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#electromagnetism #physics
For individual segments with area density ri and area dAi , the mass of each segment is ri * dAi, and the mass of the entire surface of N segments is given by the sum from i=1 to N of ri * dAi

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#electromagnetism #physics
As you can imagine, the smaller you make the area segments, the closer this gets to the true mass, since your approximation of constant sigma is more accurate for smaller segments. If you let the segment area dA approach zero and N approach infinity, the summation becomes integration, and you have Mass = \(\int_{S}\sigma(x, y)dA\) : This is the area integral of the scalar function sigma(x, y) over the surface S.

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Flashcard 1438086728972

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
The [...] of a verb is the form always given in a dictionary and is recognised by its endings -are, -ere, -ire: for example chiacchierare ‘to chat’; sorridere ‘to smile’; and partire ‘to leave’.
Answer
infinitive

It cannot be used on its own but depends on a finite verb form, often a modal verb: vorrei ringraziare i telespettatori ‘I would like to thank the television audience’; or else is found linked with a preposition: abbiamo fatto un salto in centro per comprare dei regali ‘we took a quick trip into town to buy some presents’.


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The infinitive of a verb is the form always given in a dictionary and is recognised by its endings -are, -ere, -ire: for example chiacchierare ‘to chat’; sorridere ‘to smile’; and partire ‘to leave’.

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#biochem
A DNA molecule of this length (4.5 million) corresponds to ~10^2,700,000 possible sequences

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Flashcard 1442910965004

Tags
#estructura-interna-de-las-palabras #formantes-morfológicos #gramatica-española #la #morfología #tulio
Question

Del inventario de formantes reconocidos, reconoceremos dos clases:

a. formantes [...]

b. Formantes [...]

Answer
léxicos

gramaticales


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Del inventario de formantes reconocidos, reconoceremos dos clases: a. Algunos son formantes léxicos: tienen un significado léxico, que se define en el diccionario: gota, cuenta. Se agrupan en clases abiertas. Pertenecen a una clase particular de palabras: sustantivos (gota), adjetivo

Original toplevel document

La estructura interna de la palabra
1. Los formantes morfológicos Una palabra tiene estructura interna cuando contiene más de un formante morfológico. Un formante morfológico o morfema es una unidad mínima que consta de una forma fonética y de un significado. Comparemos las siguientes palabras: gota, gotas, gotita, gotera, cuentagotas. Gota es la única de estas palabras que consta de un solo formante. Carece, entonces, de estructura interna. Es una palabra simple. Todas las otras palabras tienen estructura interna. [31] Los formantes que pueden aparecer como palabras independientes son formas libres. Los otros, los que necesariamente van adosados a otros morfe- mas, son formas ligadas. Cuentagotas contiene dos formantes que pueden aparecer cada uno como palabra independiente. Es una palabra compuesta. Gotas, gotita y gotera también contienen dos formantes, pero uno de ellos (-s, -ita, -era) nunca puede ser una palabra independiente. Son formas ligadas que se denominan afijos. Algunos afijos van pospuestos a la base (gota), como los de nuestros ejemplos: son los s u f i j o s . Otros afijos la preceden: in-útil, des-contento, a-político: Son los prefijos. Las palabras que contienen un afijo se denominan palabras complejas. Del inventario de formantes reconocidos, reconoceremos dos clases: a. Algunos son formantes léxicos: tienen un significado léxico, que se define en el diccionario: gota, cuenta. Se agrupan en clases abiertas. Pertenecen a una clase particular de palabras: sustantivos (gota), adjetivos (útil), adverbios (ayer), verbos (cuenta). Pueden ser: - palabras simples (gota, útil, ayer); - base a la que se adosan los afijos en palabras complejas (got-, politic-); - parte de una palabra, compuesta (cuenta, gotas). b. Otros son formantes gramaticales: tienen significado gramatical, no léxico. Se agrupan en clases cerradas. Pueden ser: - palabras independientes: preposiciones (a, de, por), conjunciones (que, si); - afijos en palabras derivadas (-s, -ero, in-, des-); - menos frecuentemente, formantes de compuestos (aun-que, por-que, si-no). Entre las palabras no simples consideradas hasta aquí, cada una contenía sólo dos formantes. En otras un mismo tipo de formantes se repite: - sufijos: region-al-izar, util-iza-ble; - prefijos: des-com-poner. ex-pro-soviético, o también formantes de diferentes tipos pueden combinarse entre sí: - prefijo y sufijo: des-leal-tad, em-pobr-ecer; - palabra compuesta y sufijo: rionegr-ino, narcotrafic-ante. En la combinación de prefijación y sufijación, se distinguen dos casos, ilustrados en nuestros ejemplos. En deslealtad, la aplicación de cada uno de los afijos da como resultado una palabra bien formada: si aplicamos sólo el prefijo se obtiene el adjetivo desleal; si aplicamos sólo el sufijo el resultado será el sustantivo lealtad. En cambio, en empobrecer, si se aplica sólo un afijo [32] el resultado no será una palabra existente: *empobre, *pobrecer. Prefijo y sufijo se aplican simultáneamente, constituyendo un único formante morfológico – discontinuo– que se añade a ambos lados de la base léxica. Este segundo caso se denomina parasíntesis. Para establecer la estructura interna de las palabras, la morfología se ocupa de: a. identificar los formantes morfológicos; b. determinar las posibles variaciones que éstos presenten; c. describir los procesos involucrados; d. reconocer la organización de las palabras. 2. Identificación de los formantes morfológicos Comparemos ahora las siguientes palabras: sol, sol-ar; sol-azo, quita- sol, gira-sol, solter-o, solaz. En las







Flashcard 1446841027852

Tags
#estructura-interna-de-las-palabras #formantes-morfológicos #gramatica-española #la #morfología #tulio
Question
Algunos afijos preceden a la base: Son los [...].
Answer
prefijos

in-útil, des-contento, a-político


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Algunos afijos van pospuestos a la base (gota), como los de nuestros ejemplos: son los s u f i j o s . Otros afijos la preceden: in-útil, des-contento, a-político: Son los prefijos. Las palabras que contienen un afijo se denominan palabras complejas.

Original toplevel document

La estructura interna de la palabra
1. Los formantes morfológicos Una palabra tiene estructura interna cuando contiene más de un formante morfológico. Un formante morfológico o morfema es una unidad mínima que consta de una forma fonética y de un significado. Comparemos las siguientes palabras: gota, gotas, gotita, gotera, cuentagotas. Gota es la única de estas palabras que consta de un solo formante. Carece, entonces, de estructura interna. Es una palabra simple. Todas las otras palabras tienen estructura interna. [31] Los formantes que pueden aparecer como palabras independientes son formas libres. Los otros, los que necesariamente van adosados a otros morfe- mas, son formas ligadas. Cuentagotas contiene dos formantes que pueden aparecer cada uno como palabra independiente. Es una palabra compuesta. Gotas, gotita y gotera también contienen dos formantes, pero uno de ellos (-s, -ita, -era) nunca puede ser una palabra independiente. Son formas ligadas que se denominan afijos. Algunos afijos van pospuestos a la base (gota), como los de nuestros ejemplos: son los s u f i j o s . Otros afijos la preceden: in-útil, des-contento, a-político: Son los prefijos. Las palabras que contienen un afijo se denominan palabras complejas. Del inventario de formantes reconocidos, reconoceremos dos clases: a. Algunos son formantes léxicos: tienen un significado léxico, que se define en el diccionario: gota, cuenta. Se agrupan en clases abiertas. Pertenecen a una clase particular de palabras: sustantivos (gota), adjetivos (útil), adverbios (ayer), verbos (cuenta). Pueden ser: - palabras simples (gota, útil, ayer); - base a la que se adosan los afijos en palabras complejas (got-, politic-); - parte de una palabra, compuesta (cuenta, gotas). b. Otros son formantes gramaticales: tienen significado gramatical, no léxico. Se agrupan en clases cerradas. Pueden ser: - palabras independientes: preposiciones (a, de, por), conjunciones (que, si); - afijos en palabras derivadas (-s, -ero, in-, des-); - menos frecuentemente, formantes de compuestos (aun-que, por-que, si-no). Entre las palabras no simples consideradas hasta aquí, cada una contenía sólo dos formantes. En otras un mismo tipo de formantes se repite: - sufijos: region-al-izar, util-iza-ble; - prefijos: des-com-poner. ex-pro-soviético, o también formantes de diferentes tipos pueden combinarse entre sí: - prefijo y sufijo: des-leal-tad, em-pobr-ecer; - palabra compuesta y sufijo: rionegr-ino, narcotrafic-ante. En la combinación de prefijación y sufijación, se distinguen dos casos, ilustrados en nuestros ejemplos. En deslealtad, la aplicación de cada uno de los afijos da como resultado una palabra bien formada: si aplicamos sólo el prefijo se obtiene el adjetivo desleal; si aplicamos sólo el sufijo el resultado será el sustantivo lealtad. En cambio, en empobrecer, si se aplica sólo un afijo [32] el resultado no será una palabra existente: *empobre, *pobrecer. Prefijo y sufijo se aplican simultáneamente, constituyendo un único formante morfológico – discontinuo– que se añade a ambos lados de la base léxica. Este segundo caso se denomina parasíntesis. Para establecer la estructura interna de las palabras, la morfología se ocupa de: a. identificar los formantes morfológicos; b. determinar las posibles variaciones que éstos presenten; c. describir los procesos involucrados; d. reconocer la organización de las palabras. 2. Identificación de los formantes morfológicos Comparemos ahora las siguientes palabras: sol, sol-ar; sol-azo, quita- sol, gira-sol, solter-o, solaz. En las







Flashcard 1446848630028

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#3-1-profit-maximization #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
There are three approaches to calculate the point of profit maximization.

Second, maximum profit can also be calculated by comparing revenue and cost for [...]
Answer
each individual unit of output that is produced and sold.


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There are three approaches to calculate the point of profit maximization. Second , maximum profit can also be calculated by comparing revenue and cost for each individual unit of output that is produced and sold. A business increases profit through greater sales as long as per-unit revenue exceeds per-unit cost on the next unit of output sold. Profit maximization takes place at th

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3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
Total variable cost divided by quantity; (TVC ÷ Q) Average total cost (ATC) Total cost divided by quantity; (TC ÷ Q) or (AFC + AVC) Marginal cost (MC) Change in total cost divided by change in quantity; (∆TC ÷ ∆Q) <span>3.1. Profit Maximization In free markets—and even in regulated market economies—profit maximization tends to promote economic welfare and a higher standard of living, and creates wealth for investors. Profit motivates businesses to use resources efficiently and to concentrate on activities in which they have a competitive advantage. Most economists believe that profit maximization promotes allocational efficiency—that resources flow into their highest valued uses. Overall, the functions of profit are as follows: Rewards entrepreneurs for risk taking when pursuing business ventures to satisfy consumer demand. Allocates resources to their most-efficient use; input factors flow from sectors with economic losses to sectors with economic profit, where profit reflects goods most desired by society. Spurs innovation and the development of new technology. Stimulates business investment and economic growth. There are three approaches to calculate the point of profit maximization. First, given that profit is the difference between total revenue and total costs, maximum profit occurs at the output level where this difference is the greatest. Second, maximum profit can also be calculated by comparing revenue and cost for each individual unit of output that is produced and sold. A business increases profit through greater sales as long as per-unit revenue exceeds per-unit cost on the next unit of output sold. Profit maximization takes place at the point where the last individual output unit breaks even. Beyond this point, total profit decreases because the per-unit cost is higher than the per-unit revenue from successive output units. A third approach compares the revenue generated by each resource unit with the cost of that unit. Profit contribution occurs when the revenue from an input unit exceeds its cost. The point of profit maximization is reached when resource units no longer contribute to profit. All three approaches yield the same profit-maximizing quantity of output. (These approaches will be explained in greater detail later.) Because profit is the difference between revenue and cost, an understanding of profit maximization requires that we examine both of those components. Revenue comes from the demand for the firm’s products, and cost comes from the acquisition and utilization of the firm’s inputs in the production of those products. 3.1.1. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue This section briefly examines demand and revenue in preparation for addressing cost. Unless the firm is a pu







Flashcard 1446853348620

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #fra-introduction #reading-22-financial-statement-analysis-intro #study-session-7
Question
Financial analysis is the process of examining a company’s performance in the context of [...] in order to arrive at a decision or recommendation.
Answer
its industry and economic environment


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Financial analysis is the process of examining a company’s performance in the context of its industry and economic environment in order to arrive at a decision or recommendation.

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1. INTRODUCTION
Financial analysis is the process of examining a company’s performance in the context of its industry and economic environment in order to arrive at a decision or recommendation. Often, the decisions and recommendations addressed by financial analysts pertain to providing capital to companies—specifically, whether to invest in the company’s debt or equity securi







Flashcard 1446858591500

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #fra-introduction #reading-22-financial-statement-analysis-intro #study-session-7
Question
Basic financial statement analysis provides a foundation that enables the analyst to better understand information gathered [...] beyond the financial reports.
Answer
from research


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Basic financial statement analysis provides a foundation that enables the analyst to better understand information gathered from research beyond the financial reports.

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1. INTRODUCTION
s with the information found in a company’s financial reports. These financial reports include audited financial statements, additional disclosures required by regulatory authorities, and any accompanying (unaudited) commentary by management. <span>Basic financial statement analysis—as presented in this reading—provides a foundation that enables the analyst to better understand information gathered from research beyond the financial reports. This reading is organized as follows: Section 2 discusses the scope of financial statement analysis. Section 3 describes the sources of information used in financial statem







Flashcard 1446876679436

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #fra-introduction #reading-22-financial-statement-analysis-intro #study-session-7
Question
Acompany's financial reports include audited financial statements, additional [...] required by regulatory authorities, and any accompanying (unaudited) commentary by management.
Answer
disclosures


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Acompany's financial reports include audited financial statements, additional disclosures required by regulatory authorities, and any accompanying (unaudited) commentary by management.

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1. INTRODUCTION
to the cost of that capital, to profitably grow its operations, and to generate enough cash to meet obligations and pursue opportunities. Fundamental financial analysis starts with the information found in a company’s financial reports. These <span>financial reports include audited financial statements, additional disclosures required by regulatory authorities, and any accompanying (unaudited) commentary by management. Basic financial statement analysis—as presented in this reading—provides a foundation that enables the analyst to better understand information gathered from research beyond the financi







#cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Factors of Production

A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade.

  1. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations?

  2. What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors?

Solution to 1:

The entrepreneurs must decide where to locate the manufacturing facility in terms of an accessible site (land) and building (physical capital), what to use in the construction of the containers (materials), and what labor input to use.

Solution to 2:

Overall, any decision involving the input factors should focus on how that decision affects costs, profitability, and risk—such that shareholders’ wealth is maximized.

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3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
l per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. Point A is where TP is maximized. Exhibit 9. A Firm’s Production Function EXAMPLE 3 <span>Factors of Production A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations? What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors? Solution to 1: The entrepreneurs must decide where to locate the manufacturing facility in terms of an accessible site (land) and building (physical capital), what to use in the construction of the containers (materials), and what labor input to use. Solution to 2: Overall, any decision involving the input factors should focus on how that decision affects costs, profitability, and risk—such that shareholders’ wealth is maximized. 3.1.3. Total, Average, Marginal, Fixed, and Variable Costs Exhibit 10 shows the graphical relationships among total costs, to




Flashcard 1446882708748

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
Factors of Production

A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade.

  1. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations?

Answer

Where to locate the manufacturing facility in terms of an accessible site (land) and building (physical capital),

what to use in the construction of the containers (materials), and what labor input to use.


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Factors of Production A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations? What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors? Solution to 1: The entrepreneurs must decide

Original toplevel document

3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
l per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. Point A is where TP is maximized. Exhibit 9. A Firm’s Production Function EXAMPLE 3 <span>Factors of Production A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations? What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors? Solution to 1: The entrepreneurs must decide where to locate the manufacturing facility in terms of an accessible site (land) and building (physical capital), what to use in the construction of the containers (materials), and what labor input to use. Solution to 2: Overall, any decision involving the input factors should focus on how that decision affects costs, profitability, and risk—such that shareholders’ wealth is maximized. 3.1.3. Total, Average, Marginal, Fixed, and Variable Costs Exhibit 10 shows the graphical relationships among total costs, to







Flashcard 1446885068044

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
Factors of Production

A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade.

What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors?

Answer
Any decision involving the input factors should focus on how that decision affects costs, profitability, and risk—such that shareholders’ wealth is maximized.


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Factors of Production A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations? What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors? Solution to 1: The entrepreneurs must decide where to locate the manufacturing facility in terms of an accessible site (land) and building (physica

Original toplevel document

3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
l per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. Point A is where TP is maximized. Exhibit 9. A Firm’s Production Function EXAMPLE 3 <span>Factors of Production A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations? What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors? Solution to 1: The entrepreneurs must decide where to locate the manufacturing facility in terms of an accessible site (land) and building (physical capital), what to use in the construction of the containers (materials), and what labor input to use. Solution to 2: Overall, any decision involving the input factors should focus on how that decision affects costs, profitability, and risk—such that shareholders’ wealth is maximized. 3.1.3. Total, Average, Marginal, Fixed, and Variable Costs Exhibit 10 shows the graphical relationships among total costs, to








#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
This image illustrates the shape of a typical input–output relationship using labor (L) as the only variable input (all other input factors are held constant). The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have positive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3. Moreover, in Region 1 (L0L1), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive. In Region 2, however, (L1L2), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns. The firm would want to avoid Region 3 if at all possible because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. Point A is where TP is maximized.

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Flashcard 1446893194508



Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
This image illustrates the shape of a typical input–output relationship using [...] as the only variable input (all other input factors are held constant).
Answer
labor (L)


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This image illustrates the shape of a typical input–output relationship using labor (L) as the only variable input (all other input factors are held constant). The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in








#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have positive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3.

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Open it
This image illustrates the shape of a typical input–output relationship using labor (L) as the only variable input (all other input factors are held constant). The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have positive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3. Moreover, in Region 1 (L 0 – L 1 ), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, ty




Flashcard 1446897913100



Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have [...] in TP as labor is added, but the change turns [...] in Region 3.
Answer
positive changes

Negative changes


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The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have positive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3.

Original toplevel document

Open it
This image illustrates the shape of a typical input–output relationship using labor (L) as the only variable input (all other input factors are held constant). The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have positive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3. Moreover, in Region 1 (L 0 – L 1 ), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, ty








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In Region 1 (L0L1), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive.

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th the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have positive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3. Moreover, <span>in Region 1 (L 0 – L 1 ), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive. In Region 2, however, (L 1 – L 2 ), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns. The firm would want to avoid Reg




Flashcard 1446902107404



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Question
In Region 1 (L0L1), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because [...].
Answer
specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive


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In Region 1 (L 0 – L 1 ), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive.

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th the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have positive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3. Moreover, <span>in Region 1 (L 0 – L 1 ), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive. In Region 2, however, (L 1 – L 2 ), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns. The firm would want to avoid Reg








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In Region 2, however, (L1L2), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns.

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itive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3. Moreover, in Region 1 (L 0 – L 1 ), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive. <span>In Region 2, however, (L 1 – L 2 ), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns. The firm would want to avoid Region 3 if at all possible because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital pe




Flashcard 1446904728844



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Question
In Region 2, however, (L1L2), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences [...]
Answer
diminishing marginal returns.


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In Region 2, however, (L 1 – L 2 ), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns.

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itive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3. Moreover, in Region 1 (L 0 – L 1 ), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive. <span>In Region 2, however, (L 1 – L 2 ), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns. The firm would want to avoid Region 3 if at all possible because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital pe








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The firm would want to avoid Region 3 because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input:

There is so little capital per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”.

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rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive. In Region 2, however, (L 1 – L 2 ), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns. <span>The firm would want to avoid Region 3 if at all possible because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. Point A is where TP is maximized. <span><body><html>




Flashcard 1446908661004



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Question
The firm would want to avoid Region 3 because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input:

There is [...] that additional [...]
Answer
so little capital per unit of labor

laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”.


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The firm would want to avoid Region 3 because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”.

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rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive. In Region 2, however, (L 1 – L 2 ), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns. <span>The firm would want to avoid Region 3 if at all possible because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. Point A is where TP is maximized. <span><body><html>








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Point A is where TP is maximized.

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oid Region 3 if at all possible because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. <span>Point A is where TP is maximized. <span><body><html>




Flashcard 1446914690316

Question
[...] is how much warmth we can have for ourselves, especially when we’re going through a difficult experience
Answer
Self-compassion


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Self-compassion is how much warmth we can have for ourselves, especially when we’re going through a difficult experience

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Flashcard 1446916263180

Question
Self-compassion is [...], especially when we’re going through a difficult experience
Answer
how much warmth we can have for ourselves


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Self-compassion is how much warmth we can have for ourselves, especially when we’re going through a difficult experience

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Flashcard 1446918098188

Question
[...] is our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something. Self-esteem is how much we approve of or value ourselves. It’s often a comparison-based
Answer
Self-confidence


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Self-confidence is our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something. Self-esteem is how much we approve of or value ourselves. It’s often a comparison-based

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Question
Self-confidence is [...]. Self-esteem is how much we approve of or value ourselves. It’s often a comparison-based
Answer
our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something


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Self-confidence is our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something. Self-esteem is how much we approve of or value ourselves. It’s often a comparison-based

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Flashcard 1446921243916

Question
Self-confidence is our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something. [...] is how much we approve of or value ourselves. It’s often a comparison-based
Answer
Self-esteem


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Self-confidence is our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something. Self-esteem is how much we approve of or value ourselves. It’s often a comparison-based

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Flashcard 1446922816780

Question
Self-confidence is our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something. Self-esteem is [...]. It’s often a comparison-based
Answer
how much we approve of or value ourselves


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Self-confidence is our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something. Self-esteem is how much we approve of or value ourselves. It’s often a comparison-based

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Flashcard 1446924389644

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#charisma #myth
Question
How do you invoke compassion for another person?
Answer
1. Imagine their past. What if you had been born in their circumstances, with their family and upbringing? What was it like growing up in their family situation with whatever they experienced as a child? It’s often said that everyone you meet has stories to tell, and that everyone has a few that would break your heart. Consider also that if you had experienced everything they have experienced, perhaps you would have turned out just like they have.
2. Imagine their present. Really try to put yourself in their shoes right now. Imagine what it feels like to be them today. Put yourself in their place, be in their skin, see through their eyes. Imagine what they might be feeling right now—all the emotions they might be holding inside.
3. If you really need compassion dynamite, look at them and ask: What if this were their last day alive? You can even imagine their funeral. You’re at their funeral, and you’re asked to say a few words about them. You can also imagine what you’d say to them after they’d already died


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everyone has a few that would break your heart. Consider also that if you had experienced everything they have experienced, perhaps you would have turned out just like they have. 2. Imagine their present. Really try to put yourself in their shoes right now. Imagine what it feels like to be them today. Put yourself in their place, be in their skin, see through their eyes. Imagine what they might be feeling right now—all the emotions they might be holding inside. 3. If you really need compassion dynamite, look at them and ask: What if this were their last day alive? You can even imagine their funeral. You’re at their funeral, and you’re asked to say a few words about them. You can also imagine what you’d say to them after they’d already died

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Flashcard 1446931991820

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#charisma
Question
What is empathy?
Answer
the ability to understand what someone is feeling


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Paul Gilbert, one of the main researchers in the field of compassion, describes the process of accessing compassion as follows: first comes empathy, the ability to understand what someone is feeling, to detect distress; second, sympathy, being emotionally moved by distress; and third, compassion, which arises with the desire to care for the well-being of the distressed person.</spa

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Flashcard 1446934351116

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#charisma
Question
What is sympathy?
Answer
being emotionally moved by distress


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span>Paul Gilbert, one of the main researchers in the field of compassion, describes the process of accessing compassion as follows: first comes empathy, the ability to understand what someone is feeling, to detect distress; second, sympathy, <span>being emotionally moved by distress; and third, compassion, which arises with the desire to care for the well-being of the distressed person.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1446938283276

Tags
#charisma
Question
What is compassion?
Answer
the desire to care for the well-being of the distressed person.


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cribes the process of accessing compassion as follows: first comes empathy, the ability to understand what someone is feeling, to detect distress; second, sympathy, being emotionally moved by distress; and third, compassion, which arises with <span>the desire to care for the well-being of the distressed person.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1446940642572

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Question
What are the stages to compassion?
Answer
  1. First comes empathy, the ability to understand what someone is feeling, to detect distress;
  2. Second, sympathy, being emotionally moved by distress
  3. And third, compassion, which arises with the desire to care for the well-being of the distressed person.


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Paul Gilbert, one of the main researchers in the field of compassion, describes the process of accessing compassion as follows: first comes empathy, the ability to understand what someone is feeling, to detect distress; second, sympathy, being emotionally moved by distress; and third, compassion, which arises with the desire to care for the well-being of the distressed person.

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Flashcard 1446945361164

Tags
#charisma
Question
What's a maxim for inducing goodwill towards others?
Answer
Of all the options open to me right now, which one would bring the most love into this world?


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Remind yourself of these maxims several times a day, and notice the shift this can make in your mind and body. Another saying people often find equally effective: Of all the options open to me right now, which one would bring the most love into this world?

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Flashcard 1446947720460

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#charisma
Question
What's an "angelic" visualization for inducing warmth?
Answer
in any interaction, imagine the person you’re speaking to, and all those around you, as having invisible angel wings/halo.


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>First, a visualization. This one comes from neuroscientist Dr. Privahini Bradoo, a highly charismatic person whose radiating warmth and happiness I’ve long admired. I was grateful when she shared one of her secrets with me: in any interaction, imagine the person you’re speaking to, and all those around you, as having invisible angel wings.<html>

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Flashcard 1446950079756

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Question
What is a simple technique to feel goodwill toward someone? (three)
Answer
One simple but effective way to start is to try to find three things you like about the person you want to feel goodwill toward. Even trivial things like their shoes are tied.


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One simple but effective way to start is to try to find three things you like about the person you want to feel goodwill toward. No matter whom it is you’re talking to, find three things to appreciate or approve of—even if these are as small as “their shoes are shined” or “they were on time.” When you start searc

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Flashcard 1446952701196

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Question
How would you visualize your own funeral? (for self compassion)
Answer
  1. Sit or lie down, close your eyes, and set the scene. Where is your funeral being held? What day of the week, what time of day? What is the weather like? See the building where the ceremony is being held. See people arriving. Who’s coming? What are they wearing? Now move into the building and look around inside. Do you see flowers? If so, smell the flowers’ scent heavy on the air. See people coming through the door. What are they thinking? What kind of chairs are they sitting in? What do these chairs feel like?
  2. Your funeral starts. Think of the people you care most about or whose opinions matter most to you. What are they thinking? See them stepping up one after another and delivering their eulogy. What are they saying? What regrets do they have for you? Now think: What would you like them to have said? What regrets do you have for yourself?
  3. See people following your coffin to the cemetery and gathering around your grave. What would you like to see written on your tombstone?
  4. Almost everyone, of all ages, genders, and seniority levels, gets a bit teary-eyed by the end. You might feel moved, touched, stirred. Stay with these emotions as much as you can and aim to get comfortable with them.


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♦ Sit or lie down, close your eyes, and set the scene. Where is your funeral being held? What day of the week, what time of day? What is the weather like? See the building where the ceremony is being held. See people arriving. Who’s coming? What are they wearing? Now move into the building and look around inside. Do you see flowers? If so, smell the flowers’ scent heavy on the air. See people coming through the door. What are they thinking? What kind of chairs are they sitting in? What do these chairs feel like? ♦ Your funeral starts. Think of the people you care most about or whose opinions matter most to you. What are they thinking? See them stepping up one after another and delivering their eulogy. What are they saying? What regrets do they have for you? Now think: What would you like them to have said? What regrets do you have for yourself? ♦ See people following your coffin to the cemetery and gathering around your grave. What would you like to see written on your tombstone? ♦ Almost everyone, of all ages, genders, and seniority levels, gets a bit teary-eyed by the end. You might feel moved, touched, stirred. Stay with these emotions as much as you can and aim to get comfortable with them.

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Flashcard 1446955322636

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#charisma
Question
What is a technique for inducing self-gratitude?
Answer
♦ Start to describe your life as if you were an outside observer, and focus on all the positive aspects you can think of.
♦ Write about your job—the work you do and the people you work with. Describe your personal relationships and the good things friends and family members would say about you. Mention a few positive things that have happened today and the tasks you have already accomplished.
♦ Take the time to write down this narrative. Just thinking about it won’t be as effective


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Use a third-person lens: For this technique, you’ll need just a few minutes to sit down, a pen, and some paper. ♦ Start to describe your life as if you were an outside observer, and focus on all the positive aspects you can think of. ♦ Write about your job—the work you do and the people you work with. Describe your personal relationships and the good things friends and family members would say about you. Mention a few positive things that have happened today and the tasks you have already accomplished. ♦ Take the time to write down this narrative. Just thinking about it won’t be as effective

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Flashcard 1446957681932

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#charisma
Question
How do you maintain positive body language even when annoyed?
Answer
The next time you find yourself annoyed at some minor thing, remember that letting your mind focus on the annoyance could impair your body language. To counter this, follow the suggestions below:
♦ Sweep through your body from head to toe and find three abilities you approve of. You could be grateful that you have feet and toes that allow you to walk. You might appreciate your ability to read.


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Focus on the present: The next time you find yourself annoyed at some minor thing, remember that letting your mind focus on the annoyance could impair your body language. To counter this, follow the suggestions below: ♦ Sweep through your body from head to toe and find three abilities you approve of. You could be grateful that you have feet and toes that allow you to walk. You might appreciate your ability to read.

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Flashcard 1446960303372

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Question
What did Napoleon Hill visualize as his counselors?
Answer
Nineteenth-century author Napoleon Hill would regularly visualize nine famous men as his personal counselors, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thomas Edison, Charles Darwin, and Abraham Lincoln.


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Nineteenth-century author Napoleon Hill would regularly visualize nine famous men as his personal counselors, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thomas Edison, Charles Darwin, and Abraham Lincoln. He wrote: “Every night… I held an imaginary council meeting with this group whom I called my ‘Invisible Counselors.’… I now go to my imaginary counselors with every difficult problem th

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Flashcard 1446964235532

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Question
How do you induce oxytocin release?
Answer
A twenty- second hug is enough to send oxytocin coursing through your veins, and that you can achieve the same effect just by imagining the hug.


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One of my favorite neuroscience resources, the Wise Brain Bulletin, suggested that a twenty- second hug is enough to send oxytocin coursing through your veins, and that you can achieve the same effect just by imagining the hug.

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Flashcard 1446966594828

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Question
What are some maxims for accessing serenity in times of distress?
Answer
A week from now, or a year from now, will any of this matter?
This, too, shall pass.
Look for little miracles unfolding right now.
What if you could trust the Universe, even with this?


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help you access calm and serenity. They run the gamut of tastes and styles, so you may find that some raise your hackles while others strongly resonate: A week from now, or a year from now, will any of this matter? This, too, shall pass. Yes, it will. Look for little miracles unfolding right now. Love the confusion. What if you could trust the Universe, even with this?

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Flashcard 1446968954124

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#charisma
Question
How do you induce a confident state?
Answer
  1. Close your eyes and relax.
  2. Remember a past experience when you felt absolutely triumphant—for example, the day you won a contest or an award.
  3. Hear the sounds in the room: the murmurs of approval, the swell of applause.
  4. See people’s smiles and expressions of warmth and admiration.
  5. Feel your feet on the ground and the congratulatory handshakes.
  6. Above all, experience your feelings, the warm glow of confidence rising within you


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♦ Close your eyes and relax. ♦ Remember a past experience when you felt absolutely triumphant—for example, the day you won a contest or an award. ♦ Hear the sounds in the room: the murmurs of approval, the swell of applause. ♦ See people’s smiles and expressions of warmth and admiration. ♦ Feel your feet on the ground and the congratulatory handshakes. ♦ Above all, experience your feelings, the warm glow of confidence rising within you

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Flashcard 1446972886284

Question
Compound statements typically span [...] and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement.
Answer
multiple lines


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Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement.

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t







Flashcard 1446974459148

Question
Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a [...ending with a...], which identifies the type of statement.
Answer
one-line header ending in a colon


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Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement.

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t







Flashcard 1446976032012

Question
A compound statement consists of one or more [...]:
Answer
clauses


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A compound statement consists of one or more clauses:

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t







Flashcard 1446977604876

Question
a header and an indented suite of statements is called a [...].
Answer
clause


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a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause.

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t







Flashcard 1446979177740

Question
[two things] is called a clause.
Answer
a header and an indented suite of statements


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a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause.

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t







Flashcard 1446981537036

Question
A compound statement is so called because it is [...]
Answer
composed of other statements (simple and compound)


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A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound)

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t







Flashcard 1446983109900

Question
A [...] statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon.
Answer
simple


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A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon.

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t







Flashcard 1446984682764

Question
A simple statement is a [(literal description in terms of what you write)]
Answer
single line that doesn't end in a colon.


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A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon.

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t







Flashcard 1446986255628

Question
Python code is a sequence of [...].
Answer
statements


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Python code is a sequence of statements.

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t







Flashcard 1446988352780

Question
[...] ligands are most needed for these unexplored receptors, as they enable both the biochemical characterization of the receptors in vitro and ligand-guided homol- ogy model refinement in silico.
Answer
Surrogate


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Surrogate ligands are most needed for these unexplored receptors, as they enable both the biochemical characterization of the receptors in vitro and ligand-guided homol- ogy model refinemen

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Surrogate ligands are most needed for these unexplored receptors, as they enable both [...] and ligand-guided homol- ogy model refinement in silico.
Answer
the biochemical characterization of the receptors in vitro


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Surrogate ligands are most needed for these unexplored receptors, as they enable both the biochemical characterization of the receptors in vitro and ligand-guided homol- ogy model refinement in silico.

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Question
Surrogate ligands are most needed for these unexplored receptors, as they enable both the biochemical characterization of the receptors in vitro and [...]
Answer
ligand-guided homol- ogy model refinement in silico.


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Surrogate ligands are most needed for these unexplored receptors, as they enable both the biochemical characterization of the receptors in vitro and ligand-guided homol- ogy model refinement in silico.

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Question
[...] data is inherently biased toward closest phyloge- netic relatives because of the common practice of testing ligand selectivity profiles only on homologous receptors
Answer
ChEMBL


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ChEMBL data is inherently biased toward closest phyloge- netic relatives because of the common practice of testing ligand selectivity profiles only on homologous receptors

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Question
ChEMBL data is inherently biased toward [...] because of the common practice of testing ligand selectivity profiles only on homologous receptors
Answer
closest phyloge- netic relatives


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ChEMBL data is inherently biased toward closest phyloge- netic relatives because of the common practice of testing ligand selectivity profiles only on homologous receptors

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Question
ChEMBL data is inherently biased toward closest phyloge- netic relatives because of the common practice of [...]
Answer
testing ligand selectivity profiles only on homologous receptors


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ChEMBL data is inherently biased toward closest phyloge- netic relatives because of the common practice of testing ligand selectivity profiles only on homologous receptors

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Flashcard 1446999887116

Tags
#gpcr-coinpocket
Question
The Coinpocket method has residue contacts based on energy rather than distance (T/F)
Answer
are distance based, not energy based


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residue contact strengths (1) are distance based, not energy based; (2) rep- resent a coarse-grain approximation of actual interaction energies; (3) have improved signal-to-noise ratios through analysis of mul- tiple ligands and crystallographic confo

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Flashcard 1447002246412

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#gpcr-coinpocket
Question
What is the GPCR Pocketome?
Answer
the set of annotated GPCR binding pockets that have been crystallographically characterized to date


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Here we sought to further refine the comparisons of GPCR binding sites by analyzing both the persis- tence and the strength of residue–ligand interactions observed across the GPCR Pocketome—the set of annotated GPCR binding pockets that have been crystallographically characterized to date 16 . By enriching the binding-site comparisons with ligand contact strengths, a method we term GPCR–CoINPocket (GPCR contact- informed neighboring pocket), we organized and clu

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Flashcard 1447004605708

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#gpcr-coinpocket
Question
How are homologs of GPCRs (and other proteins) traditionally determined?
Answer
homologs are traditionally determined by sequence alignment and calculation of amino acid identity or similarity at each posi- tion.


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homologs are traditionally determined by sequence alignment and calculation of amino acid identity or similarity at each posi- tion.

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#biochem
the interaction energy for a negative charge that is sepa- rated from a positive charge by 3 Å in vacuum turns out to be about −500 kJ•mol −1

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the interaction energy for a negative charge that is sepa- rated from a positive charge by 3 Å in vacuum turns out to be about −500 kJ•mol −1 (Figure 1.10A; we shall explain how such a calculation is done in Chapter 6). Th is result might make it appear that electrostatic interactions are extremely strong (this value is 200 t

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Flashcard 1447010110732

Tags
#biochem
Question
When two oppositely charged groups are close to each other, the interaction is called an [...or...]
Answer
ion pair or a salt bridge,


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When two oppositely charged groups are close to each other, the interaction is called an ion pair or a salt bridge,

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Flashcard 1447012470028

Tags
#biochem
Question
the foot pads of geckos contain millions of tiny hair-like protrusions with fl at tips, called [...].
Answer
spatulae


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the foot pads of geckos contain millions of tiny hair-like protrusions with fl at tips, called spatulae.

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Flashcard 1447014042892

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#biochem
Question
[...], which is a measure of the likeli- hood of a particular arrangement of molecules.
Answer
entropy


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entropy, which is a measure of the likeli- hood of a particular arrangement of molecules.

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Flashcard 1447015615756

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#biochem
Question
entropy, which is a measure of [...]
Answer
the likeli- hood of a particular arrangement of molecules.


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entropy, which is a measure of the likeli- hood of a particular arrangement of molecules.

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#biochem
the function of a molecule depends on its structure and biological macromolecules can assemble spontaneously into functional structures

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There are two central themes underlying the concepts in this book. The first is that the function of a molecule depends on its structure and that biological macromolecules can assemble spontaneously into functional structures. The second theme is that any biological macromolecule must work together with other molecules to carry out its particular functions in the cell, and this depends on the ability of mole

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#biochem
any biological macromolecule must work together with other molecules to carry out its particular functions in the cell, and this depends on the ability of molecules to recognize each other specifically

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two central themes underlying the concepts in this book. The first is that the function of a molecule depends on its structure and that biological macromolecules can assemble spontaneously into functional structures. The second theme is that <span>any biological macromolecule must work together with other molecules to carry out its particular functions in the cell, and this depends on the ability of molecules to recognize each other specifically. Clearly, to understand the molecular mechanism of any biological process, we must understand the energy of the physical and chemical interactions that drive the formation of specific s

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#biochem
to understand the molecular mechanism of any biological process, we must understand the energy of the physical and chemical interactions that drive the formation of specific structures and promote molecular recognition

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ures. The second theme is that any biological macromolecule must work together with other molecules to carry out its particular functions in the cell, and this depends on the ability of molecules to recognize each other specifically. Clearly, <span>to understand the molecular mechanism of any biological process, we must understand the energy of the physical and chemical interactions that drive the formation of specific structures and promote molecular recognition<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1447022693644

Tags
#biochem
Question
A typical protein molecule is made from [how many?] amino acids.
Answer
~300


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A typical protein molecule is made from ~300 amino acids. Th e total number of different sequences possible for proteins of this length is 20^300 ≈ 10^390

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Flashcard 1447025052940

Tags
#biochem
Question
A typical protein molecule is made from ~300 amino acids. Th e total number of different sequences possible for proteins of this length is [...]
Answer
20^300 ≈ 10^390


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A typical protein molecule is made from ~300 amino acids. Th e total number of different sequences possible for proteins of this length is 20^300 ≈ 10^390

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Flashcard 1447027412236

Tags
#biochem
Question
A DNA molecule of this length (4.5 million) corresponds to [...] possible sequences
Answer
~10^2,700,000


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A DNA molecule of this length (4.5 million) corresponds to ~10^2,700,000 possible sequences

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Flashcard 1447028985100

Tags
#python #scip
Question
The '=' symbol is called the [...] in Python (and many other languages)
Answer
assignment operator


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he = symbol is called the assignment operator in Python (and many other languages)

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1.2 Elements of Programming
= and a value to the right: >>> radius = 10 >>> radius 10 >>> 2 * radius 20 Names are also bound via import statements. >>> from math import pi >>> pi * 71 / 223 1.0002380197528042 T<span>he = symbol is called the assignment operator in Python (and many other languages). Assignment is our simplest means of abstraction, for it allows us to use simple names to refer to the results of compound operations, such as the area computed above. In this way, co







#python #scip
A numeral evaluates to the number it names,

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eated application of the first step brings us to the point where we need to evaluate, not call expressions, but primitive expressions such as numerals (e.g., 2) and names (e.g., add ). We take care of the primitive cases by stipulating that <span>A numeral evaluates to the number it names, A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment. Notice the important role of an environment in determining the meaning of the symbols in expression

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1.2 Elements of Programming
rule is applied, and the result of that expression. Viewing evaluation in terms of this tree, we can imagine that the values of the operands percolate upward, starting from the terminal nodes and then combining at higher and higher levels. <span>Next, observe that the repeated application of the first step brings us to the point where we need to evaluate, not call expressions, but primitive expressions such as numerals (e.g., 2) and names (e.g., add ). We take care of the primitive cases by stipulating that A numeral evaluates to the number it names, A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment. Notice the important role of an environment in determining the meaning of the symbols in expressions. In Python, it is meaningless to speak of the value of an expression such as >>> add(x, 1) without specifying any information about the environment that would provide a m




#python #scip
A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment.

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s to the point where we need to evaluate, not call expressions, but primitive expressions such as numerals (e.g., 2) and names (e.g., add ). We take care of the primitive cases by stipulating that A numeral evaluates to the number it names, <span>A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment. Notice the important role of an environment in determining the meaning of the symbols in expressions<span><body><html>

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1.2 Elements of Programming
rule is applied, and the result of that expression. Viewing evaluation in terms of this tree, we can imagine that the values of the operands percolate upward, starting from the terminal nodes and then combining at higher and higher levels. <span>Next, observe that the repeated application of the first step brings us to the point where we need to evaluate, not call expressions, but primitive expressions such as numerals (e.g., 2) and names (e.g., add ). We take care of the primitive cases by stipulating that A numeral evaluates to the number it names, A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment. Notice the important role of an environment in determining the meaning of the symbols in expressions. In Python, it is meaningless to speak of the value of an expression such as >>> add(x, 1) without specifying any information about the environment that would provide a m




#python #sicp
Function names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores.

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Function names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores. Descriptive names are encouraged. Function names typically evoke operations applied to arguments by the interpreter (e.g., print , add , square ) or the name of the quantity that result

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1.3 Defining New Functions
(non-rebellious) Python programmers. A shared set of conventions smooths communication among members of a developer community. As a side effect of following these conventions, you will find that your code becomes more internally consistent. <span>Function names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores. Descriptive names are encouraged. Function names typically evoke operations applied to arguments by the interpreter (e.g., print , add , square ) or the name of the quantity that results (e.g., max , abs , sum ). Parameter names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores. Single-word names are preferred. Parameter names should evoke the role of the parameter in the function, not just the kind of argument that is allowed. Single letter parameter names are acceptable when their role is obvious, but avoid "l" (lowercase ell), "O" (capital oh), or "I" (capital i) to avoid confusion with numerals. There are many exceptions to these guidelines, even in the Python standard library. Like the vocabulary of the English language, Python has inherited words from a variety of contribut




Flashcard 1447041830156

Tags
#electromagnetism #physics
Question
What is an example of a scalar field?
Answer
the distribution of temperature in a room, contour map


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So whereas the distribution of temperature in a room is an example of a scalar field, the speed and direction of the flow of a fluid at each point in a stream is an example of a vector field.

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Flashcard 1447044189452

Tags
#electromagnetism #physics
Question
Give an example of a vector field
Answer
speed and direction of the flow of a fluid at each point in a stream


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So whereas the distribution of temperature in a room is an example of a scalar field, the speed and direction of the flow of a fluid at each point in a stream is an example of a vector field.

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Flashcard 1447046548748

Tags
#electromagnetism #physics
Question
What is a vector field?
Answer
a vector field is a distribution of quan tities in space – a field – and these quantities ha ve both magnitude and direction, meaning that they are vectors.


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What’s a vector field? As the name suggests, a vector field is a distribution of quan tities in space – a field – and these quantities ha ve both magnitude and direction, meaning that they are vectors.

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Flashcard 1447048908044

Tags
#electromagnetism #physics
Question
In Gauss's law is the surface integral is applied to what?
Answer
In Gauss’s law, the surface integral is applied not to a scalar function (such as the density of a surface) but to a vector field.


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In Gauss’s law, the surface integral is applied not to a scalar function (such as the density of a surface) but to a vector field.

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Flashcard 1447052315916

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#electromagnetism #physics
Question
For individual segments with area density ri and area dAi , the mass of each segment is ri * dAi, and the mass of the entire surface of N segments is given by [...]
Answer
the sum from i=1 to N of ri * dAi


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For individual segments with area density r i and area dA i , the mass of each segment is r i * dA i , and the mass of the entire surface of N segments is given by the sum from i=1 to N of r i * dA i

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Flashcard 1447059918092

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
How would you clear more than one variable in the matlab workspace?
Answer
Separate the vari- able names with spaces, not commas.


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A particular variable can be removed from the workspace (e.g., clear rate). More than one variable can also be cleared (e.g., clear rate balance). Separate the vari- able names with spaces, not commas.

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Flashcard 1447063325964

Tags
#electromagnetism #physics
Question
What is a unit vector?
Answer
a vector with length of one pointing in the direction per- pendicular to the surface.


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imagine a vector with length of one pointing in the direction per- pendicular to the surface. Such a vector, labeled ^ n, is called a ‘‘unit’’ vector because its length is unity and ‘‘normal’’ because it is perpendicular to the surface.

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Flashcard 1447065685260

Tags
#electromagnetism #physics
Question
What is \(\vec{E}\hat{n}\)?
Answer
this expression represents the component of the electric field vector that is perpendicular to the surface under consideration.


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E ^ n should be clear; this expression represents the component of the electric field vector that is perpendicular to the surface under consideration.

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Flashcard 1447068044556

Tags
#electromagnetism #physics
Question
What is a surface integral?
Answer
the area integral of a scalar function or vector field over a specified surface (basically add up little areas of different weight)


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the area integral of a scalar function or vector field over a spe- cified surface (this type of integral is also called the ‘‘surface integral’’)

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Flashcard 1447070403852

Tags
#biochem
Question
to understand the molecular mechanism of any biological process, we must understand the energy of the [...] that drive the formation of [...] and promote [...]
Answer
physical and chemical interactions; specific structures; molecular recognition


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to understand the molecular mechanism of any biological process, we must understand the energy of the physical and chemical interactions that drive the formation of specific structures and promote molecular recognition

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Flashcard 1447071976716

Tags
#python #scip
Question
A name evaluates to t[...]
Answer
he value associated with that name in the current environment.


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A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment.

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1.2 Elements of Programming
rule is applied, and the result of that expression. Viewing evaluation in terms of this tree, we can imagine that the values of the operands percolate upward, starting from the terminal nodes and then combining at higher and higher levels. <span>Next, observe that the repeated application of the first step brings us to the point where we need to evaluate, not call expressions, but primitive expressions such as numerals (e.g., 2) and names (e.g., add ). We take care of the primitive cases by stipulating that A numeral evaluates to the number it names, A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment. Notice the important role of an environment in determining the meaning of the symbols in expressions. In Python, it is meaningless to speak of the value of an expression such as >>> add(x, 1) without specifying any information about the environment that would provide a m







Flashcard 1447074073868

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
Function names are [...]case, with words separated by underscores.
Answer
lower


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Function names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores.

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1.3 Defining New Functions
(non-rebellious) Python programmers. A shared set of conventions smooths communication among members of a developer community. As a side effect of following these conventions, you will find that your code becomes more internally consistent. <span>Function names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores. Descriptive names are encouraged. Function names typically evoke operations applied to arguments by the interpreter (e.g., print , add , square ) or the name of the quantity that results (e.g., max , abs , sum ). Parameter names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores. Single-word names are preferred. Parameter names should evoke the role of the parameter in the function, not just the kind of argument that is allowed. Single letter parameter names are acceptable when their role is obvious, but avoid "l" (lowercase ell), "O" (capital oh), or "I" (capital i) to avoid confusion with numerals. There are many exceptions to these guidelines, even in the Python standard library. Like the vocabulary of the English language, Python has inherited words from a variety of contribut







Flashcard 1447075646732

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
Function names are lowercase, with words separated by [...].
Answer
underscores


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Function names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores.

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1.3 Defining New Functions
(non-rebellious) Python programmers. A shared set of conventions smooths communication among members of a developer community. As a side effect of following these conventions, you will find that your code becomes more internally consistent. <span>Function names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores. Descriptive names are encouraged. Function names typically evoke operations applied to arguments by the interpreter (e.g., print , add , square ) or the name of the quantity that results (e.g., max , abs , sum ). Parameter names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores. Single-word names are preferred. Parameter names should evoke the role of the parameter in the function, not just the kind of argument that is allowed. Single letter parameter names are acceptable when their role is obvious, but avoid "l" (lowercase ell), "O" (capital oh), or "I" (capital i) to avoid confusion with numerals. There are many exceptions to these guidelines, even in the Python standard library. Like the vocabulary of the English language, Python has inherited words from a variety of contribut







Flashcard 1447077481740

Tags
#electromagnetism #physics
Question
Thus, the dot product \(\vec{A}\cdot\vec{B}\)represents the [...]
Answer
projection of \(\vec{A}\) onto the direction of \(\vec{B}\) multiplied by the length of \(\vec{B}\)


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Thus, the dot product ~ A ~ B represents the projection of ~ A onto the direction of ~ B multiplied by the length of ~ B

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Flashcard 1447079841036

Tags
#electromagnetism #physics
Question
product between two vectors such as \(\vec{E}\cdot\hat{n}\) is simply [...]
Answer
the projection of the first onto the second multiplied by the length of the second.


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product between two vectors such as ~ E and ^ n is simply the pro- jection of the first onto the second multiplied by the length of the second.

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Flashcard 1447082200332

Tags
#electromagnetism #physics
Question
Imagine that the area density (the mass per unit area) of this surface varies with x and y, and you want to determine the total "mass" of the surface. How would you do this?
Answer
You can do this by dividing the surface into two-dimensional segments over each of which the area density is approximately constant


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Imagine that the area density (the mass per unit area) of this surface varies with x and y, and you want to determine the total mass of the surface. You can do this by dividing the surface into two-dimensional segments over each of which the area density is approximately constant

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Flashcard 1447090588940

Tags
#electromagnetism #physics
Question
If you let the segment area dA approach zero and N approach infinity, the summation becomes integration, and you have Mass
Answer
\(\int_{S}\sigma(x, y)dA\)


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As you can imagine, the smaller you make the area segments, the closer this gets to the true mass, since your approximation of constant sigma is more accurate for smaller segments. If you let the segment area dA approach zero and N approach infinity, the summation becomes integration, and you have Mass = ∫Sσ(x,y)dA∫Sσ(x,y)dA : This is the area integral of the scalar function sigma(x, y) over the surface S.

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#python #sicp
the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions.

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Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequ

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1.4 Designing Functions
mall, and serve as our primary medium to express computational processes in a programming language. So far, we have discussed the formal properties of functions and how they are applied. We now turn to the topic of what makes a good function. <span>Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers. These guidelines improve the readability of code, reduce the number of errors, and often minimize the total amount of code written. Decomposing a complex task into concise functions i




#python #sicp
Each function should have exactly one job identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text.

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Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that l

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1.4 Designing Functions
mall, and serve as our primary medium to express computational processes in a programming language. So far, we have discussed the formal properties of functions and how they are applied. We now turn to the topic of what makes a good function. <span>Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers. These guidelines improve the readability of code, reduce the number of errors, and often minimize the total amount of code written. Decomposing a complex task into concise functions i




#python #sicp
The DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic; logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction.

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ractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. <span>Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers.

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1.4 Designing Functions
mall, and serve as our primary medium to express computational processes in a programming language. So far, we have discussed the formal properties of functions and how they are applied. We now turn to the topic of what makes a good function. <span>Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers. These guidelines improve the readability of code, reduce the number of errors, and often minimize the total amount of code written. Decomposing a complex task into concise functions i




#python #sicp
Functions should be defined generally.

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t describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. <span>Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers.<span><body><html>

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1.4 Designing Functions
mall, and serve as our primary medium to express computational processes in a programming language. So far, we have discussed the formal properties of functions and how they are applied. We now turn to the topic of what makes a good function. <span>Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers. These guidelines improve the readability of code, reduce the number of errors, and often minimize the total amount of code written. Decomposing a complex task into concise functions i




#biochem
Glycine (Gly, G), with just a hydrogen atom as its sidechain

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Glycine (Gly, G), with just a hydrogen atom as its sidechain, is the simplest of the 20 amino acids. It can be grouped with the hydrophobic amino acids or treated as the sole member of a fourth class because of its special properties. Th ese ar

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#biochem
special properties. Th ese arise from the absence of a bulky sidechain, which allows glycine to adopt three- dimensional conformations that are energetically unfavorable for other amino acids, so that segments of protein chains that contain glycine can be much more fl exible than those that do not.

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><head>Glycine (Gly, G), with just a hydrogen atom as its sidechain, is the simplest of the 20 amino acids. It can be grouped with the hydrophobic amino acids or treated as the sole member of a fourth class because of its special properties. Th ese arise from the absence of a bulky sidechain, which allows glycine to adopt three- dimensional conformations that are energetically unfavorable for other amino acids, so that segments of protein chains that contain glycine can be much more fl exible than those that do not.<html>

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Flashcard 1447113133324

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #fra-introduction #study-session-7
Question
IASB?
Answer
International Accounting Standards Board’s


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Reading 24 in study session 7 explores the roles of financial reporting standard-setting bodies and regulatory authorities. The International Accounting Standards Board’s conceptual framework and the movement towards global convergence of financial reporting standards are also described.

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An Introduction
nd accounting accruals. The presentation of financial information to the public by a company must conform to applicable financial reporting standards based on factors such as the jurisdiction in which the information is released. <span>The final reading in this study session explores the roles of financial reporting standard-setting bodies and regulatory authorities. The International Accounting Standards Board’s conceptual framework and the movement towards global convergence of financial reporting standards are also described. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1447118376204

Tags
#3-1-profit-maximization #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
Second aproach to calculate the point of profit maximization.

A business increases profit through greater sales as long as [...] of output sold.
Answer
per-unit revenue exceeds per-unit cost on the next unit



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There are three approaches to calculate the point of profit maximization. Second , maximum profit can also be calculated by comparing revenue and cost for each individual unit of output that is produced and sold. A business increases profit through greater sales as long as per-unit revenue exceeds per-unit cost on the next unit of output sold. Profit maximization takes place at th

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3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
Total variable cost divided by quantity; (TVC ÷ Q) Average total cost (ATC) Total cost divided by quantity; (TC ÷ Q) or (AFC + AVC) Marginal cost (MC) Change in total cost divided by change in quantity; (∆TC ÷ ∆Q) <span>3.1. Profit Maximization In free markets—and even in regulated market economies—profit maximization tends to promote economic welfare and a higher standard of living, and creates wealth for investors. Profit motivates businesses to use resources efficiently and to concentrate on activities in which they have a competitive advantage. Most economists believe that profit maximization promotes allocational efficiency—that resources flow into their highest valued uses. Overall, the functions of profit are as follows: Rewards entrepreneurs for risk taking when pursuing business ventures to satisfy consumer demand. Allocates resources to their most-efficient use; input factors flow from sectors with economic losses to sectors with economic profit, where profit reflects goods most desired by society. Spurs innovation and the development of new technology. Stimulates business investment and economic growth. There are three approaches to calculate the point of profit maximization. First, given that profit is the difference between total revenue and total costs, maximum profit occurs at the output level where this difference is the greatest. Second, maximum profit can also be calculated by comparing revenue and cost for each individual unit of output that is produced and sold. A business increases profit through greater sales as long as per-unit revenue exceeds per-unit cost on the next unit of output sold. Profit maximization takes place at the point where the last individual output unit breaks even. Beyond this point, total profit decreases because the per-unit cost is higher than the per-unit revenue from successive output units. A third approach compares the revenue generated by each resource unit with the cost of that unit. Profit contribution occurs when the revenue from an input unit exceeds its cost. The point of profit maximization is reached when resource units no longer contribute to profit. All three approaches yield the same profit-maximizing quantity of output. (These approaches will be explained in greater detail later.) Because profit is the difference between revenue and cost, an understanding of profit maximization requires that we examine both of those components. Revenue comes from the demand for the firm’s products, and cost comes from the acquisition and utilization of the firm’s inputs in the production of those products. 3.1.1. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue This section briefly examines demand and revenue in preparation for addressing cost. Unless the firm is a pu







Flashcard 1447120473356

Tags
#3-1-profit-maximization #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
In the Second aproach to calculate the point of profit maximization.

Profit maximization takes place at the point where the [...]
Answer
last individual output unit breaks even.


Beyond this point, total profit decreases because the per-unit cost is higher than the per-unit revenue from successive output units.


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There are three approaches to calculate the point of profit maximization. Second , maximum profit can also be calculated by comparing revenue and cost for each individual unit of output that is produced and sold. A business increases profit through greater sales as long as per-unit revenue exceeds per-unit cost on the next unit of output sold. Profit maximization takes place at th

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3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
Total variable cost divided by quantity; (TVC ÷ Q) Average total cost (ATC) Total cost divided by quantity; (TC ÷ Q) or (AFC + AVC) Marginal cost (MC) Change in total cost divided by change in quantity; (∆TC ÷ ∆Q) <span>3.1. Profit Maximization In free markets—and even in regulated market economies—profit maximization tends to promote economic welfare and a higher standard of living, and creates wealth for investors. Profit motivates businesses to use resources efficiently and to concentrate on activities in which they have a competitive advantage. Most economists believe that profit maximization promotes allocational efficiency—that resources flow into their highest valued uses. Overall, the functions of profit are as follows: Rewards entrepreneurs for risk taking when pursuing business ventures to satisfy consumer demand. Allocates resources to their most-efficient use; input factors flow from sectors with economic losses to sectors with economic profit, where profit reflects goods most desired by society. Spurs innovation and the development of new technology. Stimulates business investment and economic growth. There are three approaches to calculate the point of profit maximization. First, given that profit is the difference between total revenue and total costs, maximum profit occurs at the output level where this difference is the greatest. Second, maximum profit can also be calculated by comparing revenue and cost for each individual unit of output that is produced and sold. A business increases profit through greater sales as long as per-unit revenue exceeds per-unit cost on the next unit of output sold. Profit maximization takes place at the point where the last individual output unit breaks even. Beyond this point, total profit decreases because the per-unit cost is higher than the per-unit revenue from successive output units. A third approach compares the revenue generated by each resource unit with the cost of that unit. Profit contribution occurs when the revenue from an input unit exceeds its cost. The point of profit maximization is reached when resource units no longer contribute to profit. All three approaches yield the same profit-maximizing quantity of output. (These approaches will be explained in greater detail later.) Because profit is the difference between revenue and cost, an understanding of profit maximization requires that we examine both of those components. Revenue comes from the demand for the firm’s products, and cost comes from the acquisition and utilization of the firm’s inputs in the production of those products. 3.1.1. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue This section briefly examines demand and revenue in preparation for addressing cost. Unless the firm is a pu







#cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4

3.1.3. Total, Average, Marginal, Fixed, and Variable Costs

Exhibit 10 shows the graphical relationships among total costs, total fixed cost, and total variable cost. The curve for total costs is a parallel shift of the total variable cost curve and always lies above the total variable cost curve by the amount of total fixed cost. At zero production, total costs are equal to total fixed cost because total variable cost at this output level is zero.

Exhibit 10. Total Costs, Total Variable Cost, and Total Fixed Cost

Exhibit 11 shows the cost curve relationships among ATC, AVC, and AFC in the short run. (In the long run, the firm will have different ATC, AVC, and AFC cost curves when all inputs are variable, including technology, plant size, and physical capital.) The difference between ATC and AVC at any output quantity is the amount of AFC. For example, at Q1 the distance between ATC and AVC is measured by the value of A, which equals the amount of fixed cost as measured by amount B at Q1. Similarly, at Q2, the distance between ATC and AVC of X equals amount Y of AFC. The vertical distance between ATC and AVC is exactly equal to the height of AFC at each quantity. Both average total cost and average variable cost take on a bowl-shaped pattern in which each curve initially declines, reaches a minimum-cost output level, and then increases after that point. Point S, which corresponds to QAVC, is the minimum point on the AVC (such as 2 units in Exhibit 13). Similarly, point T, which corresponds to QATC, is the minimum point on ATC (such as 3 units in Exhibit 13). As shown in Exhibit 11, when output increases, average fixed cost declines as AFC approaches the horizontal quantity axis.

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3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
Solution to 2: Overall, any decision involving the input factors should focus on how that decision affects costs, profitability, and risk—such that shareholders’ wealth is maximized. <span>3.1.3. Total, Average, Marginal, Fixed, and Variable Costs Exhibit 10 shows the graphical relationships among total costs, total fixed cost, and total variable cost. The curve for total costs is a parallel shift of the total variable cost curve and always lies above the total variable cost curve by the amount of total fixed cost. At zero production, total costs are equal to total fixed cost because total variable cost at this output level is zero. Exhibit 10. Total Costs, Total Variable Cost, and Total Fixed Cost Exhibit 11 shows the cost curve relationships among ATC, AVC, and AFC in the short run. (In the long run, the firm will have different ATC, AVC, and AFC cost curves when all inputs are variable, including technology, plant size, and physical capital.) The difference between ATC and AVC at any output quantity is the amount of AFC. For example, at Q 1 the distance between ATC and AVC is measured by the value of A, which equals the amount of fixed cost as measured by amount B at Q 1 . Similarly, at Q 2 , the distance between ATC and AVC of X equals amount Y of AFC. The vertical distance between ATC and AVC is exactly equal to the height of AFC at each quantity. Both average total cost and average variable cost take on a bowl-shaped pattern in which each curve initially declines, reaches a minimum-cost output level, and then increases after that point. Point S, which corresponds to Q AVC , is the minimum point on the AVC (such as 2 units in Exhibit 13). Similarly, point T, which corresponds to Q ATC , is the minimum point on ATC (such as 3 units in Exhibit 13). As shown in Exhibit 11, when output increases, average fixed cost declines as AFC approaches the horizontal quantity axis. Exhibit 11. Average Total Cost, Average Variable Cost, and Average Fixed Cost Exhibit 12 displays the cost curve relationships for ATC, A





Exhibit 5. Total Revenue, Average Revenue, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Exhibit 5 graphically displays the revenue data from perfect competition. For an individual firm operating in a market setting of perfect competition, MR equals AR and both are equal to a price that stays the same across all levels of output. Because price is fixed to the individual seller, the firm’s demand curve is a horizontal line at the point where the market sets the price. In Exhibit 5, at a price of 100, P1 = MR1 = AR1 = Demand1. Marginal revenue, average revenue, and the firm’s price remain constant until market demand and supply factors cause a change in price. For instance, if price increases to 200 because of an increase in market demand, the firm’s demand curve shifts from Demand1 to Demand2 with corresponding increases in MR and AR as well. Total revenue increases from TR1 to TR2 when price increases from 100 to 200. At a price of 100, total revenue at 10 units is 1,000; however, at a price of 200, total revenue would be 2,000 for 10 units.

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Flashcard 1447151668492



Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
This graphically displays the [...].
Answer
revenue data from perfect competition


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Exhibit 5. Total Revenue, Average Revenue, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition
Exhibit 5 graphically displays the revenue data from perfect competition. For an individual firm operating in a market setting of perfect competition, MR equals AR and both are equal to a price that stays the same across all levels of output. Because price i







Flashcard 1447154027788



Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
For an individual firm operating in a market setting of perfect competition, [...] equals AR and both are equal to a price that stays the same across all levels of output.
Answer
MR


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Exhibit 5. Total Revenue, Average Revenue, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition
Exhibit 5 graphically displays the revenue data from perfect competition. For an individual firm operating in a market setting of perfect competition, MR equals AR and both are equal to a price that stays the same across all levels of output. Because price is fixed to the individual seller, the firm’s demand curve is a horizontal line at








#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Because price is fixed to the individual seller, the firm’s demand curve is a horizontal line at the point where the market sets the price.

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Exhibit 5. Total Revenue, Average Revenue, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition
Exhibit 5 graphically displays the revenue data from perfect competition. For an individual firm operating in a market setting of perfect competition, MR equals AR and both are equal to a price that stays the same across all levels of output. <span>Because price is fixed to the individual seller, the firm’s demand curve is a horizontal line at the point where the market sets the price. In Exhibit 5, at a price of 100, P 1 = MR 1 = AR 1 = Demand 1 . Marginal revenue, average revenue, and the firm’s price remain constant until market demand and supply factors cause a





#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Here at a price of 100, P1 = MR1 = AR1 = Demand1.

Marginal revenue, average revenue, and the firm’s price remain constant until market demand and supply factors cause a change in price.

If price increases to 200 because of an increase in market demand, the firm’s demand curve shifts from Demand1 to Demand2 with corresponding increases in MR and AR as well.

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Exhibit 5. Total Revenue, Average Revenue, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition
mpetition, MR equals AR and both are equal to a price that stays the same across all levels of output. Because price is fixed to the individual seller, the firm’s demand curve is a horizontal line at the point where the market sets the price. <span>In Exhibit 5, at a price of 100, P 1 = MR 1 = AR 1 = Demand 1 . Marginal revenue, average revenue, and the firm’s price remain constant until market demand and supply factors cause a change in price. For instance, if price increases to 200 because of an increase in market demand, the firm’s demand curve shifts from Demand 1 to Demand 2 with corresponding increases in MR and AR as well. Total revenue increases from TR 1 to TR 2 when price increases from 100 to 200. At a price of 100, total revenue at 10 units is 1,000; however, at a price of 200, total revenue would





#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Total revenue increases from TR1 to TR2 when price increases from 100 to 200. At a price of 100, total revenue at 10 units is 1,000; however, at a price of 200, total revenue would be 2,000 for 10 units.

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Exhibit 5. Total Revenue, Average Revenue, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition
demand and supply factors cause a change in price. For instance, if price increases to 200 because of an increase in market demand, the firm’s demand curve shifts from Demand 1 to Demand 2 with corresponding increases in MR and AR as well. <span>Total revenue increases from TR 1 to TR 2 when price increases from 100 to 200. At a price of 100, total revenue at 10 units is 1,000; however, at a price of 200, total revenue would be 2,000 for 10 units.<span><body><html>




#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
The abstract character of genus is such that one cannot draw a picture, for example, of animal but only of a particular kind or species of animal such as a horse or a dog.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
species is abstract, for one cannot photograph the species horse or dog; one can photograph only an individual horse or dog since every horse or dog that exists is an individual.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
The generic essence is merely the specific essence with the more definite characteristics of t he latter omitted.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
An aggregat e or group of individuals must be clearly distinguished from a species or a genus.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
An aggregate is merely a particular group of individuals, such as the trees in Central Park, the inhabitants of California, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the items on a desk, the furniture in a house

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
A species or a genus always signifies a class nature or essence and includes all the individuals of every place and time having that nature or essence.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
man is a species and includes all men and women of every place and time—past, present, and future.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
an aggregate is a particular group of individuals that may or may not have the same essence or class nature; but in either case, the aggregate does not include all the members that have that nat ure

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Aggregate Illustration
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
The women of the ninet eenth century constitute an aggregate of individuals belonging to the same species, but they are only a part of the species, namely, those who existed at a particular time.

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Aggregate Illustration
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
The things in a room constitute an aggregate of individuals belonging to different species, such as chair, desk, table, book, heat vent, window, etc., but they are only a small part of each species.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
An individual is one. An aggregate is simply a group consisting of two or more individuals.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Essence is what makes a being what it is.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Species is a class made up of individuals that have in common the same specific essence.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Genus is a wider class made up of two or more different species.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Aggregate is a group consisting of t wo or more individuals.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Language and Its Symbols Language employs four important kinds of symbols to represent reality: two to symbolize the individual, two to symbolize the essence which is common to all the individual members of a class. Language can symbolize an individual or an aggregate by either a proper name or a particular or empirical description. A particular or empirical description is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group. Empirical means founded on experience. Since only individuals exist, our experience is directly concerned with them. Throughout this book the word empirical is used with reference to our knowledge of individuals as such.

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Language and Its Symbols
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Language employs four important kinds of symbols to represent reality: two to symbolize the individual, two to symbolize the essence which is common to all the individual members of a class.

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Language and Its Symbols Language employs four important kinds of symbols to represent reality: two to symbolize the individual, two to symbolize the essence which is common to all the individual members of a class. Language can symbolize an individual or an aggregate by either a proper name or a particular or empirical description. A particular or empirical description is a common nam

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Language can symbolize an individual or an aggregate by either a proper name or a particular or empirical description.

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y>Language and Its Symbols Language employs four important kinds of symbols to represent reality: two to symbolize the individual, two to symbolize the essence which is common to all the individual members of a class. Language can symbolize an individual or an aggregate by either a proper name or a particular or empirical description. A particular or empirical description is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group. Empirical means founded on

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
A particular or empirical description is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group.

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individual, two to symbolize the essence which is common to all the individual members of a class. Language can symbolize an individual or an aggregate by either a proper name or a particular or empirical description. <span>A particular or empirical description is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group. Empirical means founded on experience. Since only individuals exist, our experience is directly concerned with them. Throughout this book the word empirical is used

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Empirical means founded on experience.

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r an aggregate by either a proper name or a particular or empirical description. A particular or empirical description is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group. <span>Empirical means founded on experience. Since only individuals exist, our experience is directly concerned with them. Throughout this book the word empirical is used with reference to our knowledge of individ

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Since only individuals exist, our experience is directly concerned with them.

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or a particular or empirical description. A particular or empirical description is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group. Empirical means founded on experience. <span>Since only individuals exist, our experience is directly concerned with them. Throughout this book the word empirical is used with reference to our knowledge of individuals as such.<span><body><html>

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Throughout this book the word empirical is used with reference to our knowledge of individuals as such.

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common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group. Empirical means founded on experience. Since only individuals exist, our experience is directly concerned with them. <span>Throughout this book the word empirical is used with reference to our knowledge of individuals as such.<span><body><html>

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ILLUSTRATION: Language used to symbolize empirical information
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
A proper name, such as Eleanor Roosevelt, the Mississippi River, Halloween, London, the United States Senate, the Rotarians, the Mediterranean Sea, can symbolize the individual or an aggregate.

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ILLUSTRATION: Language used to symbolize empirical information
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
A particular or empirical description, such as the present store manager, this computer, the woman who made the flag, t he furniture in this house, the microbe now dividing in the petri dish, can symbolize the individual or an aggregat e.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
If language could not symbolize the individual, one could not designate particular persons, places, or times. This would be extremely inconvenient. For example, people could not direct emergency vehicles to their houses. On the other hand, if language could symbolize only the individual, people would be in a worse plight. Every word would be a proper name, and it would therefore be necessary to give a different proper name t o every object spoken of—not only to people and places but to everything—to every tree, blade of grass, chair, fork, potato, coat, shoe, pencil, etc.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
If language could not symbolize the individual, one could not designate particular persons, places, or times. This would be extremely inconvenient.

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If language could not symbolize the individual, one could not designate particular persons, places, or times. This would be extremely inconvenient. For example, people could not direct emergency vehicles to their houses. On the other hand, if language could symbolize only the individual, people

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
if language could symbolize only the individual, people would be in a worse plight. Every word would be a proper name, and it would therefore be necessary to give a different proper name t o every object spoken of—not only to people and places but to everything—to every tree, blade of grass, chair, fork, potato, coat, shoe, pencil, etc.

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uage could not symbolize the individual, one could not designate particular persons, places, or times. This would be extremely inconvenient. For example, people could not direct emergency vehicles to their houses. On the other hand, <span>if language could symbolize only the individual, people would be in a worse plight. Every word would be a proper name, and it would therefore be necessary to give a different proper name t o every object spoken of—not only to people and places but to everything—to every tree, blade of grass, chair, fork, potato, coat, shoe, pencil, etc.<span><body><html>

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
A common name, such as child, tree, chair, square, hour, can symbolize essence.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Language can symbolize essence by either of t wo kinds of symbols, both of which are applicable to all the members of a class

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Most of the words listed in the dictionary are common names.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
the bulk of language is made up of common names; they symbolize either species or genus.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
jump names a species of movement; whereas move means the genus of jump, fly, creep, walk.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
A general or universal description such as a rational animal, an equilateral triangle, an organ of sight can symbolize essence.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
The definitions given in the dictionary are general descript ions of the single-word entries. They clarify the meanings of the common names. A general description is itself made up wholly of common names.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
A proper name or an empirical description must symbolize an individual or an aggregate existing in fact (past or present) or in fiction (wherein are characters, places, etc. created by the imagination). Otherwise, it is devoid of meaning, as are the present King of France or the Emperor of Iowa. The following, however, are truly symbols: Hamlet, Sidney Carton, Rapunzel, Nathan Hale, Queen Elizabeth I. So also are all the symbols given above as examples of an individual or an aggregate.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
A common name or a general description must represent an essence or class nature which is intrinsically possible although it need not actually exist. Otherwise, it is devoid of meaning as are a square circle or a triangular square.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
These are truly symbols because they express something conceivable: a mermaid, a purple cow, an inhabitant of another planet, a regular polygon with one hundred sides, an elephant, a rose. So also are the symbols given above as examples of the essence, or class nature, of either a species or a genus.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Language that symbolizes an individual or aggregate

proper name

particular or empirical description

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Language that symbolizes essence

common name

general or universal description

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Flashcard 1447228738828

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language that symbolizes essence


[...]

[...]
Answer
common name

​general or universal description


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Language that symbolizes essence common name general or universal description

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Flashcard 1447231098124

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language that symbolizes an individual or aggregate

[...]

[...]
Answer
proper name

particular or empirical description


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Language that symbolizes an individual or aggregate proper name particular or empirical description

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Flashcard 1447234243852

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
These are truly symbols because they express something [...]: a mermaid, a purple cow, an inhabitant of another planet, a regular polygon with one hundred sides, an elephant, a rose.
Answer
conceivable

So also are the symbols given above as examples of the essence, or class nature, of either a species or a genus.


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These are truly symbols because they express something conceivable: a mermaid, a purple cow, an inhabitant of another planet, a regular polygon with one hundred sides, an elephant, a rose. So also are the symbols given above as examples of the essence,

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Flashcard 1447236603148

Tags
#vocabulary
Question
Conceivable
Answer
  1. capable of being conceived : imaginable <every conceivable combination>


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Flashcard 1447238438156

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A common name or a general description must represent an [...] or [...] which is intrinsically possible although it need not actually exist.
Answer
essence

class nature

Otherwise, it is devoid of meaning as are a square circle or a triangular square.


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A common name or a general description must represent an essence or class nature which is intrinsically possible although it need not actually exist. Otherwise, it is devoid of meaning as are a square circle or a triangular square.</bod

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Flashcard 1447240797452

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A proper name or an empirical description must symbolize an [...] or an [...] existing in fact (past or present) or in fiction
Answer
individual

aggregate


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A proper name or an empirical description must symbolize an individual or an aggregate existing in fact (past or present) or in fiction (wherein are characters, places, etc. created by the imagination). Otherwise, it is devoid of meaning, as are the presen

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Flashcard 1447243156748

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The definitions given in the dictionary are [...] of the single-word entries.
Answer
general descriptions

They clarify the meanings of the common names.


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The definitions given in the dictionary are general descript ions of the single-word entries. They clarify the meanings of the common names. A general description is itself made up wholly of common names.

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Flashcard 1447245516044

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A general description is itself made up wholly of [...]
Answer
common names.


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The definitions given in the dictionary are general descript ions of the single-word entries. They clarify the meanings of the common names. A general description is itself made up wholly of common names.

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Flashcard 1447247875340

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A [...] such as a rational animal, an equilateral triangle, an organ of sight can symbolize essence.
Answer
general or universal description


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A general or universal description such as a rational animal, an equilateral triangle, an organ of sight can symbolize essence.

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Flashcard 1447249448204

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
jump names a [...] of movement; whereas move means the [...] of jump, fly, creep, walk.
Answer
species

genus


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jump names a species of movement; whereas move means the genus of jump, fly, creep, walk.

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Flashcard 1447251807500

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
the bulk of language is made up of [...]; they symbolize either [...]
Answer
common names

species or genus.


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the bulk of language is made up of common names; they symbolize either species or genus.

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Flashcard 1447254166796

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Most of the words listed in the dictionary are [...]
Answer
common names.


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Most of the words listed in the dictionary are common names.

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Flashcard 1447255739660

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language can symbolize essence by either of two kinds of [...], both of which are applicable to all the members of a class
Answer
symbols


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Language can symbolize essence by either of t wo kinds of symbols, both of which are applicable to all the members of a class

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Flashcard 1447258098956

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A [...], such as child, tree, chair, square, hour, can symbolize essence.
Answer
common name


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A common name, such as child, tree, chair, square, hour, can symbolize essence.

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Flashcard 1447259671820

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
If language could not symbolize the [...], one could not designate particular persons, places, or times.
Answer
individual

Inconvenient as shit, son.


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If language could not symbolize the individual, one could not designate particular persons, places, or times. This would be extremely inconvenient.

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Flashcard 1447262031116

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
An [...] can symbolize the individual or an aggregate.
Answer
empirical description,

such as the present store manager, this computer, the woman who made the flag, the furniture in this house, the microbe now dividing in the petri dish,


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A particular or empirical description, such as the present store manager, this computer, the woman who made the flag, t he furniture in this house, the microbe now dividing in the petri dish, can symbolize the individual or

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Flashcard 1447264390412

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A [...], such as Eleanor Roosevelt, the Mississippi River, Halloween, London, the United States Senate, the Rotarians, the Mediterranean Sea, can symbolize the [...]
Answer
proper name

individual or an aggregate.


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A proper name, such as Eleanor Roosevelt, the Mississippi River, Halloween, London, the United States Senate, the Rotarians, the Mediterranean Sea, can symbolize the individual or an aggregate.

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Flashcard 1447266749708

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Throughout this book the word [...] is used with reference to our knowledge of individuals as such.
Answer
empirical


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Throughout this book the word empirical is used with reference to our knowledge of individuals as such.

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Flashcard 1447268322572

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Since only individuals exist, our [...] is directly concerned with them.
Answer
experience


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Since only individuals exist, our experience is directly concerned with them.

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Flashcard 1447269895436

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Empirical means [...]
Answer
founded on experience.


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Empirical means founded on experience.

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Flashcard 1447273565452

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A [...] is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limits its application to a particular individual or group.
Answer
particular or empirical description


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A particular or empirical description is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group.

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Flashcard 1447275924748

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language can symbolize an individual or an aggregate by either a [...]
Answer
proper name or a particular or empirical description.


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Language can symbolize an individual or an aggregate by either a proper name or a particular or empirical description.

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Flashcard 1447278546188

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language employs four important kinds of symbols to represent reality: two to symbolize [...], two to symbolize the [...] which is common to all the individual members of a class.
Answer
the individual

essence


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Language employs four important kinds of symbols to represent reality: two to symbolize the individual, two to symbolize the essence which is common to all the individual members of a class.

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Flashcard 1447280905484

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Aggregate is a [...]
Answer
group consisting of t wo or more individuals.


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Aggregate is a group consisting of t wo or more individuals.

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Flashcard 1447284051212

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Species is a class made up of [...]
Answer
individuals that have in common the same specific essence.


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Species is a class made up of individuals that have in common the same specific essence.

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Flashcard 1447285624076

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is what makes a being what it is.
Answer
Essence


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Essence is what makes a being what it is.

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Flashcard 1447287196940

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
An individual is one. An [...] is simply a group consisting of two or more individuals.
Answer
aggregate


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An individual is one. An aggregate is simply a group consisting of two or more individuals.

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Flashcard 1447288769804

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The things in a room constitute an [...] belonging to [...] ,
Answer
aggregate of individuals

different species

such as chair, desk, table, book, heat vent, window, etc., but they are only a small part of each species.


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The things in a room constitute an aggregate of individuals belonging to different species, such as chair, desk, table, book, heat vent, window, etc., but they are only a small part of each species.

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Flashcard 1447291129100

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
an aggregate is a particular group of individuals that may or may not [...].
Answer
have the same essence or class nature.

but in either case, the aggregate does not include all the members that have that nature.


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an aggregate is a particular group of individuals that may or may not have the same essence or class nature; but in either case, the aggregate does not include all the members that have that nat ure

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Flashcard 1447293488396

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
man is a species and includes all men and women of [...]
Answer
every place and time

—past, present, and future.


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man is a species and includes all men and women of every place and time—past, present, and future.

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Flashcard 1447295847692

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The abstract character of genus is such that one [...] of animal but only of a particular kind or species of animal such as a horse or a dog.
Answer
cannot draw a picture,


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The abstract character of genus is such that one cannot draw a picture, for example, of animal but only of a particular kind or species of animal such as a horse or a dog.

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Flashcard 1447298206988

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
species is abstract, for one cannot photograph the species horse or dog; one can photograph only [...]
Answer
an individual

since every horse or dog that exists is an individual.


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species is abstract, for one cannot photograph the species horse or dog; one can photograph only an individual horse or dog since every horse or dog that exists is an individual.

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Flashcard 1447300566284

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The [...] is merely the [...] with the more definite characteristics of t he latter omitted.
Answer
generic essence

specific essence


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The generic essence is merely the specific essence with the more definite characteristics of t he latter omitted.

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Flashcard 1447302925580

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
An aggregat e or group of individuals must be clearly distinguished from a [...]
Answer
species or a genus.


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An aggregat e or group of individuals must be clearly distinguished from a species or a genus.

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Flashcard 1447304498444

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
An [...] is merely a particular group of individuals, such as the trees in Central Park, the inhabitants of California, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the items on a desk, the furniture in a house
Answer
aggregate


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An aggregate is merely a particular group of individuals, such as the trees in Central Park, the inhabitants of California, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the items on a desk, the furniture

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Flashcard 1447306071308

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The women of the ninet eenth century constitute an aggregate of individuals belonging to the same species, but they are only a part of the species, namely, [...]
Answer
those who existed at a particular time.


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The women of the ninet eenth century constitute an aggregate of individuals belonging to the same species, but they are only a part of the species, namely, those who existed at a particular time.

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Creating Symbols from Reality
#sister-miriam-joseph #symbols-from-reality #trivium
Words are symbols of ideas about reality. How does one derive ideas from reality and how does one classify them? Generating a universal idea or concept involves several steps, a process more fully treated in the study of psychology.

GENERATION OF A CONCEPT
First the external senses—sight, hearing, touch, smell, tast e—operate on an object present before us and produce a percept. The internal senses, primarily the imaginat ion, produce a phantasm or mental image of the individual object perceived, and this phantasm is retained and can be reproduced at will in the absence of the object.

ILLUSTRATION: Percept and phantasm

A percept is like a portrait being painted by the artist while she looks at the model.

A phantasm is like that same portrait possessed and looked at whenever one wishes for years afterward although the person painted is absent or even dead.

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Flashcard 1447309479180

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Words are symbols of ideas about [...].
Answer
reality


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Words are symbols of ideas about reality. How does one derive ideas from reality and how does one classify them? Generating a universal idea or concept involves several steps, a process more fully treated in the study of psych

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
How does one derive ideas from reality and how does one classify them? Generating a universal idea or concept involves several steps, a process more fully treated in the study of psychology.

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Words are symbols of ideas about reality. How does one derive ideas from reality and how does one classify them? Generating a universal idea or concept involves several steps, a process more fully treated in the study of psychology. GENERATION OF A CONCEPT First the external senses—sight, hearing, touch, smell, tast e—operate on an object present before us and produce a percept. The internal sense

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GENERATION OF A CONCEPT
#sister-miriam-joseph #symbols-from-reality #trivium

First the external senses operate on an object present before us and produce a percept.

The internal senses, primarily the imagination, produce a phantasm or mental image of the individual object perceived, and this phantasm is retained and can be reproduced at will in the absence of the object.

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rds are symbols of ideas about reality. How does one derive ideas from reality and how does one classify them? Generating a universal idea or concept involves several steps, a process more fully treated in the study of psychology. <span>GENERATION OF A CONCEPT First the external senses—sight, hearing, touch, smell, tast e—operate on an object present before us and produce a percept. The internal senses, primarily the imaginat ion, produce a phantasm or mental image of the individual object perceived, and this phantasm is retained and can be reproduced at will in the absence of the object. ILLUSTRATION : Percept and phantasm A percept is like a portrait being painted by the artist while she looks at the model. A phantasm is like th

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Flashcard 1447318916364

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #symbols-from-reality #trivium
Question
A [...] is like a portrait being painted by the artist while she looks at the model.

Answer
percept


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he imaginat ion, produce a phantasm or mental image of the individual object perceived, and this phantasm is retained and can be reproduced at will in the absence of the object. ILLUSTRATION : Percept and phantasm A <span>percept is like a portrait being painted by the artist while she looks at the model. A phantasm is like that same portrait possessed and looked at whenever one wishes for years af

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Flashcard 1447321275660

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #symbols-from-reality #trivium
Question
A [...] is like that same portrait possessed and looked at whenever one wishes for years afterward although the person painted is absent or even dead.
Answer
phantasm


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ntasm is retained and can be reproduced at will in the absence of the object. ILLUSTRATION : Percept and phantasm A percept is like a portrait being painted by the artist while she looks at the model. A <span>phantasm is like that same portrait possessed and looked at whenever one wishes for years afterward although the person painted is absent or even dead.<span><body><html>

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
There are four internal senses: t he imagination, the sensuous memory, the common or central or synthesizing sense, and instinct. The intellect through abstraction produces the concept. The imagination is the meeting ground between the senses and the intellect. From the phantasms in the imagination, the intellect abstracts that which is common and necessary to all the phantasms of similar objects (for example, trees or chairs); this is the essence (that which makes a tree a tree or that which makes a chair a chair). The intellectual apprehension of this essence is the general or universal concept (of a tree or a chair). A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence which exist s in the individual and makes it the kind of thing it is. Therefore, a concept is not arbitrary although the word is. Truth has an objective norm in the real.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
There are four internal senses:

The imagination,

The sensuous memory,

The common or central or synthesizing sense,

and instinct.

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There are four internal senses: t he imagination, the sensuous memory, the common or central or synthesizing sense, and instinct. The intellect through abstraction produces the concept. The imagination is the meeting ground between the senses and the intellect. From the phantasms in the imagination, the intellect

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Flashcard 1447328615692

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
There are four internal senses:

The imagination,

The [...],

The common or central or synthesizing sense,

and instinct.
Answer
sensuous memory


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There are four internal senses: The imagination , The sensuous memory , The common or central or synthesizing sense , and instinct .

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
The imagination is the meeting ground between the senses and the intellect. From the phantasms in the imagination, the intellect abstracts that which is common and necessary to all the phantasms of similar objects (for example, trees or chairs); this is the essence (that which makes a tree a tree or that which makes a chair a chair).

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There are four internal senses: t he imagination, the sensuous memory, the common or central or synthesizing sense, and instinct. The intellect through abstraction produces the concept. The imagination is the meeting ground between the senses and the intellect. From the phantasms in the imagination, the intellect abstracts that which is common and necessary to all the phantasms of similar objects (for example, trees or chairs); this is the essence (that which makes a tree a tree or that which makes a chair a chair). The intellectual apprehension of this essence is the general or universal concept (of a tree or a chair). A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having it

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Flashcard 1447331237132

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The [...] is the meeting ground between the senses and the intellect.
Answer
imagination


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The imagination is the meeting ground between the senses and the intellect. From the phantasms in the imagination, the intellect abstracts that which is common and necessary to all the phantasms of sim

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Flashcard 1447333596428

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
From the [...] in [...], the intellect abstracts that which is common and necessary to all the phantasms of similar objects (for example, trees or chairs); this is the essence (that which makes a tree a tree or that which makes a chair a chair).
Answer
phantasms in the imagination


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The imagination is the meeting ground between the senses and the intellect. From the phantasms in the imagination, the intellect abstracts that which is common and necessary to all the phantasms of similar objects (for example, trees or chairs); this is the essence (that which makes a tree a tree o

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
The intellectual apprehension of this essence (Phantasm of imagination) is the general or universal concept. A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence which exist s in the individual and makes it the kind of thing it is. Therefore, a concept is not arbitrary although the word is. Truth has an objective norm in the real.

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e imagination, the intellect abstracts that which is common and necessary to all the phantasms of similar objects (for example, trees or chairs); this is the essence (that which makes a tree a tree or that which makes a chair a chair). <span>The intellectual apprehension of this essence is the general or universal concept (of a tree or a chair). A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence which exist s in the individual and makes it the kind of thing it is. Therefore, a concept is not arbitrary although the word is. Truth has an objective norm in the real.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1447337790732

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The intellectual apprehension of [...] (Phantasm of imagination) is the general or universal concept.
Answer
essence


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The intellectual apprehension of this essence (Phantasm of imagination) is the general or universal concept. A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence which exist s in the individual and makes it the kind of thing it is. Therefore, a concept is not arbitrary although the word is. Truth has an objective norm in the real.

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The intellectual apprehension of this essence (Phantasm of imagination) is the general or universal concept. A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence which exist s in the individual and makes it the kind of thing it is. Therefore, a concept is not arbitrary although the word is. Truth has an objective norm in the real.

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Flashcard 1447341722892

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A concept is [...] although the word is.
Answer
not arbitrary

Truth has an objective norm in the real.


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d><head>A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence which exist s in the individual and makes it the kind of thing it is. Therefore, a concept is not arbitrary although the word is. Truth has an objective norm in the real.<html>

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Percept: the image created by the external senses upon encountering reality

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Flashcard 1447345917196

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] the image created by the external senses upon encountering reality
Answer
Percept:


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Percept: the image created by the external senses upon encountering reality

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Phantasm: the mental image created by the internal sense, primarily the imagination

Concept: the abstraction created by the intellect through recognition of the essence

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Flashcard 1447349325068

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] the mental image created by the internal sense, primarily the imagination

Answer
Phantasm:


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Phantasm: the mental image created by the internal sense, primarily the imagination Concept : the abstraction created by the intellect through recognition of the essence

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Flashcard 1447351684364

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question


[...]: the abstraction created by the intellect through recognition of the essence
Answer
Concept


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Phantasm: the mental image created by the internal sense, primarily the imagination Concept : the abstraction created by the intellect through recognition of the essence

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
A general concept is universal because it is the knowledge of the essence present equally in every member of the class, regardless of time, place, or individual differences. For example, the concept “chair” is the knowledge of the essence “chair,” which must be in every chair at all times and in all places, regardless of size, weight, color, material, and other individual differences.

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Flashcard 1447355092236

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A [...] is universal because it is the knowledge of the essence present equally in every member of the class, regardless of time, place, or individual differences.
Answer
general concept

​For example, the concept “chair” is the knowledge of the essence “chair,” which must be in every chair at all times and in all places, regardless of size, weight, color, material, and other individual differences.


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A general concept is universal because it is the knowledge of the essence present equally in every member of the class, regardless of time, place, or individual differences. For example, the c

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
The real object (a tree or a chair) and likewise the corresponding percept and phantasm, is individual, material, limited to a particular place and time; the concept is universal, immaterial, not limited to a particular place and time.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Only human beings have the power of intellectual abstraction; therefore, only human beings can form a general or universal concept. Irrational animals have the external and internal senses, which are sometimes keener than those of humans. But because they lack the rational powers (intellect, intellectual memory, and free will), they are incapable of progress or of culture. Despite their remarkable instinct, their productions, intricate though they may be, remain the same through the centuries, for example: beaver dams, bird nests, anthills, beehives.

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Flashcard 1447360859404

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Only human beings have the power of intellectual abstraction; therefore, only human beings can form a general or universal [...].
Answer
concept


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Only human beings have the power of intellectual abstraction; therefore, only human beings can form a general or universal concept. Irrational animals have the external and internal senses, which are sometimes keener than those of humans. But because they lack the rational powers (intellect, intellectual memory, an

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Irrational animals have the external and internal senses, which are sometimes keener than those of humans.

But because they lack the rational powers (intellect, intellectual memory, and free will), they are incapable of progress or of culture.

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Only human beings have the power of intellectual abstraction; therefore, only human beings can form a general or universal concept. Irrational animals have the external and internal senses, which are sometimes keener than those of humans. But because they lack the rational powers (intellect, intellectual memory, and free will), they are incapable of progress or of culture. Despite their remarkable instinct, their productions, intricate though they may be, remain the same through the centuries, for example: beaver dams, bird nests, anthills, beehives.</spa

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ANALOGY: Intellectual abstraction
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Flowers contain honey. Butterflies, ants, bees, mosquitoes, and other insects may light upon the flower, but only bees can abstract the honey, for only bees have the power to do so.

As the bee abstracts honey from the flowers and ignores everything else in them, so the intellect abstracts from the phantasms of similar objects the essence of that which is common and necessary to them and ignores everything else, namely, the individual differences.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
There is nothing in the intellect that was not first in the senses except the intellect itself.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Human intellectual powers need material to work upon.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Nature provides the materials, and the human intellect conceives and constructs works of civilization which harness nature and increase its value and its services to the human race.

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ANALOGY: Raw material for intellect
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
There is not hing in fine cotton, lace, organdy, or heavy muslin that was not in the raw cotton from which they were made. To produce these, t he manufacturer requires raw material obtained from nature by cotton planters. Likewise, the intellect requires for thought the raw material obtained from nature through the senses.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Abst ract, or intellectual, knowledge is clearer although less vivid than concrete or sense knowledge.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
A pony in a circus act might be trained to respond in various ways to colored disks and squares. Only a human being, however, can derive from these various circles and squares the definition of a circle and of a square. A person can also know by abstraction the properties of these figures, such as the relation of the circumferences of a circle to its radius, which he expresses in the abstract formula C = 2 R. Such abstract knowledge is clearer although it is less vivid than the sense apprehension of the colored figures, which the pony can share with a human being.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Thomas More, in his defense of the uses of statues and pictures, contrasts them with words as a means of instruction. 13 He points out that words are symbols of phantasms and concepts, as has been explained above: Images are necessary books for the uneducated and good books for the learned, too.

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TEN CATEGORIES OF BEING
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Once the human intellect creates symbols from reality, those symbols or words can be manipulated and catalogued to increase our understanding of reality. Aristotle’s ten categories of being classify words in relationship to our knowledge of being. These metaphysical categories have their exact counterpart in the ten categories or praedicamenta 15 of logic, which classify our concepts, our knowledge of being. Every being exists either in itself or in another. If it exists in itself, it is a substance. If it exists in another, it is an accident. We distinguish nine categories of accident; these, with substance, constitute the ten categories of being.

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Flashcard 1447379995916

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
How many categories of being are there?
Answer
TEN CATEGORIES OF BEING


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TEN CATEGORIES OF BEING Once the human intellect creates symbols from reality, those symbols or words can be manipulated and catalogued to increase our understanding of reality. Aristotle’s te

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Once the human intellect creates symbols from reality, those symbols or words can be manipulated and catalogued to increase our understanding of reality.

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Once the human intellect creates symbols from reality, those symbols or words can be manipulated and catalogued to increase our understanding of reality. Aristotle’s ten categories of being classify words in relationship to our knowledge of being. These metaphysical categories have their exact counterpart in the ten categories or praedic

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Flashcard 1447384190220

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Once the human intellect creates symbols from reality, those symbols or words can be [...] and [...] to increase our understanding of reality.
Answer
manipulated

catalogued


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Once the human intellect creates symbols from reality, those symbols or words can be manipulated and catalogued to increase our understanding of reality.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Aristotle’s ten categories of being classify words in relationship to our knowledge of being.

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Once the human intellect creates symbols from reality, those symbols or words can be manipulated and catalogued to increase our understanding of reality. Aristotle’s ten categories of being classify words in relationship to our knowledge of being. These metaphysical categories have their exact counterpart in the ten categories or praedicamenta 15 of logic, which classify our concepts, our knowledge of being. Every being exists ei

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Flashcard 1447387598092

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Aristotle’s ten categories of being classify [...] in relationship to our knowledge of being.
Answer
words


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Aristotle’s ten categories of being classify words in relationship to our knowledge of being.

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#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
These metaphysical categories have their exact counterpart in the ten categories or praedicamenta 15 of logic, which classify our concepts, our knowledge of being

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the human intellect creates symbols from reality, those symbols or words can be manipulated and catalogued to increase our understanding of reality. Aristotle’s ten categories of being classify words in relationship to our knowledge of being. <span>These metaphysical categories have their exact counterpart in the ten categories or praedicamenta 15 of logic, which classify our concepts, our knowledge of being. Every being exists either in itself or in another. If it exists in itself, it is a substance. If it exists in another, it is an accident. We distinguish nine categories of accident; th

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#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Every being exists either in itself or in another. If it exists in itself, it is a substance. If it exists in another, it is an accident. We distinguish nine categories of accident; these, with substance, constitute the ten categories of being.

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categories of being classify words in relationship to our knowledge of being. These metaphysical categories have their exact counterpart in the ten categories or praedicamenta 15 of logic, which classify our concepts, our knowledge of being. <span>Every being exists either in itself or in another. If it exists in itself, it is a substance. If it exists in another, it is an accident. We distinguish nine categories of accident; these, with substance, constitute the ten categories of being.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1447393365260

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Every being exists either in [...] or in [...].
Answer
itself

another


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Every being exists either in itself or in another. If it exists in itself, it is a substance. If it exists in another, it is an accident. We distinguish nine categories of accident; these, with substance, constitute the t

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Flashcard 1447395724556

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
If a being exists in itself, it is [...].
Answer
a substance


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Every being exists either in itself or in another. If it exists in itself, it is a substance. If it exists in another, it is an accident. We distinguish nine categories of accident; these, with substance, constitute the ten categories of being.

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Flashcard 1447398345996

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
If a being exists in another, it is [...].
Answer
an accident


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Every being exists either in itself or in another. If it exists in itself, it is a substance. If it exists in another, it is an accident. We distinguish nine categories of accident; these, with substance, constitute the ten categories of being.

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Flashcard 1447400705292

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
We distinguish [...] categories of accident.
Answer
nine

these, with substance, constitute the ten categories of being.


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Every being exists either in itself or in another. If it exists in itself, it is a substance. If it exists in another, it is an accident. We distinguish nine categories of accident; these, with substance, constitute the ten categories of being.

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10 categories of being
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
1 Substance is that which exists in itself, for example, man.


2 Quantity is a determination of the matter of substance, giving it parts distinct from parts, for example, tall.


3 Quality is a determination of the nature or form of a substance, for example: dark, handsome, intelligent, athletic, chivalrous.


4 Relation is the reference which a subst ance or accident bears to another, for example: friend, near.


5 Action is the exercise of the faculties or power of a substance so as to produce an effect in something else or in itself, for example: clicking a camera, standing up, smiling.


6 Passion is the reception by a substance of an effect produced by some agent, for example: being invited to return, being drafted.


7 When is position in relation to the course of extrinsic event s which measure the duration of a substance, for example, Sunday afternoon.


8 Where is position in relation to bodies which surround a substance and measure and determine its place, for example: on a bench, beside the lake.


9 Posture is the relative position which the parts of a substance have toward each other, for example: sitting, leaning forward.


10 Habiliment consists of clothing, ornaments, or weapons with which human beings by their art complement their nature in order to conserve t heir own being or that of the community (the other self), for example, in gray tweeds.

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Flashcard 1447405423884

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
1 [...] is that which exists in itself, for example, man.


Answer
Substance


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1 Substance is that which exists in itself, for example, man. 2 Quantity is a determination of the matter of substance, giving it parts distinct from parts, for example, tall.&#

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Flashcard 1447407783180

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question

2 [...] is a determination of the matter of substance, giving it parts distinct from parts, for example, tall.


Answer
Quantity


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1 Substance is that which exists in itself, for example, man. 2 Quantity is a determination of the matter of substance, giving it parts distinct from parts, for example, tall. 3 Quality is a determination of the nature or form of a substa

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Flashcard 1447410142476

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
3 [...] is a determination of the nature or form of a substance, for example: dark, handsome, intelligent, athletic, chivalrous.


Answer
Quality


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><head>1 Substance is that which exists in itself, for example, man. 2 Quantity is a determination of the matter of substance, giving it parts distinct from parts, for example, tall. 3 Quality is a determination of the nature or form of a substance, for example: dark, handsome, intelligent, athletic, chivalrous. 4 Relation is the reference which a subst an

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Flashcard 1447412501772

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
4 [...] is the reference which a substance or accident bears to another, for example: friend, near.


Answer
Relation


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er of substance, giving it parts distinct from parts, for example, tall. 3 Quality is a determination of the nature or form of a substance, for example: dark, handsome, intelligent, athletic, chivalrous. 4 <span>Relation is the reference which a subst ance or accident bears to another, for example: friend, near. 5 Action is the exercise of the faculties or power of a substance so as

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Flashcard 1447414861068

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question

5 [...] is the exercise of the faculties or power of a substance so as to produce an effect in something else or in itself.
Answer
Action

for example: clicking a camera, standing up, smiling.


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the nature or form of a substance, for example: dark, handsome, intelligent, athletic, chivalrous. 4 Relation is the reference which a subst ance or accident bears to another, for example: friend, near. 5 <span>Action is the exercise of the faculties or power of a substance so as to produce an effect in something else or in itself, for example: clicking a camera, standing up, smiling. &#1

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Flashcard 1447417220364

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
6 [...] is the reception by a substance of an effect produced by some agent.


Answer
Passion

for example: being invited to return, being drafted.


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r example: friend, near. 5 Action is the exercise of the faculties or power of a substance so as to produce an effect in something else or in itself, for example: clicking a camera, standing up, smiling. 6 <span>Passion is the reception by a substance of an effect produced by some agent, for example: being invited to return, being drafted. 7 When is position in relation to the cour

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Flashcard 1447419579660

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
7 [...] is position in relation to the course of extrinsic events which measure the duration of a substance.


Answer
When

for example, Sunday afternoon.


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se or in itself, for example: clicking a camera, standing up, smiling. 6 Passion is the reception by a substance of an effect produced by some agent, for example: being invited to return, being drafted. 7 <span>When is position in relation to the course of extrinsic event s which measure the duration of a substance, for example, Sunday afternoon. 8 Where is position in relation

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Flashcard 1447422725388

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
8 [...] is position in relation to bodies which surround a substance and measure and determine its place.




Answer
Where

for example: on a bench, beside the lake.


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me agent, for example: being invited to return, being drafted. 7 When is position in relation to the course of extrinsic event s which measure the duration of a substance, for example, Sunday afternoon. 8 <span>Where is position in relation to bodies which surround a substance and measure and determine its place, for example: on a bench, beside the lake. 9 Posture is the relative

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Flashcard 1447425084684

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
9 [...] is the relative position which the parts of a substance have toward each other.
Answer
Posture

for example: sitting, leaning forward.


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duration of a substance, for example, Sunday afternoon. 8 Where is position in relation to bodies which surround a substance and measure and determine its place, for example: on a bench, beside the lake. 9 <span>Posture is the relative position which the parts of a substance have toward each other, for example: sitting, leaning forward. 10 Habiliment consists of clothing, ornaments,

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Flashcard 1447427443980

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
10 [...] consists of clothing, ornaments, or weapons with which human beings by their art complement their nature in order to conserve their own being or that of the community (the other self).
Answer
Habiliment


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easure and determine its place, for example: on a bench, beside the lake. 9 Posture is the relative position which the parts of a substance have toward each other, for example: sitting, leaning forward. 10 <span>Habiliment consists of clothing, ornaments, or weapons with which human beings by their art complement their nature in order to conserve t heir own being or that of the community (the other self)

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#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
The categories can be organized into three subcategories by what they predicate about the subject.

1 The predicate is the subject itself.
If the predicate is that which is the subject itself and does not exist in the subject, the predicate is a substance. (Suzanne is a human being.)

2 The predicate exists in the subject.
If the predicate exists in the subject absolut ely as flowing from matt er, the predicate is a quantity. (Suzanne is tall.) If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as flowing from form, the predicate is a quality. (Suzanne is intelligent.) If the predicate exists in the subject relatively with respect to another, the predicate is in the category relation. (Suzanne is Mary’s daughter.)

3 The predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject.
If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is partially extrinsic as a principle of action in the subject, the predicate is an action. (Suzanne analyzed the data.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is a terminus of action in the subject, the predicate is a passion. (Suzanne was injured.) If the predicat e exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to time, the predicate is in the category when. (Suzanne was late.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to place, the predicate is in the category where. (Suzanne is here.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to the order of parts, the predicate is in the category post ure. (Suzanne is standing.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is merely adjacent to the subject, the predicate is in the category habiliment. (Suzanne is in evening dress.)

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#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
The categories can be organized into three subcategories by what they predicate about the subject.

1 The predicate is the subject itself.
If the predicate is that which is the subject itself and does not exist in the subject, the predicate is a substance. (Suzanne is a human being.)

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The categories can be organized into three subcategories by what they predicate about the subject. 1 The predicate is the subject itself. If the predicate is that which is the subject itself and does not exist in the subject, the predicate is a substance. (Suzanne is a human being.) 2 The predicate exists in the subject. If the predicate exists in the subject absolut ely as flowing from matt er, the predicate is a quantity. (Suzanne is tall.) If t

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Flashcard 1447434259724

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
The categories can be organized into three subcategories by what they predicate about the subject.

1 The predicate is [...]
Answer
the subject itself.

If the predicate is that which is the subject itself and does not exist in the subject, the predicate is a substance. (Suzanne is a human being.)


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The categories can be organized into three subcategories by what they predicate about the subject. 1 The predicate is the subject itself. If the predicate is that which is the subject itself and does not exist in the subject, the predicate is a substance. (Suzanne is a human being.)

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#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
2 The predicate exists in the subject.

If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as flowing from matter, the predicate is a quantity. (Suzanne is tall.)

If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as flowing from form, the predicate is a quality. (Suzanne is intelligent.)

If the predicate exists in the subject relatively with respect to another, the predicate is in the category relation. (Suzanne is Mary’s daughter.)

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dicate about the subject. 1 The predicate is the subject itself. If the predicate is that which is the subject itself and does not exist in the subject, the predicate is a substance. (Suzanne is a human being.) <span>2 The predicate exists in the subject. If the predicate exists in the subject absolut ely as flowing from matt er, the predicate is a quantity. (Suzanne is tall.) If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as flowing from form, the predicate is a quality. (Suzanne is intelligent.) If the predicate exists in the subject relatively with respect to another, the predicate is in the category relation. (Suzanne is Mary’s daughter.) 3 The predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject . If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is partially extrinsic as a principle o

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Flashcard 1447437667596

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
2 The predicate exists [...]
Answer
in the subject.


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2 The predicate exists in the subject. If the predicate exists in the subject absolut ely as flowing from matt er, the predicate is a quantity. (Suzanne is tall.) If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as fl

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Flashcard 1447441599756

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
To which subcategory do quantity, quality and relation belong?
Answer
2 The predicate exists in the subject.


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2 The predicate exists in the subject. If the predicate exists in the subject absolut ely as flowing from matter, the predicate is a quantity. (Suzanne is tall.) If the predicate exists in the subject

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#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
3 The predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject.

If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is partially extrinsic as a principle of action in the subject, the predicate is an action. (Suzanne analyzed the data.)

If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is a terminus of action in the subject, the predicate is a passion. (Suzanne was injured.)

If the predicat e exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to time, the predicate is in the category when. (Suzanne was late.)

If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to place, the predicate is in the category where. (Suzanne is here.)

If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to the order of parts, the predicate is in the category posture. (Suzanne is standing.)

If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is merely adjacent to the subject, the predicate is in the category habiliment. (Suzanne is in evening dress.)

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lutely as flowing from form, the predicate is a quality. (Suzanne is intelligent.) If the predicate exists in the subject relatively with respect to another, the predicate is in the category relation. (Suzanne is Mary’s daughter.) <span>3 The predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject . If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is partially extrinsic as a principle of action in the subject, the predicate is an action. (Suzanne analyzed the data.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is a terminus of action in the subject, the predicate is a passion. (Suzanne was injured.) If the predicat e exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to time, the predicate is in the category when. (Suzanne was late.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to place, the predicate is in the category where. (Suzanne is here.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to the order of parts, the predicate is in the category post ure. (Suzanne is standing.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is merely adjacent to the subject, the predicate is in the category habiliment. (Suzanne is in evening dress.)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1447445794060

Tags
#categories-of-being #predicate-exists-in-subject #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as flowing from matter, the predicate is a [...]
Answer
quantity. (Suzanne is tall.)


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2 The predicate exists in the subject. If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as flowing from matter, the predicate is a quantity. (Suzanne is tall.) If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as flowing from form, the predicate is a quality. (Suzanne is intelligent.) If the predicate exists in the subje

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Flashcard 1447448153356

Tags
#categories-of-being #predicate-exists-in-subject #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as flowing from form, the predicate is a [...]
Answer
quality.

(Suzanne is intelligent.)


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bject. If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as flowing from matter, the predicate is a quantity. (Suzanne is tall.) If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as flowing from form, the predicate is a <span>quality. (Suzanne is intelligent.) If the predicate exists in the subject relatively with respect to another, the predicate is in the category relation. (Suzanne is Mary’s daughter.)

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Flashcard 1447450512652

Tags
#categories-of-being #predicate-exists-in-subject #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
If the predicate exists in the subject relatively with respect to another (substance), the predicate is in the [...]
Answer
category relation. (Suzanne is Mary’s daughter.)


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If the predicate exists in the subject absolutely as flowing from form, the predicate is a quality. (Suzanne is intelligent.) If the predicate exists in the subject relatively with respect to another, the predicate is in the <span>category relation. (Suzanne is Mary’s daughter.)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1447454182668

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
3 The predicate exists in [...]
Answer
something extrinsic to the subject.


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3 The predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject . If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is partially extrinsic as a principle of action in the subject, the predicate is an action. (Suzanne analy

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Flashcard 1447456541964

Tags
#categories-of-being #predicate-exists-in-something-extrinsic #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is partially extrinsic as a principle of action in the subject, the predicate is an [...]
Answer
action.

(Suzanne analyzed the data.)


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3 The predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject . If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is partially extrinsic as a principle of action in the subject, the predicate is an action. (Suzanne analyzed the data.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is a terminus of action in the subject, the predicate is a passion . (Suzanne was injured.) If t

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Flashcard 1447458901260

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is a terminus of action in the subject, the predicate is a [...]
Answer
passion. (Suzanne was injured.)


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insic as a principle of action in the subject, the predicate is an action. (Suzanne analyzed the data.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is a terminus of action in the subject, the predicate is a <span>passion . (Suzanne was injured.) If the predicat e exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to time, the predicate is in the category when .

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Flashcard 1447461260556

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question

If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to time, the predicate is in the category [...]
Answer
when.

(Suzanne was late.)


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e subject, the predicate is a passion . (Suzanne was injured.) If the predicat e exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to time, the predicate is in the category <span>when . (Suzanne was late.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to place, the predicate is in the category where.

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Flashcard 1447464406284

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to place, the predicate is in the category [...]
Answer
where.

(Suzanne is here.)


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e, the predicate is in the category when . (Suzanne was late.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to place, the predicate is in the category <span>where. (Suzanne is here.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to the order of parts, the predicate is in the cat

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Flashcard 1447466765580

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to the order of parts, the predicate is in the category [...]
Answer
posture.

(Suzanne is standing.)


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ate is in the category where. (Suzanne is here.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is wholly extrinsic as a measure of the subject according to the order of parts, the predicate is in the category <span>posture . (Suzanne is standing.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is merely adjacent to the subject, the predicate is in the category habiliment . (Suzanne is in evening dre

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Flashcard 1447469124876

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is merely adjacent to the subject, the predicate is in the category [...]
Answer
habiliment.

(Suzanne is in evening dress.)


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ording to the order of parts, the predicate is in the category posture . (Suzanne is standing.) If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is merely adjacent to the subject, the predicate is in the category <span>habiliment . (Suzanne is in evening dress.)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1447471484172

Tags
#categories-of-being #sister-miriam-joseph #subcategories #trivium
Question
3 The predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject.

Which categories fall in this subcategory?
Answer
Action, Passion, When, Where, Posture, Habiliment


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3 The predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject . If the predicate exists in something extrinsic to the subject and is partially extrinsic as a principle of action in the subject, the predicate is an action. (Suzanne analy

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LANGUAGE AND REALITY
#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Seven important definitions emerge from a consideration of language and reality.

1 The essence is that which makes a being what it is and without which it would not be the kind of being it is.

2 Nature is essence viewed as the source of activity.

3 The individual is constituted of essence existent in quantified matter plus other accidents. Essence is that which makes the individual like other members of its class. Quantified matter is that which makes t he individual different from other individuals in its class because matter, extended by reason of its quantity, must be this or that matter, which by limiting the form individuates it. Accidents are those notes (shapes, color, weight , size, etc.) by which we perceive the difference between the individuals of a class. The individuals within a species (for example, all human beings) are essentially the same. But they are not merely accidentally different; t hey are individually different. Even if individuals were as alike as the matches in a box of matches or the pins in a paper of pins, they would be nonetheless individually different because the matter in one is not the matter in the other but is a different quantity or part even though of t he same kind and amount.

4 A percept is the sense-apprehension of an individual reality (in its presence).

5 A phantasm is the mental image of an individual reality (in its absence).

6 A general concept is the intellectual apprehension of essence.

7 An empirical concept is the indirect intellectual apprehension of an individual. The intellect can know individual objects only indirectly in the phantasms because individuals are material, with one exception, the int ellect itself; because it is a spiritual individual, the intellect can know itself directly and reflexively. (See Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 86, Articles 1 and 3.)

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#language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Seven important definitions emerge from a consideration of language and reality.

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Seven important definitions emerge from a consideration of language and reality. 1 The essence is that which makes a being what it is and without which it would not be the kind of being it is. 2 Nature is essence viewed as the source of ac

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Flashcard 1447477513484

Tags
#language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] important definitions emerge from a consideration of language and reality.
Answer
Seven


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Seven important definitions emerge from a consideration of language and reality.

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Flashcard 1447480659212

Tags
#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
1 [...] is that which makes a being what it is and without which it would not be the kind of being it is.

Answer
The essence


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Seven important definitions emerge from a consideration of language and reality. 1 The essence is that which makes a being what it is and without which it would not be the kind of being it is. 2 Nature is essence viewed as the source of activity. 3 The indiv

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
2 Nature is essence viewed as the source of activity.

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ad><head>Seven important definitions emerge from a consideration of language and reality. 1 The essence is that which makes a being what it is and without which it would not be the kind of being it is. 2 Nature is essence viewed as the source of activity. 3 The individual is constituted of essence existent in quantified matter plus other accidents. Essence is that which makes the individual like other members of its class. Qua

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Flashcard 1447484067084

Tags
#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
2 [...] is essence viewed as the source of activity.
Answer
Nature


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2 Nature is essence viewed as the source of activity.

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
3 The individual is constituted of essence existent in quantified matter plus other accidents.

Essence is that which makes the individual like other members of its class. Quantified matter is that which makes t he individual different from other individuals in its class because matter, extended by reason of its quantity, must be this or that matter, which by limiting the form individuates it. Accidents are those notes (shapes, color, weight , size, etc.) by which we perceive the difference between the individuals of a class. The individuals within a species (for example, all human beings) are essentially the same. But they are not merely accidentally different; t hey are individually different. Even if individuals were as alike as the matches in a box of matches or the pins in a paper of pins, they would be nonetheless individually different because the matter in one is not the matter in the other but is a different quantity or part even though of t he same kind and amount.

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om a consideration of language and reality. 1 The essence is that which makes a being what it is and without which it would not be the kind of being it is. 2 Nature is essence viewed as the source of activity. <span>3 The individual is constituted of essence existent in quantified matter plus other accidents. Essence is that which makes the individual like other members of its class. Quantified matter is that which makes t he individual different from other individuals in its class because matter, extended by reason of its quantity, must be this or that matter, which by limiting the form individuates it. Accidents are those notes (shapes, color, weight , size, etc.) by which we perceive the difference between the individuals of a class. The individuals within a species (for example, all human beings) are essentially the same. But they are not merely accidentally different; t hey are individually different. Even if individuals were as alike as the matches in a box of matches or the pins in a paper of pins, they would be nonetheless individually different because the matter in one is not the matter in the other but is a different quantity or part even though of t he same kind and amount. 4 A percept is the sense-apprehension of an individual reality (in its presence). 5 A phantasm is the mental image of an individual reality (in its absence).

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Flashcard 1447487474956

Tags
#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
3 The individual is constituted of essence existent in [...] plus [...]

Answer
quantified matter

other accidents.


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3 The individual is constituted of essence existent in quantified matter plus other accidents. Essence is that which makes the individual like other members of its class. Quantified matter is that which makes t he individual different from other i

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Essence is that which makes the individual like other members of its class. Quantified matter is that which makes t he individual different from other individuals in its class because matter, extended by reason of its quantity, must be this or that matter, which by limiting the form individuates it.

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3 The individual is constituted of essence existent in quantified matter plus other accidents. Essence is that which makes the individual like other members of its class. Quantified matter is that which makes t he individual different from other individuals in its class because matter, extended by reason of its quantity, must be this or that matter, which by limiting the form individuates it. Accidents are those notes (shapes, color, weight , size, etc.) by which we perceive the difference between the individuals of a class. The individuals within a species (for example, all

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Flashcard 1447490882828

Tags
#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Essence is that which makes the individual like [...].
Answer
other members of its class


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Essence is that which makes the individual like other members of its class. Quantified matter is that which makes t he individual different from other individuals in its class because matter, extended by reason of its quantity, must be this or that matter, whi

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Flashcard 1447493242124

Tags
#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is that which makes the individual different from other individuals in its class.
Answer
Quantified matter

because matter, extended by reason of its quantity, must be this or that matter, which by limiting the form individuates it.


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Essence is that which makes the individual like other members of its class. Quantified matter is that which makes t he individual different from other individuals in its class because matter, extended by reason of its quantity, must be this or that matter, which by limiting the

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Flashcard 1447495601420

Tags
#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Matter, extended by [...], must be this or that matter.
Answer
reason of its quantity

which by limiting the form individuates it.


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Essence is that which makes the individual like other members of its class. Quantified matter is that which makes t he individual different from other individuals in its class because matter, extended by reason of its quantity, must be this or that matter, which by limiting the

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Accidents are those notes (shapes, color, weight , size, etc.) by which we perceive the difference between the individuals of a class.

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ers of its class. Quantified matter is that which makes t he individual different from other individuals in its class because matter, extended by reason of its quantity, must be this or that matter, which by limiting the form individuates it. <span>Accidents are those notes (shapes, color, weight , size, etc.) by which we perceive the difference between the individuals of a class. The individuals within a species (for example, all human beings) are essentially the same. But they are not merely accidentally different; t hey are individually different. Even if indi

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Flashcard 1447498485004

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Accidents are those [...] by which we perceive the difference between the individuals of a class.
Answer
notes (shapes, color, weight , size, etc.)


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Accidents are those notes (shapes, color, weight , size, etc.) by which we perceive the difference between the individuals of a class.

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
The individuals within a species (for example, all human beings) are essentially the same. But they are not merely accidentally different; they are individually different.

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xtended by reason of its quantity, must be this or that matter, which by limiting the form individuates it. Accidents are those notes (shapes, color, weight , size, etc.) by which we perceive the difference between the individuals of a class. <span>The individuals within a species (for example, all human beings) are essentially the same. But they are not merely accidentally different; t hey are individually different. Even if individuals were as alike as the matches in a box of matches or the pins in a paper of pins, they would be nonetheless individually different because the matter in one is not th

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Flashcard 1447501892876

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The individuals within a species (for example, all human beings) are essentially the same. But they are not merely [...] different; they are [...] different.
Answer
accidentally

individually


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The individuals within a species (for example, all human beings) are essentially the same. But they are not merely accidentally different; they are individually different.

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Even if individuals were as alike as the matches in a box of matches, they would be individually different because the matter in one is not the matter in the other but is a different quantity or part even though of t he same kind and amount.

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which we perceive the difference between the individuals of a class. The individuals within a species (for example, all human beings) are essentially the same. But they are not merely accidentally different; t hey are individually different. <span>Even if individuals were as alike as the matches in a box of matches or the pins in a paper of pins, they would be nonetheless individually different because the matter in one is not the matter in the other but is a different quantity or part even though of t he same kind and amount.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1447506087180

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Even if individuals were as alike as the matches in a box of matches, they would be individually different because [...] but is a different quantity or part even though of the same kind and amount.
Answer
the matter in one is not the matter in the other


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Even if individuals were as alike as the matches in a box of matches, they would be individually different because the matter in one is not the matter in the other but is a different quantity or part even though of t he same kind and amount.

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
4 A percept is the sense-apprehension of an individual reality (in its presence).

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box of matches or the pins in a paper of pins, they would be nonetheless individually different because the matter in one is not the matter in the other but is a different quantity or part even though of t he same kind and amount. <span>4 A percept is the sense-apprehension of an individual reality (in its presence). 5 A phantasm is the mental image of an individual reality (in its absence). 6 A general concept is the intellectual apprehension of essence. 7 An empiri

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Flashcard 1447509495052

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
4 A [...] is the sense-apprehension of an individual reality (in its presence).
Answer
percept


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4 A percept is the sense-apprehension of an individual reality (in its presence).

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
5 A phantasm is the mental image of an individual reality (in its absence).

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ent because the matter in one is not the matter in the other but is a different quantity or part even though of t he same kind and amount. 4 A percept is the sense-apprehension of an individual reality (in its presence). <span>5 A phantasm is the mental image of an individual reality (in its absence). 6 A general concept is the intellectual apprehension of essence. 7 An empirical concept is the indirect intellectual apprehension of an individual. The intellect c

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Flashcard 1447512116492

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
5 A [...] is the mental image of an individual reality (in its absence).
Answer
phantasm


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5 A phantasm is the mental image of an individual reality (in its absence).

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
6 A general concept is the intellectual apprehension of essence.

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y or part even though of t he same kind and amount. 4 A percept is the sense-apprehension of an individual reality (in its presence). 5 A phantasm is the mental image of an individual reality (in its absence). <span>6 A general concept is the intellectual apprehension of essence. 7 An empirical concept is the indirect intellectual apprehension of an individual. The intellect can know individual objects only indirectly in the phantasms because individu

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Flashcard 1447514737932

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
6 A [...] is the intellectual apprehension of essence.
Answer
general concept


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6 A general concept is the intellectual apprehension of essence.

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
7 An empirical concept is the indirect intellectual apprehension of an individual. The intellect can know individual objects only indirectly in the phantasms because individuals are material, with one exception, the int ellect itself; because it is a spiritual individual, the intellect can know itself directly and reflexively. (See Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 86, Articles 1 and 3.)

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s the sense-apprehension of an individual reality (in its presence). 5 A phantasm is the mental image of an individual reality (in its absence). 6 A general concept is the intellectual apprehension of essence. <span>7 An empirical concept is the indirect intellectual apprehension of an individual. The intellect can know individual objects only indirectly in the phantasms because individuals are material, with one exception, the int ellect itself; because it is a spiritual individual, the intellect can know itself directly and reflexively. (See Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 86, Articles 1 and 3.)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1447517359372

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
7 An [...] is the indirect intellectual apprehension of an individual.
Answer
empirical concept


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7 An empirical concept is the indirect intellectual apprehension of an individual. The intellect can know individual objects only indirectly in the phantasms because individuals are material, with one excepti

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
The intellect can know individual objects only indirectly in the phantasms because individuals are material, with one exception, the int ellect itself; because it is a spiritual individual, the intellect can know itself directly and reflexively. (See Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 86, Articles 1 and 3.)

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7 An empirical concept is the indirect intellectual apprehension of an individual. The intellect can know individual objects only indirectly in the phantasms because individuals are material, with one exception, the int ellect itself; because it is a spiritual individual, the intellect can know itself directly and reflexively. (See Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 86, Articles 1 and 3.)

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Flashcard 1447520767244

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The intellect can know individual objects only indirectly in the phantasms because [...], with one exception, the intellect itself.
Answer
individuals are material


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The intellect can know individual objects only indirectly in the phantasms because individuals are material, with one exception, the int ellect itself; because it is a spiritual individual, the intellect can know itself directly and reflexively. (See Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Pa

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#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Because it is a spiritual individual, the intellect can know itself directly and reflexively. (See Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 86, Articles 1 and 3.)

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The intellect can know individual objects only indirectly in the phantasms because individuals are material, with one exception, the int ellect itself; because it is a spiritual individual, the intellect can know itself directly and reflexively. (See Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 86, Articles 1 and 3.)

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Flashcard 1447524961548

Tags
#7-important-definitions #language-and-reality #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Because it is a spiritual individual, the intellect can [...] directly and reflexively.
Answer
know itself

(See Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 86, Articles 1 and 3.)


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Because it is a spiritual individual, the intellect can know itself directly and reflexively. (See Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 86, Articles 1 and 3.)

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
In a natural object the following are similar but distinct: substance, essence, nature, form, species. The knowledge of these is the concept, which is expressed fully in the definition and symbolized by the common name. Since man cannot create substance but can merely fashion substances that are furnished by nature, an artificial object such as a chair has t wo essences: the essence of its matter (wood, iron, marble, etc.) and the essence of its form (chair). The essence of the form is expressed in the definition (of chair). Frequently, a common name symbolizes a concept that is not simple nor equivalent to the essence of the natural species, like human being, but is a composite, like lawyer or athlete, including in its definition certain accidents which determine not natural species but classes that differ only accidentally. A composit e concept may be called a construct. Lawyer and athlete are constructs, for their definition adds to the simple concept human being certain accidents such as knowledge of law or physical agility, which are essential to the definition of lawyer or of athlete although not essential to the definition of a construct. For example, a particular lawyer may be tall, blond, irritable, generous, etc., but these accidents are not more essential to being a lawyer than they are to being a human being. A const ruct may be analyzed into its components by showing in what categories its essential meanings lie.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
In a natural object the following are similar but distinct: substance, essence, nature, form, species.

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In a natural object the following are similar but distinct: substance, essence, nature, form, species. The knowledge of these is the concept, which is expressed fully in the definition and symbolized by the common name. Since man cannot create substance but can merel

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Flashcard 1447529417996

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
In a natural object the following are similar but distinct: [...], essence, [...], form, species.
Answer
substance

nature


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In a natural object the following are similar but distinct: substance, essence, nature, form, species.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
The knowledge of the difference of substance, essence, nature, form, species, is the concept, which is expressed fully in the definition and symbolized by the common name.

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In a natural object the following are similar but distinct: substance, essence, nature, form, species. The knowledge of these is the concept, which is expressed fully in the definition and symbolized by the common name. Since man cannot create substance but can merely fashion substances that are furnished by nature, an artificial object such as a chair has t wo essences: the essence of its

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Since man cannot create substance but can merely fashion substances that are furnished by nature, an artificial object such as a chair has two essences: the essence of its matter (wood, iron, marble, etc.) and the essence of its form (chair).

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a natural object the following are similar but distinct: substance, essence, nature, form, species. The knowledge of these is the concept, which is expressed fully in the definition and symbolized by the common name. <span>Since man cannot create substance but can merely fashion substances that are furnished by nature, an artificial object such as a chair has t wo essences: the essence of its matter (wood, iron, marble, etc.) and the essence of its form (chair). The essence of the form is expressed in the definition (of chair). Frequently, a common name symbolizes a concept that is not simple nor equivalent to the essence of the natural specie

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Flashcard 1447535971596

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Since man cannot create substance but can merely fashion substances that are furnished by nature, an artificial object such as a chair has two essences: the essence of [...] and the essence of [...]
Answer
its matter (wood, iron, marble, etc.)

its form (chair).


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Since man cannot create substance but can merely fashion substances that are furnished by nature, an artificial object such as a chair has two essences: the essence of its matter (wood, iron, marble, etc.) and the essence of its form (chair).

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
The essence of the form is expressed in the definition (of chair).

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annot create substance but can merely fashion substances that are furnished by nature, an artificial object such as a chair has t wo essences: the essence of its matter (wood, iron, marble, etc.) and the essence of its form (chair). <span>The essence of the form is expressed in the definition (of chair). Frequently, a common name symbolizes a concept that is not simple nor equivalent to the essence of the natural species, like human being, but is a composite, like lawyer or athle

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Flashcard 1447539379468

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The essence of [...] is expressed in the definition (of chair).
Answer
the form


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The essence of the form is expressed in the definition (of chair).

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Frequently, a common name symbolizes a concept that is not simple nor equivalent to the essence of the natural species, like human being, but is a composite, like lawyer or athlete, including in its definition certain accidents which determine not natural species but classes that differ only accidentally.

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hat are furnished by nature, an artificial object such as a chair has t wo essences: the essence of its matter (wood, iron, marble, etc.) and the essence of its form (chair). The essence of the form is expressed in the definition (of chair). <span>Frequently, a common name symbolizes a concept that is not simple nor equivalent to the essence of the natural species, like human being, but is a composite, like lawyer or athlete, including in its definition certain accidents which determine not natural species but classes that differ only accidentally. A composit e concept may be called a construct. Lawyer and athlete are constructs, for their definition adds to the simple concept human being certain accidents such as

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Flashcard 1447542000908

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Frequently, a common name symbolizes a concept that is not simple nor equivalent to the essence of the natural species, like human being, but is a [...], like lawyer or athlete.
Answer
composite


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Frequently, a common name symbolizes a concept that is not simple nor equivalent to the essence of the natural species, like human being, but is a composite, like lawyer or athlete, including in its definition certain accidents which determine not natural species but classes that differ only accidentally.

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Flashcard 1447544360204

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A composite, like lawyer or athlete, includes in its definition certain [...] which determine not natural species but classes that differ only accidentally.
Answer
accidents


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<head>Frequently, a common name symbolizes a concept that is not simple nor equivalent to the essence of the natural species, like human being, but is a composite, like lawyer or athlete, including in its definition certain accidents which determine not natural species but classes that differ only accidentally.<html>

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Flashcard 1447546719500

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A composit e concept may be called a [...].
Answer
construct


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, like human being, but is a composite, like lawyer or athlete, including in its definition certain accidents which determine not natural species but classes that differ only accidentally. A composit e concept may be called a <span>construct. Lawyer and athlete are constructs, for their definition adds to the simple concept human being certain accidents such as knowledge of law or physical agility, w

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Flashcard 1447549078796

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A construct is also a...
Answer
composite


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ence of its form (chair). The essence of the form is expressed in the definition (of chair). Frequently, a common name symbolizes a concept that is not simple nor equivalent to the essence of the natural species, like human being, but is <span>a composite, like lawyer or athlete, including in its definition certain accidents which determine not natural species but classes that differ only accidentally. A composit e concept ma

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Lawyer and athlete are constructs, for their definition adds to the simple concept human being certain accidents such as knowledge of law or physical agility, which are essential to the definition of lawyer or of athlete although not essential to the definition of a construct.

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man being, but is a composite, like lawyer or athlete, including in its definition certain accidents which determine not natural species but classes that differ only accidentally. A composit e concept may be called a construct. <span>Lawyer and athlete are constructs, for their definition adds to the simple concept human being certain accidents such as knowledge of law or physical agility, which are essential to the definition of lawyer or of athlete although not essential to the definition of a construct. For example, a particular lawyer may be tall, blond, irritable, generous, etc., but these accidents are not more essential to being a lawyer than they are to being a human being. A con

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Flashcard 1447553010956

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Lawyer and athlete are constructs, for their definition adds to the simple concept human being certain accidents such as knowledge of law or physical agility, which are essential to the definition of lawyer or of athlete although not essential to the definition of a [...]
Answer
construct.


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onstructs, for their definition adds to the simple concept human being certain accidents such as knowledge of law or physical agility, which are essential to the definition of lawyer or of athlete although not essential to the definition of a <span>construct.<span><body><html>

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
For example, a particular lawyer may be tall, blond, irritable, generous, etc., but these accidents are not more essential to being a lawyer than they are to being a human being. A const ruct may be analyzed into its components by showing in what categories its essential meanings lie.

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on adds to the simple concept human being certain accidents such as knowledge of law or physical agility, which are essential to the definition of lawyer or of athlete although not essential to the definition of a construct. <span>For example, a particular lawyer may be tall, blond, irritable, generous, etc., but these accidents are not more essential to being a lawyer than they are to being a human being. A const ruct may be analyzed into its components by showing in what categories its essential meanings lie.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1447555632396

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
For example, a particular lawyer may be tall, blond, irritable, generous, etc., but these accidents are not more essential to [...] than they are to [...].
Answer
being a lawyer

being a human being


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