite number of dimensions. A Hilbert space is an abstract vector space possessing the structure of an inner product that allows length and angle to be measured. Furthermore, Hilbert spaces are complete: there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used. Hilbert spaces arise naturally and frequently in mathematics and physics, typically as infinite-dimensional function spaces. The earliest Hilbert spaces were studied from this point o







Flashcard 1749100399884

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#topology
Question
the structure of an inner product allows [...] to be measured.
Answer
length and angle

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A Hilbert space is an abstract vector space possessing the structure of an inner product that allows length and angle to be measured.

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Hilbert space - Wikipedia
e state of a vibrating string can be modeled as a point in a Hilbert space. The decomposition of a vibrating string into its vibrations in distinct overtones is given by the projection of the point onto the coordinate axes in the space. <span>The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space. It extends the methods of vector algebra and calculus from the two-dimensional Euclidean plane and three-dimensional space to spaces with any finite or infinite number of dimensions. A Hilbert space is an abstract vector space possessing the structure of an inner product that allows length and angle to be measured. Furthermore, Hilbert spaces are complete: there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used. Hilbert spaces arise naturally and frequently in mathematics and physics, typically as infinite-dimensional function spaces. The earliest Hilbert spaces were studied from this point o








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Corporate takeovers can happen in different ways: proxy contest or proxy fight, tender offer, hostile takeover, etc.
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Corporate takeovers can happen in different ways: proxy contest or proxy fight, tender offer, hostile takeover, etc. The justification for the use of various anti-takeover defenses should rest on the support of the majority of shareholders and on the demonstration that preservation of the integrity of

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Subject 6. Factors Affecting Stakeholder Relationships and Corporate Governance
Stakeholder relationships and corporate governance are continually shaped and influenced by a variety of market and non-market factors. Market Factors Shareholder engagement involves a company's interactions with its shareholders. It can provide benefits that include building support against short-term activist investors, countering negative recommendations from proxy advisory firms, and receiving greater support for management's position. Shareholder activism encompasses a range of strategies that may be used by shareholders seeking to compel a company to act in a desired manner. It can take any of several forms: proxy battles, public campaigns, shareholder resolutions, litigation, and negotiations with management. Corporate takeovers can happen in different ways: proxy contest or proxy fight, tender offer, hostile takeover, etc. The justification for the use of various anti-takeover defenses should rest on the support of the majority of shareholders and on the demonstration that preservation of the integrity of the company is in the long-term interests of shareholders. Non-Market Factors These factors include the legal environment, the media, and the corporate governance industry itself.





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The justification for the use of various anti-takeover defenses should rest on the support of the majority of shareholders and on the demonstration that preservation of the integrity of the company is in the long-term interests of shareholders.
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Corporate takeovers can happen in different ways: proxy contest or proxy fight, tender offer, hostile takeover, etc. The justification for the use of various anti-takeover defenses should rest on the support of the majority of shareholders and on the demonstration that preservation of the integrity of the company is in the long-term interests of shareholders.

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Subject 6. Factors Affecting Stakeholder Relationships and Corporate Governance
Stakeholder relationships and corporate governance are continually shaped and influenced by a variety of market and non-market factors. Market Factors Shareholder engagement involves a company's interactions with its shareholders. It can provide benefits that include building support against short-term activist investors, countering negative recommendations from proxy advisory firms, and receiving greater support for management's position. Shareholder activism encompasses a range of strategies that may be used by shareholders seeking to compel a company to act in a desired manner. It can take any of several forms: proxy battles, public campaigns, shareholder resolutions, litigation, and negotiations with management. Corporate takeovers can happen in different ways: proxy contest or proxy fight, tender offer, hostile takeover, etc. The justification for the use of various anti-takeover defenses should rest on the support of the majority of shareholders and on the demonstration that preservation of the integrity of the company is in the long-term interests of shareholders. Non-Market Factors These factors include the legal environment, the media, and the corporate governance industry itself.




Flashcard 1749109574924

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#hilbert-space
Question
Hilbert spaces are complete: there are [...] to allow the techniques of calculus to be used.
Answer
enough limits in the space

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Hilbert spaces are complete: there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used.

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Hilbert space - Wikipedia
e state of a vibrating string can be modeled as a point in a Hilbert space. The decomposition of a vibrating string into its vibrations in distinct overtones is given by the projection of the point onto the coordinate axes in the space. <span>The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space. It extends the methods of vector algebra and calculus from the two-dimensional Euclidean plane and three-dimensional space to spaces with any finite or infinite number of dimensions. A Hilbert space is an abstract vector space possessing the structure of an inner product that allows length and angle to be measured. Furthermore, Hilbert spaces are complete: there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used. Hilbert spaces arise naturally and frequently in mathematics and physics, typically as infinite-dimensional function spaces. The earliest Hilbert spaces were studied from this point o







Flashcard 1749111147788

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#hilbert-space
Question
Hilbert spaces are complete: there are enough limits in the space to allow [...].
Answer
the techniques of calculus to be used

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Hilbert spaces are complete: there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used.

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Hilbert space - Wikipedia
e state of a vibrating string can be modeled as a point in a Hilbert space. The decomposition of a vibrating string into its vibrations in distinct overtones is given by the projection of the point onto the coordinate axes in the space. <span>The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space. It extends the methods of vector algebra and calculus from the two-dimensional Euclidean plane and three-dimensional space to spaces with any finite or infinite number of dimensions. A Hilbert space is an abstract vector space possessing the structure of an inner product that allows length and angle to be measured. Furthermore, Hilbert spaces are complete: there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used. Hilbert spaces arise naturally and frequently in mathematics and physics, typically as infinite-dimensional function spaces. The earliest Hilbert spaces were studied from this point o







Flashcard 1749112720652

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#hilbert-space
Question
Hilbert spaces are [...]: there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used.
Answer
complete

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Hilbert spaces are complete: there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used.

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Hilbert space - Wikipedia
e state of a vibrating string can be modeled as a point in a Hilbert space. The decomposition of a vibrating string into its vibrations in distinct overtones is given by the projection of the point onto the coordinate axes in the space. <span>The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space. It extends the methods of vector algebra and calculus from the two-dimensional Euclidean plane and three-dimensional space to spaces with any finite or infinite number of dimensions. A Hilbert space is an abstract vector space possessing the structure of an inner product that allows length and angle to be measured. Furthermore, Hilbert spaces are complete: there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used. Hilbert spaces arise naturally and frequently in mathematics and physics, typically as infinite-dimensional function spaces. The earliest Hilbert spaces were studied from this point o







#matrix-decomposition
By the spectral theorem, real symmetric matrices and complex Hermitian matrices have an eigenbasis; that is, every vector is expressible as a linear combination of eigenvectors. In both cases, all eigenvalues are real.
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Matrix (mathematics) - Wikipedia
x. In complex matrices, symmetry is often replaced by the concept of Hermitian matrices, which satisfy A ∗ = A, where the star or asterisk denotes the conjugate transpose of the matrix, that is, the transpose of the complex conjugate of A. <span>By the spectral theorem, real symmetric matrices and complex Hermitian matrices have an eigenbasis; that is, every vector is expressible as a linear combination of eigenvectors. In both cases, all eigenvalues are real. [29] This theorem can be generalized to infinite-dimensional situations related to matrices with infinitely many rows and columns, see below. Invertible matrix and its inverse[edit s




#matrices #spectral-theorem
a spectral theorem is a result about when a linear operator or matrix can be diagonalized
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In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, a spectral theorem is a result about when a linear operator or matrix can be diagonalized (that is, represented as a diagonal matrix in some basis).

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Spectral theorem - Wikipedia
for more information. [imagelink] [Help with translations!] Spectral theorem From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search <span>In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, a spectral theorem is a result about when a linear operator or matrix can be diagonalized (that is, represented as a diagonal matrix in some basis). This is extremely useful because computations involving a diagonalizable matrix can often be reduced to much simpler computations involving the corresponding diagonal matrix. The concep




Flashcard 1749123206412

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#matrices #spectral-theorem
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a spectral theorem is a result about when [...]
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a spectral theorem is a result about when a linear operator or matrix can be diagonalized

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Spectral theorem - Wikipedia
for more information. [imagelink] [Help with translations!] Spectral theorem From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search <span>In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, a spectral theorem is a result about when a linear operator or matrix can be diagonalized (that is, represented as a diagonal matrix in some basis). This is extremely useful because computations involving a diagonalizable matrix can often be reduced to much simpler computations involving the corresponding diagonal matrix. The concep







#matrix-decomposition
By the spectral theorem, real symmetric matrices and complex Hermitian matrices have an eigenbasis
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By the spectral theorem, real symmetric matrices and complex Hermitian matrices have an eigenbasis; that is, every vector is expressible as a linear combination of eigenvectors. In both cases, all eigenvalues are real.

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Matrix (mathematics) - Wikipedia
x. In complex matrices, symmetry is often replaced by the concept of Hermitian matrices, which satisfy A ∗ = A, where the star or asterisk denotes the conjugate transpose of the matrix, that is, the transpose of the complex conjugate of A. <span>By the spectral theorem, real symmetric matrices and complex Hermitian matrices have an eigenbasis; that is, every vector is expressible as a linear combination of eigenvectors. In both cases, all eigenvalues are real. [29] This theorem can be generalized to infinite-dimensional situations related to matrices with infinitely many rows and columns, see below. Invertible matrix and its inverse[edit s




Flashcard 1749126352140

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#matrix-decomposition
Question
By the spectral theorem, real symmetric matrices and complex Hermitian matrices have an [...]
Answer

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By the spectral theorem, real symmetric matrices and complex Hermitian matrices have an eigenbasis

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Matrix (mathematics) - Wikipedia
x. In complex matrices, symmetry is often replaced by the concept of Hermitian matrices, which satisfy A ∗ = A, where the star or asterisk denotes the conjugate transpose of the matrix, that is, the transpose of the complex conjugate of A. <span>By the spectral theorem, real symmetric matrices and complex Hermitian matrices have an eigenbasis; that is, every vector is expressible as a linear combination of eigenvectors. In both cases, all eigenvalues are real. [29] This theorem can be generalized to infinite-dimensional situations related to matrices with infinitely many rows and columns, see below. Invertible matrix and its inverse[edit s







#inner-product #linear-algebra
Inner product spaces generalize Euclidean spaces to vector spaces of any (possibly infinite) dimension, and are studied in functional analysis.
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Inner product space - Wikipedia
tors. Inner products allow the rigorous introduction of intuitive geometrical notions such as the length of a vector or the angle between two vectors. They also provide the means of defining orthogonality between vectors (zero inner product). <span>Inner product spaces generalize Euclidean spaces (in which the inner product is the dot product, also known as the scalar product) to vector spaces of any (possibly infinite) dimension, and are studied in functional analysis. The first usage of the concept of a vector space with an inner product is due to Peano, in 1898. [1] An inner product naturally induces an associated norm, thus an inner product space




Flashcard 1749147585804

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#inner-product #linear-algebra
Question
the dot product is the inner product in [...]
Answer
the Euclidean space

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Inner product spaces generalize Euclidean spaces (in which the inner product is the dot product, also known as the scalar product) to vector spaces of any (possibly infinite) dimension, and are studied in functional analysis.

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Inner product space - Wikipedia
tors. Inner products allow the rigorous introduction of intuitive geometrical notions such as the length of a vector or the angle between two vectors. They also provide the means of defining orthogonality between vectors (zero inner product). <span>Inner product spaces generalize Euclidean spaces (in which the inner product is the dot product, also known as the scalar product) to vector spaces of any (possibly infinite) dimension, and are studied in functional analysis. The first usage of the concept of a vector space with an inner product is due to Peano, in 1898. [1] An inner product naturally induces an associated norm, thus an inner product space







Flashcard 1749150731532

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#inner-product #linear-algebra
Question
Inner product spaces generalize Euclidean spaces to [...], and are studied in functional analysis.
Answer
vector spaces of any (possibly infinite) dimension

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Inner product spaces generalize Euclidean spaces to vector spaces of any (possibly infinite) dimension, and are studied in functional analysis.

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Inner product space - Wikipedia
tors. Inner products allow the rigorous introduction of intuitive geometrical notions such as the length of a vector or the angle between two vectors. They also provide the means of defining orthogonality between vectors (zero inner product). <span>Inner product spaces generalize Euclidean spaces (in which the inner product is the dot product, also known as the scalar product) to vector spaces of any (possibly infinite) dimension, and are studied in functional analysis. The first usage of the concept of a vector space with an inner product is due to Peano, in 1898. [1] An inner product naturally induces an associated norm, thus an inner product space







[unknown IMAGE 1784659447052] #has-images
In mathematics, a Cauchy sequence a sequence whose elements become arbitrarily close to each other as the sequence progresses.
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Cauchy sequence - Wikipedia
"ultimate destination" of this sequence (that is, the limit) exists. [imagelink] (b) A sequence that is not Cauchy. The elements of the sequence fail to get arbitrarily close to each other as the sequence progresses. <span>In mathematics, a Cauchy sequence ( French pronunciation: ​ [koʃi]; English: /ˈkoʊʃiː/ KOH-shee), named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy, is a sequence whose elements become arbitrarily close to each other as the sequence progresses. [1] More precisely, given any small positive distance, all but a finite number of elements of the sequence are less than that given distance from each other. It is not sufficient for




Flashcard 1749179305228

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#has-images
[unknown IMAGE 1784662068492]
Question
In mathematics, a Cauchy sequence is a sequence whose elements [...] as the sequence progresses.
Answer
become arbitrarily close to each other

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In mathematics, a Cauchy sequence a sequence whose elements become arbitrarily close to each other as the sequence progresses.

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Cauchy sequence - Wikipedia
"ultimate destination" of this sequence (that is, the limit) exists. [imagelink] (b) A sequence that is not Cauchy. The elements of the sequence fail to get arbitrarily close to each other as the sequence progresses. <span>In mathematics, a Cauchy sequence ( French pronunciation: ​ [koʃi]; English: /ˈkoʊʃiː/ KOH-shee), named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy, is a sequence whose elements become arbitrarily close to each other as the sequence progresses. [1] More precisely, given any small positive distance, all but a finite number of elements of the sequence are less than that given distance from each other. It is not sufficient for







A Hilbert space is an inner product space that is complete with respect to the norm.
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Hilbert vs Inner Product Space - Mathematics Stack Exchange
add a comment | up vote 1 down vote <span>A Hilbert space is an inner product space that is complete with respect to the norm. Completeness is what differentiates the two. Not every metric space can be defined by an inner product, for instance the space of continuous functions on [0,1][0,1] with the supremu




When an interrupt occurs, the system needs to save the current context of the process running on the CPU so that it can restore that context when its processing is done, essentially suspending the process and then resuming it. The context is represented in the PCB of the process. It includes the value of the CPU registers, the process state (see Figure 3.2), and memory-management information
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Switching the CPU to another process requires performing a state save of the current process and a state restore of a different process. This task is known as a context switch. When a context switch occurs, the kernel saves the context of the old process in its PCB and loads the saved context of the new process scheduled to run. Context-switch time is pure overhead, because the system does no useful work while switching
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The i OS 4 programming API provides support for multitasking, thus allowing a process to run in the background without being suspended. However, it is limited and only available for a limited number of application types, including applications • running a single, finite-length task (such as completing a download of content from a network); • receiving notifications of an event occurring (such as a new email message); • with long-running background tasks (such as an audio player.)
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Apple probably limits multitasking due to battery life and memory use concerns. The CPU certainly has the features to support multitasking, but Apple chooses to not take advantage of some of them in order to better manage resource use. Android does not place such constraints on the types of applications that can run in the background. If an application requires processing while in the background, the application must use a service, a separate application component that runs on behalf of the background process. Consider a streaming audio application: if the application moves to the background, the service continues to send audio files to the audio device driver on behalf of the background application. In fact, the service will continue to run even if the background application is suspended. Services do not have a user interface and have a small memory footprint, thus providing an efficient technique for multitasking in a mobile environment
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Most operating systems (including UNIX, Linux, and Windows) identify processes according to a unique process identifier (or pid), which is typically an integer number. The pid provides a unique value for each process in the system, and it can be used as an index to access various attributes of a process within the kernel
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The init process (which always has a pid of 1) serves as the root parent process for all user processes
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Thekthreadd process is responsible for creating additional processes that perform tasks on behalf of the kernel
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The sshd process is responsible for managing clients that connect to the system by using ssh (which is short for secure shell). The login process is responsible for managing clients that directly log onto the system
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A child process may be able to obtain its resources directly from the operating system, or it may be constrained to a subset of the resources of the parent process. The parent may have to partition its resources among its children, or it may be able to share some resources (such as memory or files) among several of its children
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Restricting a child process to a subset of the parent’s resources prevents any process from overloading the system by creating too many child processes
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When a process creates a new process, two possibilities for execution exist: 1. The parent continues to execute concurrently with its children. 2. The parent waits until some or all of its children have terminated. There are also two address-space possibilities for the new process: 1. The child process is a duplicate of the parent process (it has the same program and data as the parent). 2. The child process has a new program loaded into it
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To illustrate these differences, let’s first consider the UNIX operating system. In UNIX, as we’ve seen, each process is identified by its process identifier, which is a unique integer. A new process is created by the fork() system call. The new process consists of a copy of the address space of the original process. This mechanism allows the parent process to communicate easily with its child process. Both processes (the parent and the child) continue execution at the instruction after the fork(), with one difference: the return code for the fork() is zero for the new (child) process, whereas the (nonzero) process identifier of the child is returned to the parent. After a fork() system call, one of the two processes typically uses the exec() system call to replace the process’s memory space with a new program. The exec() system call loads a binary file into memory (destroying the memory image of the program containing the exec() system call) and starts its execution. In this manner, the two processes are able to communicate and then go their separate ways. The parent can then create more children; or, if it has nothing else to do while the child runs, it can issue a wait() system call to move itself off the ready queue until the termination of the child
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Processes executing concurrently in the operating system may be either independent processes or cooperating processes. A process is independent if it cannot affect or be affected by the other processes executing in the system. Any process that does not share data with any other process is independent. A process is cooperating if it can affect or be affected by the other processes executing in the system. Clearly, any process that shares data with other processes is a cooperating process
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There are several reasons for providing an environment that allows process cooperation: • Information sharing. Since several users may be interested in the same piece of information (for instance, a shared file), we must provide an environment to allow concurrent access to such information. • Computation speedup. If we want a particular task to run faster, we must break it into subtasks, each of which will be executing in parallel with the others. Notice that such a speedup can be achieved only if the computer has multiple processing cores. • Modularity. We may want to construct the system in a modular fashion, dividing the system functions into separate processes or threads, as we discussed in Chapter 2. • Convenience. Even an individual user may work on many tasks at the same time. For instance, a user may be editing, listening to music, and compiling in parallel
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Cooperating processes require an interprocess communication ( IPC) mech- anism that will allow them to exchange data and information. There are two fundamental models of interprocess communication: shared memory and mes- sage passing
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As the number of processing cores on systems increases, it is possible that we will see message passing as the preferred mechanism for IPC
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Two types of buffers can be used. The unbounded buffer places no practical limit on the size of the buffer. The consumer may have to wait for new items, but the producer can always produce new items. The bounded buffer assumes a fixed buffer size. In this case, the consumer must wait if the buffer is empty, and the producer must wait if the buffer is full
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The process that creates a new mailbox is that mailbox’s owner by default. Initially, the owner is the only process that can receive messages through this mailbox. However, the ownership and receiving privilege may be passed to other processes through appropriate system calls
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#cabra-session #ethical-decisions-framework #ethics #has-images #reading-rene-toussaint
The CFA Institute Ethical Decision-Making Framework is a tool for analyzing and evaluating ethical scenarios in the investment profession. The Identify-Consider-Act- Reflect framework advances a decision-making structure for situations that often fall outside the clear confines of "right" and "wrong."
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Subject 6. Ethical Decision-Making Frameworks
The CFA Institute Ethical Decision-Making Framework is a tool for analyzing and evaluating ethical scenarios in the investment profession. The Identify-Consider-Act- Reflect framework advances a decision-making structure for situations that often fall outside the clear confines of "right" and "wrong." Neither a linear model nor a checklist, the framework provides a summary of the key elements of making ethical decisions. The framework is offered with the understanding th





#cabra-session #ethical-decisions-framework #ethics #has-images #reading-rene-toussaint
Neither a linear model nor a checklist, the framework provides a summary of the key elements of making ethical decisions. The framework is offered with the understanding that there likely will be additional influences, conflicts, and actions unique to each ethical scenario and beyond those detailed in the framework.
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Subject 6. Ethical Decision-Making Frameworks
hical scenarios in the investment profession. The Identify-Consider-Act- Reflect framework advances a decision-making structure for situations that often fall outside the clear confines of "right" and "wrong." <span>Neither a linear model nor a checklist, the framework provides a summary of the key elements of making ethical decisions. The framework is offered with the understanding that there likely will be additional influences, conflicts, and actions unique to each ethical scenario and beyond those detailed in the framework. Identify: ethical principles, duties to others (to whom do you owe a duty?), important facts, conflicts of interest. Consider: situational Influen





#cabra-session #ethical-decisions-framework #ethics #has-images #reading-rene-toussaint
Identify: ethical principles, duties to others (to whom do you owe a duty?), important facts, conflicts of interest.
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Subject 6. Ethical Decision-Making Frameworks
g ethical decisions. The framework is offered with the understanding that there likely will be additional influences, conflicts, and actions unique to each ethical scenario and beyond those detailed in the framework. <span>Identify: ethical principles, duties to others (to whom do you owe a duty?), important facts, conflicts of interest. Consider: situational Influences, alternative actions, additional guidance. Act: make a decision or elevate the issue to a higher authority. Reflect: What did you





#cabra-session #ethical-decisions-framework #ethics #has-images #reading-rene-toussaint
Consider: situational Influences, alternative actions, additional guidance.
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Subject 6. Ethical Decision-Making Frameworks
nd actions unique to each ethical scenario and beyond those detailed in the framework. Identify: ethical principles, duties to others (to whom do you owe a duty?), important facts, conflicts of interest. <span>Consider: situational Influences, alternative actions, additional guidance. Act: make a decision or elevate the issue to a higher authority. Reflect: What did you learn? The lessons you learn will help you reach ethical decisions more quickly in the f





#cabra-session #ethical-decisions-framework #ethics #has-images #reading-rene-toussaint
Act: make a decision or elevate the issue to a higher authority.
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Subject 6. Ethical Decision-Making Frameworks
work. Identify: ethical principles, duties to others (to whom do you owe a duty?), important facts, conflicts of interest. Consider: situational Influences, alternative actions, additional guidance. <span>Act: make a decision or elevate the issue to a higher authority. Reflect: What did you learn? The lessons you learn will help you reach ethical decisions more quickly in the future <span><body><html>





#cabra-session #ethical-decisions-framework #ethics #has-images #reading-rene-toussaint

Reflect: What did you learn? The lessons you learn will help you reach ethical decisions more quickly in the future

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Subject 6. Ethical Decision-Making Frameworks
o others (to whom do you owe a duty?), important facts, conflicts of interest. Consider: situational Influences, alternative actions, additional guidance. Act: make a decision or elevate the issue to a higher authority. <span>Reflect: What did you learn? The lessons you learn will help you reach ethical decisions more quickly in the future <span><body><html>




Flashcard 1750241250572

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#globo-terraqueo-session #has-images #monetary-policy #reading-agustin-carsten


Question
Monetary policy refers to government or central bank activities that are directed toward influencing the [...] in an economy.
Answer
quantity of money and credit

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Monetary policy refers to government or central bank activities that are directed toward influencing the quantity of money and credit in an economy.

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2. Monetary Policy
As stated above, monetary policy refers to government or central bank activities that are directed toward influencing the quantity of money and credit in an economy. Before we can begin to understand how monetary policy is implemented, we must examine the functions and role of money . We can then explore the special role that central banks play i







Flashcard 1750242823436

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#globo-terraqueo-session #has-images #monetary-policy #reading-agustin-carsten


Question
Before we can begin to understand how monetary policy is implemented, we must examine the functions and role of [...] .
Answer
money

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Before we can begin to understand how monetary policy is implemented, we must examine the functions and role of money . We can then explore the special role that central banks play in today’s economies.

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2. Monetary Policy
As stated above, monetary policy refers to government or central bank activities that are directed toward influencing the quantity of money and credit in an economy. Before we can begin to understand how monetary policy is implemented, we must examine the functions and role of money . We can then explore the special role that central banks play in today’s economies.







Flashcard 1750248066316

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#functions-of-money #globo-terraqueo-session #has-images #monetary-policy #money #reading-agustin-carsten


Question
The most generic definition of money is that it is any generally accepted [...] .
Answer
medium of exchange

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The most generic definition of money is that it is any generally accepted medium of exchange. A medium of exchange is any asset that can be used to purchase goods and services or to repay debts. Money can thus eliminate the debilitating double coincidence of the “wants” problem

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Money
: the price of oranges in terms of pears; of pears in terms of bread; of bread in terms of milk; or of milk in terms of oranges. A barter economy has no common measure of value that would make multiple transactions simple. <span>2.1.1. The Functions of Money The most generic definition of money is that it is any generally accepted medium of exchange. A medium of exchange is any asset that can be used to purchase goods and services or to repay debts. Money can thus eliminate the debilitating double coincidence of the “wants” problem that exists in a barter economy. When this medium of exchange exists, a farmer wishing to sell wheat for wine does not need to identify a wine producer in search of wheat. Instead, he can sell wheat to those who want wheat in exchange for money. The farmer can then exchange this money for wine with a wine producer, who in turn can exchange that money for the goods or services that she wants. However, for money to act as this liberating medium of exchange, it must possess certain qualities. It must: be readily acceptable, have a known value, be easily divisible, have a high value relative to its weight, and be difficult to counterfeit. Qualities (i) and (ii) are closely related; the medium of exchange will only be acceptable if it has a known value. If the medium of exchange has quality (iii), then it can be used to purchase items of relatively little value and of relatively large value with equal ease. Having a high value relative to its weight is a practical convenience, meaning that people can carry around sufficient wealth for their transaction needs. Finally, if the medium of exchange can be counterfeited easily, then it would soon cease to have a value and would not be readily acceptable as a means of effecting transactions; in other words, it would not satisfy qualities (i) and (ii). Given the qualities that money needs to have, it is clear why precious metals (particularly gold and silver) often fulfilled the role of medium of exchange in early societies, and as recently as the early part of the twentieth century. Precious metals were acceptable as a medium of exchange because they had a known value, were easily divisible, had a high value relative to their weight, and could not be easily counterfeited. Thus, precious metals were capable of acting as a medium of exchange. But they also fulfilled two other useful functions that are essential for the characteristics of money. In a barter economy, it is difficult to store wealth from one year to the next when one’s produce is perishable, or indeed, if it requires large warehouses in which to store it. Because precious metals like gold had a high value relative to their bulk and were not perishable, they could act as a store of wealth . However, their ability to act as a store of wealth not only depended on the fact that they did not perish physically over time, but also on the belief that others would always value precious metals. The value from year to year of precious metals depended on people’s continued demand for them in ornaments, jewellery, and so on. For example, people were willing to use gold as a store of wealth because they believed that it would remain highly valued. However, if gold became less valuable to people relative to other goods and services year after year it would not be able to fulfill its role as a store of value , and as such might also lose its status as a medium of exchange. Another important characteristic of money is that it can be used as a universal unit of account. As such, it can create a single unitary measure of value for all goods and services. In an economy where gold and silver are the accepted medium of exchange, all prices, debts, and wealth can be recorded in terms of their gold or silver coin exchange value. Money, in its role as a unit of account, drastically reduces the number of prices in an economy compared to barter, which requires that prices be established for a good in terms of all other goods for which it might be exchanged. In summary, money fulfills three important functions, it: acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. 2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money








#functions-of-money #globo-terraqueo-session #has-images #monetary-policy #money #reading-agustin-carsten
A medium of exchange is any asset that can be used to purchase goods and services or to repay debts.
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The most generic definition of money is that it is any generally accepted medium of exchange. A medium of exchange is any asset that can be used to purchase goods and services or to repay debts. Money can thus eliminate the debilitating double coincidence of the “wants” problem that exists in a barter economy. When this medium of exchange exists, a farmer wishing to sell wheat

Original toplevel document

Money
: the price of oranges in terms of pears; of pears in terms of bread; of bread in terms of milk; or of milk in terms of oranges. A barter economy has no common measure of value that would make multiple transactions simple. <span>2.1.1. The Functions of Money The most generic definition of money is that it is any generally accepted medium of exchange. A medium of exchange is any asset that can be used to purchase goods and services or to repay debts. Money can thus eliminate the debilitating double coincidence of the “wants” problem that exists in a barter economy. When this medium of exchange exists, a farmer wishing to sell wheat for wine does not need to identify a wine producer in search of wheat. Instead, he can sell wheat to those who want wheat in exchange for money. The farmer can then exchange this money for wine with a wine producer, who in turn can exchange that money for the goods or services that she wants. However, for money to act as this liberating medium of exchange, it must possess certain qualities. It must: be readily acceptable, have a known value, be easily divisible, have a high value relative to its weight, and be difficult to counterfeit. Qualities (i) and (ii) are closely related; the medium of exchange will only be acceptable if it has a known value. If the medium of exchange has quality (iii), then it can be used to purchase items of relatively little value and of relatively large value with equal ease. Having a high value relative to its weight is a practical convenience, meaning that people can carry around sufficient wealth for their transaction needs. Finally, if the medium of exchange can be counterfeited easily, then it would soon cease to have a value and would not be readily acceptable as a means of effecting transactions; in other words, it would not satisfy qualities (i) and (ii). Given the qualities that money needs to have, it is clear why precious metals (particularly gold and silver) often fulfilled the role of medium of exchange in early societies, and as recently as the early part of the twentieth century. Precious metals were acceptable as a medium of exchange because they had a known value, were easily divisible, had a high value relative to their weight, and could not be easily counterfeited. Thus, precious metals were capable of acting as a medium of exchange. But they also fulfilled two other useful functions that are essential for the characteristics of money. In a barter economy, it is difficult to store wealth from one year to the next when one’s produce is perishable, or indeed, if it requires large warehouses in which to store it. Because precious metals like gold had a high value relative to their bulk and were not perishable, they could act as a store of wealth . However, their ability to act as a store of wealth not only depended on the fact that they did not perish physically over time, but also on the belief that others would always value precious metals. The value from year to year of precious metals depended on people’s continued demand for them in ornaments, jewellery, and so on. For example, people were willing to use gold as a store of wealth because they believed that it would remain highly valued. However, if gold became less valuable to people relative to other goods and services year after year it would not be able to fulfill its role as a store of value , and as such might also lose its status as a medium of exchange. Another important characteristic of money is that it can be used as a universal unit of account. As such, it can create a single unitary measure of value for all goods and services. In an economy where gold and silver are the accepted medium of exchange, all prices, debts, and wealth can be recorded in terms of their gold or silver coin exchange value. Money, in its role as a unit of account, drastically reduces the number of prices in an economy compared to barter, which requires that prices be established for a good in terms of all other goods for which it might be exchanged. In summary, money fulfills three important functions, it: acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. 2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money





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When a medium of exchange exists, a farmer wishing to sell wheat for wine does not need to identify a wine producer in search of wheat. Instead, he can sell wheat to those who want wheat in exchange for money. The farmer can then exchange this money for wine with a wine producer, who in turn can exchange that money for the goods or services that she wants.
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pted medium of exchange. A medium of exchange is any asset that can be used to purchase goods and services or to repay debts. Money can thus eliminate the debilitating double coincidence of the “wants” problem that exists in a barter economy. <span>When this medium of exchange exists, a farmer wishing to sell wheat for wine does not need to identify a wine producer in search of wheat. Instead, he can sell wheat to those who want wheat in exchange for money. The farmer can then exchange this money for wine with a wine producer, who in turn can exchange that money for the goods or services that she wants. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Money
: the price of oranges in terms of pears; of pears in terms of bread; of bread in terms of milk; or of milk in terms of oranges. A barter economy has no common measure of value that would make multiple transactions simple. <span>2.1.1. The Functions of Money The most generic definition of money is that it is any generally accepted medium of exchange. A medium of exchange is any asset that can be used to purchase goods and services or to repay debts. Money can thus eliminate the debilitating double coincidence of the “wants” problem that exists in a barter economy. When this medium of exchange exists, a farmer wishing to sell wheat for wine does not need to identify a wine producer in search of wheat. Instead, he can sell wheat to those who want wheat in exchange for money. The farmer can then exchange this money for wine with a wine producer, who in turn can exchange that money for the goods or services that she wants. However, for money to act as this liberating medium of exchange, it must possess certain qualities. It must: be readily acceptable, have a known value, be easily divisible, have a high value relative to its weight, and be difficult to counterfeit. Qualities (i) and (ii) are closely related; the medium of exchange will only be acceptable if it has a known value. If the medium of exchange has quality (iii), then it can be used to purchase items of relatively little value and of relatively large value with equal ease. Having a high value relative to its weight is a practical convenience, meaning that people can carry around sufficient wealth for their transaction needs. Finally, if the medium of exchange can be counterfeited easily, then it would soon cease to have a value and would not be readily acceptable as a means of effecting transactions; in other words, it would not satisfy qualities (i) and (ii). Given the qualities that money needs to have, it is clear why precious metals (particularly gold and silver) often fulfilled the role of medium of exchange in early societies, and as recently as the early part of the twentieth century. Precious metals were acceptable as a medium of exchange because they had a known value, were easily divisible, had a high value relative to their weight, and could not be easily counterfeited. Thus, precious metals were capable of acting as a medium of exchange. But they also fulfilled two other useful functions that are essential for the characteristics of money. In a barter economy, it is difficult to store wealth from one year to the next when one’s produce is perishable, or indeed, if it requires large warehouses in which to store it. Because precious metals like gold had a high value relative to their bulk and were not perishable, they could act as a store of wealth . However, their ability to act as a store of wealth not only depended on the fact that they did not perish physically over time, but also on the belief that others would always value precious metals. The value from year to year of precious metals depended on people’s continued demand for them in ornaments, jewellery, and so on. For example, people were willing to use gold as a store of wealth because they believed that it would remain highly valued. However, if gold became less valuable to people relative to other goods and services year after year it would not be able to fulfill its role as a store of value , and as such might also lose its status as a medium of exchange. Another important characteristic of money is that it can be used as a universal unit of account. As such, it can create a single unitary measure of value for all goods and services. In an economy where gold and silver are the accepted medium of exchange, all prices, debts, and wealth can be recorded in terms of their gold or silver coin exchange value. Money, in its role as a unit of account, drastically reduces the number of prices in an economy compared to barter, which requires that prices be established for a good in terms of all other goods for which it might be exchanged. In summary, money fulfills three important functions, it: acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. 2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money




Flashcard 1750256192780

Tags
#function-of-money #globo-terraqueo-session #has-images #monetary-policy #money #reading-agustin-carsten


Question
A medium of exchange will only be acceptable if it has a [...].
Answer
known value

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the medium of exchange will only be acceptable if it has a known value. If the medium of exchange has quality (iii), then it can be used to purchase items of relatively little value and of relatively large value with equal ease.

Original toplevel document

Money
: the price of oranges in terms of pears; of pears in terms of bread; of bread in terms of milk; or of milk in terms of oranges. A barter economy has no common measure of value that would make multiple transactions simple. <span>2.1.1. The Functions of Money The most generic definition of money is that it is any generally accepted medium of exchange. A medium of exchange is any asset that can be used to purchase goods and services or to repay debts. Money can thus eliminate the debilitating double coincidence of the “wants” problem that exists in a barter economy. When this medium of exchange exists, a farmer wishing to sell wheat for wine does not need to identify a wine producer in search of wheat. Instead, he can sell wheat to those who want wheat in exchange for money. The farmer can then exchange this money for wine with a wine producer, who in turn can exchange that money for the goods or services that she wants. However, for money to act as this liberating medium of exchange, it must possess certain qualities. It must: be readily acceptable, have a known value, be easily divisible, have a high value relative to its weight, and be difficult to counterfeit. Qualities (i) and (ii) are closely related; the medium of exchange will only be acceptable if it has a known value. If the medium of exchange has quality (iii), then it can be used to purchase items of relatively little value and of relatively large value with equal ease. Having a high value relative to its weight is a practical convenience, meaning that people can carry around sufficient wealth for their transaction needs. Finally, if the medium of exchange can be counterfeited easily, then it would soon cease to have a value and would not be readily acceptable as a means of effecting transactions; in other words, it would not satisfy qualities (i) and (ii). Given the qualities that money needs to have, it is clear why precious metals (particularly gold and silver) often fulfilled the role of medium of exchange in early societies, and as recently as the early part of the twentieth century. Precious metals were acceptable as a medium of exchange because they had a known value, were easily divisible, had a high value relative to their weight, and could not be easily counterfeited. Thus, precious metals were capable of acting as a medium of exchange. But they also fulfilled two other useful functions that are essential for the characteristics of money. In a barter economy, it is difficult to store wealth from one year to the next when one’s produce is perishable, or indeed, if it requires large warehouses in which to store it. Because precious metals like gold had a high value relative to their bulk and were not perishable, they could act as a store of wealth . However, their ability to act as a store of wealth not only depended on the fact that they did not perish physically over time, but also on the belief that others would always value precious metals. The value from year to year of precious metals depended on people’s continued demand for them in ornaments, jewellery, and so on. For example, people were willing to use gold as a store of wealth because they believed that it would remain highly valued. However, if gold became less valuable to people relative to other goods and services year after year it would not be able to fulfill its role as a store of value , and as such might also lose its status as a medium of exchange. Another important characteristic of money is that it can be used as a universal unit of account. As such, it can create a single unitary measure of value for all goods and services. In an economy where gold and silver are the accepted medium of exchange, all prices, debts, and wealth can be recorded in terms of their gold or silver coin exchange value. Money, in its role as a unit of account, drastically reduces the number of prices in an economy compared to barter, which requires that prices be established for a good in terms of all other goods for which it might be exchanged. In summary, money fulfills three important functions, it: acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. 2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money







Flashcard 1750259338508

Tags
#globo-terraqueo-session #has-images #monetary-policy #paper-money-creation-process #reading-agustin-carsten


Question
The process of [...] is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy.
Answer
money creation

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The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its cust

Original toplevel document

Money
3; acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. <span>2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money relatively well for many years, and although carrying gold coins around was easier than carrying around one’s physical produce, it was not necessarily a safe way to conduct business. A crucial development in the history of money was the promissory note . The process began when individuals began leaving their excess gold with goldsmiths, who would look after it for them. In turn the goldsmiths would give the depositors a receipt, stating how much gold they had deposited. Eventually these receipts were traded directly for goods and services, rather than there being a physical transfer of gold from the goods buyer to the goods seller. Of course, both the buyer and seller had to trust the goldsmith because the goldsmith had all the gold and the goldsmith’s customers had only pieces of paper. These depository receipts represented a promise to pay a certain amount of gold on demand. This paper money therefore became a proxy for the precious metals on which they were based, that is, they were directly related to a physical commodity. Many of these early goldsmiths evolved into banks, taking in excess wealth and in turn issuing promissory notes that could be used in commerce. In taking in other people’s gold and issuing depository receipts and later promissory notes, it became clear to the goldsmiths and early banks that not all the gold that they held in their vaults would be withdrawn at any one time. Individuals were willing to buy and sell goods and services with the promissory notes, but the majority of the gold that backed the notes just sat in the vaults—although its ownership would change with the flow of commerce over time. A certain proportion of the gold that was not being withdrawn and used directly for commerce could therefore be lent to others at a rate of interest. By doing this, the early banks created money. The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers. This practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking . We can illustrate how it works through a simple example. Suppose that the bankers in an economy come to the view that they need to retain only 10 percent of any money deposited with them. This is known as the reserve requirement .2 Now consider what happens when a customer deposits €100 in the First Bank of Nations. This deposit changes the balance sheet of First Bank of Nations, as shown in Exhibit 2, and it represents a liability to the bank because it is effectively loaned to the bank by the customer. By lending 90 percent of this deposit to another customer the bank has two types of assets: (1) the bank’s reserves of €10, and (2) the loan equivalent to €90. Notice that the balance sheet still balances; €100 worth of assets and €100 worth of liabilities are on the balance sheet. Now suppose that the recipient of the loan of €90 uses this money to purchase some goods of this value and the seller of the goods deposits this €90 in another bank, the Second Bank of Nations. The Second Bank of Nations goes through the same process; it retains €9 in reserve and loans 90 percent of the deposit (€81) to another customer. This customer in turn spends €81 on some goods or services. The recipient of this money deposits it at the Third Bank of Nations, and so on. This example shows how money is created when a bank makes a loan. Exhibit 2. Money Creation via Fractional Reserve Banking First Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €10 Deposits €100 Loans €90 Second Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €9 Deposits €90 Loans €81 Third Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €8.1 Deposits €81 Loans €72.9 This process continues until there is no more money left to be deposited and loaned out. The total amount of money ‘created’ from this one deposit of €100 can be calculated as: Equation (1)  New deposit/Reserve requirement = €100/0.10 = €1,000 It is the sum of all the deposits now in the banking system. You should also note that the original deposit of €100, via the practice of reserve banking, was the catalyst for €1,000 worth of economic transactions. That is not to say that economic growth would be zero without this process, but instead that it can be an important component in economic activity. The amount of money that the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier .3 In the case just examined, the money multiplier is 1/0.10 = 10. Equation 1 implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect. In our simplistic example, we assumed that the banks themselves set their own reserve requirements. However, in some economies, the central bank sets the reserve requirement, which is a potential means of affecting money growth. In any case, a prudent bank would be wise to have sufficient reserves such that the withdrawal demands of their depositors can be met in stressful economic and credit market conditions. Later, when we discuss central banks and central bank policy, we will see how central banks can use the mechanism just described to affect the money supply. Specifically, the central bank could, by purchasing €100 in government securities credited to the bank account of the seller, seek to initiate an increase in the money supply. The central bank may also lend reserves directly to banks, creating excess reserves (relative to any imposed or self-imposed reserve requirement) that can support new loans and money expansion. 2.1.3. Definitions of Money The process of money creation raises a fundamental issue: What is money? In an economy with money but without promisso








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Fractional reserve banking

Banking in which reserves constitute a fraction of deposits.

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The potency of money creation process depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers.
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The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers. This practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking &#1

Original toplevel document

Money
3; acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. <span>2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money relatively well for many years, and although carrying gold coins around was easier than carrying around one’s physical produce, it was not necessarily a safe way to conduct business. A crucial development in the history of money was the promissory note . The process began when individuals began leaving their excess gold with goldsmiths, who would look after it for them. In turn the goldsmiths would give the depositors a receipt, stating how much gold they had deposited. Eventually these receipts were traded directly for goods and services, rather than there being a physical transfer of gold from the goods buyer to the goods seller. Of course, both the buyer and seller had to trust the goldsmith because the goldsmith had all the gold and the goldsmith’s customers had only pieces of paper. These depository receipts represented a promise to pay a certain amount of gold on demand. This paper money therefore became a proxy for the precious metals on which they were based, that is, they were directly related to a physical commodity. Many of these early goldsmiths evolved into banks, taking in excess wealth and in turn issuing promissory notes that could be used in commerce. In taking in other people’s gold and issuing depository receipts and later promissory notes, it became clear to the goldsmiths and early banks that not all the gold that they held in their vaults would be withdrawn at any one time. Individuals were willing to buy and sell goods and services with the promissory notes, but the majority of the gold that backed the notes just sat in the vaults—although its ownership would change with the flow of commerce over time. A certain proportion of the gold that was not being withdrawn and used directly for commerce could therefore be lent to others at a rate of interest. By doing this, the early banks created money. The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers. This practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking . We can illustrate how it works through a simple example. Suppose that the bankers in an economy come to the view that they need to retain only 10 percent of any money deposited with them. This is known as the reserve requirement .2 Now consider what happens when a customer deposits €100 in the First Bank of Nations. This deposit changes the balance sheet of First Bank of Nations, as shown in Exhibit 2, and it represents a liability to the bank because it is effectively loaned to the bank by the customer. By lending 90 percent of this deposit to another customer the bank has two types of assets: (1) the bank’s reserves of €10, and (2) the loan equivalent to €90. Notice that the balance sheet still balances; €100 worth of assets and €100 worth of liabilities are on the balance sheet. Now suppose that the recipient of the loan of €90 uses this money to purchase some goods of this value and the seller of the goods deposits this €90 in another bank, the Second Bank of Nations. The Second Bank of Nations goes through the same process; it retains €9 in reserve and loans 90 percent of the deposit (€81) to another customer. This customer in turn spends €81 on some goods or services. The recipient of this money deposits it at the Third Bank of Nations, and so on. This example shows how money is created when a bank makes a loan. Exhibit 2. Money Creation via Fractional Reserve Banking First Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €10 Deposits €100 Loans €90 Second Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €9 Deposits €90 Loans €81 Third Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €8.1 Deposits €81 Loans €72.9 This process continues until there is no more money left to be deposited and loaned out. The total amount of money ‘created’ from this one deposit of €100 can be calculated as: Equation (1)  New deposit/Reserve requirement = €100/0.10 = €1,000 It is the sum of all the deposits now in the banking system. You should also note that the original deposit of €100, via the practice of reserve banking, was the catalyst for €1,000 worth of economic transactions. That is not to say that economic growth would be zero without this process, but instead that it can be an important component in economic activity. The amount of money that the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier .3 In the case just examined, the money multiplier is 1/0.10 = 10. Equation 1 implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect. In our simplistic example, we assumed that the banks themselves set their own reserve requirements. However, in some economies, the central bank sets the reserve requirement, which is a potential means of affecting money growth. In any case, a prudent bank would be wise to have sufficient reserves such that the withdrawal demands of their depositors can be met in stressful economic and credit market conditions. Later, when we discuss central banks and central bank policy, we will see how central banks can use the mechanism just described to affect the money supply. Specifically, the central bank could, by purchasing €100 in government securities credited to the bank account of the seller, seek to initiate an increase in the money supply. The central bank may also lend reserves directly to banks, creating excess reserves (relative to any imposed or self-imposed reserve requirement) that can support new loans and money expansion. 2.1.3. Definitions of Money The process of money creation raises a fundamental issue: What is money? In an economy with money but without promisso





#globo-terraqueo-session #has-images #monetary-policy #paper-money-creation-process #reading-agustin-carsten
The practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking
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The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers. <span>This practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Money
3; acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. <span>2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money relatively well for many years, and although carrying gold coins around was easier than carrying around one’s physical produce, it was not necessarily a safe way to conduct business. A crucial development in the history of money was the promissory note . The process began when individuals began leaving their excess gold with goldsmiths, who would look after it for them. In turn the goldsmiths would give the depositors a receipt, stating how much gold they had deposited. Eventually these receipts were traded directly for goods and services, rather than there being a physical transfer of gold from the goods buyer to the goods seller. Of course, both the buyer and seller had to trust the goldsmith because the goldsmith had all the gold and the goldsmith’s customers had only pieces of paper. These depository receipts represented a promise to pay a certain amount of gold on demand. This paper money therefore became a proxy for the precious metals on which they were based, that is, they were directly related to a physical commodity. Many of these early goldsmiths evolved into banks, taking in excess wealth and in turn issuing promissory notes that could be used in commerce. In taking in other people’s gold and issuing depository receipts and later promissory notes, it became clear to the goldsmiths and early banks that not all the gold that they held in their vaults would be withdrawn at any one time. Individuals were willing to buy and sell goods and services with the promissory notes, but the majority of the gold that backed the notes just sat in the vaults—although its ownership would change with the flow of commerce over time. A certain proportion of the gold that was not being withdrawn and used directly for commerce could therefore be lent to others at a rate of interest. By doing this, the early banks created money. The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers. This practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking . We can illustrate how it works through a simple example. Suppose that the bankers in an economy come to the view that they need to retain only 10 percent of any money deposited with them. This is known as the reserve requirement .2 Now consider what happens when a customer deposits €100 in the First Bank of Nations. This deposit changes the balance sheet of First Bank of Nations, as shown in Exhibit 2, and it represents a liability to the bank because it is effectively loaned to the bank by the customer. By lending 90 percent of this deposit to another customer the bank has two types of assets: (1) the bank’s reserves of €10, and (2) the loan equivalent to €90. Notice that the balance sheet still balances; €100 worth of assets and €100 worth of liabilities are on the balance sheet. Now suppose that the recipient of the loan of €90 uses this money to purchase some goods of this value and the seller of the goods deposits this €90 in another bank, the Second Bank of Nations. The Second Bank of Nations goes through the same process; it retains €9 in reserve and loans 90 percent of the deposit (€81) to another customer. This customer in turn spends €81 on some goods or services. The recipient of this money deposits it at the Third Bank of Nations, and so on. This example shows how money is created when a bank makes a loan. Exhibit 2. Money Creation via Fractional Reserve Banking First Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €10 Deposits €100 Loans €90 Second Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €9 Deposits €90 Loans €81 Third Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €8.1 Deposits €81 Loans €72.9 This process continues until there is no more money left to be deposited and loaned out. The total amount of money ‘created’ from this one deposit of €100 can be calculated as: Equation (1)  New deposit/Reserve requirement = €100/0.10 = €1,000 It is the sum of all the deposits now in the banking system. You should also note that the original deposit of €100, via the practice of reserve banking, was the catalyst for €1,000 worth of economic transactions. That is not to say that economic growth would be zero without this process, but instead that it can be an important component in economic activity. The amount of money that the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier .3 In the case just examined, the money multiplier is 1/0.10 = 10. Equation 1 implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect. In our simplistic example, we assumed that the banks themselves set their own reserve requirements. However, in some economies, the central bank sets the reserve requirement, which is a potential means of affecting money growth. In any case, a prudent bank would be wise to have sufficient reserves such that the withdrawal demands of their depositors can be met in stressful economic and credit market conditions. Later, when we discuss central banks and central bank policy, we will see how central banks can use the mechanism just described to affect the money supply. Specifically, the central bank could, by purchasing €100 in government securities credited to the bank account of the seller, seek to initiate an increase in the money supply. The central bank may also lend reserves directly to banks, creating excess reserves (relative to any imposed or self-imposed reserve requirement) that can support new loans and money expansion. 2.1.3. Definitions of Money The process of money creation raises a fundamental issue: What is money? In an economy with money but without promisso




Flashcard 1750274280716

Tags
#has-images #monetary-policy #paper-money-creation-process #reading-agustin-carsten


Question
The practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as [...]
Answer
fractional reserve banking

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking

Original toplevel document

Money
3; acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. <span>2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money relatively well for many years, and although carrying gold coins around was easier than carrying around one’s physical produce, it was not necessarily a safe way to conduct business. A crucial development in the history of money was the promissory note . The process began when individuals began leaving their excess gold with goldsmiths, who would look after it for them. In turn the goldsmiths would give the depositors a receipt, stating how much gold they had deposited. Eventually these receipts were traded directly for goods and services, rather than there being a physical transfer of gold from the goods buyer to the goods seller. Of course, both the buyer and seller had to trust the goldsmith because the goldsmith had all the gold and the goldsmith’s customers had only pieces of paper. These depository receipts represented a promise to pay a certain amount of gold on demand. This paper money therefore became a proxy for the precious metals on which they were based, that is, they were directly related to a physical commodity. Many of these early goldsmiths evolved into banks, taking in excess wealth and in turn issuing promissory notes that could be used in commerce. In taking in other people’s gold and issuing depository receipts and later promissory notes, it became clear to the goldsmiths and early banks that not all the gold that they held in their vaults would be withdrawn at any one time. Individuals were willing to buy and sell goods and services with the promissory notes, but the majority of the gold that backed the notes just sat in the vaults—although its ownership would change with the flow of commerce over time. A certain proportion of the gold that was not being withdrawn and used directly for commerce could therefore be lent to others at a rate of interest. By doing this, the early banks created money. The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers. This practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking . We can illustrate how it works through a simple example. Suppose that the bankers in an economy come to the view that they need to retain only 10 percent of any money deposited with them. This is known as the reserve requirement .2 Now consider what happens when a customer deposits €100 in the First Bank of Nations. This deposit changes the balance sheet of First Bank of Nations, as shown in Exhibit 2, and it represents a liability to the bank because it is effectively loaned to the bank by the customer. By lending 90 percent of this deposit to another customer the bank has two types of assets: (1) the bank’s reserves of €10, and (2) the loan equivalent to €90. Notice that the balance sheet still balances; €100 worth of assets and €100 worth of liabilities are on the balance sheet. Now suppose that the recipient of the loan of €90 uses this money to purchase some goods of this value and the seller of the goods deposits this €90 in another bank, the Second Bank of Nations. The Second Bank of Nations goes through the same process; it retains €9 in reserve and loans 90 percent of the deposit (€81) to another customer. This customer in turn spends €81 on some goods or services. The recipient of this money deposits it at the Third Bank of Nations, and so on. This example shows how money is created when a bank makes a loan. Exhibit 2. Money Creation via Fractional Reserve Banking First Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €10 Deposits €100 Loans €90 Second Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €9 Deposits €90 Loans €81 Third Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €8.1 Deposits €81 Loans €72.9 This process continues until there is no more money left to be deposited and loaned out. The total amount of money ‘created’ from this one deposit of €100 can be calculated as: Equation (1)  New deposit/Reserve requirement = €100/0.10 = €1,000 It is the sum of all the deposits now in the banking system. You should also note that the original deposit of €100, via the practice of reserve banking, was the catalyst for €1,000 worth of economic transactions. That is not to say that economic growth would be zero without this process, but instead that it can be an important component in economic activity. The amount of money that the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier .3 In the case just examined, the money multiplier is 1/0.10 = 10. Equation 1 implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect. In our simplistic example, we assumed that the banks themselves set their own reserve requirements. However, in some economies, the central bank sets the reserve requirement, which is a potential means of affecting money growth. In any case, a prudent bank would be wise to have sufficient reserves such that the withdrawal demands of their depositors can be met in stressful economic and credit market conditions. Later, when we discuss central banks and central bank policy, we will see how central banks can use the mechanism just described to affect the money supply. Specifically, the central bank could, by purchasing €100 in government securities credited to the bank account of the seller, seek to initiate an increase in the money supply. The central bank may also lend reserves directly to banks, creating excess reserves (relative to any imposed or self-imposed reserve requirement) that can support new loans and money expansion. 2.1.3. Definitions of Money The process of money creation raises a fundamental issue: What is money? In an economy with money but without promisso








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he amount of money that the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier.
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The amount of money that the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier. In the case just examined, the money multiplier is 1/0.10 = 10. This equation implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect. </

Original toplevel document

Money
3; acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. <span>2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money relatively well for many years, and although carrying gold coins around was easier than carrying around one’s physical produce, it was not necessarily a safe way to conduct business. A crucial development in the history of money was the promissory note . The process began when individuals began leaving their excess gold with goldsmiths, who would look after it for them. In turn the goldsmiths would give the depositors a receipt, stating how much gold they had deposited. Eventually these receipts were traded directly for goods and services, rather than there being a physical transfer of gold from the goods buyer to the goods seller. Of course, both the buyer and seller had to trust the goldsmith because the goldsmith had all the gold and the goldsmith’s customers had only pieces of paper. These depository receipts represented a promise to pay a certain amount of gold on demand. This paper money therefore became a proxy for the precious metals on which they were based, that is, they were directly related to a physical commodity. Many of these early goldsmiths evolved into banks, taking in excess wealth and in turn issuing promissory notes that could be used in commerce. In taking in other people’s gold and issuing depository receipts and later promissory notes, it became clear to the goldsmiths and early banks that not all the gold that they held in their vaults would be withdrawn at any one time. Individuals were willing to buy and sell goods and services with the promissory notes, but the majority of the gold that backed the notes just sat in the vaults—although its ownership would change with the flow of commerce over time. A certain proportion of the gold that was not being withdrawn and used directly for commerce could therefore be lent to others at a rate of interest. By doing this, the early banks created money. The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers. This practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking . We can illustrate how it works through a simple example. Suppose that the bankers in an economy come to the view that they need to retain only 10 percent of any money deposited with them. This is known as the reserve requirement .2 Now consider what happens when a customer deposits €100 in the First Bank of Nations. This deposit changes the balance sheet of First Bank of Nations, as shown in Exhibit 2, and it represents a liability to the bank because it is effectively loaned to the bank by the customer. By lending 90 percent of this deposit to another customer the bank has two types of assets: (1) the bank’s reserves of €10, and (2) the loan equivalent to €90. Notice that the balance sheet still balances; €100 worth of assets and €100 worth of liabilities are on the balance sheet. Now suppose that the recipient of the loan of €90 uses this money to purchase some goods of this value and the seller of the goods deposits this €90 in another bank, the Second Bank of Nations. The Second Bank of Nations goes through the same process; it retains €9 in reserve and loans 90 percent of the deposit (€81) to another customer. This customer in turn spends €81 on some goods or services. The recipient of this money deposits it at the Third Bank of Nations, and so on. This example shows how money is created when a bank makes a loan. Exhibit 2. Money Creation via Fractional Reserve Banking First Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €10 Deposits €100 Loans €90 Second Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €9 Deposits €90 Loans €81 Third Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €8.1 Deposits €81 Loans €72.9 This process continues until there is no more money left to be deposited and loaned out. The total amount of money ‘created’ from this one deposit of €100 can be calculated as: Equation (1)  New deposit/Reserve requirement = €100/0.10 = €1,000 It is the sum of all the deposits now in the banking system. You should also note that the original deposit of €100, via the practice of reserve banking, was the catalyst for €1,000 worth of economic transactions. That is not to say that economic growth would be zero without this process, but instead that it can be an important component in economic activity. The amount of money that the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier .3 In the case just examined, the money multiplier is 1/0.10 = 10. Equation 1 implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect. In our simplistic example, we assumed that the banks themselves set their own reserve requirements. However, in some economies, the central bank sets the reserve requirement, which is a potential means of affecting money growth. In any case, a prudent bank would be wise to have sufficient reserves such that the withdrawal demands of their depositors can be met in stressful economic and credit market conditions. Later, when we discuss central banks and central bank policy, we will see how central banks can use the mechanism just described to affect the money supply. Specifically, the central bank could, by purchasing €100 in government securities credited to the bank account of the seller, seek to initiate an increase in the money supply. The central bank may also lend reserves directly to banks, creating excess reserves (relative to any imposed or self-imposed reserve requirement) that can support new loans and money expansion. 2.1.3. Definitions of Money The process of money creation raises a fundamental issue: What is money? In an economy with money but without promisso





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The equation (1/Reserve Requirement) implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect.
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hat the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier. In the case just examined, the money multiplier is 1/0.10 = 10. <span>This equation implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Money
3; acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. <span>2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money relatively well for many years, and although carrying gold coins around was easier than carrying around one’s physical produce, it was not necessarily a safe way to conduct business. A crucial development in the history of money was the promissory note . The process began when individuals began leaving their excess gold with goldsmiths, who would look after it for them. In turn the goldsmiths would give the depositors a receipt, stating how much gold they had deposited. Eventually these receipts were traded directly for goods and services, rather than there being a physical transfer of gold from the goods buyer to the goods seller. Of course, both the buyer and seller had to trust the goldsmith because the goldsmith had all the gold and the goldsmith’s customers had only pieces of paper. These depository receipts represented a promise to pay a certain amount of gold on demand. This paper money therefore became a proxy for the precious metals on which they were based, that is, they were directly related to a physical commodity. Many of these early goldsmiths evolved into banks, taking in excess wealth and in turn issuing promissory notes that could be used in commerce. In taking in other people’s gold and issuing depository receipts and later promissory notes, it became clear to the goldsmiths and early banks that not all the gold that they held in their vaults would be withdrawn at any one time. Individuals were willing to buy and sell goods and services with the promissory notes, but the majority of the gold that backed the notes just sat in the vaults—although its ownership would change with the flow of commerce over time. A certain proportion of the gold that was not being withdrawn and used directly for commerce could therefore be lent to others at a rate of interest. By doing this, the early banks created money. The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers. This practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking . We can illustrate how it works through a simple example. Suppose that the bankers in an economy come to the view that they need to retain only 10 percent of any money deposited with them. This is known as the reserve requirement .2 Now consider what happens when a customer deposits €100 in the First Bank of Nations. This deposit changes the balance sheet of First Bank of Nations, as shown in Exhibit 2, and it represents a liability to the bank because it is effectively loaned to the bank by the customer. By lending 90 percent of this deposit to another customer the bank has two types of assets: (1) the bank’s reserves of €10, and (2) the loan equivalent to €90. Notice that the balance sheet still balances; €100 worth of assets and €100 worth of liabilities are on the balance sheet. Now suppose that the recipient of the loan of €90 uses this money to purchase some goods of this value and the seller of the goods deposits this €90 in another bank, the Second Bank of Nations. The Second Bank of Nations goes through the same process; it retains €9 in reserve and loans 90 percent of the deposit (€81) to another customer. This customer in turn spends €81 on some goods or services. The recipient of this money deposits it at the Third Bank of Nations, and so on. This example shows how money is created when a bank makes a loan. Exhibit 2. Money Creation via Fractional Reserve Banking First Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €10 Deposits €100 Loans €90 Second Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €9 Deposits €90 Loans €81 Third Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €8.1 Deposits €81 Loans €72.9 This process continues until there is no more money left to be deposited and loaned out. The total amount of money ‘created’ from this one deposit of €100 can be calculated as: Equation (1)  New deposit/Reserve requirement = €100/0.10 = €1,000 It is the sum of all the deposits now in the banking system. You should also note that the original deposit of €100, via the practice of reserve banking, was the catalyst for €1,000 worth of economic transactions. That is not to say that economic growth would be zero without this process, but instead that it can be an important component in economic activity. The amount of money that the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier .3 In the case just examined, the money multiplier is 1/0.10 = 10. Equation 1 implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect. In our simplistic example, we assumed that the banks themselves set their own reserve requirements. However, in some economies, the central bank sets the reserve requirement, which is a potential means of affecting money growth. In any case, a prudent bank would be wise to have sufficient reserves such that the withdrawal demands of their depositors can be met in stressful economic and credit market conditions. Later, when we discuss central banks and central bank policy, we will see how central banks can use the mechanism just described to affect the money supply. Specifically, the central bank could, by purchasing €100 in government securities credited to the bank account of the seller, seek to initiate an increase in the money supply. The central bank may also lend reserves directly to banks, creating excess reserves (relative to any imposed or self-imposed reserve requirement) that can support new loans and money expansion. 2.1.3. Definitions of Money The process of money creation raises a fundamental issue: What is money? In an economy with money but without promisso





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The equation (1/Reserve Requirement) implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect.
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The equation (1/Reserve Requirement) implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect.

Original toplevel document

Money
3; acts as a medium of exchange; provides individuals with a way of storing wealth; and provides society with a convenient measure of value and unit of account. <span>2.1.2. Paper Money and the Money Creation Process Although precious metals like gold and silver fulfilled the required functions of money relatively well for many years, and although carrying gold coins around was easier than carrying around one’s physical produce, it was not necessarily a safe way to conduct business. A crucial development in the history of money was the promissory note . The process began when individuals began leaving their excess gold with goldsmiths, who would look after it for them. In turn the goldsmiths would give the depositors a receipt, stating how much gold they had deposited. Eventually these receipts were traded directly for goods and services, rather than there being a physical transfer of gold from the goods buyer to the goods seller. Of course, both the buyer and seller had to trust the goldsmith because the goldsmith had all the gold and the goldsmith’s customers had only pieces of paper. These depository receipts represented a promise to pay a certain amount of gold on demand. This paper money therefore became a proxy for the precious metals on which they were based, that is, they were directly related to a physical commodity. Many of these early goldsmiths evolved into banks, taking in excess wealth and in turn issuing promissory notes that could be used in commerce. In taking in other people’s gold and issuing depository receipts and later promissory notes, it became clear to the goldsmiths and early banks that not all the gold that they held in their vaults would be withdrawn at any one time. Individuals were willing to buy and sell goods and services with the promissory notes, but the majority of the gold that backed the notes just sat in the vaults—although its ownership would change with the flow of commerce over time. A certain proportion of the gold that was not being withdrawn and used directly for commerce could therefore be lent to others at a rate of interest. By doing this, the early banks created money. The process of money creation is a crucial concept for understanding the role that money plays in an economy. Its potency depends on the amount of money that banks keep in reserve to meet the withdrawals of its customers. This practice of lending customers’ money to others on the assumption that not all customers will want all of their money back at any one time is known as fractional reserve banking . We can illustrate how it works through a simple example. Suppose that the bankers in an economy come to the view that they need to retain only 10 percent of any money deposited with them. This is known as the reserve requirement .2 Now consider what happens when a customer deposits €100 in the First Bank of Nations. This deposit changes the balance sheet of First Bank of Nations, as shown in Exhibit 2, and it represents a liability to the bank because it is effectively loaned to the bank by the customer. By lending 90 percent of this deposit to another customer the bank has two types of assets: (1) the bank’s reserves of €10, and (2) the loan equivalent to €90. Notice that the balance sheet still balances; €100 worth of assets and €100 worth of liabilities are on the balance sheet. Now suppose that the recipient of the loan of €90 uses this money to purchase some goods of this value and the seller of the goods deposits this €90 in another bank, the Second Bank of Nations. The Second Bank of Nations goes through the same process; it retains €9 in reserve and loans 90 percent of the deposit (€81) to another customer. This customer in turn spends €81 on some goods or services. The recipient of this money deposits it at the Third Bank of Nations, and so on. This example shows how money is created when a bank makes a loan. Exhibit 2. Money Creation via Fractional Reserve Banking First Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €10 Deposits €100 Loans €90 Second Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €9 Deposits €90 Loans €81 Third Bank of Nations Assets Liabilities Reserves €8.1 Deposits €81 Loans €72.9 This process continues until there is no more money left to be deposited and loaned out. The total amount of money ‘created’ from this one deposit of €100 can be calculated as: Equation (1)  New deposit/Reserve requirement = €100/0.10 = €1,000 It is the sum of all the deposits now in the banking system. You should also note that the original deposit of €100, via the practice of reserve banking, was the catalyst for €1,000 worth of economic transactions. That is not to say that economic growth would be zero without this process, but instead that it can be an important component in economic activity. The amount of money that the banking system creates through the practice of fractional reserve banking is a function of 1 divided by the reserve requirement, a quantity known as the money multiplier .3 In the case just examined, the money multiplier is 1/0.10 = 10. Equation 1 implies that the smaller the reserve requirement, the greater the money multiplier effect. In our simplistic example, we assumed that the banks themselves set their own reserve requirements. However, in some economies, the central bank sets the reserve requirement, which is a potential means of affecting money growth. In any case, a prudent bank would be wise to have sufficient reserves such that the withdrawal demands of their depositors can be met in stressful economic and credit market conditions. Later, when we discuss central banks and central bank policy, we will see how central banks can use the mechanism just described to affect the money supply. Specifically, the central bank could, by purchasing €100 in government securities credited to the bank account of the seller, seek to initiate an increase in the money supply. The central bank may also lend reserves directly to banks, creating excess reserves (relative to any imposed or self-imposed reserve requirement) that can support new loans and money expansion. 2.1.3. Definitions of Money The process of money creation raises a fundamental issue: What is money? In an economy with money but without promisso




Flashcard 1750440742156

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Question
What serves as a link between shareholders and managers?
Answer
A board of directors

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A board of directors , which serves as a link between shareholders and managers, acts as the shareholders' monitoring tool within the company.

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Subject 4. Stakeholder Management
groups and on that basis managing the company's relationships with stakeholders. The framework of corporate governance and stakeholder management reflects a legal, contractual, organizational, and governmental infrastructure. <span>Mechanisms of Stakeholder Management Mechanisms of stakeholder management may include: • General meetings. o The right to participate in general shareholder meetings is a fundamental shareholder right. Shareholders, especially minority shareholders, should have the opportunity to ask questions of the board, to place items on the agenda and to propose resolutions, to vote on major corporate matters and transactions, and to participate in key corporate governance decisions, such as the nomination and election of board members. o Shareholders should be able to vote in person or in absentia, and equal consideration should be given to votes cast in person or in absentia. A board of directors, which serves as a link between shareholders and managers, acts as the shareholders' monitoring tool within the company. The audit function. It plays a critical role in ensuring the corporation's financial integrity and consideration of legal and compliance issues. The primary objective is to ensure that the financial information reported by the company to shareholders is complete, accurate, reliable, relevant, and timely. Company reporting and transparency. It helps reduce of information asymmetry and agency costs. Related-party transactions. Related-party transactions involve buying, selling, and other transactions with board members, managers, employees, family members, and so on. They can create an inherent conflict of interest. Policies should be established to disclose, mitigate, and manage such transactions. Remuneration policies. Does the company's remuneration strategy reward long-term or short-term growth? Are equity-based compensation plans linked to the long-term performance of the company? o Say on pay is the ability of shareholders in a company to actively vote on how much executives employed by the company should be compensated. Contractual agreements with creditors; indentures, covenants, collaterals and credit committees are tools used by creditors to protect their interests. Employee laws, contracts, codes of ethics and business conduct, and compliance offer(s) are all means a company can use to manage its relationship with its employees. Contractual agreements with customers and suppliers. Laws and regulations a company must follow to protect the rights of specific groups. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1750783888652

Tags
#cabra-session #ethics #has-images #reading-rene-toussaint


Question

[...] are those actions that are perceived as beneficial and conform to the ethical expectations of society.

Answer
Ethical actions

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Ethical actions are those actions that are perceived as beneficial and conform to the ethical expectations of society.

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Subject 1. Ethics
rding what is good, acceptable, or responsible behavior, and what is bad, unacceptable, or forbidden behavior. They provide guidance for our behavior. Ethical conduct is behavior that follows moral principles. <span>Ethical actions are those actions that are perceived as beneficial and conform to the ethical expectations of society. Ethics encompass a set of moral principles ( code of ethics ) and standards of conduct that provide guidance for our behavior. Violations can ha







Flashcard 1750831336716

Tags
#cabra-session #ethics #ethics-and-professionalism #has-images #reading-rene-toussaint


Question

A profession may adopt [...] to enhance and clarify the code of ethics.

Answer
standards of conduct

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A profession may adopt standards of conduct to enhance and clarify the code of ethics.

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Subject 2. Ethics and Professionalism
ected behaviors of its members. generates confidence not only among members of the organization but also among non-members (clients, prospective clients, and/or the general public). <span>A profession may adopt standards of conduct to enhance and clarify the code of ethics. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1750867512588

Tags
#cabra-session #ethical-vs-legal-standards #ethics #has-images #reading-rene-toussaint


Question
[...] are not always the best mechanism to reduce unethical behavior.
Answer
Laws and regulations

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Laws and regulations are not always the best mechanism to reduce unethical behavior. They often lag behind current circumstances; legal standards are often created to address past ethical failings and do not provide guidance for an evolving and increasingly complex worl

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Subject 5. Ethical vs. Legal Standards
but they are not always the same. Some legal behaviors are not considered ethical. Some ethical behaviors may not be legal in certain countries. <span>Laws and regulations are not always the best mechanism to reduce unethical behavior. They often lag behind current circumstances; legal standards are often created to address past ethical failings and do not provide guidance for an evolving and increasingly complex world. In addition, new laws designed to reduce or eliminate conduct that adversely affects the markets can create opportunities for different but similarly problematic conduct. Investment professionals should act beyond legal standards, making good judgments and responsible choices even in the absence of clear laws or rules.








#cabra-session #ethical-vs-legal-standards #ethics #has-images #reading-rene-toussaint
Laws and regulations often lag behind current circumstances; legal standards are often created to address past ethical failings and do not provide guidance for an evolving and increasingly complex world.
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Laws and regulations are not always the best mechanism to reduce unethical behavior. They often lag behind current circumstances; legal standards are often created to address past ethical failings and do not provide guidance for an evolving and increasingly complex world. In addition, new laws designed to reduce or eliminate conduct that adversely affects the markets can create opportunities for different but similarly problematic conduct.

Original toplevel document

Subject 5. Ethical vs. Legal Standards
but they are not always the same. Some legal behaviors are not considered ethical. Some ethical behaviors may not be legal in certain countries. <span>Laws and regulations are not always the best mechanism to reduce unethical behavior. They often lag behind current circumstances; legal standards are often created to address past ethical failings and do not provide guidance for an evolving and increasingly complex world. In addition, new laws designed to reduce or eliminate conduct that adversely affects the markets can create opportunities for different but similarly problematic conduct. Investment professionals should act beyond legal standards, making good judgments and responsible choices even in the absence of clear laws or rules.





#cabra-session #ethical-vs-legal-standards #ethics #has-images #reading-rene-toussaint
New laws designed to reduce or eliminate conduct that adversely affects the markets can create opportunities for different but similarly problematic conduct.
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t mechanism to reduce unethical behavior. They often lag behind current circumstances; legal standards are often created to address past ethical failings and do not provide guidance for an evolving and increasingly complex world. In addition, <span>new laws designed to reduce or eliminate conduct that adversely affects the markets can create opportunities for different but similarly problematic conduct. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Subject 5. Ethical vs. Legal Standards
but they are not always the same. Some legal behaviors are not considered ethical. Some ethical behaviors may not be legal in certain countries. <span>Laws and regulations are not always the best mechanism to reduce unethical behavior. They often lag behind current circumstances; legal standards are often created to address past ethical failings and do not provide guidance for an evolving and increasingly complex world. In addition, new laws designed to reduce or eliminate conduct that adversely affects the markets can create opportunities for different but similarly problematic conduct. Investment professionals should act beyond legal standards, making good judgments and responsible choices even in the absence of clear laws or rules.




Flashcard 1750906047756

Tags
#has-images #introduction #pie-de-cabra-session #reading-molo


Question
What are the Internal factors that affect Working Capital needs?
Answer

Company size and growth rates

Organizational structure

Sophistication of working capital management

Borrowing and investing positions/activities/capacities


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Company size and growth rates Organizational structure Sophistication of working capital management Borrowing and investing positions/activities/capacities

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Reading 38  Working Capital Management Intro
and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. <span>Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capital Needs Internal Factors External Factors Company size and growth rates Organizational structure Sophistication of working capital management Borrowing and investing positions/activities/capacities Banking services Interest rates New technologies and new products The economy Competitors The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment. Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively. Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented. Focus requires that organizations of all sizes today must have a global viewpoint with strong emphasis on liquidity. In this reading, we examine the different types of working capital and the management issues associated with each. We also look at methods of evaluating the effectiveness of working capital management. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1750912077068

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Question
What are the External Factors Affecting Working Capital Needs?

BINCE
Answer
  • Banking services
  • Interest rates
  • New technologies and products
  • Competitors
  • Economy

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Banking services Interest rates New technologies and products Competitors Economy

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Reading 38  Working Capital Management Intro
and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. <span>Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capital Needs Internal Factors External Factors Company size and growth rates Organizational structure Sophistication of working capital management Borrowing and investing positions/activities/capacities Banking services Interest rates New technologies and new products The economy Competitors The scope of working capital management includes transactions, relations, analyses, and focus: Transactions include payments for trade, financing, and investment. Relations with financial institutions and trading partners must be maintained to ensure that the transactions work effectively. Analyses of working capital management activities are required so that appropriate strategies can be formulated and implemented. Focus requires that organizations of all sizes today must have a global viewpoint with strong emphasis on liquidity. In this reading, we examine the different types of working capital and the management issues associated with each. We also look at methods of evaluating the effectiveness of working capital management. <span><body><html>








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This reading provides an overview of equity securities and their different features and establishes the background required to analyze and value equity securities in a global context.
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This reading provides an overview of equity securities and their different features and establishes the background required to analyze and value equity securities in a global context. It addresses the following questions: What distinguishes common shares from preference shares, and what purposes do these securities serve in financing a company’s o

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Reading 47  Overview of Equity Securities (Intro)
Equity securities represent ownership claims on a company’s net assets. As an asset class, equity plays a fundamental role in investment analysis and portfolio management because it represents a significant portion of many individual and institutional investment portfolios. The study of equity securities is important for many reasons. First, the decision on how much of a client’s portfolio to allocate to equities affects the risk and return characteristics of the entire portfolio. Second, different types of equity securities have different ownership claims on a company’s net assets, which affect their risk and return characteristics in different ways. Finally, variations in the features of equity securities are reflected in their market prices, so it is important to understand the valuation implications of these features. This reading provides an overview of equity securities and their different features and establishes the background required to analyze and value equity securities in a global context. It addresses the following questions: What distinguishes common shares from preference shares, and what purposes do these securities serve in financing a company’s operations? What are convertible preference shares, and why are they often used to raise equity for unseasoned or highly risky companies? What are private equity securities, and how do they differ from public equity securities? What are depository receipts and their various types, and what is the rationale for investing in them? What are the risk factors involved in investing in equity securities? How do equity securities create company value? What is the relationship between a company’s cost of equity, its return on equity, and investors’ required rate of return? The remainder of this reading is organized as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of global equity markets and their historical performance. Section 3 examines





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This reading addresses the following questions:

  • What distinguishes common shares from preference shares, and what purposes do these securities serve in financing a company’s operations?

  • What are convertible preference shares, and why are they often used to raise equity for unseasoned or highly risky companies?

  • What are private equity securities, and how do they differ from public equity securities?

  • What are depository receipts and their various types, and what is the rationale for investing in them?

  • What are the risk factors involved in investing in equity securities?

  • How do equity securities create company value?

  • What is the relationship between a company’s cost of equity, its return on equity, and investors’ required rate of return?

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This reading provides an overview of equity securities and their different features and establishes the background required to analyze and value equity securities in a global context. It addresses the following questions: What distinguishes common shares from preference shares, and what purposes do these securities serve in financing a company’s operations? What are convertible preference shares, and why are they often used to raise equity for unseasoned or highly risky companies? What are private equity securities, and how do they differ from public equity securities? What are depository receipts and their various types, and what is the rationale for investing in them? What are the risk factors involved in investing in equity securities? How do equity securities create company value? What is the relationship between a company’s cost of equity, its return on equity, and investors’ required rate of return?

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Reading 47  Overview of Equity Securities (Intro)
Equity securities represent ownership claims on a company’s net assets. As an asset class, equity plays a fundamental role in investment analysis and portfolio management because it represents a significant portion of many individual and institutional investment portfolios. The study of equity securities is important for many reasons. First, the decision on how much of a client’s portfolio to allocate to equities affects the risk and return characteristics of the entire portfolio. Second, different types of equity securities have different ownership claims on a company’s net assets, which affect their risk and return characteristics in different ways. Finally, variations in the features of equity securities are reflected in their market prices, so it is important to understand the valuation implications of these features. This reading provides an overview of equity securities and their different features and establishes the background required to analyze and value equity securities in a global context. It addresses the following questions: What distinguishes common shares from preference shares, and what purposes do these securities serve in financing a company’s operations? What are convertible preference shares, and why are they often used to raise equity for unseasoned or highly risky companies? What are private equity securities, and how do they differ from public equity securities? What are depository receipts and their various types, and what is the rationale for investing in them? What are the risk factors involved in investing in equity securities? How do equity securities create company value? What is the relationship between a company’s cost of equity, its return on equity, and investors’ required rate of return? The remainder of this reading is organized as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of global equity markets and their historical performance. Section 3 examines





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If a firm lowers its price, will its total revenue also fall? Are there conditions under which revenue might rise as price falls and what are those? Why?
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nal to violate this “law of demand”? What are appropriate measures of how sensitive the quantity demanded or supplied is to changes in price, income, and prices of other goods? What affects those sensitivities? <span>If a firm lowers its price, will its total revenue also fall? Are there conditions under which revenue might rise as price falls and what are those? Why? What is an appropriate measure of the total value consumers or producers receive from the opportunity to buy and sell goods and services in a free market? How might gove

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Prerequisite Reading Demand and Supply Analysis: Introduction
el of markets, he or she cannot hope to forecast how external events—such as a shift in consumer tastes or changes in taxes and subsidies or other intervention in markets—will influence a firm’s revenue, earnings, and cash flows. <span>Having grasped the tools and concepts presented in this reading, the reader should also be able to understand many important economic relations and facts and be able to answer questions, such as: Why do consumers usually buy more when the price falls? Is it irrational to violate this “law of demand”? What are appropriate measures of how sensitive the quantity demanded or supplied is to changes in price, income, and prices of other goods? What affects those sensitivities? If a firm lowers its price, will its total revenue also fall? Are there conditions under which revenue might rise as price falls and what are those? Why? What is an appropriate measure of the total value consumers or producers receive from the opportunity to buy and sell goods and services in a free market? How might government intervention reduce that value, and what is an appropriate measure of that loss? What tools are available that help us frame the trade-offs that consumers and investors face as they must give up one opportunity to pursue another? Is it reasonable to expect markets to converge to an equilibrium price? What are the conditions that would make that equilibrium stable or unstable in response to external shocks? How do different types of auctions affect price discovery? This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explains how economists classify markets. Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts o





#has-images #introduction #prerequisite-session #reading-dildo
What is an appropriate measure of the total value consumers or producers receive from the opportunity to buy and sell goods and services in a free market? How might government intervention reduce that value, and what is an appropriate measure of that loss?
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prices of other goods? What affects those sensitivities? If a firm lowers its price, will its total revenue also fall? Are there conditions under which revenue might rise as price falls and what are those? Why? <span>What is an appropriate measure of the total value consumers or producers receive from the opportunity to buy and sell goods and services in a free market? How might government intervention reduce that value, and what is an appropriate measure of that loss? What tools are available that help us frame the trade-offs that consumers and investors face as they must give up one opportunity to pursue another? Is i

Original toplevel document

Prerequisite Reading Demand and Supply Analysis: Introduction
el of markets, he or she cannot hope to forecast how external events—such as a shift in consumer tastes or changes in taxes and subsidies or other intervention in markets—will influence a firm’s revenue, earnings, and cash flows. <span>Having grasped the tools and concepts presented in this reading, the reader should also be able to understand many important economic relations and facts and be able to answer questions, such as: Why do consumers usually buy more when the price falls? Is it irrational to violate this “law of demand”? What are appropriate measures of how sensitive the quantity demanded or supplied is to changes in price, income, and prices of other goods? What affects those sensitivities? If a firm lowers its price, will its total revenue also fall? Are there conditions under which revenue might rise as price falls and what are those? Why? What is an appropriate measure of the total value consumers or producers receive from the opportunity to buy and sell goods and services in a free market? How might government intervention reduce that value, and what is an appropriate measure of that loss? What tools are available that help us frame the trade-offs that consumers and investors face as they must give up one opportunity to pursue another? Is it reasonable to expect markets to converge to an equilibrium price? What are the conditions that would make that equilibrium stable or unstable in response to external shocks? How do different types of auctions affect price discovery? This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explains how economists classify markets. Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts o





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Is it reasonable to expect markets to converge to an equilibrium price? What are the conditions that would make that equilibrium stable or unstable in response to external shocks?
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that value, and what is an appropriate measure of that loss? What tools are available that help us frame the trade-offs that consumers and investors face as they must give up one opportunity to pursue another? <span>Is it reasonable to expect markets to converge to an equilibrium price? What are the conditions that would make that equilibrium stable or unstable in response to external shocks? How do different types of auctions affect price discovery? <span><body><html>

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Prerequisite Reading Demand and Supply Analysis: Introduction
el of markets, he or she cannot hope to forecast how external events—such as a shift in consumer tastes or changes in taxes and subsidies or other intervention in markets—will influence a firm’s revenue, earnings, and cash flows. <span>Having grasped the tools and concepts presented in this reading, the reader should also be able to understand many important economic relations and facts and be able to answer questions, such as: Why do consumers usually buy more when the price falls? Is it irrational to violate this “law of demand”? What are appropriate measures of how sensitive the quantity demanded or supplied is to changes in price, income, and prices of other goods? What affects those sensitivities? If a firm lowers its price, will its total revenue also fall? Are there conditions under which revenue might rise as price falls and what are those? Why? What is an appropriate measure of the total value consumers or producers receive from the opportunity to buy and sell goods and services in a free market? How might government intervention reduce that value, and what is an appropriate measure of that loss? What tools are available that help us frame the trade-offs that consumers and investors face as they must give up one opportunity to pursue another? Is it reasonable to expect markets to converge to an equilibrium price? What are the conditions that would make that equilibrium stable or unstable in response to external shocks? How do different types of auctions affect price discovery? This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explains how economists classify markets. Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts o





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How do different types of auctions affect price discovery?
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opportunity to pursue another? Is it reasonable to expect markets to converge to an equilibrium price? What are the conditions that would make that equilibrium stable or unstable in response to external shocks? <span>How do different types of auctions affect price discovery? <span><body><html>

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Prerequisite Reading Demand and Supply Analysis: Introduction
el of markets, he or she cannot hope to forecast how external events—such as a shift in consumer tastes or changes in taxes and subsidies or other intervention in markets—will influence a firm’s revenue, earnings, and cash flows. <span>Having grasped the tools and concepts presented in this reading, the reader should also be able to understand many important economic relations and facts and be able to answer questions, such as: Why do consumers usually buy more when the price falls? Is it irrational to violate this “law of demand”? What are appropriate measures of how sensitive the quantity demanded or supplied is to changes in price, income, and prices of other goods? What affects those sensitivities? If a firm lowers its price, will its total revenue also fall? Are there conditions under which revenue might rise as price falls and what are those? Why? What is an appropriate measure of the total value consumers or producers receive from the opportunity to buy and sell goods and services in a free market? How might government intervention reduce that value, and what is an appropriate measure of that loss? What tools are available that help us frame the trade-offs that consumers and investors face as they must give up one opportunity to pursue another? Is it reasonable to expect markets to converge to an equilibrium price? What are the conditions that would make that equilibrium stable or unstable in response to external shocks? How do different types of auctions affect price discovery? This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explains how economists classify markets. Section 3 covers the basic principles and concepts o





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The theory of the firm , the subject of this reading, is the study of the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms.
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The theory of the firm , the subject of this reading, is the study of the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. Conceptually, profit is the difference between revenue and costs. Revenue is a function of selling price and quantity sold, which are determined by the demand and supply behavior in the

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Prerequisite Demand and Supply Analysis: The firm
icroeconomics gives rise to the theory of the consumer and theory of the firm as two branches of study. The theory of the consumer is the study of consumption—the demand for goods and services—by utility-maximizing individuals. <span>The theory of the firm , the subject of this reading, is the study of the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. Conceptually, profit is the difference between revenue and costs. Revenue is a function of selling price and quantity sold, which are determined by the demand and supply behavior in the markets into which the firm sells/provides its goods or services. Costs are a function of the demand and supply interactions in resource markets, such as markets for labor and for physical inputs. The main focus of this reading is the cost side of the profit equation for companies competing in market economies under perfect competition. A subsequent reading will examine the different types of markets into which a firm may sell its output. The study of the profit-maximizing firm in a single time period is the essential starting point for the analysis of the economics of corporate decision making. Furthermore,





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Conceptually, profit is the difference between revenue and costs.
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The theory of the firm , the subject of this reading, is the study of the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. Conceptually, profit is the difference between revenue and costs. Revenue is a function of selling price and quantity sold, which are determined by the demand and supply behavior in the markets into which the firm sells/provides its goods or services.

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Prerequisite Demand and Supply Analysis: The firm
icroeconomics gives rise to the theory of the consumer and theory of the firm as two branches of study. The theory of the consumer is the study of consumption—the demand for goods and services—by utility-maximizing individuals. <span>The theory of the firm , the subject of this reading, is the study of the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. Conceptually, profit is the difference between revenue and costs. Revenue is a function of selling price and quantity sold, which are determined by the demand and supply behavior in the markets into which the firm sells/provides its goods or services. Costs are a function of the demand and supply interactions in resource markets, such as markets for labor and for physical inputs. The main focus of this reading is the cost side of the profit equation for companies competing in market economies under perfect competition. A subsequent reading will examine the different types of markets into which a firm may sell its output. The study of the profit-maximizing firm in a single time period is the essential starting point for the analysis of the economics of corporate decision making. Furthermore,





#has-images #introduction #prerequisite-session #reading-saco-de-polipropileno
Revenue is a function of selling price and quantity sold, which are determined by the demand and supply behavior in the markets into which the firm sells/provides its goods or services.
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<head> The theory of the firm , the subject of this reading, is the study of the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. Conceptually, profit is the difference between revenue and costs. Revenue is a function of selling price and quantity sold, which are determined by the demand and supply behavior in the markets into which the firm sells/provides its goods or services. Costs are a function of the demand and supply interactions in resource markets, such as markets for labor and for physical inputs. The main focus of this reading is the cost side of the

Original toplevel document

Prerequisite Demand and Supply Analysis: The firm
icroeconomics gives rise to the theory of the consumer and theory of the firm as two branches of study. The theory of the consumer is the study of consumption—the demand for goods and services—by utility-maximizing individuals. <span>The theory of the firm , the subject of this reading, is the study of the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. Conceptually, profit is the difference between revenue and costs. Revenue is a function of selling price and quantity sold, which are determined by the demand and supply behavior in the markets into which the firm sells/provides its goods or services. Costs are a function of the demand and supply interactions in resource markets, such as markets for labor and for physical inputs. The main focus of this reading is the cost side of the profit equation for companies competing in market economies under perfect competition. A subsequent reading will examine the different types of markets into which a firm may sell its output. The study of the profit-maximizing firm in a single time period is the essential starting point for the analysis of the economics of corporate decision making. Furthermore,





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Costs are a function of the demand and supply interactions in resource markets, such as markets for labor and for physical inputs.
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lly, profit is the difference between revenue and costs. Revenue is a function of selling price and quantity sold, which are determined by the demand and supply behavior in the markets into which the firm sells/provides its goods or services. <span>Costs are a function of the demand and supply interactions in resource markets, such as markets for labor and for physical inputs. The main focus of this reading is the cost side of the profit equation for companies competing in market economies under perfect competition. A subsequent reading will examine the diffe

Original toplevel document

Prerequisite Demand and Supply Analysis: The firm
icroeconomics gives rise to the theory of the consumer and theory of the firm as two branches of study. The theory of the consumer is the study of consumption—the demand for goods and services—by utility-maximizing individuals. <span>The theory of the firm , the subject of this reading, is the study of the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. Conceptually, profit is the difference between revenue and costs. Revenue is a function of selling price and quantity sold, which are determined by the demand and supply behavior in the markets into which the firm sells/provides its goods or services. Costs are a function of the demand and supply interactions in resource markets, such as markets for labor and for physical inputs. The main focus of this reading is the cost side of the profit equation for companies competing in market economies under perfect competition. A subsequent reading will examine the different types of markets into which a firm may sell its output. The study of the profit-maximizing firm in a single time period is the essential starting point for the analysis of the economics of corporate decision making. Furthermore,





#has-images #introduction #prerequisite-session #reading-saco-de-polipropileno
The main focus of this reading is the cost side of the profit equation for companies competing in market economies under perfect competition.
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ined by the demand and supply behavior in the markets into which the firm sells/provides its goods or services. Costs are a function of the demand and supply interactions in resource markets, such as markets for labor and for physical inputs. <span>The main focus of this reading is the cost side of the profit equation for companies competing in market economies under perfect competition. A subsequent reading will examine the different types of markets into which a firm may sell its output. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Prerequisite Demand and Supply Analysis: The firm
icroeconomics gives rise to the theory of the consumer and theory of the firm as two branches of study. The theory of the consumer is the study of consumption—the demand for goods and services—by utility-maximizing individuals. <span>The theory of the firm , the subject of this reading, is the study of the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. Conceptually, profit is the difference between revenue and costs. Revenue is a function of selling price and quantity sold, which are determined by the demand and supply behavior in the markets into which the firm sells/provides its goods or services. Costs are a function of the demand and supply interactions in resource markets, such as markets for labor and for physical inputs. The main focus of this reading is the cost side of the profit equation for companies competing in market economies under perfect competition. A subsequent reading will examine the different types of markets into which a firm may sell its output. The study of the profit-maximizing firm in a single time period is the essential starting point for the analysis of the economics of corporate decision making. Furthermore,





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Effective Working capital management requires managing and coordinating several tasks within the company, including managing short-term investments, granting credit to customers and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables.
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Working capital management is a broad-based function. Effective execution requires managing and coordinating several tasks within the company, including managing short-term investments, granting credit to customers and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances.

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Reading 38  Working Capital Management Intro
The focus of this reading is on the short-term aspects of corporate finance activities collectively referred to as working capital management . The goal of effective working capital management is to ensure that a company has adequate ready access to the funds necessary for day-to-day operating expenses, while at the same time making sure that the company’s assets are invested in the most productive way. Achieving this goal requires a balancing of concerns. Insufficient access to cash could ultimately lead to severe restructuring of a company by selling off assets, reorganization via bankruptcy proceedings, or final liquidation of the company. On the other hand, excessive investment in cash and liquid assets may not be the best use of company resources. Effective working capital management encompasses several aspects of short-term finance: maintaining adequate levels of cash, converting short-term assets (i.e., accounts receivable and inventory) into cash, and controlling outgoing payments to vendors, employees, and others. To do this successfully, companies invest short-term funds in working capital portfolios of short-dated, highly liquid securities, or they maintain credit reserves in the form of bank lines of credit or access to financing by issuing commercial paper or other money market instruments. Working capital management is a broad-based function. Effective execution requires managing and coordinating several tasks within the company, including managing short-term investments, granting credit to customers and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capit





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Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances.
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nction. Effective execution requires managing and coordinating several tasks within the company, including managing short-term investments, granting credit to customers and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. <span>Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. <span><body><html>

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Reading 38  Working Capital Management Intro
The focus of this reading is on the short-term aspects of corporate finance activities collectively referred to as working capital management . The goal of effective working capital management is to ensure that a company has adequate ready access to the funds necessary for day-to-day operating expenses, while at the same time making sure that the company’s assets are invested in the most productive way. Achieving this goal requires a balancing of concerns. Insufficient access to cash could ultimately lead to severe restructuring of a company by selling off assets, reorganization via bankruptcy proceedings, or final liquidation of the company. On the other hand, excessive investment in cash and liquid assets may not be the best use of company resources. Effective working capital management encompasses several aspects of short-term finance: maintaining adequate levels of cash, converting short-term assets (i.e., accounts receivable and inventory) into cash, and controlling outgoing payments to vendors, employees, and others. To do this successfully, companies invest short-term funds in working capital portfolios of short-dated, highly liquid securities, or they maintain credit reserves in the form of bank lines of credit or access to financing by issuing commercial paper or other money market instruments. Working capital management is a broad-based function. Effective execution requires managing and coordinating several tasks within the company, including managing short-term investments, granting credit to customers and collecting on this credit, managing inventory, and managing payables. Effective working capital management also requires reliable cash forecasts, as well as current and accurate information on transactions and bank balances. Both internal and external factors influence working capital needs; we summarize them in Exhibit 1. Exhibit 1. Internal and External Factors That Affect Working Capit





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<div style="font-size:1.4em">Suppliers, like creditors, are concerned with a company&rsquo;s ability to generate sufficient cash flows to meet its financial obligations.</div> <img src="/static1515851872/app/images/FFFFFF-0.png" />
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ead> 3.1.6 Suppliers A company’s suppliers have a primary interest in being paid as contracted or agreed on, and in a timely manner, for products or services delivered to the company. Suppliers, like creditors, are concerned with a company’s ability to generate sufficient cash flows to meet its financial obligations. <html>

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its given the price paid, as well as to meet applicable standards of safety. Compared with other stakeholder groups, customers tend to be less concerned with, and affected by, a company’s financial performance. <span>3.1.6 Suppliers A company’s suppliers have a primary interest in being paid as contracted or agreed on, and in a timely manner, for products or services delivered to the company. Suppliers, like creditors, are concerned with a company’s ability to generate sufficient cash flows to meet its financial obligations. 3.1.7 Governments/Regulators Governments and regulators seek to protect the interests of the general public and ensure the well being of their nations’ econom





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Analysts should assess whether the experience and skill sets of board members match the needs of the company.
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Board of Directors Representation Analysts should assess whether the experience and skill sets of board members match the needs of the company. Are they truly independent? Are there inherent conflicts of interest?

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Subject 8. Analyst Considerations in Corporate Governance and Stakeholder Management
3; Does the practice really insulate managers from Wall Street's short-term mindset? Dual-class structures create an inferior class of shareholders, and may allow management to make bad decisions with few consequences. <span>Board of Directors Representation Analysts should assess whether the experience and skill sets of board members match the needs of the company. Are they truly independent? Are there inherent conflicts of interest? Remuneration and Company Performance What are the main drivers of the management team's remuneration and incentive structure? Does the remuneration plan reward lo





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Analysts should asses weather the board of directors is truly independent
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Board of Directors Representation Analysts should assess whether the experience and skill sets of board members match the needs of the company. Are they truly independent? Are there inherent conflicts of interest?

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Subject 8. Analyst Considerations in Corporate Governance and Stakeholder Management
3; Does the practice really insulate managers from Wall Street's short-term mindset? Dual-class structures create an inferior class of shareholders, and may allow management to make bad decisions with few consequences. <span>Board of Directors Representation Analysts should assess whether the experience and skill sets of board members match the needs of the company. Are they truly independent? Are there inherent conflicts of interest? Remuneration and Company Performance What are the main drivers of the management team's remuneration and incentive structure? Does the remuneration plan reward lo





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Are there inherent conflicts of interest?
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l> Board of Directors Representation Analysts should assess whether the experience and skill sets of board members match the needs of the company. Are they truly independent? Are there inherent conflicts of interest? <html>

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Subject 8. Analyst Considerations in Corporate Governance and Stakeholder Management
3; Does the practice really insulate managers from Wall Street's short-term mindset? Dual-class structures create an inferior class of shareholders, and may allow management to make bad decisions with few consequences. <span>Board of Directors Representation Analysts should assess whether the experience and skill sets of board members match the needs of the company. Are they truly independent? Are there inherent conflicts of interest? Remuneration and Company Performance What are the main drivers of the management team's remuneration and incentive structure? Does the remuneration plan reward lo





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ESG Implementation Methods
Asset managers and asset owners can incorporate ESG issues into the investment process in a variety of ways.

  • Negative screening is a type of investment strategy that excludes certain companies or sectors from investment consideration because of their underlying business activities or other environmental or social concerns.

  • Positive screening and best-in-class strategies focus on investments with favorable ESG aspects.

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ESG Implementation Methods Asset managers and asset owners can incorporate ESG issues into the investment process in a variety of ways. Negative screening is a type of investment strategy that excludes certain companies or sectors from investment consideration because of their underlying business activities or other environmental or social concerns. Positive screening and best-in-class strategies focus on investments with favorable ESG aspects. Thematic investing focuses on a single factor, such as energy efficiency or climate change. Impact investing strategies are targeted investments, typically

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Subject 9. ESG Considerations for Investors
d adherence to environmental safety and regulatory standards. Social factors generally pertain to human rights and welfare concerns in the workplace, product development, and, in some cases, community impact. <span>ESG Implementation Methods Asset managers and asset owners can incorporate ESG issues into the investment process in a variety of ways. Negative screening is a type of investment strategy that excludes certain companies or sectors from investment consideration because of their underlying business activities or other environmental or social concerns. Positive screening and best-in-class strategies focus on investments with favorable ESG aspects. Thematic investing focuses on a single factor, such as energy efficiency or climate change. Impact investing strategies are targeted investments, typically made in private markets, aimed at solving social or environmental problems. <span><body><html>





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ESG Implementation Methods

Impact investing strategies are targeted investments, typically made in private markets, aimed at solving social or environmental problems.

Thematic investing focuses on a single factor, such as energy efficiency or climate change.

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investment consideration because of their underlying business activities or other environmental or social concerns. Positive screening and best-in-class strategies focus on investments with favorable ESG aspects. <span>Thematic investing focuses on a single factor, such as energy efficiency or climate change. Impact investing strategies are targeted investments, typically made in private markets, aimed at solving social or environmental problems. <span><body><html>

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Subject 9. ESG Considerations for Investors
d adherence to environmental safety and regulatory standards. Social factors generally pertain to human rights and welfare concerns in the workplace, product development, and, in some cases, community impact. <span>ESG Implementation Methods Asset managers and asset owners can incorporate ESG issues into the investment process in a variety of ways. Negative screening is a type of investment strategy that excludes certain companies or sectors from investment consideration because of their underlying business activities or other environmental or social concerns. Positive screening and best-in-class strategies focus on investments with favorable ESG aspects. Thematic investing focuses on a single factor, such as energy efficiency or climate change. Impact investing strategies are targeted investments, typically made in private markets, aimed at solving social or environmental problems. <span><body><html>




Flashcard 1750963719436

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Question

What are the ESG Implementation Methods?

Answer
  • Negative screening
  • Positive screening
  • Impact investing
  • Thematic investing

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ESG Implementation Methods Asset managers and asset owners can incorporate ESG issues into the investment process in a variety of ways. Negative screening is a type of investment strategy that excludes certain companies or sectors from investment consideration because of their underlying business activities or other environmental or social concerns. Positive screening and best-in-class strategies focus on investments with favorable ESG aspects. Thematic investing focuses on a single factor, such as energy efficiency or climate change. Impact investing strategies are targeted investments, typically made in private markets, aimed at solving social or environmental problems.

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Subject 9. ESG Considerations for Investors
d adherence to environmental safety and regulatory standards. Social factors generally pertain to human rights and welfare concerns in the workplace, product development, and, in some cases, community impact. <span>ESG Implementation Methods Asset managers and asset owners can incorporate ESG issues into the investment process in a variety of ways. Negative screening is a type of investment strategy that excludes certain companies or sectors from investment consideration because of their underlying business activities or other environmental or social concerns. Positive screening and best-in-class strategies focus on investments with favorable ESG aspects. Thematic investing focuses on a single factor, such as energy efficiency or climate change. Impact investing strategies are targeted investments, typically made in private markets, aimed at solving social or environmental problems. <span><body><html>








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intrinsic value is based on an analysis of investment fundamentals and characteristics.
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This reading introduces equity valuation models used to estimate the intrinsic value (synonym: fundamental value ) of a security; intrinsic value is based on an analysis of investment fundamentals and characteristics.

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Reading 49  Equity Valuation: Concepts and Basic Tools (Intro)
Analysts gather and process information to make investment decisions, including buy and sell recommendations. What information is gathered and how it is processed depend on the analyst and the purpose of the analysis. Technical analysis uses such information as stock price and trading volume as the basis for investment decisions. Fundamental analysis uses information about the economy, industry, and company as the basis for investment decisions. Examples of fundamentals are unemployment rates, gross domestic product (GDP) growth, industry growth, and quality of and growth in company earnings. Whereas technical analysts use information to predict price movements and base investment decisions on the direction of predicted change in prices, fundamental analysts use information to estimate the value of a security and to compare the estimated value to the market price and then base investment decisions on that comparison. This reading introduces equity valuation models used to estimate the intrinsic value (synonym: fundamental value ) of a security; intrinsic value is based on an analysis of investment fundamentals and characteristics. The fundamentals to be considered depend on the analyst’s approach to valuation. In a top-down approach, an analyst examines the economic environment, identifies sectors that are expected to prosper in that environment, and analyzes securities of companies from previously identified attractive sectors. In a bottom-up approach, an analyst typically follows an industry or industries and forecasts fundamentals for the companies in those industries in order to determine valuation. Whatever the approach, an analyst who estimates the intrinsic value of an equity security is implicitly questioning the accuracy of the market price as an estimate of value. Valuation is particularly important in active equity portfolio management, which aims to improve on the return–risk trade-off of a portfolio’s benchmark by identifying mispriced securities. This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the implications of differences between estimated value and market price. Section 3 introduces three major categor





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an analyst who estimates the intrinsic value of an equity security is implicitly questioning the accuracy of the market price as an estimate of value.
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Whatever the approach(Top-Down or Bottom-up), an analyst who estimates the intrinsic value of an equity security is implicitly questioning the accuracy of the market price as an estimate of value.

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Reading 49  Equity Valuation: Concepts and Basic Tools (Intro)
Analysts gather and process information to make investment decisions, including buy and sell recommendations. What information is gathered and how it is processed depend on the analyst and the purpose of the analysis. Technical analysis uses such information as stock price and trading volume as the basis for investment decisions. Fundamental analysis uses information about the economy, industry, and company as the basis for investment decisions. Examples of fundamentals are unemployment rates, gross domestic product (GDP) growth, industry growth, and quality of and growth in company earnings. Whereas technical analysts use information to predict price movements and base investment decisions on the direction of predicted change in prices, fundamental analysts use information to estimate the value of a security and to compare the estimated value to the market price and then base investment decisions on that comparison. This reading introduces equity valuation models used to estimate the intrinsic value (synonym: fundamental value ) of a security; intrinsic value is based on an analysis of investment fundamentals and characteristics. The fundamentals to be considered depend on the analyst’s approach to valuation. In a top-down approach, an analyst examines the economic environment, identifies sectors that are expected to prosper in that environment, and analyzes securities of companies from previously identified attractive sectors. In a bottom-up approach, an analyst typically follows an industry or industries and forecasts fundamentals for the companies in those industries in order to determine valuation. Whatever the approach, an analyst who estimates the intrinsic value of an equity security is implicitly questioning the accuracy of the market price as an estimate of value. Valuation is particularly important in active equity portfolio management, which aims to improve on the return–risk trade-off of a portfolio’s benchmark by identifying mispriced securities. This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the implications of differences between estimated value and market price. Section 3 introduces three major categor





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some estimates about 40 percent of S&P 500 Index earnings are from outside the United States
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Given the globalization of the world economy, most large companies depend heavily on their foreign operations (for example, by some estimates about 40 percent of S&P 500 Index earnings are from outside the United States).

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Reading 20  Currency Exchange Rates Introduction
Measured by daily turnover, the foreign exchange (FX) market—the market in which currencies are traded against each other—is by far the world’s largest market. Current estimates put daily turnover at approximately USD4 trillion for 2010. This is about 10 to 15 times larger than daily turnover in global fixed-income markets and about 50 times larger than global turnover in equities. Moreover, volumes in FX turnover continue to grow: Some predict that daily FX turnover will reach USD10 trillion by 2020 as market participation spreads and deepens. The FX market is also a truly global market that operates 24 hours a day, each business day. It involves market participants from every time zone connected through electronic communications networks that link players as large as multibillion-dollar investment funds and as small as individuals trading for their own account—all brought together in real time. International trade would be impossible without the trade in currencies that facilitates it, and so too would cross-border capital flows that connect all financial markets globally through the FX market. These factors make foreign exchange a key market for investors and market participants to understand. The world economy is increasingly transnational in nature, with both production processes and trade flows often determined more by global factors than by domestic considerations. Likewise, investment portfolio performance increasingly reflects global determinants because pricing in financial markets responds to the array of investment opportunities available worldwide, not just locally. All of these factors funnel through, and are reflected in, the foreign exchange market. As investors shed their “home bias” and invest in foreign markets, the exchange rate—the price at which foreign-currency-denominated investments are valued in terms of the domestic currency—becomes an increasingly important determinant of portfolio performance. Even investors adhering to a purely “domestic” portfolio mandate are increasingly affected by what happens in the foreign exchange market. Given the globalization of the world economy, most large companies depend heavily on their foreign operations (for example, by some estimates about 40 percent of S&P 500 Index earnings are from outside the United States). Almost all companies are exposed to some degree of foreign competition, and the pricing for domestic assets—equities, bonds, real estate, and others—will also depend on demand from foreign investors. All of these various influences on investment performance reflect developments in the foreign exchange market. This reading introduces the foreign exchange market, providing the basic concepts and terminology necessary to understand exchange rates as well as some of the basics of ex





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if the company invests in projects whose returns are less than the cost of capital, the company has actually destroyed value.
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If a company invests in projects that produce a return in excess of the cost of capital, the company has created value; in contrast, if the company invests in projects whose returns are less than the cost of capital, the company has actually destroyed value.

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Reading 36  Cost of Capital Introduction
A company grows by making investments that are expected to increase revenues and profits. The company acquires the capital or funds necessary to make such investments by borrowing or using funds from owners. By applying this capital to investments with long-term benefits, the company is producing value today. But, how much value? The answer depends not only on the investments’ expected future cash flows but also on the cost of the funds. Borrowing is not costless. Neither is using owners’ funds. The cost of this capital is an important ingredient in both investment decision making by the company’s management and the valuation of the company by investors. If a company invests in projects that produce a return in excess of the cost of capital, the company has created value; in contrast, if the company invests in projects whose returns are less than the cost of capital, the company has actually destroyed value. Therefore, the estimation of the cost of capital is a central issue in corporate financial management. For the analyst seeking to evaluate a company’s investment program and its competitive position, an accurate estimate of a company’s cost of capital is important as well. Cost of capital estimation is a challenging task. As we have already implied, the cost of capital is not observable but, rather, must be estimated. Arriving at a cost of capital estimate requires a host of assumptions and estimates. Another challenge is that the cost of capital that is appropriately applied to a specific investment depends on the characteristics of that investment: The riskier the investment’s cash flows, the greater its cost of capital. In reality, a company must estimate project-specific costs of capital. What is often done, however, is to estimate the cost of capital for the company as a whole and then adjust this overall corporate cost of capital upward or downward to reflect the risk of the contemplated project relative to the company’s average project. This reading is organized as follows: In the next section, we introduce the cost of capital and its basic computation. Section 3 presents a selection of methods for estimat





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Staggered terms of Boards make it more difficult for shareholders to make fundamental changes to the composition and behavior of the board
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Staggered terms of Boards make it more difficult for shareholders to make fundamental changes to the composition and behavior of the board and could result in a permanent impairment of long-term shareholder value.

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Subject 5. Board of Directors and Committees
Composition of the Board of Directors A board of directors is the central pillar of the governance structure, serves as the link between shareholders and managers, and acts as the shareholders' internal monitoring tool within the company. The structure and composition of a board of directors vary across countries and companies. The number of directors may vary, and the board typically includes a mix of expertise levels, backgrounds, and competencies. Board members must have extensive experience in business, education, the professions and/or public service so they can make informed decisions about the company's future. If directors lack the skills, knowledge and expertise to conduct a meaningful review of the company's activities, and are unable to conduct in-depth evaluations of the issues affecting the company's business, they are more likely to defer to management when making decisions. Executive (internal) directors are employed by the company and are typically members of senior management. Non-executive (external) directors have limited involvement in daily operations but serve an important oversight role. In a classified or staggered board, directors are typically elected in two or more classes, serving terms greater than one year. Proponents argue that by staggering the election of directors, a certain level of continuity and skill is maintained. However, staggered terms make it more difficult for shareholders to make fundamental changes to the composition and behavior of the board and could result in a permanent impairment of long-term shareholder value. Functions and Responsibilities of the Board Two primary duties of a board of directors are duty of care and duty of loyalty. Among other responsibilities, the





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The choice of which risks to undertake through the allocation of its scarce resources is the key tool available to management.
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The choice of which risks to undertake through the allocation of its scarce resources is the key tool available to management. An organization with a comprehensive risk management culture in place, in which risk is integral to every key strategy and decision, should perform better in the long-term, in good time

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Reading 40  Risk Management: An Introduction Intro
Risk—and risk management—is an inescapable part of economic activity. People generally manage their affairs in order to be as happy and secure as their environment and resources will allow. But regardless of how carefully these affairs are managed, there is risk because the outcome, whether good or bad, is seldom predictable with complete certainty. There is risk inherent in nearly everything we do, but this reading will focus on economic and financial risk, particularly as it relates to investment management. All businesses and investors manage risk, whether consciously or not, in the choices they make. At its core, business and investing are about allocating resources and capital to chosen risks. In their decision process, within an environment of uncertainty, these entities may take steps to avoid some risks, pursue the risks that provide the highest rewards, and measure and mitigate their exposure to these risks as necessary. Risk management processes and tools make difficult business and financial problems easier to address in an uncertain world. Risk is not just a matter of fate; it is something that organizations can actively control with their decisions, within a risk management framework. Risk is an integral part of the business or investment process. Even in the earliest models of modern portfolio theory, such as mean–variance portfolio optimization and the capital asset pricing model, investment return is linked directly to risk but requires that risk be managed optimally. Proper identification and measurement of risk, and keeping risks aligned with the goals of the enterprise, are key factors in managing businesses and investments. Good risk management results in a higher chance of a preferred outcome—more value for the company or portfolio or more utility for the individual. Portfolio managers need to be familiar with risk management not only to improve the portfolio’s risk–return outcome, but also because of two other ways in which they use risk management at an enterprise level. First, they help to manage their own companies that have their own enterprise risk issues. Second, many portfolio assets are claims on companies that have risks. Portfolio managers need to evaluate the companies’ risks and how those companies are addressing them. This reading takes a broad approach that addresses both the risk management of enterprises in general and portfolio risk management. The principles underlying portfolio risk management are generally applicable to the risk management of financial and non-financial institutions as well. The concept of risk management is also relevant to individuals. Although many large entities formally practice risk management, most individuals practice it more informally and some practice it haphazardly, oftentimes responding to risk events after they occur. Although many individuals do take reasonable precautions against unwanted risks, these precautions are often against obvious risks, such as sticking a wet hand into an electrical socket or swallowing poison. The more subtle risks are often ignored. Many individuals simply do not view risk management as a formal, systematic process that would help them achieve not only their financial goals but also the ultimate end result of happiness, or maximum utility as economists like to call it, but they should. Although the primary focus of this reading is on institutions, we will also cover risk management as it applies to individuals. We will show that many common themes underlie risk management—themes that are applicable to both organizations and individuals. Although often viewed as defensive, risk management is a valuable offensive weapon in the manager’s arsenal. In the quest for preferred outcomes, such as higher profit, returns, or share price, management does not usually get to choose the outcomes but does choose the risks it takes in pursuit of those outcomes. The choice of which risks to undertake through the allocation of its scarce resources is the key tool available to management. An organization with a comprehensive risk management culture in place, in which risk is integral to every key strategy and decision, should perform better in the long-term, in good times and bad, as a result of better decision making. The fact that all businesses and investors engage in risky activities (i.e., activities with uncertain outcomes) raises a number of important questions. The questions that this reading will address include the following: What is risk management, and why is it important? What risks does an organization (or individual) face in pursuing its objectives? How are an entity’s goals affected by risk, and how does it make risk management decisions to produce better results? How does risk governance guide the risk management process and risk budgeting to integrate an organization’s goals with its activities? How does an organization measure and evaluate the risks it faces, and what tools does it have to address these risks? The answers to these questions collectively help to define the process of risk management. This reading is organized along the lines of these questions. Section 2 describes the risk management process, and Section 3 discusses risk governance and risk tolerance. Section 4 cove





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Fiscal policy refers to the use of government expenditure, tax, and borrowing activities to achieve economic goals.
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Fiscal policy refers to the use of government expenditure, tax, and borrowing activities to achieve economic goals. Monetary policy refers to central bank activities to control the supply of money. Their goals are maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates. </spa

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Subject 1. What is Money?
Fiscal policy refers to the use of government expenditure, tax, and borrowing activities to achieve economic goals. Monetary policy refers to central bank activities to control the supply of money. Their goals are maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates. The Functions of Money Money performs three basic functions. • It serves as a medium of exchange to buy and sell goods and services. Money simplif





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Monetary policy refers to central bank activities to control the supply of money.
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Fiscal policy refers to the use of government expenditure, tax, and borrowing activities to achieve economic goals. Monetary policy refers to central bank activities to control the supply of money. Their goals are maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates.

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Subject 1. What is Money?
Fiscal policy refers to the use of government expenditure, tax, and borrowing activities to achieve economic goals. Monetary policy refers to central bank activities to control the supply of money. Their goals are maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates. The Functions of Money Money performs three basic functions. • It serves as a medium of exchange to buy and sell goods and services. Money simplif





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The goal of Monetary and Fiscal Policy are maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates.
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/head> Fiscal policy refers to the use of government expenditure, tax, and borrowing activities to achieve economic goals. Monetary policy refers to central bank activities to control the supply of money. Their goals are maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates. <html>

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Subject 1. What is Money?
Fiscal policy refers to the use of government expenditure, tax, and borrowing activities to achieve economic goals. Monetary policy refers to central bank activities to control the supply of money. Their goals are maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates. The Functions of Money Money performs three basic functions. • It serves as a medium of exchange to buy and sell goods and services. Money simplif




Flashcard 1750998060300

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Question
The [...] is the amount by which a change in the monetary base is multiplied to calculate the final change in the money supply.


Answer
money multiplier

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The money multiplier is the amount by which a change in the monetary base is multiplied to calculate the final change in the money supply. Money Multiplier = 1/b, where b is the required reserve ratio. In

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Subject 1. What is Money?
liquid of all assets, due to its function as the medium of exchange. However, many methods of holding money do not yield an interest return and the purchase power of money will decline during a time of inflation. <span>The Money Creation Process Reserves are the cash in a bank's vault and deposits at Federal Reserve Banks. Under the fractional reserve banking system, a bank is obligated to hold a minimum amount of reserves to back up its deposits. Reserves held for that purpose, which are expressed as a percentage of a bank's demand deposits, are called required reserves. Therefore, the required reserve ratio is the percentage of a bank's deposits that are required to be held as reserves. Banks create deposits when they make loans; the new deposits created are new money. Example Suppose the required reserve ratio in the U.S. is 20%, and then suppose that you deposit $1,000 cash with Citibank. Citibank keeps $200 of the $1,000 in reserves. The remaining $800 of excess reserves can be loaned out to, say, John. After the loan is made, the money supply increases by $800 (your $1,000 + John's $800). After getting the loan, John deposits the $800 with Bank of America (BOA). BOA keeps $160 of the $800 in reserves and can now loan out $640 to another person. Thus, BOA creates $640 of money supply. The process goes on and on. With each deposit and loan, more money is created. However, the money creation process does not create an infinite amount of money. The money multiplier is the amount by which a change in the monetary base is multiplied to calculate the final change in the money supply. Money Multiplier = 1/b, where b is the required reserve ratio. In our example, b is 0.2, so money multiplier = 1/0.2 = 5. Definitions of Money There are different definitions of money. The two most widely used measures of money in the U.S. are: The M1 Money Su








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Money Multiplier = 1/b, where b is the required reserve ratio. In our example, b is 0.2, so money multiplier = 1/0.2 = 5.
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The money multiplier is the amount by which a change in the monetary base is multiplied to calculate the final change in the money supply. Money Multiplier = 1/b, where b is the required reserve ratio. In our example, b is 0.2, so money multiplier = 1/0.2 = 5.

Original toplevel document

Subject 1. What is Money?
liquid of all assets, due to its function as the medium of exchange. However, many methods of holding money do not yield an interest return and the purchase power of money will decline during a time of inflation. <span>The Money Creation Process Reserves are the cash in a bank's vault and deposits at Federal Reserve Banks. Under the fractional reserve banking system, a bank is obligated to hold a minimum amount of reserves to back up its deposits. Reserves held for that purpose, which are expressed as a percentage of a bank's demand deposits, are called required reserves. Therefore, the required reserve ratio is the percentage of a bank's deposits that are required to be held as reserves. Banks create deposits when they make loans; the new deposits created are new money. Example Suppose the required reserve ratio in the U.S. is 20%, and then suppose that you deposit $1,000 cash with Citibank. Citibank keeps $200 of the $1,000 in reserves. The remaining $800 of excess reserves can be loaned out to, say, John. After the loan is made, the money supply increases by $800 (your $1,000 + John's $800). After getting the loan, John deposits the $800 with Bank of America (BOA). BOA keeps $160 of the $800 in reserves and can now loan out $640 to another person. Thus, BOA creates $640 of money supply. The process goes on and on. With each deposit and loan, more money is created. However, the money creation process does not create an infinite amount of money. The money multiplier is the amount by which a change in the monetary base is multiplied to calculate the final change in the money supply. Money Multiplier = 1/b, where b is the required reserve ratio. In our example, b is 0.2, so money multiplier = 1/0.2 = 5. Definitions of Money There are different definitions of money. The two most widely used measures of money in the U.S. are: The M1 Money Su





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Definitions of Money

There are different definitions of money. The two most widely used measures of money in the U.S. are:

  • The M1 Money Supply: cash, checking accounts and traveler's checks. This is the narrowest definition of the money supply. This definition focuses on money's function as a medium of exchange.

  • The M2 Money Supply: M1 + savings + small time deposits + retail money funds. This definition focuses on money's function as a medium of exchange and store of value.

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Definitions of Money There are different definitions of money. The two most widely used measures of money in the U.S. are: The M1 Money Supply: cash, checking accounts and traveler's checks. This is the narrowest definition of the money supply. This definition focuses on money's function as a medium of exchange. The M2 Money Supply: M1 + savings + small time deposits + retail money funds. This definition focuses on money's function as a medium of exchange and store of value. Credit cards are not purchasing power, but instead are a convenient means of arranging a loan. Credit is a liability acquired when one borrows funds, while money is

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Subject 1. What is Money?
unt by which a change in the monetary base is multiplied to calculate the final change in the money supply. Money Multiplier = 1/b, where b is the required reserve ratio. In our example, b is 0.2, so money multiplier = 1/0.2 = 5. <span>Definitions of Money There are different definitions of money. The two most widely used measures of money in the U.S. are: The M1 Money Supply: cash, checking accounts and traveler's checks. This is the narrowest definition of the money supply. This definition focuses on money's function as a medium of exchange. The M2 Money Supply: M1 + savings + small time deposits + retail money funds. This definition focuses on money's function as a medium of exchange and store of value. Credit cards are not purchasing power, but instead are a convenient means of arranging a loan. Credit is a liability acquired when one borrows funds, while money is a financial asset that provides the holder with future purchasing power. However, the widespread use of credit cards will tend to reduce the average quantity of money people hold. Deposits are money, but checks are not - a check is an instruction to a bank to transfer money. The Quantity Theory of Money Money Supply (M) x Velocity of Money (V) = Price (P) x Real Output (Y) The velocity of money is the average n





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Credit cards are not purchasing power, but instead are a convenient means of arranging a loan. Credit is a liability acquired when one borrows funds, while money is a financial asset that provides the holder with future purchasing power. However, the widespread use of credit cards will tend to reduce the average quantity of money people hold.
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money's function as a medium of exchange. The M2 Money Supply: M1 + savings + small time deposits + retail money funds. This definition focuses on money's function as a medium of exchange and store of value. <span>Credit cards are not purchasing power, but instead are a convenient means of arranging a loan. Credit is a liability acquired when one borrows funds, while money is a financial asset that provides the holder with future purchasing power. However, the widespread use of credit cards will tend to reduce the average quantity of money people hold. Deposits are money, but checks are not - a check is an instruction to a bank to transfer money. <span><body><html>

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Subject 1. What is Money?
unt by which a change in the monetary base is multiplied to calculate the final change in the money supply. Money Multiplier = 1/b, where b is the required reserve ratio. In our example, b is 0.2, so money multiplier = 1/0.2 = 5. <span>Definitions of Money There are different definitions of money. The two most widely used measures of money in the U.S. are: The M1 Money Supply: cash, checking accounts and traveler's checks. This is the narrowest definition of the money supply. This definition focuses on money's function as a medium of exchange. The M2 Money Supply: M1 + savings + small time deposits + retail money funds. This definition focuses on money's function as a medium of exchange and store of value. Credit cards are not purchasing power, but instead are a convenient means of arranging a loan. Credit is a liability acquired when one borrows funds, while money is a financial asset that provides the holder with future purchasing power. However, the widespread use of credit cards will tend to reduce the average quantity of money people hold. Deposits are money, but checks are not - a check is an instruction to a bank to transfer money. The Quantity Theory of Money Money Supply (M) x Velocity of Money (V) = Price (P) x Real Output (Y) The velocity of money is the average n





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Deposits are money, but checks are not - a check is an instruction to a bank to transfer money.
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y acquired when one borrows funds, while money is a financial asset that provides the holder with future purchasing power. However, the widespread use of credit cards will tend to reduce the average quantity of money people hold. <span>Deposits are money, but checks are not - a check is an instruction to a bank to transfer money. <span><body><html>

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Subject 1. What is Money?
unt by which a change in the monetary base is multiplied to calculate the final change in the money supply. Money Multiplier = 1/b, where b is the required reserve ratio. In our example, b is 0.2, so money multiplier = 1/0.2 = 5. <span>Definitions of Money There are different definitions of money. The two most widely used measures of money in the U.S. are: The M1 Money Supply: cash, checking accounts and traveler's checks. This is the narrowest definition of the money supply. This definition focuses on money's function as a medium of exchange. The M2 Money Supply: M1 + savings + small time deposits + retail money funds. This definition focuses on money's function as a medium of exchange and store of value. Credit cards are not purchasing power, but instead are a convenient means of arranging a loan. Credit is a liability acquired when one borrows funds, while money is a financial asset that provides the holder with future purchasing power. However, the widespread use of credit cards will tend to reduce the average quantity of money people hold. Deposits are money, but checks are not - a check is an instruction to a bank to transfer money. The Quantity Theory of Money Money Supply (M) x Velocity of Money (V) = Price (P) x Real Output (Y) The velocity of money is the average n




Flashcard 1751007497484

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Question
Violations of [...] can harm the community in a variety of ways.
Answer
moral principles

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Violations of moral principles can harm the community in a variety of ways.

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Subject 1. Ethics
Ethical conduct is behavior that follows moral principles. Ethical actions are those actions that are perceived as beneficial and conform to the ethical expectations of society. <span>Ethics encompass a set of moral principles ( code of ethics ) and standards of conduct that provide guidance for our behavior. Violations can harm the community in a variety of ways. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1751009332492

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Question
[...] the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.

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Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.

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Prerequisite Reading Demand and Supply Analysis: Introduction
croeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logical starting point for the study of economics. <span>This reading focuses on a fundamental subject in microeconomics: demand and supply analysis. Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. As we will see, prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit. In private enterprise market economies, which are the chief concern of investment analysts, demand and supply analysis encompasses the most basic set of microeconomic tools. Traditionally, microeconomics classifies private economic units into two groups: consumers (or households) and firms. These two groups give rise, respectively, to the theor








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In essence, an analyst converts data into financial metrics that assist in decision making.
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Financial analysis tools can be useful in assessing a company’s performance and trends in that performance. In essence, an analyst converts data into financial metrics that assist in decision making.

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Reading 27  Financial Analysis Techniques Introduction
Financial analysis tools can be useful in assessing a company’s performance and trends in that performance. In essence, an analyst converts data into financial metrics that assist in decision making. Analysts seek to answer such questions as: How successfully has the company performed, relative to its own past performance and relative to its competitors? How is the company likely to perform in the future? Based on expectations about future performance, what is the value of this company or the securities it issues? A primary source of data is a company’s annual report, including the financial statements and notes, and management commentary (operating and financial review or management’s discussion and analysis). This reading focuses on data presented in financial reports prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and United States generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP). However, financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effective financial analysis. Although financial statements do contain data about the past performance of a company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity), such statements do not necessarily provide all the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results. The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions. Accordingly, an analyst typically needs to supplement the information found in a company’s financial reports with other information, including information on the economy, industry, comparable companies, and the company itself. This reading describes various techniques used to analyze a company’s financial statements. Financial analysis of a company may be performed for a variety of reasons, such as valuing equity securities, assessing credit risk, conducting due diligence related to an acquisition, or assessing a subsidiary’s performance. This reading will describe techniques common to any financial analysis and then discuss more specific aspects for the two most common categories: equity analysis and credit analysis. Equity analysis incorporates an owner’s perspective, either for valuation or performance evaluation. Credit analysis incorporates a creditor’s (such as a banker or bondholder) perspective. In either case, there is a need to gather and analyze information to make a decision (ownership or credit); the focus of analysis varies because of the differing interest of owners and creditors. Both equity and credit analyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks. Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks. The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundamentals of these types of investments: The value of a company’s equity generally increases as the company’s earnings and cash flow increase, whereas the value of a company’s debt has an upper limit.1 The balance of this reading is organized as follows: Section 2 recaps the framework for financial statements and the place of financial analysis techniques within the frame





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A primary source of data is a company’s annual report, including the financial statements and notes, and management commentary (operating and financial review or management’s discussion and analysis).
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A primary source of data is a company’s annual report, including the financial statements and notes, and management commentary (operating and financial review or management’s discussion and analysis). This reading focuses on data presented in financial reports prepared under IFRS and US GAAP . However, financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effectiv

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Reading 27  Financial Analysis Techniques Introduction
Financial analysis tools can be useful in assessing a company’s performance and trends in that performance. In essence, an analyst converts data into financial metrics that assist in decision making. Analysts seek to answer such questions as: How successfully has the company performed, relative to its own past performance and relative to its competitors? How is the company likely to perform in the future? Based on expectations about future performance, what is the value of this company or the securities it issues? A primary source of data is a company’s annual report, including the financial statements and notes, and management commentary (operating and financial review or management’s discussion and analysis). This reading focuses on data presented in financial reports prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and United States generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP). However, financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effective financial analysis. Although financial statements do contain data about the past performance of a company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity), such statements do not necessarily provide all the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results. The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions. Accordingly, an analyst typically needs to supplement the information found in a company’s financial reports with other information, including information on the economy, industry, comparable companies, and the company itself. This reading describes various techniques used to analyze a company’s financial statements. Financial analysis of a company may be performed for a variety of reasons, such as valuing equity securities, assessing credit risk, conducting due diligence related to an acquisition, or assessing a subsidiary’s performance. This reading will describe techniques common to any financial analysis and then discuss more specific aspects for the two most common categories: equity analysis and credit analysis. Equity analysis incorporates an owner’s perspective, either for valuation or performance evaluation. Credit analysis incorporates a creditor’s (such as a banker or bondholder) perspective. In either case, there is a need to gather and analyze information to make a decision (ownership or credit); the focus of analysis varies because of the differing interest of owners and creditors. Both equity and credit analyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks. Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks. The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundamentals of these types of investments: The value of a company’s equity generally increases as the company’s earnings and cash flow increase, whereas the value of a company’s debt has an upper limit.1 The balance of this reading is organized as follows: Section 2 recaps the framework for financial statements and the place of financial analysis techniques within the frame





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financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effective financial analysis.
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the financial statements and notes, and management commentary (operating and financial review or management’s discussion and analysis). This reading focuses on data presented in financial reports prepared under IFRS and US GAAP . However, <span>financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effective financial analysis. Although financial statements do contain data about the past performance of a company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and ow

Original toplevel document

Reading 27  Financial Analysis Techniques Introduction
Financial analysis tools can be useful in assessing a company’s performance and trends in that performance. In essence, an analyst converts data into financial metrics that assist in decision making. Analysts seek to answer such questions as: How successfully has the company performed, relative to its own past performance and relative to its competitors? How is the company likely to perform in the future? Based on expectations about future performance, what is the value of this company or the securities it issues? A primary source of data is a company’s annual report, including the financial statements and notes, and management commentary (operating and financial review or management’s discussion and analysis). This reading focuses on data presented in financial reports prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and United States generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP). However, financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effective financial analysis. Although financial statements do contain data about the past performance of a company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity), such statements do not necessarily provide all the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results. The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions. Accordingly, an analyst typically needs to supplement the information found in a company’s financial reports with other information, including information on the economy, industry, comparable companies, and the company itself. This reading describes various techniques used to analyze a company’s financial statements. Financial analysis of a company may be performed for a variety of reasons, such as valuing equity securities, assessing credit risk, conducting due diligence related to an acquisition, or assessing a subsidiary’s performance. This reading will describe techniques common to any financial analysis and then discuss more specific aspects for the two most common categories: equity analysis and credit analysis. Equity analysis incorporates an owner’s perspective, either for valuation or performance evaluation. Credit analysis incorporates a creditor’s (such as a banker or bondholder) perspective. In either case, there is a need to gather and analyze information to make a decision (ownership or credit); the focus of analysis varies because of the differing interest of owners and creditors. Both equity and credit analyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks. Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks. The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundamentals of these types of investments: The value of a company’s equity generally increases as the company’s earnings and cash flow increase, whereas the value of a company’s debt has an upper limit.1 The balance of this reading is organized as follows: Section 2 recaps the framework for financial statements and the place of financial analysis techniques within the frame





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Although financial statements do contain data about the past performance of a company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity), such statements do not necessarily provide all the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results.
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agement’s discussion and analysis). This reading focuses on data presented in financial reports prepared under IFRS and US GAAP . However, financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effective financial analysis. <span>Although financial statements do contain data about the past performance of a company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity), such statements do not necessarily provide all the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results. The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions. Accordingly, an analyst typica

Original toplevel document

Reading 27  Financial Analysis Techniques Introduction
Financial analysis tools can be useful in assessing a company’s performance and trends in that performance. In essence, an analyst converts data into financial metrics that assist in decision making. Analysts seek to answer such questions as: How successfully has the company performed, relative to its own past performance and relative to its competitors? How is the company likely to perform in the future? Based on expectations about future performance, what is the value of this company or the securities it issues? A primary source of data is a company’s annual report, including the financial statements and notes, and management commentary (operating and financial review or management’s discussion and analysis). This reading focuses on data presented in financial reports prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and United States generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP). However, financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effective financial analysis. Although financial statements do contain data about the past performance of a company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity), such statements do not necessarily provide all the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results. The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions. Accordingly, an analyst typically needs to supplement the information found in a company’s financial reports with other information, including information on the economy, industry, comparable companies, and the company itself. This reading describes various techniques used to analyze a company’s financial statements. Financial analysis of a company may be performed for a variety of reasons, such as valuing equity securities, assessing credit risk, conducting due diligence related to an acquisition, or assessing a subsidiary’s performance. This reading will describe techniques common to any financial analysis and then discuss more specific aspects for the two most common categories: equity analysis and credit analysis. Equity analysis incorporates an owner’s perspective, either for valuation or performance evaluation. Credit analysis incorporates a creditor’s (such as a banker or bondholder) perspective. In either case, there is a need to gather and analyze information to make a decision (ownership or credit); the focus of analysis varies because of the differing interest of owners and creditors. Both equity and credit analyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks. Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks. The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundamentals of these types of investments: The value of a company’s equity generally increases as the company’s earnings and cash flow increase, whereas the value of a company’s debt has an upper limit.1 The balance of this reading is organized as follows: Section 2 recaps the framework for financial statements and the place of financial analysis techniques within the frame





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The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions.
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company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity), such statements do not necessarily provide all the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results. <span>The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions. Accordingly, an analyst typically needs to supplement the information found in a company’s financial reports with other information, including information on the economy, industry, comp

Original toplevel document

Reading 27  Financial Analysis Techniques Introduction
Financial analysis tools can be useful in assessing a company’s performance and trends in that performance. In essence, an analyst converts data into financial metrics that assist in decision making. Analysts seek to answer such questions as: How successfully has the company performed, relative to its own past performance and relative to its competitors? How is the company likely to perform in the future? Based on expectations about future performance, what is the value of this company or the securities it issues? A primary source of data is a company’s annual report, including the financial statements and notes, and management commentary (operating and financial review or management’s discussion and analysis). This reading focuses on data presented in financial reports prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and United States generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP). However, financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effective financial analysis. Although financial statements do contain data about the past performance of a company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity), such statements do not necessarily provide all the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results. The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions. Accordingly, an analyst typically needs to supplement the information found in a company’s financial reports with other information, including information on the economy, industry, comparable companies, and the company itself. This reading describes various techniques used to analyze a company’s financial statements. Financial analysis of a company may be performed for a variety of reasons, such as valuing equity securities, assessing credit risk, conducting due diligence related to an acquisition, or assessing a subsidiary’s performance. This reading will describe techniques common to any financial analysis and then discuss more specific aspects for the two most common categories: equity analysis and credit analysis. Equity analysis incorporates an owner’s perspective, either for valuation or performance evaluation. Credit analysis incorporates a creditor’s (such as a banker or bondholder) perspective. In either case, there is a need to gather and analyze information to make a decision (ownership or credit); the focus of analysis varies because of the differing interest of owners and creditors. Both equity and credit analyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks. Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks. The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundamentals of these types of investments: The value of a company’s equity generally increases as the company’s earnings and cash flow increase, whereas the value of a company’s debt has an upper limit.1 The balance of this reading is organized as follows: Section 2 recaps the framework for financial statements and the place of financial analysis techniques within the frame





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an analyst typically needs to supplement the information found in a company’s financial reports with other information, including information on the economy, industry, comparable companies, and the company itself.
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l the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results. The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions. Accordingly, <span>an analyst typically needs to supplement the information found in a company’s financial reports with other information, including information on the economy, industry, comparable companies, and the company itself. <span><body><html>

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Reading 27  Financial Analysis Techniques Introduction
Financial analysis tools can be useful in assessing a company’s performance and trends in that performance. In essence, an analyst converts data into financial metrics that assist in decision making. Analysts seek to answer such questions as: How successfully has the company performed, relative to its own past performance and relative to its competitors? How is the company likely to perform in the future? Based on expectations about future performance, what is the value of this company or the securities it issues? A primary source of data is a company’s annual report, including the financial statements and notes, and management commentary (operating and financial review or management’s discussion and analysis). This reading focuses on data presented in financial reports prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and United States generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP). However, financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effective financial analysis. Although financial statements do contain data about the past performance of a company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity), such statements do not necessarily provide all the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results. The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions. Accordingly, an analyst typically needs to supplement the information found in a company’s financial reports with other information, including information on the economy, industry, comparable companies, and the company itself. This reading describes various techniques used to analyze a company’s financial statements. Financial analysis of a company may be performed for a variety of reasons, such as valuing equity securities, assessing credit risk, conducting due diligence related to an acquisition, or assessing a subsidiary’s performance. This reading will describe techniques common to any financial analysis and then discuss more specific aspects for the two most common categories: equity analysis and credit analysis. Equity analysis incorporates an owner’s perspective, either for valuation or performance evaluation. Credit analysis incorporates a creditor’s (such as a banker or bondholder) perspective. In either case, there is a need to gather and analyze information to make a decision (ownership or credit); the focus of analysis varies because of the differing interest of owners and creditors. Both equity and credit analyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks. Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks. The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundamentals of these types of investments: The value of a company’s equity generally increases as the company’s earnings and cash flow increase, whereas the value of a company’s debt has an upper limit.1 The balance of this reading is organized as follows: Section 2 recaps the framework for financial statements and the place of financial analysis techniques within the frame





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Financial analysis of a company may be performed for a variety of reasons, such as valuing equity securities, assessing credit risk, conducting due diligence related to an acquisition, or assessing a subsidiary’s performance.
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This reading describes various techniques used to analyze a company’s financial statements. Financial analysis of a company may be performed for a variety of reasons, such as valuing equity securities, assessing credit risk, conducting due diligence related to an acquisition, or assessing a subsidiary’s performance. This reading will describe techniques common to any financial analysis and then discuss more specific aspects for the two most common categories: equity analysis and credit analysis. <

Original toplevel document

Reading 27  Financial Analysis Techniques Introduction
Financial analysis tools can be useful in assessing a company’s performance and trends in that performance. In essence, an analyst converts data into financial metrics that assist in decision making. Analysts seek to answer such questions as: How successfully has the company performed, relative to its own past performance and relative to its competitors? How is the company likely to perform in the future? Based on expectations about future performance, what is the value of this company or the securities it issues? A primary source of data is a company’s annual report, including the financial statements and notes, and management commentary (operating and financial review or management’s discussion and analysis). This reading focuses on data presented in financial reports prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and United States generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP). However, financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effective financial analysis. Although financial statements do contain data about the past performance of a company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity), such statements do not necessarily provide all the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results. The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions. Accordingly, an analyst typically needs to supplement the information found in a company’s financial reports with other information, including information on the economy, industry, comparable companies, and the company itself. This reading describes various techniques used to analyze a company’s financial statements. Financial analysis of a company may be performed for a variety of reasons, such as valuing equity securities, assessing credit risk, conducting due diligence related to an acquisition, or assessing a subsidiary’s performance. This reading will describe techniques common to any financial analysis and then discuss more specific aspects for the two most common categories: equity analysis and credit analysis. Equity analysis incorporates an owner’s perspective, either for valuation or performance evaluation. Credit analysis incorporates a creditor’s (such as a banker or bondholder) perspective. In either case, there is a need to gather and analyze information to make a decision (ownership or credit); the focus of analysis varies because of the differing interest of owners and creditors. Both equity and credit analyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks. Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks. The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundamentals of these types of investments: The value of a company’s equity generally increases as the company’s earnings and cash flow increase, whereas the value of a company’s debt has an upper limit.1 The balance of this reading is organized as follows: Section 2 recaps the framework for financial statements and the place of financial analysis techniques within the frame





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Equity analysis incorporates an owner’s perspective, either for valuation or performance evaluation. Credit analysis incorporates a creditor’s (such as a banker or bondholder) perspective.
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Equity analysis incorporates an owner’s perspective, either for valuation or performance evaluation. Credit analysis incorporates a creditor’s (such as a banker or bondholder) perspective. In either case, there is a need to gather and analyze information to make a decision (ownership or credit); the focus of analysis varies because of the differing interest of owners and

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Reading 27  Financial Analysis Techniques Introduction
Financial analysis tools can be useful in assessing a company’s performance and trends in that performance. In essence, an analyst converts data into financial metrics that assist in decision making. Analysts seek to answer such questions as: How successfully has the company performed, relative to its own past performance and relative to its competitors? How is the company likely to perform in the future? Based on expectations about future performance, what is the value of this company or the securities it issues? A primary source of data is a company’s annual report, including the financial statements and notes, and management commentary (operating and financial review or management’s discussion and analysis). This reading focuses on data presented in financial reports prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and United States generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP). However, financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effective financial analysis. Although financial statements do contain data about the past performance of a company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity), such statements do not necessarily provide all the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results. The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions. Accordingly, an analyst typically needs to supplement the information found in a company’s financial reports with other information, including information on the economy, industry, comparable companies, and the company itself. This reading describes various techniques used to analyze a company’s financial statements. Financial analysis of a company may be performed for a variety of reasons, such as valuing equity securities, assessing credit risk, conducting due diligence related to an acquisition, or assessing a subsidiary’s performance. This reading will describe techniques common to any financial analysis and then discuss more specific aspects for the two most common categories: equity analysis and credit analysis. Equity analysis incorporates an owner’s perspective, either for valuation or performance evaluation. Credit analysis incorporates a creditor’s (such as a banker or bondholder) perspective. In either case, there is a need to gather and analyze information to make a decision (ownership or credit); the focus of analysis varies because of the differing interest of owners and creditors. Both equity and credit analyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks. Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks. The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundamentals of these types of investments: The value of a company’s equity generally increases as the company’s earnings and cash flow increase, whereas the value of a company’s debt has an upper limit.1 The balance of this reading is organized as follows: Section 2 recaps the framework for financial statements and the place of financial analysis techniques within the frame





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Both equity and credit analyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks.
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(such as a banker or bondholder) perspective. In either case, there is a need to gather and analyze information to make a decision (ownership or credit); the focus of analysis varies because of the differing interest of owners and creditors. <span>Both equity and credit analyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks. Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks. The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundam

Original toplevel document

Reading 27  Financial Analysis Techniques Introduction
Financial analysis tools can be useful in assessing a company’s performance and trends in that performance. In essence, an analyst converts data into financial metrics that assist in decision making. Analysts seek to answer such questions as: How successfully has the company performed, relative to its own past performance and relative to its competitors? How is the company likely to perform in the future? Based on expectations about future performance, what is the value of this company or the securities it issues? A primary source of data is a company’s annual report, including the financial statements and notes, and management commentary (operating and financial review or management’s discussion and analysis). This reading focuses on data presented in financial reports prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and United States generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP). However, financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effective financial analysis. Although financial statements do contain data about the past performance of a company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity), such statements do not necessarily provide all the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results. The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions. Accordingly, an analyst typically needs to supplement the information found in a company’s financial reports with other information, including information on the economy, industry, comparable companies, and the company itself. This reading describes various techniques used to analyze a company’s financial statements. Financial analysis of a company may be performed for a variety of reasons, such as valuing equity securities, assessing credit risk, conducting due diligence related to an acquisition, or assessing a subsidiary’s performance. This reading will describe techniques common to any financial analysis and then discuss more specific aspects for the two most common categories: equity analysis and credit analysis. Equity analysis incorporates an owner’s perspective, either for valuation or performance evaluation. Credit analysis incorporates a creditor’s (such as a banker or bondholder) perspective. In either case, there is a need to gather and analyze information to make a decision (ownership or credit); the focus of analysis varies because of the differing interest of owners and creditors. Both equity and credit analyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks. Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks. The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundamentals of these types of investments: The value of a company’s equity generally increases as the company’s earnings and cash flow increase, whereas the value of a company’s debt has an upper limit.1 The balance of this reading is organized as follows: Section 2 recaps the framework for financial statements and the place of financial analysis techniques within the frame





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Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks.
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hip or credit); the focus of analysis varies because of the differing interest of owners and creditors. Both equity and credit analyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks. <span>Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks. The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundamentals of these types of investments: The value of a company’s equity generally increases as the company’s earnings and cash flow

Original toplevel document

Reading 27  Financial Analysis Techniques Introduction
Financial analysis tools can be useful in assessing a company’s performance and trends in that performance. In essence, an analyst converts data into financial metrics that assist in decision making. Analysts seek to answer such questions as: How successfully has the company performed, relative to its own past performance and relative to its competitors? How is the company likely to perform in the future? Based on expectations about future performance, what is the value of this company or the securities it issues? A primary source of data is a company’s annual report, including the financial statements and notes, and management commentary (operating and financial review or management’s discussion and analysis). This reading focuses on data presented in financial reports prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and United States generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP). However, financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effective financial analysis. Although financial statements do contain data about the past performance of a company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity), such statements do not necessarily provide all the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results. The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions. Accordingly, an analyst typically needs to supplement the information found in a company’s financial reports with other information, including information on the economy, industry, comparable companies, and the company itself. This reading describes various techniques used to analyze a company’s financial statements. Financial analysis of a company may be performed for a variety of reasons, such as valuing equity securities, assessing credit risk, conducting due diligence related to an acquisition, or assessing a subsidiary’s performance. This reading will describe techniques common to any financial analysis and then discuss more specific aspects for the two most common categories: equity analysis and credit analysis. Equity analysis incorporates an owner’s perspective, either for valuation or performance evaluation. Credit analysis incorporates a creditor’s (such as a banker or bondholder) perspective. In either case, there is a need to gather and analyze information to make a decision (ownership or credit); the focus of analysis varies because of the differing interest of owners and creditors. Both equity and credit analyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks. Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks. The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundamentals of these types of investments: The value of a company’s equity generally increases as the company’s earnings and cash flow increase, whereas the value of a company’s debt has an upper limit.1 The balance of this reading is organized as follows: Section 2 recaps the framework for financial statements and the place of financial analysis techniques within the frame





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The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundamentals of these types of investments: The value of a company’s equity generally increases as the company’s earnings and cash flow increase, whereas the value of a company’s debt has an upper limit.
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alyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks. Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks. <span>The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundamentals of these types of investments: The value of a company’s equity generally increases as the company’s earnings and cash flow increase, whereas the value of a company’s debt has an upper limit. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Reading 27  Financial Analysis Techniques Introduction
Financial analysis tools can be useful in assessing a company’s performance and trends in that performance. In essence, an analyst converts data into financial metrics that assist in decision making. Analysts seek to answer such questions as: How successfully has the company performed, relative to its own past performance and relative to its competitors? How is the company likely to perform in the future? Based on expectations about future performance, what is the value of this company or the securities it issues? A primary source of data is a company’s annual report, including the financial statements and notes, and management commentary (operating and financial review or management’s discussion and analysis). This reading focuses on data presented in financial reports prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and United States generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP). However, financial reports do not contain all the information needed to perform effective financial analysis. Although financial statements do contain data about the past performance of a company (its income and cash flows) as well as its current financial condition (assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity), such statements do not necessarily provide all the information useful for analysis nor do they forecast future results. The financial analyst must be capable of using financial statements in conjunction with other information to make projections and reach valid conclusions. Accordingly, an analyst typically needs to supplement the information found in a company’s financial reports with other information, including information on the economy, industry, comparable companies, and the company itself. This reading describes various techniques used to analyze a company’s financial statements. Financial analysis of a company may be performed for a variety of reasons, such as valuing equity securities, assessing credit risk, conducting due diligence related to an acquisition, or assessing a subsidiary’s performance. This reading will describe techniques common to any financial analysis and then discuss more specific aspects for the two most common categories: equity analysis and credit analysis. Equity analysis incorporates an owner’s perspective, either for valuation or performance evaluation. Credit analysis incorporates a creditor’s (such as a banker or bondholder) perspective. In either case, there is a need to gather and analyze information to make a decision (ownership or credit); the focus of analysis varies because of the differing interest of owners and creditors. Both equity and credit analyses assess the entity’s ability to generate and grow earnings, and cash flow, as well as any associated risks. Equity analysis usually places a greater emphasis on growth, whereas credit analysis usually places a greater emphasis on risks. The difference in emphasis reflects the different fundamentals of these types of investments: The value of a company’s equity generally increases as the company’s earnings and cash flow increase, whereas the value of a company’s debt has an upper limit.1 The balance of this reading is organized as follows: Section 2 recaps the framework for financial statements and the place of financial analysis techniques within the frame




Flashcard 1751029255436

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Question
Examples of long-lived financial assets include investments in [...].
Answer
equity or debt securities issued by other companies

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Examples of long-lived financial assets include investments in equity or debt securities issued by other companies.

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Reading 29  Long-Lived Assets Introduction
Long-lived assets , also referred to as non-current assets or long-term assets, are assets that are expected to provide economic benefits over a future period of time, typically greater than one year.1 Long-lived assets may be tangible, intangible, or financial assets. Examples of long-lived tangible assets, typically referred to as property, plant, and equipment and sometimes as fixed assets, include land, buildings, furniture and fixtures, machinery and equipment, and vehicles; examples of long-lived intangible assets (assets lacking physical substance) include patents and trademarks; and examples of long-lived financial assets include investments in equity or debt securities issued by other companies. The scope of this reading is limited to long-lived tangible and intangible assets (hereafter, referred to for simplicity as long-lived assets). The first issue in accounting for a long-lived asset is determining its cost at acquisition. The second issue is how to allocate the cost to expense over time. The costs of most long-lived assets are capitalised and then allocated as expenses in the profit or loss (income) statement over the period of time during which they are expected to provide economic benefits. The two main types of long-lived assets with costs that are typically not allocated over time are land, which is not depreciated, and those intangible assets with indefinite useful lives. Additional issues that arise are the treatment of subsequent costs incurred related to the asset, the use of the cost model versus the revaluation model, unexpected declines in the value of the asset, classification of the asset with respect to intent (for example, held for use or held for sale), and the derecognition of the asset. This reading is organised as follows. Section 2 describes and illustrates accounting for the acquisition of long-lived assets, with particular attention to the impact of ca







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Question
The first issue in accounting for a long-lived asset is determining its [...].
Answer
cost at acquisition

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The first issue in accounting for a long-lived asset is determining its cost at acquisition. The second issue is how to allocate the cost to expense over time.

Original toplevel document

Reading 29  Long-Lived Assets Introduction
Long-lived assets , also referred to as non-current assets or long-term assets, are assets that are expected to provide economic benefits over a future period of time, typically greater than one year.1 Long-lived assets may be tangible, intangible, or financial assets. Examples of long-lived tangible assets, typically referred to as property, plant, and equipment and sometimes as fixed assets, include land, buildings, furniture and fixtures, machinery and equipment, and vehicles; examples of long-lived intangible assets (assets lacking physical substance) include patents and trademarks; and examples of long-lived financial assets include investments in equity or debt securities issued by other companies. The scope of this reading is limited to long-lived tangible and intangible assets (hereafter, referred to for simplicity as long-lived assets). The first issue in accounting for a long-lived asset is determining its cost at acquisition. The second issue is how to allocate the cost to expense over time. The costs of most long-lived assets are capitalised and then allocated as expenses in the profit or loss (income) statement over the period of time during which they are expected to provide economic benefits. The two main types of long-lived assets with costs that are typically not allocated over time are land, which is not depreciated, and those intangible assets with indefinite useful lives. Additional issues that arise are the treatment of subsequent costs incurred related to the asset, the use of the cost model versus the revaluation model, unexpected declines in the value of the asset, classification of the asset with respect to intent (for example, held for use or held for sale), and the derecognition of the asset. This reading is organised as follows. Section 2 describes and illustrates accounting for the acquisition of long-lived assets, with particular attention to the impact of ca







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Question
The first issue in accounting for a long-lived asset is determining its cost at acquisition. The second issue is how to [...].
Answer
allocate the cost to expense over time

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The first issue in accounting for a long-lived asset is determining its cost at acquisition. The second issue is how to allocate the cost to expense over time.

Original toplevel document

Reading 29  Long-Lived Assets Introduction
Long-lived assets , also referred to as non-current assets or long-term assets, are assets that are expected to provide economic benefits over a future period of time, typically greater than one year.1 Long-lived assets may be tangible, intangible, or financial assets. Examples of long-lived tangible assets, typically referred to as property, plant, and equipment and sometimes as fixed assets, include land, buildings, furniture and fixtures, machinery and equipment, and vehicles; examples of long-lived intangible assets (assets lacking physical substance) include patents and trademarks; and examples of long-lived financial assets include investments in equity or debt securities issued by other companies. The scope of this reading is limited to long-lived tangible and intangible assets (hereafter, referred to for simplicity as long-lived assets). The first issue in accounting for a long-lived asset is determining its cost at acquisition. The second issue is how to allocate the cost to expense over time. The costs of most long-lived assets are capitalised and then allocated as expenses in the profit or loss (income) statement over the period of time during which they are expected to provide economic benefits. The two main types of long-lived assets with costs that are typically not allocated over time are land, which is not depreciated, and those intangible assets with indefinite useful lives. Additional issues that arise are the treatment of subsequent costs incurred related to the asset, the use of the cost model versus the revaluation model, unexpected declines in the value of the asset, classification of the asset with respect to intent (for example, held for use or held for sale), and the derecognition of the asset. This reading is organised as follows. Section 2 describes and illustrates accounting for the acquisition of long-lived assets, with particular attention to the impact of ca







Flashcard 1751034760460

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Question
The two main types of long-lived assets with costs that are typically not allocated over time are [...]
Answer
land and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives.

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The two main types of long-lived assets with costs that are typically not allocated over time are land, which is not depreciated, and those intangible assets with indefinite useful lives.

Original toplevel document

Reading 29  Long-Lived Assets Introduction
Long-lived assets , also referred to as non-current assets or long-term assets, are assets that are expected to provide economic benefits over a future period of time, typically greater than one year.1 Long-lived assets may be tangible, intangible, or financial assets. Examples of long-lived tangible assets, typically referred to as property, plant, and equipment and sometimes as fixed assets, include land, buildings, furniture and fixtures, machinery and equipment, and vehicles; examples of long-lived intangible assets (assets lacking physical substance) include patents and trademarks; and examples of long-lived financial assets include investments in equity or debt securities issued by other companies. The scope of this reading is limited to long-lived tangible and intangible assets (hereafter, referred to for simplicity as long-lived assets). The first issue in accounting for a long-lived asset is determining its cost at acquisition. The second issue is how to allocate the cost to expense over time. The costs of most long-lived assets are capitalised and then allocated as expenses in the profit or loss (income) statement over the period of time during which they are expected to provide economic benefits. The two main types of long-lived assets with costs that are typically not allocated over time are land, which is not depreciated, and those intangible assets with indefinite useful lives. Additional issues that arise are the treatment of subsequent costs incurred related to the asset, the use of the cost model versus the revaluation model, unexpected declines in the value of the asset, classification of the asset with respect to intent (for example, held for use or held for sale), and the derecognition of the asset. This reading is organised as follows. Section 2 describes and illustrates accounting for the acquisition of long-lived assets, with particular attention to the impact of ca








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Total investment is the amount spent by all businesses on plant and equipment
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Macroeconomics focuses on national aggregates, such as total investment, the amount spent by all businesses on plant and equipment; total consumption, the amount spent by all households on goods and services; the rate of change in the general level of prices; and the overall level of interest rates.

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Reading 16  Aggregate Output, Prices, and Economic Growth Introduction
In the field of economics, microeconomics is the study of the economic activity and behavior of individual economic units, such as a household, a company, or a market for a particular good or service, and macroeconomics is the study of the aggregate activities of households, companies, and markets. Macroeconomics focuses on national aggregates, such as total investment, the amount spent by all businesses on plant and equipment; total consumption, the amount spent by all households on goods and services; the rate of change in the general level of prices; and the overall level of interest rates. Macroeconomic analysis examines a nation’s aggregate output and income, its competitive and comparative advantages, the productivity of its labor force, its price level and inflation rate, and the actions of its national government and central bank. The objective of macroeconomic analysis is to address such fundamental questions as: What is an economy’s aggregate output, and how is aggregate income measured? What factors determine the level of aggregate output/income for an economy? What are the levels of aggregate demand and aggregate supply of goods and services within the country? Is the level of output increasing or decreasing, and at what rate? Is the general price level stable, rising, or falling? Is unemployment rising or falling? Are households spending or saving more? Are workers able to produce more output for a given level of inputs? Are businesses investing in and expanding their productive capacity? Are exports (imports) rising or falling? From an investment perspective, investors must be able to evaluate a country’s current economic environment and to forecast its future economic environment in order to identify asset classes and securities that will benefit from economic trends occurring within that country. Macroeconomic variables—such as the level of inflation, unemployment, consumption, government spending, and investment—affect the overall level of activity within a country. They also have different impacts on the growth and profitability of industries within a country, the companies within those industries, and the returns of the securities issued by those companies. This reading is organized as follows: Section 2 describes gross domestic product and related measures of domestic output and income. Section 3 discusses short-run and long-





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Total consumption is the amount spent by all households on goods and services
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Macroeconomics focuses on national aggregates, such as total investment, the amount spent by all businesses on plant and equipment; total consumption, the amount spent by all households on goods and services; the rate of change in the general level of prices; and the overall level of interest rates.

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Reading 16  Aggregate Output, Prices, and Economic Growth Introduction
In the field of economics, microeconomics is the study of the economic activity and behavior of individual economic units, such as a household, a company, or a market for a particular good or service, and macroeconomics is the study of the aggregate activities of households, companies, and markets. Macroeconomics focuses on national aggregates, such as total investment, the amount spent by all businesses on plant and equipment; total consumption, the amount spent by all households on goods and services; the rate of change in the general level of prices; and the overall level of interest rates. Macroeconomic analysis examines a nation’s aggregate output and income, its competitive and comparative advantages, the productivity of its labor force, its price level and inflation rate, and the actions of its national government and central bank. The objective of macroeconomic analysis is to address such fundamental questions as: What is an economy’s aggregate output, and how is aggregate income measured? What factors determine the level of aggregate output/income for an economy? What are the levels of aggregate demand and aggregate supply of goods and services within the country? Is the level of output increasing or decreasing, and at what rate? Is the general price level stable, rising, or falling? Is unemployment rising or falling? Are households spending or saving more? Are workers able to produce more output for a given level of inputs? Are businesses investing in and expanding their productive capacity? Are exports (imports) rising or falling? From an investment perspective, investors must be able to evaluate a country’s current economic environment and to forecast its future economic environment in order to identify asset classes and securities that will benefit from economic trends occurring within that country. Macroeconomic variables—such as the level of inflation, unemployment, consumption, government spending, and investment—affect the overall level of activity within a country. They also have different impacts on the growth and profitability of industries within a country, the companies within those industries, and the returns of the securities issued by those companies. This reading is organized as follows: Section 2 describes gross domestic product and related measures of domestic output and income. Section 3 discusses short-run and long-





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Macroeconomic variables—such as the level of inflation, unemployment, consumption, government spending, and investment—affect the overall level of activity within a country.
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Macroeconomic variables—such as the level of inflation, unemployment, consumption, government spending, and investment—affect the overall level of activity within a country. They also have different impacts on the growth and profitability of industries within a country, the companies within those industries, and the returns of the securities issued by those

Original toplevel document

Reading 16  Aggregate Output, Prices, and Economic Growth Introduction
In the field of economics, microeconomics is the study of the economic activity and behavior of individual economic units, such as a household, a company, or a market for a particular good or service, and macroeconomics is the study of the aggregate activities of households, companies, and markets. Macroeconomics focuses on national aggregates, such as total investment, the amount spent by all businesses on plant and equipment; total consumption, the amount spent by all households on goods and services; the rate of change in the general level of prices; and the overall level of interest rates. Macroeconomic analysis examines a nation’s aggregate output and income, its competitive and comparative advantages, the productivity of its labor force, its price level and inflation rate, and the actions of its national government and central bank. The objective of macroeconomic analysis is to address such fundamental questions as: What is an economy’s aggregate output, and how is aggregate income measured? What factors determine the level of aggregate output/income for an economy? What are the levels of aggregate demand and aggregate supply of goods and services within the country? Is the level of output increasing or decreasing, and at what rate? Is the general price level stable, rising, or falling? Is unemployment rising or falling? Are households spending or saving more? Are workers able to produce more output for a given level of inputs? Are businesses investing in and expanding their productive capacity? Are exports (imports) rising or falling? From an investment perspective, investors must be able to evaluate a country’s current economic environment and to forecast its future economic environment in order to identify asset classes and securities that will benefit from economic trends occurring within that country. Macroeconomic variables—such as the level of inflation, unemployment, consumption, government spending, and investment—affect the overall level of activity within a country. They also have different impacts on the growth and profitability of industries within a country, the companies within those industries, and the returns of the securities issued by those companies. This reading is organized as follows: Section 2 describes gross domestic product and related measures of domestic output and income. Section 3 discusses short-run and long-




Flashcard 1751044721932

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Question
Endowment funds are typically funded entirely by [...]
Answer
donations

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Endowment funds are typically funded entirely by donations that are deductible for the donors.

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Endowment Fund
<span>What is an 'Endowment Fund' An endowment fund is an investment fund established by a foundation that makes consistent withdrawals from invested capital. The capital in endowment funds, often used by universities, nonprofit organizations, churches and hospitals, is generally utilized for specific needs or to further a company’s operating process. Endowment funds are typically funded entirely by donations that are deductible for the donors. BREAKING DOWN 'Endowment Fund' Financial endowments are typically structured so the principal amount invested remains intact, while investment income








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Active returns refer to returns earned by strategies that do not assume that all information is fully reflected in market prices.
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The CIO’s description underscores the importance of not assuming that past active returns that might be found in a historical dataset will repeat themselves in the future. Active returns refer to returns earned by strategies that do not assume that all information is fully reflected in market prices.

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Reading 46  Market Efficiency (Intro)
Market efficiency concerns the extent to which market prices incorporate available information. If market prices do not fully incorporate information, then opportunities may exist to make a profit from the gathering and processing of information. The subject of market efficiency is, therefore, of great interest to investment managers, as illustrated in Example 1. EXAMPLE 1 Market Efficiency and Active Manager Selection The chief investment officer (CIO) of a major university endowment fund has listed eight steps in the active manager selection process that can be applied both to traditional investments (e.g., common equity and fixed-income securities) and to alternative investments (e.g., private equity, hedge funds, and real assets). The first step specified is the evaluation of market opportunity: What is the opportunity and why is it there? To answer this question we start by studying capital markets and the types of managers operating within those markets. We identify market inefficiencies and try to understand their causes, such as regulatory structures or behavioral biases. We can rule out many broad groups of managers and strategies by simply determining that the degree of market inefficiency necessary to support a strategy is implausible. Importantly, we consider the past history of active returns meaningless unless we understand why markets will allow those active returns to continue into the future.1 The CIO’s description underscores the importance of not assuming that past active returns that might be found in a historical dataset will repeat themselves in the future. Active returns refer to returns earned by strategies that do not assume that all information is fully reflected in market prices. Governments and market regulators also care about the extent to which market prices incorporate information. Efficient markets imply informative prices—prices that accurately reflect available information about fundamental values. In market-based economies, market prices help determine which companies (and which projects) obtain capital. If these prices do not efficiently incorporate information about a company’s prospects, then it is possible that funds will be misdirected. By contrast, prices that are informative help direct scarce resources and funds available for investment to their highest-valued uses.2 Informative prices thus promote economic growth. The efficiency of a country’s capital markets (in which businesses raise financing) is an important characteristic of a well-functioning financial system. The remainder of this reading is organized as follows. Section 2 provides specifics on how the efficiency of an asset market is described and discusses the factors affectin




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Question
If market prices do not fully incorporate information, then [...]
Answer
opportunities may exist to make a profit from the gathering and processing of information.

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If market prices do not fully incorporate information, then opportunities may exist to make a profit from the gathering and processing of information.

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Reading 46  Market Efficiency (Intro)
Market efficiency concerns the extent to which market prices incorporate available information. If market prices do not fully incorporate information, then opportunities may exist to make a profit from the gathering and processing of information. The subject of market efficiency is, therefore, of great interest to investment managers, as illustrated in Example 1. EXAMPLE 1 Market Efficiency and Active Manager Selection The chief investment officer (CIO) of a major university endowment fund has listed eight steps in the active manager selection process that can be applied both to traditional investments (e.g., common equity and fixed-income securities) and to alternative investments (e.g., private equity, hedge funds, and real assets). The first step specified is the evaluation of market opportunity: What is the opportunity and why is it there? To answer this question we start by studying capital markets and the types of managers operating within those markets. We identify market inefficiencies and try to understand their causes, such as regulatory structures or behavioral biases. We can rule out many broad groups of managers and strategies by simply determining that the degree of market inefficiency necessary to support a strategy is implausible. Importantly, we consider the past history of active returns meaningless unless we understand why markets will allow those active returns to continue into the future.1 The CIO’s description underscores the importance of not assuming that past active returns that might be found in a historical dataset will repeat themselves in the future. Active returns refer to returns earned by strategies that do not assume that all information is fully reflected in market prices. Governments and market regulators also care about the extent to which market prices incorporate information. Efficient markets imply informative prices—prices that accurately reflect available information about fundamental values. In market-based economies, market prices help determine which companies (and which projects) obtain capital. If these prices do not efficiently incorporate information about a company’s prospects, then it is possible that funds will be misdirected. By contrast, prices that are informative help direct scarce resources and funds available for investment to their highest-valued uses.2 Informative prices thus promote economic growth. The efficiency of a country’s capital markets (in which businesses raise financing) is an important characteristic of a well-functioning financial system. The remainder of this reading is organized as follows. Section 2 provides specifics on how the efficiency of an asset market is described and discusses the factors affectin








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Our objective in this reading is to identify the optimal risky portfolio for all investors by using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). The foundation of this reading is the computation of risk and return of a portfolio and the role that correlation plays in diversifying portfolio risk and arriving at the efficient frontier. The efficient frontier and the capital allocation line consist of portfolios that are generally acceptable to all investors. By combining an investor’s individual indifference curves with the market-determined capital allocation line, we are able to illustrate that the only optimal risky portfolio for an investor is the portfolio of all risky assets (i.e., the market).
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Our objective in this reading is to identify the optimal risky portfolio for all investors by using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). The foundation of this reading is the computation of risk and return of a portfolio and the role that correlation plays in diversifying portfolio risk and arriving at the efficient frontier. The efficient frontier and the capital allocation line consist of portfolios that are generally acceptable to all investors. By combining an investor’s individual indifference curves with the market-determined capital allocation line, we are able to illustrate that the only optimal risky portfolio for an investor is the portfolio of all risky assets (i.e., the market). Additionally, we discuss the capital market line, a special case of the capital allocation line that is used for passive investor portfolios. We also differentiate between

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Reading 42  Portfolio Risk and Return: Part II (Intro)
Our objective in this reading is to identify the optimal risky portfolio for all investors by using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). The foundation of this reading is the computation of risk and return of a portfolio and the role that correlation plays in diversifying portfolio risk and arriving at the efficient frontier. The efficient frontier and the capital allocation line consist of portfolios that are generally acceptable to all investors. By combining an investor’s individual indifference curves with the market-determined capital allocation line, we are able to illustrate that the only optimal risky portfolio for an investor is the portfolio of all risky assets (i.e., the market). Additionally, we discuss the capital market line, a special case of the capital allocation line that is used for passive investor portfolios. We also differentiate between systematic and nonsystematic risk, and explain why investors are compensated for bearing systematic risk but receive no compensation for bearing nonsystematic risk. We discuss in detail the CAPM, which is a simple model for estimating asset returns based only on the asset’s systematic risk. Finally, we illustrate how the CAPM allows security selection to build an optimal portfolio for an investor by changing the asset mix beyond a passive market portfolio. The reading is organized as follows. In Section 2, we discuss the consequences of combining a risk-free asset with the market portfolio and provide an interpretation of the





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Additionally, we discuss the capital market line, a special case of the capital allocation line that is used for passive investor portfolios. We also differentiate between systematic and nonsystematic risk, and explain why investors are compensated for bearing systematic risk but receive no compensation for bearing nonsystematic risk. We discuss in detail the CAPM, which is a simple model for estimating asset returns based only on the asset’s systematic risk. Finally, we illustrate how the CAPM allows security selection to build an optimal portfolio for an investor by changing the asset mix beyond a passive market portfolio.
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nvestor’s individual indifference curves with the market-determined capital allocation line, we are able to illustrate that the only optimal risky portfolio for an investor is the portfolio of all risky assets (i.e., the market). <span>Additionally, we discuss the capital market line, a special case of the capital allocation line that is used for passive investor portfolios. We also differentiate between systematic and nonsystematic risk, and explain why investors are compensated for bearing systematic risk but receive no compensation for bearing nonsystematic risk. We discuss in detail the CAPM, which is a simple model for estimating asset returns based only on the asset’s systematic risk. Finally, we illustrate how the CAPM allows security selection to build an optimal portfolio for an investor by changing the asset mix beyond a passive market portfolio. <span><body><html>

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Reading 42  Portfolio Risk and Return: Part II (Intro)
Our objective in this reading is to identify the optimal risky portfolio for all investors by using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). The foundation of this reading is the computation of risk and return of a portfolio and the role that correlation plays in diversifying portfolio risk and arriving at the efficient frontier. The efficient frontier and the capital allocation line consist of portfolios that are generally acceptable to all investors. By combining an investor’s individual indifference curves with the market-determined capital allocation line, we are able to illustrate that the only optimal risky portfolio for an investor is the portfolio of all risky assets (i.e., the market). Additionally, we discuss the capital market line, a special case of the capital allocation line that is used for passive investor portfolios. We also differentiate between systematic and nonsystematic risk, and explain why investors are compensated for bearing systematic risk but receive no compensation for bearing nonsystematic risk. We discuss in detail the CAPM, which is a simple model for estimating asset returns based only on the asset’s systematic risk. Finally, we illustrate how the CAPM allows security selection to build an optimal portfolio for an investor by changing the asset mix beyond a passive market portfolio. The reading is organized as follows. In Section 2, we discuss the consequences of combining a risk-free asset with the market portfolio and provide an interpretation of the





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A non-current liability (long-term liability) broadly represents a probable sacrifice of economic benefits in periods generally greater than one year in the future.
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A non-current liability (long-term liability) broadly represents a probable sacrifice of economic benefits in periods generally greater than one year in the future. Common types of non-current liabilities reported in a company’s financial statements include long-term debt (e.g., bonds payable, long-term notes payable), finance leases, pension liabi

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Reading 31  Non-Current (Long-Term) Liabilities Introduction
A non-current liability (long-term liability) broadly represents a probable sacrifice of economic benefits in periods generally greater than one year in the future. Common types of non-current liabilities reported in a company’s financial statements include long-term debt (e.g., bonds payable, long-term notes payable), finance leases, pension liabilities, and deferred tax liabilities. This reading focuses on bonds payable and leases. Pension liabilities are also introduced. This reading is organised as follows. Section 2 describes and illustrates the accounting for long-term bonds, including the issuance of bonds, the recording of interest exp





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Common types of non-current liabilities reported in a company’s financial statements include long-term debt (e.g., bonds payable, long-term notes payable), finance leases, pension liabilities, and deferred tax liabilities.
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A non-current liability (long-term liability) broadly represents a probable sacrifice of economic benefits in periods generally greater than one year in the future. Common types of non-current liabilities reported in a company’s financial statements include long-term debt (e.g., bonds payable, long-term notes payable), finance leases, pension liabilities, and deferred tax liabilities. This reading focuses on bonds payable and leases. Pension liabilities are also introduced.

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Reading 31  Non-Current (Long-Term) Liabilities Introduction
A non-current liability (long-term liability) broadly represents a probable sacrifice of economic benefits in periods generally greater than one year in the future. Common types of non-current liabilities reported in a company’s financial statements include long-term debt (e.g., bonds payable, long-term notes payable), finance leases, pension liabilities, and deferred tax liabilities. This reading focuses on bonds payable and leases. Pension liabilities are also introduced. This reading is organised as follows. Section 2 describes and illustrates the accounting for long-term bonds, including the issuance of bonds, the recording of interest exp





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This reading focuses on bonds payable and leases. Pension liabilities are also introduced.
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year in the future. Common types of non-current liabilities reported in a company’s financial statements include long-term debt (e.g., bonds payable, long-term notes payable), finance leases, pension liabilities, and deferred tax liabilities. <span>This reading focuses on bonds payable and leases. Pension liabilities are also introduced. <span><body><html>

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Reading 31  Non-Current (Long-Term) Liabilities Introduction
A non-current liability (long-term liability) broadly represents a probable sacrifice of economic benefits in periods generally greater than one year in the future. Common types of non-current liabilities reported in a company’s financial statements include long-term debt (e.g., bonds payable, long-term notes payable), finance leases, pension liabilities, and deferred tax liabilities. This reading focuses on bonds payable and leases. Pension liabilities are also introduced. This reading is organised as follows. Section 2 describes and illustrates the accounting for long-term bonds, including the issuance of bonds, the recording of interest exp





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Capital projects, which make up the long-term asset portion of the balance sheet, can be so large that sound capital budgeting decisions ultimately decide the future of many corporations. Capital decisions cannot be reversed at a low cost, so mistakes are very costly. Indeed, the real capital investments of a company describe a company better than its working capital or capital structures, which are intangible and tend to be similar for many corporations.
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cision making on capital projects—those projects with a life of a year or more. This is a fundamental area of knowledge for financial analysts for many reasons. First, capital budgeting is very important for corporations. <span>Capital projects, which make up the long-term asset portion of the balance sheet, can be so large that sound capital budgeting decisions ultimately decide the future of many corporations. Capital decisions cannot be reversed at a low cost, so mistakes are very costly. Indeed, the real capital investments of a company describe a company better than its working capital or capital structures, which are intangible and tend to be similar for many corporations. Second, the principles of capital budgeting have been adapted for many other corporate decisions, such as investments in working capital, leasing, mergers and acquisitio

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Reading 35  Capital Budgeting Introduction
Capital budgeting is the process that companies use for decision making on capital projects—those projects with a life of a year or more. This is a fundamental area of knowledge for financial analysts for many reasons. First, capital budgeting is very important for corporations. Capital projects, which make up the long-term asset portion of the balance sheet, can be so large that sound capital budgeting decisions ultimately decide the future of many corporations. Capital decisions cannot be reversed at a low cost, so mistakes are very costly. Indeed, the real capital investments of a company describe a company better than its working capital or capital structures, which are intangible and tend to be similar for many corporations. Second, the principles of capital budgeting have been adapted for many other corporate decisions, such as investments in working capital, leasing, mergers and acquisitions, and bond refunding. Third, the valuation principles used in capital budgeting are similar to the valuation principles used in security analysis and portfolio management. Many of the methods used by security analysts and portfolio managers are based on capital budgeting methods. Conversely, there have been innovations in security analysis and portfolio management that have also been adapted to capital budgeting. Finally, although analysts have a vantage point outside the company, their interest in valuation coincides with the capital budgeting focus of maximizing shareholder value. Because capital budgeting information is not ordinarily available outside the company, the analyst may attempt to estimate the process, within reason, at least for companies that are not too complex. Further, analysts may be able to appraise the quality of the company’s capital budgeting process—for example, on the basis of whether the company has an accounting focus or an economic focus. This reading is organized as follows: Section 2 presents the steps in a typical capital budgeting process. After introducing the basic principles of capital budgeti





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the principles of capital budgeting have been adapted for many other corporate decisions, such as investments in working capital, leasing, mergers and acquisitions, and bond refunding.
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o mistakes are very costly. Indeed, the real capital investments of a company describe a company better than its working capital or capital structures, which are intangible and tend to be similar for many corporations. Second, <span>the principles of capital budgeting have been adapted for many other corporate decisions, such as investments in working capital, leasing, mergers and acquisitions, and bond refunding. Third, the valuation principles used in capital budgeting are similar to the valuation principles used in security analysis and portfolio management. Many of the methods

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Reading 35  Capital Budgeting Introduction
Capital budgeting is the process that companies use for decision making on capital projects—those projects with a life of a year or more. This is a fundamental area of knowledge for financial analysts for many reasons. First, capital budgeting is very important for corporations. Capital projects, which make up the long-term asset portion of the balance sheet, can be so large that sound capital budgeting decisions ultimately decide the future of many corporations. Capital decisions cannot be reversed at a low cost, so mistakes are very costly. Indeed, the real capital investments of a company describe a company better than its working capital or capital structures, which are intangible and tend to be similar for many corporations. Second, the principles of capital budgeting have been adapted for many other corporate decisions, such as investments in working capital, leasing, mergers and acquisitions, and bond refunding. Third, the valuation principles used in capital budgeting are similar to the valuation principles used in security analysis and portfolio management. Many of the methods used by security analysts and portfolio managers are based on capital budgeting methods. Conversely, there have been innovations in security analysis and portfolio management that have also been adapted to capital budgeting. Finally, although analysts have a vantage point outside the company, their interest in valuation coincides with the capital budgeting focus of maximizing shareholder value. Because capital budgeting information is not ordinarily available outside the company, the analyst may attempt to estimate the process, within reason, at least for companies that are not too complex. Further, analysts may be able to appraise the quality of the company’s capital budgeting process—for example, on the basis of whether the company has an accounting focus or an economic focus. This reading is organized as follows: Section 2 presents the steps in a typical capital budgeting process. After introducing the basic principles of capital budgeti





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the valuation principles used in capital budgeting are similar to the valuation principles used in security analysis and portfolio management. Many of the methods used by security analysts and portfolio managers are based on capital budgeting methods. Conversely, there have been innovations in security analysis and portfolio management that have also been adapted to capital budgeting.
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porations. Second, the principles of capital budgeting have been adapted for many other corporate decisions, such as investments in working capital, leasing, mergers and acquisitions, and bond refunding. Third, <span>the valuation principles used in capital budgeting are similar to the valuation principles used in security analysis and portfolio management. Many of the methods used by security analysts and portfolio managers are based on capital budgeting methods. Conversely, there have been innovations in security analysis and portfolio management that have also been adapted to capital budgeting. Finally, although analysts have a vantage point outside the company, their interest in valuation coincides with the capital budgeting focus of maximizing shareholder val

Original toplevel document

Reading 35  Capital Budgeting Introduction
Capital budgeting is the process that companies use for decision making on capital projects—those projects with a life of a year or more. This is a fundamental area of knowledge for financial analysts for many reasons. First, capital budgeting is very important for corporations. Capital projects, which make up the long-term asset portion of the balance sheet, can be so large that sound capital budgeting decisions ultimately decide the future of many corporations. Capital decisions cannot be reversed at a low cost, so mistakes are very costly. Indeed, the real capital investments of a company describe a company better than its working capital or capital structures, which are intangible and tend to be similar for many corporations. Second, the principles of capital budgeting have been adapted for many other corporate decisions, such as investments in working capital, leasing, mergers and acquisitions, and bond refunding. Third, the valuation principles used in capital budgeting are similar to the valuation principles used in security analysis and portfolio management. Many of the methods used by security analysts and portfolio managers are based on capital budgeting methods. Conversely, there have been innovations in security analysis and portfolio management that have also been adapted to capital budgeting. Finally, although analysts have a vantage point outside the company, their interest in valuation coincides with the capital budgeting focus of maximizing shareholder value. Because capital budgeting information is not ordinarily available outside the company, the analyst may attempt to estimate the process, within reason, at least for companies that are not too complex. Further, analysts may be able to appraise the quality of the company’s capital budgeting process—for example, on the basis of whether the company has an accounting focus or an economic focus. This reading is organized as follows: Section 2 presents the steps in a typical capital budgeting process. After introducing the basic principles of capital budgeti





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although analysts have a vantage point outside the company, their interest in valuation coincides with the capital budgeting focus of maximizing shareholder value. Because capital budgeting information is not ordinarily available outside the company, the analyst may attempt to estimate the process, within reason, at least for companies that are not too complex. Further, analysts may be able to appraise the quality of the company’s capital budgeting process—for example, on the basis of whether the company has an accounting focus or an economic focus.
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security analysts and portfolio managers are based on capital budgeting methods. Conversely, there have been innovations in security analysis and portfolio management that have also been adapted to capital budgeting. Finally, <span>although analysts have a vantage point outside the company, their interest in valuation coincides with the capital budgeting focus of maximizing shareholder value. Because capital budgeting information is not ordinarily available outside the company, the analyst may attempt to estimate the process, within reason, at least for companies that are not too complex. Further, analysts may be able to appraise the quality of the company’s capital budgeting process—for example, on the basis of whether the company has an accounting focus or an economic focus. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Reading 35  Capital Budgeting Introduction
Capital budgeting is the process that companies use for decision making on capital projects—those projects with a life of a year or more. This is a fundamental area of knowledge for financial analysts for many reasons. First, capital budgeting is very important for corporations. Capital projects, which make up the long-term asset portion of the balance sheet, can be so large that sound capital budgeting decisions ultimately decide the future of many corporations. Capital decisions cannot be reversed at a low cost, so mistakes are very costly. Indeed, the real capital investments of a company describe a company better than its working capital or capital structures, which are intangible and tend to be similar for many corporations. Second, the principles of capital budgeting have been adapted for many other corporate decisions, such as investments in working capital, leasing, mergers and acquisitions, and bond refunding. Third, the valuation principles used in capital budgeting are similar to the valuation principles used in security analysis and portfolio management. Many of the methods used by security analysts and portfolio managers are based on capital budgeting methods. Conversely, there have been innovations in security analysis and portfolio management that have also been adapted to capital budgeting. Finally, although analysts have a vantage point outside the company, their interest in valuation coincides with the capital budgeting focus of maximizing shareholder value. Because capital budgeting information is not ordinarily available outside the company, the analyst may attempt to estimate the process, within reason, at least for companies that are not too complex. Further, analysts may be able to appraise the quality of the company’s capital budgeting process—for example, on the basis of whether the company has an accounting focus or an economic focus. This reading is organized as follows: Section 2 presents the steps in a typical capital budgeting process. After introducing the basic principles of capital budgeti





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The starting point for this analysis is the yield-to-maturity, or internal rate of return on future cash flows, which was introduced in the fixed-income valuation reading.
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n characteristics of fixed-income investments. Beyond the vast worldwide market for publicly and privately issued fixed-rate bonds, many financial assets and liabilities with known future cash flows may be evaluated using the same principles. <span>The starting point for this analysis is the yield-to-maturity, or internal rate of return on future cash flows, which was introduced in the fixed-income valuation reading. The return on a fixed-rate bond is affected by many factors, the most important of which is the receipt of the interest and principal payments in the full amount and on the scheduled da

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Reading 54  Understanding Fixed‑Income Risk and Return (Intro)
It is important for analysts to have a well-developed understanding of the risk and return characteristics of fixed-income investments. Beyond the vast worldwide market for publicly and privately issued fixed-rate bonds, many financial assets and liabilities with known future cash flows may be evaluated using the same principles. The starting point for this analysis is the yield-to-maturity, or internal rate of return on future cash flows, which was introduced in the fixed-income valuation reading. The return on a fixed-rate bond is affected by many factors, the most important of which is the receipt of the interest and principal payments in the full amount and on the scheduled dates. Assuming no default, the return is also affected by changes in interest rates that affect coupon reinvestment and the price of the bond if it is sold before it matures. Measures of the price change can be derived from the mathematical relationship used to calculate the price of the bond. The first of these measures (duration) estimates the change in the price for a given change in interest rates. The second measure (convexity) improves on the duration estimate by taking into account the fact that the relationship between price and yield-to-maturity of a fixed-rate bond is not linear. Section 2 uses numerical examples to demonstrate the sources of return on an investment in a fixed-rate bond, which includes the receipt and reinvestment of coupon interest





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The return on a fixed-rate bond is affected by many factors, the most important of which is the receipt of the interest and principal payments in the full amount and on the scheduled dates. Assuming no default, the return is also affected by changes in interest rates that affect coupon reinvestment and the price of the bond if it is sold before it matures.
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th known future cash flows may be evaluated using the same principles. The starting point for this analysis is the yield-to-maturity, or internal rate of return on future cash flows, which was introduced in the fixed-income valuation reading. <span>The return on a fixed-rate bond is affected by many factors, the most important of which is the receipt of the interest and principal payments in the full amount and on the scheduled dates. Assuming no default, the return is also affected by changes in interest rates that affect coupon reinvestment and the price of the bond if it is sold before it matures. Measures of the price change can be derived from the mathematical relationship used to calculate the price of the bond. The first of these measures (duration) estimates the change in th

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Reading 54  Understanding Fixed‑Income Risk and Return (Intro)
It is important for analysts to have a well-developed understanding of the risk and return characteristics of fixed-income investments. Beyond the vast worldwide market for publicly and privately issued fixed-rate bonds, many financial assets and liabilities with known future cash flows may be evaluated using the same principles. The starting point for this analysis is the yield-to-maturity, or internal rate of return on future cash flows, which was introduced in the fixed-income valuation reading. The return on a fixed-rate bond is affected by many factors, the most important of which is the receipt of the interest and principal payments in the full amount and on the scheduled dates. Assuming no default, the return is also affected by changes in interest rates that affect coupon reinvestment and the price of the bond if it is sold before it matures. Measures of the price change can be derived from the mathematical relationship used to calculate the price of the bond. The first of these measures (duration) estimates the change in the price for a given change in interest rates. The second measure (convexity) improves on the duration estimate by taking into account the fact that the relationship between price and yield-to-maturity of a fixed-rate bond is not linear. Section 2 uses numerical examples to demonstrate the sources of return on an investment in a fixed-rate bond, which includes the receipt and reinvestment of coupon interest





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Measures of the price change can be derived from the mathematical relationship used to calculate the price of the bond. The first of these measures (duration) estimates the change in the price for a given change in interest rates. The second measure (convexity) improves on the duration estimate by taking into account the fact that the relationship between price and yield-to-maturity of a fixed-rate bond is not linear.
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est and principal payments in the full amount and on the scheduled dates. Assuming no default, the return is also affected by changes in interest rates that affect coupon reinvestment and the price of the bond if it is sold before it matures. <span>Measures of the price change can be derived from the mathematical relationship used to calculate the price of the bond. The first of these measures (duration) estimates the change in the price for a given change in interest rates. The second measure (convexity) improves on the duration estimate by taking into account the fact that the relationship between price and yield-to-maturity of a fixed-rate bond is not linear. <span><body><html>

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Reading 54  Understanding Fixed‑Income Risk and Return (Intro)
It is important for analysts to have a well-developed understanding of the risk and return characteristics of fixed-income investments. Beyond the vast worldwide market for publicly and privately issued fixed-rate bonds, many financial assets and liabilities with known future cash flows may be evaluated using the same principles. The starting point for this analysis is the yield-to-maturity, or internal rate of return on future cash flows, which was introduced in the fixed-income valuation reading. The return on a fixed-rate bond is affected by many factors, the most important of which is the receipt of the interest and principal payments in the full amount and on the scheduled dates. Assuming no default, the return is also affected by changes in interest rates that affect coupon reinvestment and the price of the bond if it is sold before it matures. Measures of the price change can be derived from the mathematical relationship used to calculate the price of the bond. The first of these measures (duration) estimates the change in the price for a given change in interest rates. The second measure (convexity) improves on the duration estimate by taking into account the fact that the relationship between price and yield-to-maturity of a fixed-rate bond is not linear. Section 2 uses numerical examples to demonstrate the sources of return on an investment in a fixed-rate bond, which includes the receipt and reinvestment of coupon interest





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Discounted cash flow methods and models, such as the capital asset pricing model and its variations, are useful for determining the prices of financial assets.
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Understanding the pricing of financial assets is important. Discounted cash flow methods and models, such as the capital asset pricing model and its variations, are useful for determining the prices of financial assets. The unique characteristics of derivatives, however, pose some complexities not associated with assets, such as equities and fixed-income instruments. Somewhat surprisingly, however, der

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Reading 57  Basics of Derivative Pricing and Valuation (Intro)
It is important to understand how prices of derivatives are determined. Whether one is on the buy side or the sell side, a solid understanding of pricing financial products is critical to effective investment decision making. After all, one can hardly determine what to offer or bid for a financial product, or any product for that matter, if one has no idea how its characteristics combine to create value. Understanding the pricing of financial assets is important. Discounted cash flow methods and models, such as the capital asset pricing model and its variations, are useful for determining the prices of financial assets. The unique characteristics of derivatives, however, pose some complexities not associated with assets, such as equities and fixed-income instruments. Somewhat surprisingly, however, derivatives also have some simplifying characteristics. For example, as we will see in this reading, in well-functioning derivatives markets the need to determine risk premiums is obviated by the ability to construct a risk-free hedge. Correspondingly, the need to determine an investor’s risk aversion is irrelevant for derivative pricing, although it is certainly relevant for pricing the underlying. The purpose of this reading is to establish the foundations of derivative pricing on a basic conceptual level. The following topics are covered: How does the pricing of the underlying asset affect the pricing of derivatives? How are derivatives priced using the principle of arbitrage? How are the prices and values of forward contracts determined? How are futures contracts priced differently from forward contracts? How are the prices and values of swaps determined? How are the prices and values of European options determined? How does American option pricing differ from European option pricing? This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explores two related topics, the pricing of the underlying assets on which derivatives are created and the principle





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The unique characteristics of derivatives, pose some complexities not associated with assets, such as equities and fixed-income instruments.
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n> Understanding the pricing of financial assets is important. Discounted cash flow methods and models, such as the capital asset pricing model and its variations, are useful for determining the prices of financial assets. <span>The unique characteristics of derivatives, however, pose some complexities not associated with assets, such as equities and fixed-income instruments. Somewhat surprisingly, however, derivatives also have some simplifying characteristics. For example, as we will see in this reading, in well-functioning derivatives markets the need to

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Reading 57  Basics of Derivative Pricing and Valuation (Intro)
It is important to understand how prices of derivatives are determined. Whether one is on the buy side or the sell side, a solid understanding of pricing financial products is critical to effective investment decision making. After all, one can hardly determine what to offer or bid for a financial product, or any product for that matter, if one has no idea how its characteristics combine to create value. Understanding the pricing of financial assets is important. Discounted cash flow methods and models, such as the capital asset pricing model and its variations, are useful for determining the prices of financial assets. The unique characteristics of derivatives, however, pose some complexities not associated with assets, such as equities and fixed-income instruments. Somewhat surprisingly, however, derivatives also have some simplifying characteristics. For example, as we will see in this reading, in well-functioning derivatives markets the need to determine risk premiums is obviated by the ability to construct a risk-free hedge. Correspondingly, the need to determine an investor’s risk aversion is irrelevant for derivative pricing, although it is certainly relevant for pricing the underlying. The purpose of this reading is to establish the foundations of derivative pricing on a basic conceptual level. The following topics are covered: How does the pricing of the underlying asset affect the pricing of derivatives? How are derivatives priced using the principle of arbitrage? How are the prices and values of forward contracts determined? How are futures contracts priced differently from forward contracts? How are the prices and values of swaps determined? How are the prices and values of European options determined? How does American option pricing differ from European option pricing? This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explores two related topics, the pricing of the underlying assets on which derivatives are created and the principle





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Somewhat surprisingly, derivatives also have some simplifying characteristics. For example, as we will see in this reading, in well-functioning derivatives markets the need to determine risk premiums is obviated by the ability to construct a risk-free hedge. Correspondingly, the need to determine an investor’s risk aversion is irrelevant for derivative pricing, although it is certainly relevant for pricing the underlying.
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pricing model and its variations, are useful for determining the prices of financial assets. The unique characteristics of derivatives, however, pose some complexities not associated with assets, such as equities and fixed-income instruments. <span>Somewhat surprisingly, however, derivatives also have some simplifying characteristics. For example, as we will see in this reading, in well-functioning derivatives markets the need to determine risk premiums is obviated by the ability to construct a risk-free hedge. Correspondingly, the need to determine an investor’s risk aversion is irrelevant for derivative pricing, although it is certainly relevant for pricing the underlying. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Reading 57  Basics of Derivative Pricing and Valuation (Intro)
It is important to understand how prices of derivatives are determined. Whether one is on the buy side or the sell side, a solid understanding of pricing financial products is critical to effective investment decision making. After all, one can hardly determine what to offer or bid for a financial product, or any product for that matter, if one has no idea how its characteristics combine to create value. Understanding the pricing of financial assets is important. Discounted cash flow methods and models, such as the capital asset pricing model and its variations, are useful for determining the prices of financial assets. The unique characteristics of derivatives, however, pose some complexities not associated with assets, such as equities and fixed-income instruments. Somewhat surprisingly, however, derivatives also have some simplifying characteristics. For example, as we will see in this reading, in well-functioning derivatives markets the need to determine risk premiums is obviated by the ability to construct a risk-free hedge. Correspondingly, the need to determine an investor’s risk aversion is irrelevant for derivative pricing, although it is certainly relevant for pricing the underlying. The purpose of this reading is to establish the foundations of derivative pricing on a basic conceptual level. The following topics are covered: How does the pricing of the underlying asset affect the pricing of derivatives? How are derivatives priced using the principle of arbitrage? How are the prices and values of forward contracts determined? How are futures contracts priced differently from forward contracts? How are the prices and values of swaps determined? How are the prices and values of European options determined? How does American option pricing differ from European option pricing? This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explores two related topics, the pricing of the underlying assets on which derivatives are created and the principle





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The purpose of this reading is to establish the foundations of derivative pricing on a basic conceptual level.
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The purpose of this reading is to establish the foundations of derivative pricing on a basic conceptual level. The following topics are covered: How does the pricing of the underlying asset affect the pricing of derivatives? How are derivatives priced using the

Original toplevel document

Reading 57  Basics of Derivative Pricing and Valuation (Intro)
It is important to understand how prices of derivatives are determined. Whether one is on the buy side or the sell side, a solid understanding of pricing financial products is critical to effective investment decision making. After all, one can hardly determine what to offer or bid for a financial product, or any product for that matter, if one has no idea how its characteristics combine to create value. Understanding the pricing of financial assets is important. Discounted cash flow methods and models, such as the capital asset pricing model and its variations, are useful for determining the prices of financial assets. The unique characteristics of derivatives, however, pose some complexities not associated with assets, such as equities and fixed-income instruments. Somewhat surprisingly, however, derivatives also have some simplifying characteristics. For example, as we will see in this reading, in well-functioning derivatives markets the need to determine risk premiums is obviated by the ability to construct a risk-free hedge. Correspondingly, the need to determine an investor’s risk aversion is irrelevant for derivative pricing, although it is certainly relevant for pricing the underlying. The purpose of this reading is to establish the foundations of derivative pricing on a basic conceptual level. The following topics are covered: How does the pricing of the underlying asset affect the pricing of derivatives? How are derivatives priced using the principle of arbitrage? How are the prices and values of forward contracts determined? How are futures contracts priced differently from forward contracts? How are the prices and values of swaps determined? How are the prices and values of European options determined? How does American option pricing differ from European option pricing? This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explores two related topics, the pricing of the underlying assets on which derivatives are created and the principle





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The following topics are covered:

  • How does the pricing of the underlying asset affect the pricing of derivatives?

  • How are derivatives priced using the principle of arbitrage?

  • How are the prices and values of forward contracts determined?

  • How are futures contracts priced differently from forward contracts?

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The purpose of this reading is to establish the foundations of derivative pricing on a basic conceptual level. The following topics are covered: How does the pricing of the underlying asset affect the pricing of derivatives? How are derivatives priced using the principle of arbitrage? How are the prices and values of forward contracts determined? How are futures contracts priced differently from forward contracts? How are the prices and values of swaps determined? How are the prices and values of European options determined? How does American option prici

Original toplevel document

Reading 57  Basics of Derivative Pricing and Valuation (Intro)
It is important to understand how prices of derivatives are determined. Whether one is on the buy side or the sell side, a solid understanding of pricing financial products is critical to effective investment decision making. After all, one can hardly determine what to offer or bid for a financial product, or any product for that matter, if one has no idea how its characteristics combine to create value. Understanding the pricing of financial assets is important. Discounted cash flow methods and models, such as the capital asset pricing model and its variations, are useful for determining the prices of financial assets. The unique characteristics of derivatives, however, pose some complexities not associated with assets, such as equities and fixed-income instruments. Somewhat surprisingly, however, derivatives also have some simplifying characteristics. For example, as we will see in this reading, in well-functioning derivatives markets the need to determine risk premiums is obviated by the ability to construct a risk-free hedge. Correspondingly, the need to determine an investor’s risk aversion is irrelevant for derivative pricing, although it is certainly relevant for pricing the underlying. The purpose of this reading is to establish the foundations of derivative pricing on a basic conceptual level. The following topics are covered: How does the pricing of the underlying asset affect the pricing of derivatives? How are derivatives priced using the principle of arbitrage? How are the prices and values of forward contracts determined? How are futures contracts priced differently from forward contracts? How are the prices and values of swaps determined? How are the prices and values of European options determined? How does American option pricing differ from European option pricing? This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explores two related topics, the pricing of the underlying assets on which derivatives are created and the principle





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The following topics are covered:

  • How are the prices and values of swaps determined?
  • How are the prices and values of European options determined?

  • How does American option pricing differ from European option pricing?

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How are derivatives priced using the principle of arbitrage? How are the prices and values of forward contracts determined? How are futures contracts priced differently from forward contracts? <span>How are the prices and values of swaps determined? How are the prices and values of European options determined? How does American option pricing differ from European option pricing? <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Reading 57  Basics of Derivative Pricing and Valuation (Intro)
It is important to understand how prices of derivatives are determined. Whether one is on the buy side or the sell side, a solid understanding of pricing financial products is critical to effective investment decision making. After all, one can hardly determine what to offer or bid for a financial product, or any product for that matter, if one has no idea how its characteristics combine to create value. Understanding the pricing of financial assets is important. Discounted cash flow methods and models, such as the capital asset pricing model and its variations, are useful for determining the prices of financial assets. The unique characteristics of derivatives, however, pose some complexities not associated with assets, such as equities and fixed-income instruments. Somewhat surprisingly, however, derivatives also have some simplifying characteristics. For example, as we will see in this reading, in well-functioning derivatives markets the need to determine risk premiums is obviated by the ability to construct a risk-free hedge. Correspondingly, the need to determine an investor’s risk aversion is irrelevant for derivative pricing, although it is certainly relevant for pricing the underlying. The purpose of this reading is to establish the foundations of derivative pricing on a basic conceptual level. The following topics are covered: How does the pricing of the underlying asset affect the pricing of derivatives? How are derivatives priced using the principle of arbitrage? How are the prices and values of forward contracts determined? How are futures contracts priced differently from forward contracts? How are the prices and values of swaps determined? How are the prices and values of European options determined? How does American option pricing differ from European option pricing? This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explores two related topics, the pricing of the underlying assets on which derivatives are created and the principle





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Microeconomics classifies private economic units into two groups: consumers (or households) and firms.
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Microeconomics classifies private economic units into two groups: consumers (or households) and firms. These two groups give rise, respectively, to the theory of the consumer and the theory of the firm as two branches of study. The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the deman

Original toplevel document

Reading 14  Topics in Demand and Supply Analysis
In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income, and is rooted in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logical starting point for the study of economics. Microeconomics classifies private economic units into two groups: consumers (or households) and firms. These two groups give rise, respectively, to the theory of the consumer and the theory of the firm as two branches of study. The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the demand for goods and services) by utility-maximizing individuals (i.e., individuals who make decisions that maximize the satisfaction received from present and future consumption). The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. It is expected that candidates will be familiar with the basic concepts of demand and supply. This material is covered in detail in the recommended prerequisite readings. I





#has-images #microscopio-session #reading-mano
The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the demand for goods and services) by utility-maximizing individuals
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Microeconomics classifies private economic units into two groups: consumers (or households) and firms. These two groups give rise, respectively, to the theory of the consumer and the theory of the firm as two branches of study. <span>The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the demand for goods and services) by utility-maximizing individuals (i.e., individuals who make decisions that maximize the satisfaction received from present and future consumption). The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by

Original toplevel document

Reading 14  Topics in Demand and Supply Analysis
In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income, and is rooted in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logical starting point for the study of economics. Microeconomics classifies private economic units into two groups: consumers (or households) and firms. These two groups give rise, respectively, to the theory of the consumer and the theory of the firm as two branches of study. The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the demand for goods and services) by utility-maximizing individuals (i.e., individuals who make decisions that maximize the satisfaction received from present and future consumption). The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. It is expected that candidates will be familiar with the basic concepts of demand and supply. This material is covered in detail in the recommended prerequisite readings. I





#has-images #microscopio-session #reading-mano
The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms.
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study. The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the demand for goods and services) by utility-maximizing individuals (i.e., individuals who make decisions that maximize the satisfaction received from present and future consumption). <span>The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Reading 14  Topics in Demand and Supply Analysis
In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income, and is rooted in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logical starting point for the study of economics. Microeconomics classifies private economic units into two groups: consumers (or households) and firms. These two groups give rise, respectively, to the theory of the consumer and the theory of the firm as two branches of study. The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the demand for goods and services) by utility-maximizing individuals (i.e., individuals who make decisions that maximize the satisfaction received from present and future consumption). The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. It is expected that candidates will be familiar with the basic concepts of demand and supply. This material is covered in detail in the recommended prerequisite readings. I





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Inventories and cost of sales (cost of goods sold) are significant items in the financial statements of many companies.
stat