# on 15-Jan-2017 (Sun)

#### Annotation 1436282653964

 #electromagnetism #physics For individual segments with area density ri and area dAi , the mass of each segment is ri * dAi, and the mass of the entire surface of N segments is given by the sum from i=1 to N of ri * dAi

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#### Annotation 1436284226828

 #electromagnetism #physics As you can imagine, the smaller you make the area segments, the closer this gets to the true mass, since your approximation of constant sigma is more accurate for smaller segments. If you let the segment area dA approach zero and N approach infinity, the summation becomes integration, and you have Mass = $$\int_{S}\sigma(x, y)dA$$ : This is the area integral of the scalar function sigma(x, y) over the surface S.

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#### Flashcard 1438086728972

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
The [...] of a verb is the form always given in a dictionary and is recognised by its endings -are, -ere, -ire: for example chiacchierare ‘to chat’; sorridere ‘to smile’; and partire ‘to leave’.
infinitive

It cannot be used on its own but depends on a finite verb form, often a modal verb: vorrei ringraziare i telespettatori ‘I would like to thank the television audience’; or else is found linked with a preposition: abbiamo fatto un salto in centro per comprare dei regali ‘we took a quick trip into town to buy some presents’.

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The infinitive of a verb is the form always given in a dictionary and is recognised by its endings -are, -ere, -ire: for example chiacchierare ‘to chat’; sorridere ‘to smile’; and partire ‘to leave’.

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#### Annotation 1438096952588

 #biochem A DNA molecule of this length (4.5 million) corresponds to ~10^2,700,000 possible sequences

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#### Flashcard 1442910965004

Tags
#estructura-interna-de-las-palabras #formantes-morfológicos #gramatica-española #la #morfología #tulio
Question

Del inventario de formantes reconocidos, reconoceremos dos clases:

a. formantes [...]

b. Formantes [...]

léxicos

gramaticales

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Del inventario de formantes reconocidos, reconoceremos dos clases: a. Algunos son formantes léxicos: tienen un significado léxico, que se define en el diccionario: gota, cuenta. Se agrupan en clases abiertas. Pertenecen a una clase particular de palabras: sustantivos (gota), adjetivo

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La estructura interna de la palabra

#### Flashcard 1446841027852

Tags
#estructura-interna-de-las-palabras #formantes-morfológicos #gramatica-española #la #morfología #tulio
Question
Algunos afijos preceden a la base: Son los [...].
prefijos

in-útil, des-contento, a-político

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Algunos afijos van pospuestos a la base (gota), como los de nuestros ejemplos: son los s u f i j o s . Otros afijos la preceden: in-útil, des-contento, a-político: Son los prefijos. Las palabras que contienen un afijo se denominan palabras complejas.

#### Original toplevel document

La estructura interna de la palabra

#### Flashcard 1446848630028

Tags
#3-1-profit-maximization #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
There are three approaches to calculate the point of profit maximization.

Second, maximum profit can also be calculated by comparing revenue and cost for [...]
each individual unit of output that is produced and sold.

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There are three approaches to calculate the point of profit maximization. Second , maximum profit can also be calculated by comparing revenue and cost for each individual unit of output that is produced and sold. A business increases profit through greater sales as long as per-unit revenue exceeds per-unit cost on the next unit of output sold. Profit maximization takes place at th

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3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
Total variable cost divided by quantity; (TVC ÷ Q) Average total cost (ATC) Total cost divided by quantity; (TC ÷ Q) or (AFC + AVC) Marginal cost (MC) Change in total cost divided by change in quantity; (∆TC ÷ ∆Q) <span>3.1. Profit Maximization In free markets—and even in regulated market economies—profit maximization tends to promote economic welfare and a higher standard of living, and creates wealth for investors. Profit motivates businesses to use resources efficiently and to concentrate on activities in which they have a competitive advantage. Most economists believe that profit maximization promotes allocational efficiency—that resources flow into their highest valued uses. Overall, the functions of profit are as follows: Rewards entrepreneurs for risk taking when pursuing business ventures to satisfy consumer demand. Allocates resources to their most-efficient use; input factors flow from sectors with economic losses to sectors with economic profit, where profit reflects goods most desired by society. Spurs innovation and the development of new technology. Stimulates business investment and economic growth. There are three approaches to calculate the point of profit maximization. First, given that profit is the difference between total revenue and total costs, maximum profit occurs at the output level where this difference is the greatest. Second, maximum profit can also be calculated by comparing revenue and cost for each individual unit of output that is produced and sold. A business increases profit through greater sales as long as per-unit revenue exceeds per-unit cost on the next unit of output sold. Profit maximization takes place at the point where the last individual output unit breaks even. Beyond this point, total profit decreases because the per-unit cost is higher than the per-unit revenue from successive output units. A third approach compares the revenue generated by each resource unit with the cost of that unit. Profit contribution occurs when the revenue from an input unit exceeds its cost. The point of profit maximization is reached when resource units no longer contribute to profit. All three approaches yield the same profit-maximizing quantity of output. (These approaches will be explained in greater detail later.) Because profit is the difference between revenue and cost, an understanding of profit maximization requires that we examine both of those components. Revenue comes from the demand for the firm’s products, and cost comes from the acquisition and utilization of the firm’s inputs in the production of those products. 3.1.1. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue This section briefly examines demand and revenue in preparation for addressing cost. Unless the firm is a pu

#### Flashcard 1446853348620

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Question
Financial analysis is the process of examining a company’s performance in the context of [...] in order to arrive at a decision or recommendation.
its industry and economic environment

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Financial analysis is the process of examining a company’s performance in the context of its industry and economic environment in order to arrive at a decision or recommendation.

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1. INTRODUCTION
Financial analysis is the process of examining a company’s performance in the context of its industry and economic environment in order to arrive at a decision or recommendation. Often, the decisions and recommendations addressed by financial analysts pertain to providing capital to companies—specifically, whether to invest in the company’s debt or equity securi

#### Flashcard 1446858591500

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Question
Basic financial statement analysis provides a foundation that enables the analyst to better understand information gathered [...] beyond the financial reports.
from research

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Basic financial statement analysis provides a foundation that enables the analyst to better understand information gathered from research beyond the financial reports.

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1. INTRODUCTION
s with the information found in a company’s financial reports. These financial reports include audited financial statements, additional disclosures required by regulatory authorities, and any accompanying (unaudited) commentary by management. <span>Basic financial statement analysis—as presented in this reading—provides a foundation that enables the analyst to better understand information gathered from research beyond the financial reports. This reading is organized as follows: Section 2 discusses the scope of financial statement analysis. Section 3 describes the sources of information used in financial statem

#### Flashcard 1446876679436

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Question
Acompany's financial reports include audited financial statements, additional [...] required by regulatory authorities, and any accompanying (unaudited) commentary by management.
disclosures

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Acompany's financial reports include audited financial statements, additional disclosures required by regulatory authorities, and any accompanying (unaudited) commentary by management.

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1. INTRODUCTION
to the cost of that capital, to profitably grow its operations, and to generate enough cash to meet obligations and pursue opportunities. Fundamental financial analysis starts with the information found in a company’s financial reports. These <span>financial reports include audited financial statements, additional disclosures required by regulatory authorities, and any accompanying (unaudited) commentary by management. Basic financial statement analysis—as presented in this reading—provides a foundation that enables the analyst to better understand information gathered from research beyond the financi

#### Annotation 1446881660172

 #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4 Factors of Production A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations? What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors? Solution to 1: The entrepreneurs must decide where to locate the manufacturing facility in terms of an accessible site (land) and building (physical capital), what to use in the construction of the containers (materials), and what labor input to use. Solution to 2: Overall, any decision involving the input factors should focus on how that decision affects costs, profitability, and risk—such that shareholders’ wealth is maximized.

3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
l per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. Point A is where TP is maximized. Exhibit 9. A Firm’s Production Function EXAMPLE 3 <span>Factors of Production A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations? What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors? Solution to 1: The entrepreneurs must decide where to locate the manufacturing facility in terms of an accessible site (land) and building (physical capital), what to use in the construction of the containers (materials), and what labor input to use. Solution to 2: Overall, any decision involving the input factors should focus on how that decision affects costs, profitability, and risk—such that shareholders’ wealth is maximized. 3.1.3. Total, Average, Marginal, Fixed, and Variable Costs Exhibit 10 shows the graphical relationships among total costs, to

#### Flashcard 1446882708748

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
Factors of Production

A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade.

1. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations?

Where to locate the manufacturing facility in terms of an accessible site (land) and building (physical capital),

what to use in the construction of the containers (materials), and what labor input to use.

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Factors of Production A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations? What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors? Solution to 1: The entrepreneurs must decide

#### Original toplevel document

3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
l per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. Point A is where TP is maximized. Exhibit 9. A Firm’s Production Function EXAMPLE 3 <span>Factors of Production A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations? What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors? Solution to 1: The entrepreneurs must decide where to locate the manufacturing facility in terms of an accessible site (land) and building (physical capital), what to use in the construction of the containers (materials), and what labor input to use. Solution to 2: Overall, any decision involving the input factors should focus on how that decision affects costs, profitability, and risk—such that shareholders’ wealth is maximized. 3.1.3. Total, Average, Marginal, Fixed, and Variable Costs Exhibit 10 shows the graphical relationships among total costs, to

#### Flashcard 1446885068044

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
Factors of Production

A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade.

What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors?

Any decision involving the input factors should focus on how that decision affects costs, profitability, and risk—such that shareholders’ wealth is maximized.

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Factors of Production A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations? What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors? Solution to 1: The entrepreneurs must decide where to locate the manufacturing facility in terms of an accessible site (land) and building (physica

#### Original toplevel document

3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
l per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. Point A is where TP is maximized. Exhibit 9. A Firm’s Production Function EXAMPLE 3 <span>Factors of Production A group of business investors are in the process of forming a new enterprise that will manufacture shipping containers to be used in international trade. What decisions about factors of production must the start-up firm make in beginning operations? What objective should guide the firm in its purchase and use of the production factors? Solution to 1: The entrepreneurs must decide where to locate the manufacturing facility in terms of an accessible site (land) and building (physical capital), what to use in the construction of the containers (materials), and what labor input to use. Solution to 2: Overall, any decision involving the input factors should focus on how that decision affects costs, profitability, and risk—such that shareholders’ wealth is maximized. 3.1.3. Total, Average, Marginal, Fixed, and Variable Costs Exhibit 10 shows the graphical relationships among total costs, to

#### Annotation 1446890310924

 #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4 This image illustrates the shape of a typical input–output relationship using labor (L) as the only variable input (all other input factors are held constant). The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have positive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3. Moreover, in Region 1 (L0 – L1), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive. In Region 2, however, (L1 – L2), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns. The firm would want to avoid Region 3 if at all possible because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. Point A is where TP is maximized.

#### Flashcard 1446893194508

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4

Question
This image illustrates the shape of a typical input–output relationship using [...] as the only variable input (all other input factors are held constant).
labor (L)

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This image illustrates the shape of a typical input–output relationship using labor (L) as the only variable input (all other input factors are held constant). The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in

#### Annotation 1446895553804

 #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4 The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have positive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3.

Open it
This image illustrates the shape of a typical input–output relationship using labor (L) as the only variable input (all other input factors are held constant). The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have positive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3. Moreover, in Region 1 (L 0 – L 1 ), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, ty

#### Flashcard 1446897913100

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4

Question
The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have [...] in TP as labor is added, but the change turns [...] in Region 3.
positive changes

Negative changes

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The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have positive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3.

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Open it
This image illustrates the shape of a typical input–output relationship using labor (L) as the only variable input (all other input factors are held constant). The production function has three distinct regions where both the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have positive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3. Moreover, in Region 1 (L 0 – L 1 ), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, ty

#### Annotation 1446900272396

 #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4 In Region 1 (L0 – L1), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive.

Open it
th the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have positive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3. Moreover, <span>in Region 1 (L 0 – L 1 ), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive. In Region 2, however, (L 1 – L 2 ), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns. The firm would want to avoid Reg

#### Flashcard 1446902107404

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4

Question
In Region 1 (L0L1), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because [...].
specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive

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In Region 1 (L 0 – L 1 ), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive.

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th the direction of change and the rate of change in total product (TP or Q, quantity of output) vary as production changes. Regions 1 and 2 have positive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3. Moreover, <span>in Region 1 (L 0 – L 1 ), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive. In Region 2, however, (L 1 – L 2 ), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns. The firm would want to avoid Reg

#### Annotation 1446903680268

 #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4 In Region 2, however, (L1 – L2), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns.

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itive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3. Moreover, in Region 1 (L 0 – L 1 ), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive. <span>In Region 2, however, (L 1 – L 2 ), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns. The firm would want to avoid Region 3 if at all possible because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital pe

#### Flashcard 1446904728844

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4

Question
In Region 2, however, (L1L2), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences [...]
diminishing marginal returns.

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In Region 2, however, (L 1 – L 2 ), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns.

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itive changes in TP as labor is added, but the change turns negative in Region 3. Moreover, in Region 1 (L 0 – L 1 ), TP is increasing at an increasing rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive. <span>In Region 2, however, (L 1 – L 2 ), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns. The firm would want to avoid Region 3 if at all possible because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital pe

#### Annotation 1446906301708

 #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4 The firm would want to avoid Region 3 because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”.

Open it
rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive. In Region 2, however, (L 1 – L 2 ), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns. <span>The firm would want to avoid Region 3 if at all possible because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. Point A is where TP is maximized. <span><body><html>

#### Flashcard 1446908661004

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4

Question
The firm would want to avoid Region 3 because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input:

There is [...] that additional [...]
so little capital per unit of labor

laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”.

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The firm would want to avoid Region 3 because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”.

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Open it
rate, typically because specialization allows laborers to become increasingly productive. In Region 2, however, (L 1 – L 2 ), TP is increasing at a decreasing rate because capital is fixed, and labor experiences diminishing marginal returns. <span>The firm would want to avoid Region 3 if at all possible because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. Point A is where TP is maximized. <span><body><html>

#### Annotation 1446911020300

 #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4 Point A is where TP is maximized.

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oid Region 3 if at all possible because total product or quantity would be declining rather than increasing with additional input: There is so little capital per unit of labor that additional laborers would possibly “get in each other’s way”. <span>Point A is where TP is maximized. <span><body><html>

#### Flashcard 1446914690316

Question
[...] is how much warmth we can have for ourselves, especially when we’re going through a difficult experience
Self-compassion

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Self-compassion is how much warmth we can have for ourselves, especially when we’re going through a difficult experience

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#### Flashcard 1446916263180

Question
Self-compassion is [...], especially when we’re going through a difficult experience
how much warmth we can have for ourselves

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Self-compassion is how much warmth we can have for ourselves, especially when we’re going through a difficult experience

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#### Flashcard 1446918098188

Question
[...] is our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something. Self-esteem is how much we approve of or value ourselves. It’s often a comparison-based
Self-confidence

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Self-confidence is our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something. Self-esteem is how much we approve of or value ourselves. It’s often a comparison-based

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#### Flashcard 1446919671052

Question
Self-confidence is [...]. Self-esteem is how much we approve of or value ourselves. It’s often a comparison-based
our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something

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Self-confidence is our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something. Self-esteem is how much we approve of or value ourselves. It’s often a comparison-based

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#### Flashcard 1446921243916

Question
Self-confidence is our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something. [...] is how much we approve of or value ourselves. It’s often a comparison-based
Self-esteem

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Self-confidence is our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something. Self-esteem is how much we approve of or value ourselves. It’s often a comparison-based

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#### Flashcard 1446922816780

Question
Self-confidence is our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something. Self-esteem is [...]. It’s often a comparison-based
how much we approve of or value ourselves

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Self-confidence is our belief in our ability to do or to learn how to do something. Self-esteem is how much we approve of or value ourselves. It’s often a comparison-based

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#### Flashcard 1446924389644

Tags
#charisma #myth
Question
How do you invoke compassion for another person?
1. Imagine their past. What if you had been born in their circumstances, with their family and upbringing? What was it like growing up in their family situation with whatever they experienced as a child? It’s often said that everyone you meet has stories to tell, and that everyone has a few that would break your heart. Consider also that if you had experienced everything they have experienced, perhaps you would have turned out just like they have.
2. Imagine their present. Really try to put yourself in their shoes right now. Imagine what it feels like to be them today. Put yourself in their place, be in their skin, see through their eyes. Imagine what they might be feeling right now—all the emotions they might be holding inside.
3. If you really need compassion dynamite, look at them and ask: What if this were their last day alive? You can even imagine their funeral. You’re at their funeral, and you’re asked to say a few words about them. You can also imagine what you’d say to them after they’d already died

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everyone has a few that would break your heart. Consider also that if you had experienced everything they have experienced, perhaps you would have turned out just like they have. 2. Imagine their present. Really try to put yourself in their shoes right now. Imagine what it feels like to be them today. Put yourself in their place, be in their skin, see through their eyes. Imagine what they might be feeling right now—all the emotions they might be holding inside. 3. If you really need compassion dynamite, look at them and ask: What if this were their last day alive? You can even imagine their funeral. You’re at their funeral, and you’re asked to say a few words about them. You can also imagine what you’d say to them after they’d already died

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#### Flashcard 1446931991820

Tags
#charisma
Question
What is empathy?
the ability to understand what someone is feeling

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Paul Gilbert, one of the main researchers in the field of compassion, describes the process of accessing compassion as follows: first comes empathy, the ability to understand what someone is feeling, to detect distress; second, sympathy, being emotionally moved by distress; and third, compassion, which arises with the desire to care for the well-being of the distressed person.</spa

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#charisma
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What is sympathy?
being emotionally moved by distress

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span>Paul Gilbert, one of the main researchers in the field of compassion, describes the process of accessing compassion as follows: first comes empathy, the ability to understand what someone is feeling, to detect distress; second, sympathy, <span>being emotionally moved by distress; and third, compassion, which arises with the desire to care for the well-being of the distressed person.<span><body><html>

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Question
What is compassion?
the desire to care for the well-being of the distressed person.

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cribes the process of accessing compassion as follows: first comes empathy, the ability to understand what someone is feeling, to detect distress; second, sympathy, being emotionally moved by distress; and third, compassion, which arises with <span>the desire to care for the well-being of the distressed person.<span><body><html>

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Question
What are the stages to compassion?
1. First comes empathy, the ability to understand what someone is feeling, to detect distress;
2. Second, sympathy, being emotionally moved by distress
3. And third, compassion, which arises with the desire to care for the well-being of the distressed person.

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Paul Gilbert, one of the main researchers in the field of compassion, describes the process of accessing compassion as follows: first comes empathy, the ability to understand what someone is feeling, to detect distress; second, sympathy, being emotionally moved by distress; and third, compassion, which arises with the desire to care for the well-being of the distressed person.

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#### Flashcard 1446945361164

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#charisma
Question
What's a maxim for inducing goodwill towards others?
Of all the options open to me right now, which one would bring the most love into this world?

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Remind yourself of these maxims several times a day, and notice the shift this can make in your mind and body. Another saying people often find equally effective: Of all the options open to me right now, which one would bring the most love into this world?

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#charisma
Question
What's an "angelic" visualization for inducing warmth?
in any interaction, imagine the person you’re speaking to, and all those around you, as having invisible angel wings/halo.

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>First, a visualization. This one comes from neuroscientist Dr. Privahini Bradoo, a highly charismatic person whose radiating warmth and happiness I’ve long admired. I was grateful when she shared one of her secrets with me: in any interaction, imagine the person you’re speaking to, and all those around you, as having invisible angel wings.<html>

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What is a simple technique to feel goodwill toward someone? (three)
One simple but effective way to start is to try to find three things you like about the person you want to feel goodwill toward. Even trivial things like their shoes are tied.

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One simple but effective way to start is to try to find three things you like about the person you want to feel goodwill toward. No matter whom it is you’re talking to, find three things to appreciate or approve of—even if these are as small as “their shoes are shined” or “they were on time.” When you start searc

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Question
How would you visualize your own funeral? (for self compassion)
1. Sit or lie down, close your eyes, and set the scene. Where is your funeral being held? What day of the week, what time of day? What is the weather like? See the building where the ceremony is being held. See people arriving. Who’s coming? What are they wearing? Now move into the building and look around inside. Do you see flowers? If so, smell the flowers’ scent heavy on the air. See people coming through the door. What are they thinking? What kind of chairs are they sitting in? What do these chairs feel like?
2. Your funeral starts. Think of the people you care most about or whose opinions matter most to you. What are they thinking? See them stepping up one after another and delivering their eulogy. What are they saying? What regrets do they have for you? Now think: What would you like them to have said? What regrets do you have for yourself?
3. See people following your coffin to the cemetery and gathering around your grave. What would you like to see written on your tombstone?
4. Almost everyone, of all ages, genders, and seniority levels, gets a bit teary-eyed by the end. You might feel moved, touched, stirred. Stay with these emotions as much as you can and aim to get comfortable with them.

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♦ Sit or lie down, close your eyes, and set the scene. Where is your funeral being held? What day of the week, what time of day? What is the weather like? See the building where the ceremony is being held. See people arriving. Who’s coming? What are they wearing? Now move into the building and look around inside. Do you see flowers? If so, smell the flowers’ scent heavy on the air. See people coming through the door. What are they thinking? What kind of chairs are they sitting in? What do these chairs feel like? ♦ Your funeral starts. Think of the people you care most about or whose opinions matter most to you. What are they thinking? See them stepping up one after another and delivering their eulogy. What are they saying? What regrets do they have for you? Now think: What would you like them to have said? What regrets do you have for yourself? ♦ See people following your coffin to the cemetery and gathering around your grave. What would you like to see written on your tombstone? ♦ Almost everyone, of all ages, genders, and seniority levels, gets a bit teary-eyed by the end. You might feel moved, touched, stirred. Stay with these emotions as much as you can and aim to get comfortable with them.

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Question
What is a technique for inducing self-gratitude?
♦ Start to describe your life as if you were an outside observer, and focus on all the positive aspects you can think of.
♦ Write about your job—the work you do and the people you work with. Describe your personal relationships and the good things friends and family members would say about you. Mention a few positive things that have happened today and the tasks you have already accomplished.
♦ Take the time to write down this narrative. Just thinking about it won’t be as effective

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Use a third-person lens: For this technique, you’ll need just a few minutes to sit down, a pen, and some paper. ♦ Start to describe your life as if you were an outside observer, and focus on all the positive aspects you can think of. ♦ Write about your job—the work you do and the people you work with. Describe your personal relationships and the good things friends and family members would say about you. Mention a few positive things that have happened today and the tasks you have already accomplished. ♦ Take the time to write down this narrative. Just thinking about it won’t be as effective

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Question
How do you maintain positive body language even when annoyed?
The next time you find yourself annoyed at some minor thing, remember that letting your mind focus on the annoyance could impair your body language. To counter this, follow the suggestions below:
♦ Sweep through your body from head to toe and find three abilities you approve of. You could be grateful that you have feet and toes that allow you to walk. You might appreciate your ability to read.

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Focus on the present: The next time you find yourself annoyed at some minor thing, remember that letting your mind focus on the annoyance could impair your body language. To counter this, follow the suggestions below: ♦ Sweep through your body from head to toe and find three abilities you approve of. You could be grateful that you have feet and toes that allow you to walk. You might appreciate your ability to read.

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Question
What did Napoleon Hill visualize as his counselors?
Nineteenth-century author Napoleon Hill would regularly visualize nine famous men as his personal counselors, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thomas Edison, Charles Darwin, and Abraham Lincoln.

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Nineteenth-century author Napoleon Hill would regularly visualize nine famous men as his personal counselors, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thomas Edison, Charles Darwin, and Abraham Lincoln. He wrote: “Every night… I held an imaginary council meeting with this group whom I called my ‘Invisible Counselors.’… I now go to my imaginary counselors with every difficult problem th

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Question
How do you induce oxytocin release?
A twenty- second hug is enough to send oxytocin coursing through your veins, and that you can achieve the same effect just by imagining the hug.

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One of my favorite neuroscience resources, the Wise Brain Bulletin, suggested that a twenty- second hug is enough to send oxytocin coursing through your veins, and that you can achieve the same effect just by imagining the hug.

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Question
What are some maxims for accessing serenity in times of distress?
A week from now, or a year from now, will any of this matter?
This, too, shall pass.
Look for little miracles unfolding right now.
What if you could trust the Universe, even with this?

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help you access calm and serenity. They run the gamut of tastes and styles, so you may find that some raise your hackles while others strongly resonate: A week from now, or a year from now, will any of this matter? This, too, shall pass. Yes, it will. Look for little miracles unfolding right now. Love the confusion. What if you could trust the Universe, even with this?

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Question
How do you induce a confident state?
1. Close your eyes and relax.
2. Remember a past experience when you felt absolutely triumphant—for example, the day you won a contest or an award.
3. Hear the sounds in the room: the murmurs of approval, the swell of applause.
4. See people’s smiles and expressions of warmth and admiration.
5. Feel your feet on the ground and the congratulatory handshakes.
6. Above all, experience your feelings, the warm glow of confidence rising within you

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♦ Close your eyes and relax. ♦ Remember a past experience when you felt absolutely triumphant—for example, the day you won a contest or an award. ♦ Hear the sounds in the room: the murmurs of approval, the swell of applause. ♦ See people’s smiles and expressions of warmth and admiration. ♦ Feel your feet on the ground and the congratulatory handshakes. ♦ Above all, experience your feelings, the warm glow of confidence rising within you

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Question
Compound statements typically span [...] and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement.
multiple lines

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Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement.

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t

#### Flashcard 1446974459148

Question
Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a [...ending with a...], which identifies the type of statement.
one-line header ending in a colon

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Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement.

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t

#### Flashcard 1446976032012

Question
A compound statement consists of one or more [...]:
clauses

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A compound statement consists of one or more clauses:

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t

#### Flashcard 1446977604876

Question
a header and an indented suite of statements is called a [...].
clause

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a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause.

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t

#### Flashcard 1446979177740

Question
[two things] is called a clause.
a header and an indented suite of statements

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a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause.

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t

#### Flashcard 1446981537036

Question
A compound statement is so called because it is [...]
composed of other statements (simple and compound)

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A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound)

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t

#### Flashcard 1446983109900

Question
A [...] statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon.
simple

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A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon.

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t

#### Flashcard 1446984682764

Question
A simple statement is a [(literal description in terms of what you write)]
single line that doesn't end in a colon.

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A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon.

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t

#### Flashcard 1446986255628

Question
Python code is a sequence of [...].
statements

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Python code is a sequence of statements.

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1.5 Control
ver, much of the interesting work of computation comes from evaluating expressions. Statements govern the relationship among different expressions in a program and what happens to their results. 1.5.2 Compound Statements In general, <span>Python code is a sequence of statements. A simple statement is a single line that doesn't end in a colon. A compound statement is so called because it is composed of other statements (simple and compound). Compound statements typically span multiple lines and start with a one-line header ending in a colon, which identifies the type of statement. Together, a header and an indented suite of statements is called a clause. A compound statement consists of one or more clauses: <span>
: ... : ... ... We can understand t

#### Flashcard 1446988352780

Question
[...] ligands are most needed for these unexplored receptors, as they enable both the biochemical characterization of the receptors in vitro and ligand-guided homol- ogy model refinement in silico.
Surrogate

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Surrogate ligands are most needed for these unexplored receptors, as they enable both the biochemical characterization of the receptors in vitro and ligand-guided homol- ogy model refinemen

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Question
Surrogate ligands are most needed for these unexplored receptors, as they enable both [...] and ligand-guided homol- ogy model refinement in silico.
the biochemical characterization of the receptors in vitro

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Surrogate ligands are most needed for these unexplored receptors, as they enable both the biochemical characterization of the receptors in vitro and ligand-guided homol- ogy model refinement in silico.

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#### Flashcard 1446991498508

Question
Surrogate ligands are most needed for these unexplored receptors, as they enable both the biochemical characterization of the receptors in vitro and [...]
ligand-guided homol- ogy model refinement in silico.

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Surrogate ligands are most needed for these unexplored receptors, as they enable both the biochemical characterization of the receptors in vitro and ligand-guided homol- ogy model refinement in silico.

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Question
[...] data is inherently biased toward closest phyloge- netic relatives because of the common practice of testing ligand selectivity profiles only on homologous receptors
ChEMBL

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ChEMBL data is inherently biased toward closest phyloge- netic relatives because of the common practice of testing ligand selectivity profiles only on homologous receptors

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Question
ChEMBL data is inherently biased toward [...] because of the common practice of testing ligand selectivity profiles only on homologous receptors
closest phyloge- netic relatives

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ChEMBL data is inherently biased toward closest phyloge- netic relatives because of the common practice of testing ligand selectivity profiles only on homologous receptors

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Question
ChEMBL data is inherently biased toward closest phyloge- netic relatives because of the common practice of [...]
testing ligand selectivity profiles only on homologous receptors

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ChEMBL data is inherently biased toward closest phyloge- netic relatives because of the common practice of testing ligand selectivity profiles only on homologous receptors

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#### Flashcard 1446999887116

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Question
The Coinpocket method has residue contacts based on energy rather than distance (T/F)
are distance based, not energy based

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residue contact strengths (1) are distance based, not energy based; (2) rep- resent a coarse-grain approximation of actual interaction energies; (3) have improved signal-to-noise ratios through analysis of mul- tiple ligands and crystallographic confo

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Question
What is the GPCR Pocketome?
the set of annotated GPCR binding pockets that have been crystallographically characterized to date

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Here we sought to further refine the comparisons of GPCR binding sites by analyzing both the persis- tence and the strength of residue–ligand interactions observed across the GPCR Pocketome—the set of annotated GPCR binding pockets that have been crystallographically characterized to date 16 . By enriching the binding-site comparisons with ligand contact strengths, a method we term GPCR–CoINPocket (GPCR contact- informed neighboring pocket), we organized and clu

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Question
How are homologs of GPCRs (and other proteins) traditionally determined?
homologs are traditionally determined by sequence alignment and calculation of amino acid identity or similarity at each posi- tion.

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homologs are traditionally determined by sequence alignment and calculation of amino acid identity or similarity at each posi- tion.

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#### Annotation 1447007751436

 #biochem the interaction energy for a negative charge that is sepa- rated from a positive charge by 3 Å in vacuum turns out to be about −500 kJ•mol −1

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the interaction energy for a negative charge that is sepa- rated from a positive charge by 3 Å in vacuum turns out to be about −500 kJ•mol −1 (Figure 1.10A; we shall explain how such a calculation is done in Chapter 6). Th is result might make it appear that electrostatic interactions are extremely strong (this value is 200 t

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Question
When two oppositely charged groups are close to each other, the interaction is called an [...or...]
ion pair or a salt bridge,

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When two oppositely charged groups are close to each other, the interaction is called an ion pair or a salt bridge,

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#### Flashcard 1447012470028

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Question
the foot pads of geckos contain millions of tiny hair-like protrusions with fl at tips, called [...].
spatulae

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the foot pads of geckos contain millions of tiny hair-like protrusions with fl at tips, called spatulae.

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#### Flashcard 1447014042892

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#biochem
Question
[...], which is a measure of the likeli- hood of a particular arrangement of molecules.
entropy

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entropy, which is a measure of the likeli- hood of a particular arrangement of molecules.

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#### Flashcard 1447015615756

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Question
entropy, which is a measure of [...]
the likeli- hood of a particular arrangement of molecules.

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entropy, which is a measure of the likeli- hood of a particular arrangement of molecules.

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#### Annotation 1447017188620

 #biochem the function of a molecule depends on its structure and biological macromolecules can assemble spontaneously into functional structures

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There are two central themes underlying the concepts in this book. The first is that the function of a molecule depends on its structure and that biological macromolecules can assemble spontaneously into functional structures. The second theme is that any biological macromolecule must work together with other molecules to carry out its particular functions in the cell, and this depends on the ability of mole

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#### Annotation 1447019547916

 #biochem any biological macromolecule must work together with other molecules to carry out its particular functions in the cell, and this depends on the ability of molecules to recognize each other specifically

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two central themes underlying the concepts in this book. The first is that the function of a molecule depends on its structure and that biological macromolecules can assemble spontaneously into functional structures. The second theme is that <span>any biological macromolecule must work together with other molecules to carry out its particular functions in the cell, and this depends on the ability of molecules to recognize each other specifically. Clearly, to understand the molecular mechanism of any biological process, we must understand the energy of the physical and chemical interactions that drive the formation of specific s

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#### Annotation 1447021120780

 #biochem to understand the molecular mechanism of any biological process, we must understand the energy of the physical and chemical interactions that drive the formation of specific structures and promote molecular recognition

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ures. The second theme is that any biological macromolecule must work together with other molecules to carry out its particular functions in the cell, and this depends on the ability of molecules to recognize each other specifically. Clearly, <span>to understand the molecular mechanism of any biological process, we must understand the energy of the physical and chemical interactions that drive the formation of specific structures and promote molecular recognition<span><body><html>

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#### Flashcard 1447022693644

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Question
A typical protein molecule is made from [how many?] amino acids.
~300

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A typical protein molecule is made from ~300 amino acids. Th e total number of different sequences possible for proteins of this length is 20^300 ≈ 10^390

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#### Flashcard 1447025052940

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#biochem
Question
A typical protein molecule is made from ~300 amino acids. Th e total number of different sequences possible for proteins of this length is [...]
20^300 ≈ 10^390

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A typical protein molecule is made from ~300 amino acids. Th e total number of different sequences possible for proteins of this length is 20^300 ≈ 10^390

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#biochem
Question
A DNA molecule of this length (4.5 million) corresponds to [...] possible sequences
~10^2,700,000

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A DNA molecule of this length (4.5 million) corresponds to ~10^2,700,000 possible sequences

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#### Flashcard 1447028985100

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#python #scip
Question
The '=' symbol is called the [...] in Python (and many other languages)
assignment operator

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he = symbol is called the assignment operator in Python (and many other languages)

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1.2 Elements of Programming
= and a value to the right: >>> radius = 10 >>> radius 10 >>> 2 * radius 20 Names are also bound via import statements. >>> from math import pi >>> pi * 71 / 223 1.0002380197528042 T<span>he = symbol is called the assignment operator in Python (and many other languages). Assignment is our simplest means of abstraction, for it allows us to use simple names to refer to the results of compound operations, such as the area computed above. In this way, co

#### Annotation 1447030557964

 #python #scip A numeral evaluates to the number it names,

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eated application of the first step brings us to the point where we need to evaluate, not call expressions, but primitive expressions such as numerals (e.g., 2) and names (e.g., add ). We take care of the primitive cases by stipulating that <span>A numeral evaluates to the number it names, A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment. Notice the important role of an environment in determining the meaning of the symbols in expression

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1.2 Elements of Programming
rule is applied, and the result of that expression. Viewing evaluation in terms of this tree, we can imagine that the values of the operands percolate upward, starting from the terminal nodes and then combining at higher and higher levels. <span>Next, observe that the repeated application of the first step brings us to the point where we need to evaluate, not call expressions, but primitive expressions such as numerals (e.g., 2) and names (e.g., add ). We take care of the primitive cases by stipulating that A numeral evaluates to the number it names, A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment. Notice the important role of an environment in determining the meaning of the symbols in expressions. In Python, it is meaningless to speak of the value of an expression such as >>> add(x, 1) without specifying any information about the environment that would provide a m

#### Annotation 1447032130828

 #python #scip A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment.

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s to the point where we need to evaluate, not call expressions, but primitive expressions such as numerals (e.g., 2) and names (e.g., add ). We take care of the primitive cases by stipulating that A numeral evaluates to the number it names, <span>A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment. Notice the important role of an environment in determining the meaning of the symbols in expressions<span><body><html>

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1.2 Elements of Programming
rule is applied, and the result of that expression. Viewing evaluation in terms of this tree, we can imagine that the values of the operands percolate upward, starting from the terminal nodes and then combining at higher and higher levels. <span>Next, observe that the repeated application of the first step brings us to the point where we need to evaluate, not call expressions, but primitive expressions such as numerals (e.g., 2) and names (e.g., add ). We take care of the primitive cases by stipulating that A numeral evaluates to the number it names, A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment. Notice the important role of an environment in determining the meaning of the symbols in expressions. In Python, it is meaningless to speak of the value of an expression such as >>> add(x, 1) without specifying any information about the environment that would provide a m

#### Annotation 1447033703692

 #python #sicp Function names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores.

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Function names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores. Descriptive names are encouraged. Function names typically evoke operations applied to arguments by the interpreter (e.g., print , add , square ) or the name of the quantity that result

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1.3 Defining New Functions
(non-rebellious) Python programmers. A shared set of conventions smooths communication among members of a developer community. As a side effect of following these conventions, you will find that your code becomes more internally consistent. <span>Function names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores. Descriptive names are encouraged. Function names typically evoke operations applied to arguments by the interpreter (e.g., print , add , square ) or the name of the quantity that results (e.g., max , abs , sum ). Parameter names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores. Single-word names are preferred. Parameter names should evoke the role of the parameter in the function, not just the kind of argument that is allowed. Single letter parameter names are acceptable when their role is obvious, but avoid "l" (lowercase ell), "O" (capital oh), or "I" (capital i) to avoid confusion with numerals. There are many exceptions to these guidelines, even in the Python standard library. Like the vocabulary of the English language, Python has inherited words from a variety of contribut

#### Flashcard 1447041830156

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#electromagnetism #physics
Question
What is an example of a scalar field?
the distribution of temperature in a room, contour map

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So whereas the distribution of temperature in a room is an example of a scalar field, the speed and direction of the flow of a fluid at each point in a stream is an example of a vector field.

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#electromagnetism #physics
Question
Give an example of a vector field
speed and direction of the flow of a fluid at each point in a stream

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So whereas the distribution of temperature in a room is an example of a scalar field, the speed and direction of the flow of a fluid at each point in a stream is an example of a vector field.

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#electromagnetism #physics
Question
What is a vector field?
a vector field is a distribution of quan tities in space – a field – and these quantities ha ve both magnitude and direction, meaning that they are vectors.

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What’s a vector field? As the name suggests, a vector field is a distribution of quan tities in space – a field – and these quantities ha ve both magnitude and direction, meaning that they are vectors.

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#electromagnetism #physics
Question
In Gauss's law is the surface integral is applied to what?
In Gauss’s law, the surface integral is applied not to a scalar function (such as the density of a surface) but to a vector field.

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In Gauss’s law, the surface integral is applied not to a scalar function (such as the density of a surface) but to a vector field.

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#electromagnetism #physics
Question
For individual segments with area density ri and area dAi , the mass of each segment is ri * dAi, and the mass of the entire surface of N segments is given by [...]
the sum from i=1 to N of ri * dAi

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For individual segments with area density r i and area dA i , the mass of each segment is r i * dA i , and the mass of the entire surface of N segments is given by the sum from i=1 to N of r i * dA i

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#### Flashcard 1447059918092

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#matlab #programming
Question
How would you clear more than one variable in the matlab workspace?
Separate the vari- able names with spaces, not commas.

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A particular variable can be removed from the workspace (e.g., clear rate). More than one variable can also be cleared (e.g., clear rate balance). Separate the vari- able names with spaces, not commas.

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#### Flashcard 1447063325964

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#electromagnetism #physics
Question
What is a unit vector?
a vector with length of one pointing in the direction per- pendicular to the surface.

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imagine a vector with length of one pointing in the direction per- pendicular to the surface. Such a vector, labeled ^ n, is called a ‘‘unit’’ vector because its length is unity and ‘‘normal’’ because it is perpendicular to the surface.

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#electromagnetism #physics
Question
What is $$\vec{E}\hat{n}$$?
this expression represents the component of the electric field vector that is perpendicular to the surface under consideration.

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E ^ n should be clear; this expression represents the component of the electric field vector that is perpendicular to the surface under consideration.

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#electromagnetism #physics
Question
What is a surface integral?
the area integral of a scalar function or vector field over a specified surface (basically add up little areas of different weight)

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the area integral of a scalar function or vector field over a spe- cified surface (this type of integral is also called the ‘‘surface integral’’)

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#### Flashcard 1447070403852

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#biochem
Question
to understand the molecular mechanism of any biological process, we must understand the energy of the [...] that drive the formation of [...] and promote [...]
physical and chemical interactions; specific structures; molecular recognition

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to understand the molecular mechanism of any biological process, we must understand the energy of the physical and chemical interactions that drive the formation of specific structures and promote molecular recognition

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#### Flashcard 1447071976716

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#python #scip
Question
A name evaluates to t[...]
he value associated with that name in the current environment.

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A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment.

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1.2 Elements of Programming
rule is applied, and the result of that expression. Viewing evaluation in terms of this tree, we can imagine that the values of the operands percolate upward, starting from the terminal nodes and then combining at higher and higher levels. <span>Next, observe that the repeated application of the first step brings us to the point where we need to evaluate, not call expressions, but primitive expressions such as numerals (e.g., 2) and names (e.g., add ). We take care of the primitive cases by stipulating that A numeral evaluates to the number it names, A name evaluates to the value associated with that name in the current environment. Notice the important role of an environment in determining the meaning of the symbols in expressions. In Python, it is meaningless to speak of the value of an expression such as >>> add(x, 1) without specifying any information about the environment that would provide a m

#### Flashcard 1447074073868

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#python #sicp
Question
Function names are [...]case, with words separated by underscores.
lower

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Function names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores.

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1.3 Defining New Functions
(non-rebellious) Python programmers. A shared set of conventions smooths communication among members of a developer community. As a side effect of following these conventions, you will find that your code becomes more internally consistent. <span>Function names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores. Descriptive names are encouraged. Function names typically evoke operations applied to arguments by the interpreter (e.g., print , add , square ) or the name of the quantity that results (e.g., max , abs , sum ). Parameter names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores. Single-word names are preferred. Parameter names should evoke the role of the parameter in the function, not just the kind of argument that is allowed. Single letter parameter names are acceptable when their role is obvious, but avoid "l" (lowercase ell), "O" (capital oh), or "I" (capital i) to avoid confusion with numerals. There are many exceptions to these guidelines, even in the Python standard library. Like the vocabulary of the English language, Python has inherited words from a variety of contribut

#### Flashcard 1447075646732

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#python #sicp
Question
Function names are lowercase, with words separated by [...].
underscores

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Function names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores.

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1.3 Defining New Functions
(non-rebellious) Python programmers. A shared set of conventions smooths communication among members of a developer community. As a side effect of following these conventions, you will find that your code becomes more internally consistent. <span>Function names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores. Descriptive names are encouraged. Function names typically evoke operations applied to arguments by the interpreter (e.g., print , add , square ) or the name of the quantity that results (e.g., max , abs , sum ). Parameter names are lowercase, with words separated by underscores. Single-word names are preferred. Parameter names should evoke the role of the parameter in the function, not just the kind of argument that is allowed. Single letter parameter names are acceptable when their role is obvious, but avoid "l" (lowercase ell), "O" (capital oh), or "I" (capital i) to avoid confusion with numerals. There are many exceptions to these guidelines, even in the Python standard library. Like the vocabulary of the English language, Python has inherited words from a variety of contribut

#### Flashcard 1447077481740

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#electromagnetism #physics
Question
Thus, the dot product $$\vec{A}\cdot\vec{B}$$represents the [...]
projection of $$\vec{A}$$ onto the direction of $$\vec{B}$$ multiplied by the length of $$\vec{B}$$

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Thus, the dot product ~ A ~ B represents the projection of ~ A onto the direction of ~ B multiplied by the length of ~ B

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#electromagnetism #physics
Question
product between two vectors such as $$\vec{E}\cdot\hat{n}$$ is simply [...]
the projection of the first onto the second multiplied by the length of the second.

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product between two vectors such as ~ E and ^ n is simply the pro- jection of the first onto the second multiplied by the length of the second.

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#electromagnetism #physics
Question
Imagine that the area density (the mass per unit area) of this surface varies with x and y, and you want to determine the total "mass" of the surface. How would you do this?
You can do this by dividing the surface into two-dimensional segments over each of which the area density is approximately constant

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Imagine that the area density (the mass per unit area) of this surface varies with x and y, and you want to determine the total mass of the surface. You can do this by dividing the surface into two-dimensional segments over each of which the area density is approximately constant

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#electromagnetism #physics
Question
If you let the segment area dA approach zero and N approach infinity, the summation becomes integration, and you have Mass
$$\int_{S}\sigma(x, y)dA$$

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As you can imagine, the smaller you make the area segments, the closer this gets to the true mass, since your approximation of constant sigma is more accurate for smaller segments. If you let the segment area dA approach zero and N approach infinity, the summation becomes integration, and you have Mass = ∫Sσ(x,y)dA∫Sσ(x,y)dA : This is the area integral of the scalar function sigma(x, y) over the surface S.

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#### Annotation 1447092948236

 #python #sicp the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions.

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Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequ

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1.4 Designing Functions
mall, and serve as our primary medium to express computational processes in a programming language. So far, we have discussed the formal properties of functions and how they are applied. We now turn to the topic of what makes a good function. <span>Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers. These guidelines improve the readability of code, reduce the number of errors, and often minimize the total amount of code written. Decomposing a complex task into concise functions i

#### Annotation 1447094521100

 #python #sicp Each function should have exactly one job identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text.

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Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that l

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1.4 Designing Functions
mall, and serve as our primary medium to express computational processes in a programming language. So far, we have discussed the formal properties of functions and how they are applied. We now turn to the topic of what makes a good function. <span>Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers. These guidelines improve the readability of code, reduce the number of errors, and often minimize the total amount of code written. Decomposing a complex task into concise functions i

#### Annotation 1447098453260

 #python #sicp The DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic; logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction.

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ractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. <span>Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers.

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1.4 Designing Functions
mall, and serve as our primary medium to express computational processes in a programming language. So far, we have discussed the formal properties of functions and how they are applied. We now turn to the topic of what makes a good function. <span>Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers. These guidelines improve the readability of code, reduce the number of errors, and often minimize the total amount of code written. Decomposing a complex task into concise functions i

#### Annotation 1447100812556

 #python #sicp Functions should be defined generally.

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t describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. <span>Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers.<span><body><html>

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1.4 Designing Functions
mall, and serve as our primary medium to express computational processes in a programming language. So far, we have discussed the formal properties of functions and how they are applied. We now turn to the topic of what makes a good function. <span>Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers. These guidelines improve the readability of code, reduce the number of errors, and often minimize the total amount of code written. Decomposing a complex task into concise functions i

#### Annotation 1447102385420

 #biochem Glycine (Gly, G), with just a hydrogen atom as its sidechain

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Glycine (Gly, G), with just a hydrogen atom as its sidechain, is the simplest of the 20 amino acids. It can be grouped with the hydrophobic amino acids or treated as the sole member of a fourth class because of its special properties. Th ese ar

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#### Annotation 1447104482572

 #biochem special properties. Th ese arise from the absence of a bulky sidechain, which allows glycine to adopt three- dimensional conformations that are energetically unfavorable for other amino acids, so that segments of protein chains that contain glycine can be much more fl exible than those that do not.

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><head>Glycine (Gly, G), with just a hydrogen atom as its sidechain, is the simplest of the 20 amino acids. It can be grouped with the hydrophobic amino acids or treated as the sole member of a fourth class because of its special properties. Th ese arise from the absence of a bulky sidechain, which allows glycine to adopt three- dimensional conformations that are energetically unfavorable for other amino acids, so that segments of protein chains that contain glycine can be much more fl exible than those that do not.<html>

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#### Flashcard 1447113133324

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#cfa-level-1 #fra-introduction #study-session-7
Question
IASB?
International Accounting Standards Board’s

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Reading 24 in study session 7 explores the roles of financial reporting standard-setting bodies and regulatory authorities. The International Accounting Standards Board’s conceptual framework and the movement towards global convergence of financial reporting standards are also described.

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An Introduction
nd accounting accruals. The presentation of financial information to the public by a company must conform to applicable financial reporting standards based on factors such as the jurisdiction in which the information is released. <span>The final reading in this study session explores the roles of financial reporting standard-setting bodies and regulatory authorities. The International Accounting Standards Board’s conceptual framework and the movement towards global convergence of financial reporting standards are also described. <span><body><html>

#### Flashcard 1447118376204

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#3-1-profit-maximization #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
Second aproach to calculate the point of profit maximization.

A business increases profit through greater sales as long as [...] of output sold.
per-unit revenue exceeds per-unit cost on the next unit

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There are three approaches to calculate the point of profit maximization. Second , maximum profit can also be calculated by comparing revenue and cost for each individual unit of output that is produced and sold. A business increases profit through greater sales as long as per-unit revenue exceeds per-unit cost on the next unit of output sold. Profit maximization takes place at th

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3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
Total variable cost divided by quantity; (TVC ÷ Q) Average total cost (ATC) Total cost divided by quantity; (TC ÷ Q) or (AFC + AVC) Marginal cost (MC) Change in total cost divided by change in quantity; (∆TC ÷ ∆Q) <span>3.1. Profit Maximization In free markets—and even in regulated market economies—profit maximization tends to promote economic welfare and a higher standard of living, and creates wealth for investors. Profit motivates businesses to use resources efficiently and to concentrate on activities in which they have a competitive advantage. Most economists believe that profit maximization promotes allocational efficiency—that resources flow into their highest valued uses. Overall, the functions of profit are as follows: Rewards entrepreneurs for risk taking when pursuing business ventures to satisfy consumer demand. Allocates resources to their most-efficient use; input factors flow from sectors with economic losses to sectors with economic profit, where profit reflects goods most desired by society. Spurs innovation and the development of new technology. Stimulates business investment and economic growth. There are three approaches to calculate the point of profit maximization. First, given that profit is the difference between total revenue and total costs, maximum profit occurs at the output level where this difference is the greatest. Second, maximum profit can also be calculated by comparing revenue and cost for each individual unit of output that is produced and sold. A business increases profit through greater sales as long as per-unit revenue exceeds per-unit cost on the next unit of output sold. Profit maximization takes place at the point where the last individual output unit breaks even. Beyond this point, total profit decreases because the per-unit cost is higher than the per-unit revenue from successive output units. A third approach compares the revenue generated by each resource unit with the cost of that unit. Profit contribution occurs when the revenue from an input unit exceeds its cost. The point of profit maximization is reached when resource units no longer contribute to profit. All three approaches yield the same profit-maximizing quantity of output. (These approaches will be explained in greater detail later.) Because profit is the difference between revenue and cost, an understanding of profit maximization requires that we examine both of those components. Revenue comes from the demand for the firm’s products, and cost comes from the acquisition and utilization of the firm’s inputs in the production of those products. 3.1.1. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue This section briefly examines demand and revenue in preparation for addressing cost. Unless the firm is a pu

#### Flashcard 1447120473356

Tags
#3-1-profit-maximization #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
In the Second aproach to calculate the point of profit maximization.

Profit maximization takes place at the point where the [...]
last individual output unit breaks even.

Beyond this point, total profit decreases because the per-unit cost is higher than the per-unit revenue from successive output units.

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There are three approaches to calculate the point of profit maximization. Second , maximum profit can also be calculated by comparing revenue and cost for each individual unit of output that is produced and sold. A business increases profit through greater sales as long as per-unit revenue exceeds per-unit cost on the next unit of output sold. Profit maximization takes place at th

#### Original toplevel document

3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
Total variable cost divided by quantity; (TVC ÷ Q) Average total cost (ATC) Total cost divided by quantity; (TC ÷ Q) or (AFC + AVC) Marginal cost (MC) Change in total cost divided by change in quantity; (∆TC ÷ ∆Q) <span>3.1. Profit Maximization In free markets—and even in regulated market economies—profit maximization tends to promote economic welfare and a higher standard of living, and creates wealth for investors. Profit motivates businesses to use resources efficiently and to concentrate on activities in which they have a competitive advantage. Most economists believe that profit maximization promotes allocational efficiency—that resources flow into their highest valued uses. Overall, the functions of profit are as follows: Rewards entrepreneurs for risk taking when pursuing business ventures to satisfy consumer demand. Allocates resources to their most-efficient use; input factors flow from sectors with economic losses to sectors with economic profit, where profit reflects goods most desired by society. Spurs innovation and the development of new technology. Stimulates business investment and economic growth. There are three approaches to calculate the point of profit maximization. First, given that profit is the difference between total revenue and total costs, maximum profit occurs at the output level where this difference is the greatest. Second, maximum profit can also be calculated by comparing revenue and cost for each individual unit of output that is produced and sold. A business increases profit through greater sales as long as per-unit revenue exceeds per-unit cost on the next unit of output sold. Profit maximization takes place at the point where the last individual output unit breaks even. Beyond this point, total profit decreases because the per-unit cost is higher than the per-unit revenue from successive output units. A third approach compares the revenue generated by each resource unit with the cost of that unit. Profit contribution occurs when the revenue from an input unit exceeds its cost. The point of profit maximization is reached when resource units no longer contribute to profit. All three approaches yield the same profit-maximizing quantity of output. (These approaches will be explained in greater detail later.) Because profit is the difference between revenue and cost, an understanding of profit maximization requires that we examine both of those components. Revenue comes from the demand for the firm’s products, and cost comes from the acquisition and utilization of the firm’s inputs in the production of those products. 3.1.1. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue This section briefly examines demand and revenue in preparation for addressing cost. Unless the firm is a pu

#### Annotation 1447146425612

#cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4

### 3.1.3. Total, Average, Marginal, Fixed, and Variable Costs

Exhibit 10 shows the graphical relationships among total costs, total fixed cost, and total variable cost. The curve for total costs is a parallel shift of the total variable cost curve and always lies above the total variable cost curve by the amount of total fixed cost. At zero production, total costs are equal to total fixed cost because total variable cost at this output level is zero.

Exhibit 10. Total Costs, Total Variable Cost, and Total Fixed Cost

Exhibit 11 shows the cost curve relationships among ATC, AVC, and AFC in the short run. (In the long run, the firm will have different ATC, AVC, and AFC cost curves when all inputs are variable, including technology, plant size, and physical capital.) The difference between ATC and AVC at any output quantity is the amount of AFC. For example, at Q1 the distance between ATC and AVC is measured by the value of A, which equals the amount of fixed cost as measured by amount B at Q1. Similarly, at Q2, the distance between ATC and AVC of X equals amount Y of AFC. The vertical distance between ATC and AVC is exactly equal to the height of AFC at each quantity. Both average total cost and average variable cost take on a bowl-shaped pattern in which each curve initially declines, reaches a minimum-cost output level, and then increases after that point. Point S, which corresponds to QAVC, is the minimum point on the AVC (such as 2 units in Exhibit 13). Similarly, point T, which corresponds to QATC, is the minimum point on ATC (such as 3 units in Exhibit 13). As shown in Exhibit 11, when output increases, average fixed cost declines as AFC approaches the horizontal quantity axis.

3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
Solution to 2: Overall, any decision involving the input factors should focus on how that decision affects costs, profitability, and risk—such that shareholders’ wealth is maximized. <span>3.1.3. Total, Average, Marginal, Fixed, and Variable Costs Exhibit 10 shows the graphical relationships among total costs, total fixed cost, and total variable cost. The curve for total costs is a parallel shift of the total variable cost curve and always lies above the total variable cost curve by the amount of total fixed cost. At zero production, total costs are equal to total fixed cost because total variable cost at this output level is zero. Exhibit 10. Total Costs, Total Variable Cost, and Total Fixed Cost Exhibit 11 shows the cost curve relationships among ATC, AVC, and AFC in the short run. (In the long run, the firm will have different ATC, AVC, and AFC cost curves when all inputs are variable, including technology, plant size, and physical capital.) The difference between ATC and AVC at any output quantity is the amount of AFC. For example, at Q 1 the distance between ATC and AVC is measured by the value of A, which equals the amount of fixed cost as measured by amount B at Q 1 . Similarly, at Q 2 , the distance between ATC and AVC of X equals amount Y of AFC. The vertical distance between ATC and AVC is exactly equal to the height of AFC at each quantity. Both average total cost and average variable cost take on a bowl-shaped pattern in which each curve initially declines, reaches a minimum-cost output level, and then increases after that point. Point S, which corresponds to Q AVC , is the minimum point on the AVC (such as 2 units in Exhibit 13). Similarly, point T, which corresponds to Q ATC , is the minimum point on ATC (such as 3 units in Exhibit 13). As shown in Exhibit 11, when output increases, average fixed cost declines as AFC approaches the horizontal quantity axis. Exhibit 11. Average Total Cost, Average Variable Cost, and Average Fixed Cost Exhibit 12 displays the cost curve relationships for ATC, A

#### Annotation 1447149571340

 Exhibit 5. Total Revenue, Average Revenue, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4 Exhibit 5 graphically displays the revenue data from perfect competition. For an individual firm operating in a market setting of perfect competition, MR equals AR and both are equal to a price that stays the same across all levels of output. Because price is fixed to the individual seller, the firm’s demand curve is a horizontal line at the point where the market sets the price. In Exhibit 5, at a price of 100, P1 = MR1 = AR1 = Demand1. Marginal revenue, average revenue, and the firm’s price remain constant until market demand and supply factors cause a change in price. For instance, if price increases to 200 because of an increase in market demand, the firm’s demand curve shifts from Demand1 to Demand2 with corresponding increases in MR and AR as well. Total revenue increases from TR1 to TR2 when price increases from 100 to 200. At a price of 100, total revenue at 10 units is 1,000; however, at a price of 200, total revenue would be 2,000 for 10 units.

#### Flashcard 1447151668492

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4

Question
This graphically displays the [...].
revenue data from perfect competition

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Exhibit 5. Total Revenue, Average Revenue, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition
Exhibit 5 graphically displays the revenue data from perfect competition. For an individual firm operating in a market setting of perfect competition, MR equals AR and both are equal to a price that stays the same across all levels of output. Because price i

#### Flashcard 1447154027788

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4

Question
For an individual firm operating in a market setting of perfect competition, [...] equals AR and both are equal to a price that stays the same across all levels of output.
MR

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

Exhibit 5. Total Revenue, Average Revenue, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition
Exhibit 5 graphically displays the revenue data from perfect competition. For an individual firm operating in a market setting of perfect competition, MR equals AR and both are equal to a price that stays the same across all levels of output. Because price is fixed to the individual seller, the firm’s demand curve is a horizontal line at

#### Annotation 1447155600652

 #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4 Because price is fixed to the individual seller, the firm’s demand curve is a horizontal line at the point where the market sets the price.

Exhibit 5. Total Revenue, Average Revenue, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition
Exhibit 5 graphically displays the revenue data from perfect competition. For an individual firm operating in a market setting of perfect competition, MR equals AR and both are equal to a price that stays the same across all levels of output. <span>Because price is fixed to the individual seller, the firm’s demand curve is a horizontal line at the point where the market sets the price. In Exhibit 5, at a price of 100, P 1 = MR 1 = AR 1 = Demand 1 . Marginal revenue, average revenue, and the firm’s price remain constant until market demand and supply factors cause a

#### Annotation 1447157173516

 #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4 Here at a price of 100, P1 = MR1 = AR1 = Demand1. Marginal revenue, average revenue, and the firm’s price remain constant until market demand and supply factors cause a change in price. If price increases to 200 because of an increase in market demand, the firm’s demand curve shifts from Demand1 to Demand2 with corresponding increases in MR and AR as well.

Exhibit 5. Total Revenue, Average Revenue, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition
mpetition, MR equals AR and both are equal to a price that stays the same across all levels of output. Because price is fixed to the individual seller, the firm’s demand curve is a horizontal line at the point where the market sets the price. <span>In Exhibit 5, at a price of 100, P 1 = MR 1 = AR 1 = Demand 1 . Marginal revenue, average revenue, and the firm’s price remain constant until market demand and supply factors cause a change in price. For instance, if price increases to 200 because of an increase in market demand, the firm’s demand curve shifts from Demand 1 to Demand 2 with corresponding increases in MR and AR as well. Total revenue increases from TR 1 to TR 2 when price increases from 100 to 200. At a price of 100, total revenue at 10 units is 1,000; however, at a price of 200, total revenue would

#### Annotation 1447158746380

 #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4 Total revenue increases from TR1 to TR2 when price increases from 100 to 200. At a price of 100, total revenue at 10 units is 1,000; however, at a price of 200, total revenue would be 2,000 for 10 units.

Exhibit 5. Total Revenue, Average Revenue, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition
demand and supply factors cause a change in price. For instance, if price increases to 200 because of an increase in market demand, the firm’s demand curve shifts from Demand 1 to Demand 2 with corresponding increases in MR and AR as well. <span>Total revenue increases from TR 1 to TR 2 when price increases from 100 to 200. At a price of 100, total revenue at 10 units is 1,000; however, at a price of 200, total revenue would be 2,000 for 10 units.<span><body><html>

#### Annotation 1447160319244

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The abstract character of genus is such that one cannot draw a picture, for example, of animal but only of a particular kind or species of animal such as a horse or a dog.

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#### Annotation 1447161892108

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium species is abstract, for one cannot photograph the species horse or dog; one can photograph only an individual horse or dog since every horse or dog that exists is an individual.

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#### Annotation 1447163464972

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The generic essence is merely the specific essence with the more definite characteristics of t he latter omitted.

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#### Annotation 1447165037836

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium An aggregat e or group of individuals must be clearly distinguished from a species or a genus.

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#### Annotation 1447166610700

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium An aggregate is merely a particular group of individuals, such as the trees in Central Park, the inhabitants of California, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the items on a desk, the furniture in a house

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#### Annotation 1447168183564

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium A species or a genus always signifies a class nature or essence and includes all the individuals of every place and time having that nature or essence.

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#### Annotation 1447169756428

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium man is a species and includes all men and women of every place and time—past, present, and future.

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#### Annotation 1447171329292

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium an aggregate is a particular group of individuals that may or may not have the same essence or class nature; but in either case, the aggregate does not include all the members that have that nat ure

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#### Annotation 1447172902156

 Aggregate Illustration #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The women of the ninet eenth century constitute an aggregate of individuals belonging to the same species, but they are only a part of the species, namely, those who existed at a particular time.

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#### Annotation 1447175261452

 Aggregate Illustration #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The things in a room constitute an aggregate of individuals belonging to different species, such as chair, desk, table, book, heat vent, window, etc., but they are only a small part of each species.

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#### Annotation 1447177620748

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium An individual is one. An aggregate is simply a group consisting of two or more individuals.

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#### Annotation 1447179193612

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Essence is what makes a being what it is.

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#### Annotation 1447180766476

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Species is a class made up of individuals that have in common the same specific essence.

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#### Annotation 1447182339340

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Genus is a wider class made up of two or more different species.

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#### Annotation 1447183912204

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Aggregate is a group consisting of t wo or more individuals.

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#### Annotation 1447185485068

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Language and Its Symbols Language employs four important kinds of symbols to represent reality: two to symbolize the individual, two to symbolize the essence which is common to all the individual members of a class. Language can symbolize an individual or an aggregate by either a proper name or a particular or empirical description. A particular or empirical description is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group. Empirical means founded on experience. Since only individuals exist, our experience is directly concerned with them. Throughout this book the word empirical is used with reference to our knowledge of individuals as such.

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#### Annotation 1447186533644

 Language and Its Symbols #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Language employs four important kinds of symbols to represent reality: two to symbolize the individual, two to symbolize the essence which is common to all the individual members of a class.

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Language and Its Symbols Language employs four important kinds of symbols to represent reality: two to symbolize the individual, two to symbolize the essence which is common to all the individual members of a class. Language can symbolize an individual or an aggregate by either a proper name or a particular or empirical description. A particular or empirical description is a common nam

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#### Annotation 1447188106508

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Language can symbolize an individual or an aggregate by either a proper name or a particular or empirical description.

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Open it
y>Language and Its Symbols Language employs four important kinds of symbols to represent reality: two to symbolize the individual, two to symbolize the essence which is common to all the individual members of a class. Language can symbolize an individual or an aggregate by either a proper name or a particular or empirical description. A particular or empirical description is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group. Empirical means founded on

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#### Annotation 1447189679372

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium A particular or empirical description is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group.

#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
individual, two to symbolize the essence which is common to all the individual members of a class. Language can symbolize an individual or an aggregate by either a proper name or a particular or empirical description. <span>A particular or empirical description is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group. Empirical means founded on experience. Since only individuals exist, our experience is directly concerned with them. Throughout this book the word empirical is used

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#### Annotation 1447191252236

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Empirical means founded on experience.

#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

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r an aggregate by either a proper name or a particular or empirical description. A particular or empirical description is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group. <span>Empirical means founded on experience. Since only individuals exist, our experience is directly concerned with them. Throughout this book the word empirical is used with reference to our knowledge of individ

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#### Annotation 1447192825100

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Since only individuals exist, our experience is directly concerned with them.

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or a particular or empirical description. A particular or empirical description is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group. Empirical means founded on experience. <span>Since only individuals exist, our experience is directly concerned with them. Throughout this book the word empirical is used with reference to our knowledge of individuals as such.<span><body><html>

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#### Annotation 1447194397964

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Throughout this book the word empirical is used with reference to our knowledge of individuals as such.

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common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group. Empirical means founded on experience. Since only individuals exist, our experience is directly concerned with them. <span>Throughout this book the word empirical is used with reference to our knowledge of individuals as such.<span><body><html>

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#### Annotation 1447195970828

 ILLUSTRATION: Language used to symbolize empirical information #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium A proper name, such as Eleanor Roosevelt, the Mississippi River, Halloween, London, the United States Senate, the Rotarians, the Mediterranean Sea, can symbolize the individual or an aggregate.

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#### Annotation 1447198330124

 ILLUSTRATION: Language used to symbolize empirical information #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium A particular or empirical description, such as the present store manager, this computer, the woman who made the flag, t he furniture in this house, the microbe now dividing in the petri dish, can symbolize the individual or an aggregat e.

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#### Annotation 1447200689420

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium If language could not symbolize the individual, one could not designate particular persons, places, or times. This would be extremely inconvenient. For example, people could not direct emergency vehicles to their houses. On the other hand, if language could symbolize only the individual, people would be in a worse plight. Every word would be a proper name, and it would therefore be necessary to give a different proper name t o every object spoken of—not only to people and places but to everything—to every tree, blade of grass, chair, fork, potato, coat, shoe, pencil, etc.

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#### Annotation 1447201737996

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium If language could not symbolize the individual, one could not designate particular persons, places, or times. This would be extremely inconvenient.

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If language could not symbolize the individual, one could not designate particular persons, places, or times. This would be extremely inconvenient. For example, people could not direct emergency vehicles to their houses. On the other hand, if language could symbolize only the individual, people

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#### Annotation 1447204097292

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium if language could symbolize only the individual, people would be in a worse plight. Every word would be a proper name, and it would therefore be necessary to give a different proper name t o every object spoken of—not only to people and places but to everything—to every tree, blade of grass, chair, fork, potato, coat, shoe, pencil, etc.

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uage could not symbolize the individual, one could not designate particular persons, places, or times. This would be extremely inconvenient. For example, people could not direct emergency vehicles to their houses. On the other hand, <span>if language could symbolize only the individual, people would be in a worse plight. Every word would be a proper name, and it would therefore be necessary to give a different proper name t o every object spoken of—not only to people and places but to everything—to every tree, blade of grass, chair, fork, potato, coat, shoe, pencil, etc.<span><body><html>

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#### Annotation 1447205670156

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium A common name, such as child, tree, chair, square, hour, can symbolize essence.

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#### Annotation 1447207505164

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Language can symbolize essence by either of t wo kinds of symbols, both of which are applicable to all the members of a class

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#### Annotation 1447209078028

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Most of the words listed in the dictionary are common names.

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#### Annotation 1447210650892

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium the bulk of language is made up of common names; they symbolize either species or genus.

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#### Annotation 1447212223756

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium jump names a species of movement; whereas move means the genus of jump, fly, creep, walk.

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#### Annotation 1447213796620

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium A general or universal description such as a rational animal, an equilateral triangle, an organ of sight can symbolize essence.

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#### Annotation 1447215369484

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The definitions given in the dictionary are general descript ions of the single-word entries. They clarify the meanings of the common names. A general description is itself made up wholly of common names.

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#### Annotation 1447216942348

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium A proper name or an empirical description must symbolize an individual or an aggregate existing in fact (past or present) or in fiction (wherein are characters, places, etc. created by the imagination). Otherwise, it is devoid of meaning, as are the present King of France or the Emperor of Iowa. The following, however, are truly symbols: Hamlet, Sidney Carton, Rapunzel, Nathan Hale, Queen Elizabeth I. So also are all the symbols given above as examples of an individual or an aggregate.

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#### Annotation 1447219301644

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium A common name or a general description must represent an essence or class nature which is intrinsically possible although it need not actually exist. Otherwise, it is devoid of meaning as are a square circle or a triangular square.

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#### Annotation 1447221660940

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium These are truly symbols because they express something conceivable: a mermaid, a purple cow, an inhabitant of another planet, a regular polygon with one hundred sides, an elephant, a rose. So also are the symbols given above as examples of the essence, or class nature, of either a species or a genus.

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#### Annotation 1447224020236

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Language that symbolizes an individual or aggregate proper name particular or empirical description

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#### Annotation 1447226379532

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Language that symbolizes essence common name general or universal description

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#### Flashcard 1447228738828

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language that symbolizes essence

[...]

[...]
common name

​general or universal description

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Language that symbolizes essence common name general or universal description

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#### Flashcard 1447231098124

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language that symbolizes an individual or aggregate

[...]

[...]
proper name

particular or empirical description

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Language that symbolizes an individual or aggregate proper name particular or empirical description

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#### Flashcard 1447234243852

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
These are truly symbols because they express something [...]: a mermaid, a purple cow, an inhabitant of another planet, a regular polygon with one hundred sides, an elephant, a rose.
conceivable

So also are the symbols given above as examples of the essence, or class nature, of either a species or a genus.

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These are truly symbols because they express something conceivable: a mermaid, a purple cow, an inhabitant of another planet, a regular polygon with one hundred sides, an elephant, a rose. So also are the symbols given above as examples of the essence,

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#### Flashcard 1447236603148

Tags
#vocabulary
Question
Conceivable
1. capable of being conceived : imaginable <every conceivable combination>

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#### Flashcard 1447238438156

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A common name or a general description must represent an [...] or [...] which is intrinsically possible although it need not actually exist.
essence

class nature

Otherwise, it is devoid of meaning as are a square circle or a triangular square.

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A common name or a general description must represent an essence or class nature which is intrinsically possible although it need not actually exist. Otherwise, it is devoid of meaning as are a square circle or a triangular square.</bod

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#### Flashcard 1447240797452

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A proper name or an empirical description must symbolize an [...] or an [...] existing in fact (past or present) or in fiction
individual

aggregate

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A proper name or an empirical description must symbolize an individual or an aggregate existing in fact (past or present) or in fiction (wherein are characters, places, etc. created by the imagination). Otherwise, it is devoid of meaning, as are the presen

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#### Flashcard 1447243156748

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The definitions given in the dictionary are [...] of the single-word entries.
general descriptions

They clarify the meanings of the common names.

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The definitions given in the dictionary are general descript ions of the single-word entries. They clarify the meanings of the common names. A general description is itself made up wholly of common names.

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#### Flashcard 1447245516044

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A general description is itself made up wholly of [...]
common names.

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The definitions given in the dictionary are general descript ions of the single-word entries. They clarify the meanings of the common names. A general description is itself made up wholly of common names.

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#### Flashcard 1447247875340

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A [...] such as a rational animal, an equilateral triangle, an organ of sight can symbolize essence.
general or universal description

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A general or universal description such as a rational animal, an equilateral triangle, an organ of sight can symbolize essence.

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#### Flashcard 1447249448204

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
jump names a [...] of movement; whereas move means the [...] of jump, fly, creep, walk.
species

genus

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jump names a species of movement; whereas move means the genus of jump, fly, creep, walk.

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#### Flashcard 1447251807500

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
the bulk of language is made up of [...]; they symbolize either [...]
common names

species or genus.

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the bulk of language is made up of common names; they symbolize either species or genus.

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#### Flashcard 1447254166796

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Most of the words listed in the dictionary are [...]
common names.

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Most of the words listed in the dictionary are common names.

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#### Flashcard 1447255739660

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language can symbolize essence by either of two kinds of [...], both of which are applicable to all the members of a class
symbols

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Language can symbolize essence by either of t wo kinds of symbols, both of which are applicable to all the members of a class

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#### Flashcard 1447258098956

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A [...], such as child, tree, chair, square, hour, can symbolize essence.
common name

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A common name, such as child, tree, chair, square, hour, can symbolize essence.

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#### Flashcard 1447259671820

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
If language could not symbolize the [...], one could not designate particular persons, places, or times.
individual

Inconvenient as shit, son.

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If language could not symbolize the individual, one could not designate particular persons, places, or times. This would be extremely inconvenient.

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#### Flashcard 1447262031116

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
An [...] can symbolize the individual or an aggregate.
empirical description,

such as the present store manager, this computer, the woman who made the flag, the furniture in this house, the microbe now dividing in the petri dish,

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A particular or empirical description, such as the present store manager, this computer, the woman who made the flag, t he furniture in this house, the microbe now dividing in the petri dish, can symbolize the individual or

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#### Flashcard 1447264390412

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A [...], such as Eleanor Roosevelt, the Mississippi River, Halloween, London, the United States Senate, the Rotarians, the Mediterranean Sea, can symbolize the [...]
proper name

individual or an aggregate.

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A proper name, such as Eleanor Roosevelt, the Mississippi River, Halloween, London, the United States Senate, the Rotarians, the Mediterranean Sea, can symbolize the individual or an aggregate.

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#### Flashcard 1447266749708

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Throughout this book the word [...] is used with reference to our knowledge of individuals as such.
empirical

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Throughout this book the word empirical is used with reference to our knowledge of individuals as such.

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#### Flashcard 1447268322572

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Since only individuals exist, our [...] is directly concerned with them.
experience

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Since only individuals exist, our experience is directly concerned with them.

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#### Flashcard 1447269895436

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Empirical means [...]
founded on experience.

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Empirical means founded on experience.

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#### Flashcard 1447273565452

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A [...] is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limits its application to a particular individual or group.
particular or empirical description

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A particular or empirical description is a common name to which is joined a definitive which limit s its application to a particular individual or group.

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#### Flashcard 1447275924748

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language can symbolize an individual or an aggregate by either a [...]
proper name or a particular or empirical description.

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Language can symbolize an individual or an aggregate by either a proper name or a particular or empirical description.

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#### Flashcard 1447278546188

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Language employs four important kinds of symbols to represent reality: two to symbolize [...], two to symbolize the [...] which is common to all the individual members of a class.
the individual

essence

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Language employs four important kinds of symbols to represent reality: two to symbolize the individual, two to symbolize the essence which is common to all the individual members of a class.

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#### Flashcard 1447280905484

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Aggregate is a [...]
group consisting of t wo or more individuals.

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Aggregate is a group consisting of t wo or more individuals.

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#### Flashcard 1447284051212

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Species is a class made up of [...]
individuals that have in common the same specific essence.

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Species is a class made up of individuals that have in common the same specific essence.

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#### Flashcard 1447285624076

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is what makes a being what it is.
Essence

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Essence is what makes a being what it is.

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#### Flashcard 1447287196940

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
An individual is one. An [...] is simply a group consisting of two or more individuals.
aggregate

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An individual is one. An aggregate is simply a group consisting of two or more individuals.

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#### Flashcard 1447288769804

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The things in a room constitute an [...] belonging to [...] ,
aggregate of individuals

different species

such as chair, desk, table, book, heat vent, window, etc., but they are only a small part of each species.

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The things in a room constitute an aggregate of individuals belonging to different species, such as chair, desk, table, book, heat vent, window, etc., but they are only a small part of each species.

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#### Flashcard 1447291129100

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
an aggregate is a particular group of individuals that may or may not [...].
have the same essence or class nature.

but in either case, the aggregate does not include all the members that have that nature.

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an aggregate is a particular group of individuals that may or may not have the same essence or class nature; but in either case, the aggregate does not include all the members that have that nat ure

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

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#### Flashcard 1447293488396

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
man is a species and includes all men and women of [...]
every place and time

—past, present, and future.

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man is a species and includes all men and women of every place and time—past, present, and future.

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#### Flashcard 1447295847692

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The abstract character of genus is such that one [...] of animal but only of a particular kind or species of animal such as a horse or a dog.
cannot draw a picture,

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The abstract character of genus is such that one cannot draw a picture, for example, of animal but only of a particular kind or species of animal such as a horse or a dog.

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#### Flashcard 1447298206988

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
species is abstract, for one cannot photograph the species horse or dog; one can photograph only [...]
an individual

since every horse or dog that exists is an individual.

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species is abstract, for one cannot photograph the species horse or dog; one can photograph only an individual horse or dog since every horse or dog that exists is an individual.

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#### Flashcard 1447300566284

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The [...] is merely the [...] with the more definite characteristics of t he latter omitted.
generic essence

specific essence

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The generic essence is merely the specific essence with the more definite characteristics of t he latter omitted.

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#### Flashcard 1447302925580

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
An aggregat e or group of individuals must be clearly distinguished from a [...]
species or a genus.

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An aggregat e or group of individuals must be clearly distinguished from a species or a genus.

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#### Flashcard 1447304498444

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
An [...] is merely a particular group of individuals, such as the trees in Central Park, the inhabitants of California, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the items on a desk, the furniture in a house
aggregate

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An aggregate is merely a particular group of individuals, such as the trees in Central Park, the inhabitants of California, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the items on a desk, the furniture

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#### Flashcard 1447306071308

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The women of the ninet eenth century constitute an aggregate of individuals belonging to the same species, but they are only a part of the species, namely, [...]
those who existed at a particular time.

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The women of the ninet eenth century constitute an aggregate of individuals belonging to the same species, but they are only a part of the species, namely, those who existed at a particular time.

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#### Annotation 1447307644172

 Creating Symbols from Reality #sister-miriam-joseph #symbols-from-reality #trivium Words are symbols of ideas about reality. How does one derive ideas from reality and how does one classify them? Generating a universal idea or concept involves several steps, a process more fully treated in the study of psychology. GENERATION OF A CONCEPT First the external senses—sight, hearing, touch, smell, tast e—operate on an object present before us and produce a percept. The internal senses, primarily the imaginat ion, produce a phantasm or mental image of the individual object perceived, and this phantasm is retained and can be reproduced at will in the absence of the object. ILLUSTRATION: Percept and phantasm A percept is like a portrait being painted by the artist while she looks at the model. A phantasm is like that same portrait possessed and looked at whenever one wishes for years afterward although the person painted is absent or even dead.

#### pdf

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#### Flashcard 1447309479180

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Words are symbols of ideas about [...].
reality

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Words are symbols of ideas about reality. How does one derive ideas from reality and how does one classify them? Generating a universal idea or concept involves several steps, a process more fully treated in the study of psych

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

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#### Annotation 1447311838476

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium How does one derive ideas from reality and how does one classify them? Generating a universal idea or concept involves several steps, a process more fully treated in the study of psychology.

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Words are symbols of ideas about reality. How does one derive ideas from reality and how does one classify them? Generating a universal idea or concept involves several steps, a process more fully treated in the study of psychology. GENERATION OF A CONCEPT First the external senses—sight, hearing, touch, smell, tast e—operate on an object present before us and produce a percept. The internal sense

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

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#### Annotation 1447314197772

 GENERATION OF A CONCEPT #sister-miriam-joseph #symbols-from-reality #trivium First the external senses operate on an object present before us and produce a percept. The internal senses, primarily the imagination, produce a phantasm or mental image of the individual object perceived, and this phantasm is retained and can be reproduced at will in the absence of the object.

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rds are symbols of ideas about reality. How does one derive ideas from reality and how does one classify them? Generating a universal idea or concept involves several steps, a process more fully treated in the study of psychology. <span>GENERATION OF A CONCEPT First the external senses—sight, hearing, touch, smell, tast e—operate on an object present before us and produce a percept. The internal senses, primarily the imaginat ion, produce a phantasm or mental image of the individual object perceived, and this phantasm is retained and can be reproduced at will in the absence of the object. ILLUSTRATION : Percept and phantasm A percept is like a portrait being painted by the artist while she looks at the model. A phantasm is like th

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#### Flashcard 1447318916364

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #symbols-from-reality #trivium
Question
A [...] is like a portrait being painted by the artist while she looks at the model.

percept

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he imaginat ion, produce a phantasm or mental image of the individual object perceived, and this phantasm is retained and can be reproduced at will in the absence of the object. ILLUSTRATION : Percept and phantasm A <span>percept is like a portrait being painted by the artist while she looks at the model. A phantasm is like that same portrait possessed and looked at whenever one wishes for years af

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

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#### Flashcard 1447321275660

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #symbols-from-reality #trivium
Question
A [...] is like that same portrait possessed and looked at whenever one wishes for years afterward although the person painted is absent or even dead.
phantasm

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ntasm is retained and can be reproduced at will in the absence of the object. ILLUSTRATION : Percept and phantasm A percept is like a portrait being painted by the artist while she looks at the model. A <span>phantasm is like that same portrait possessed and looked at whenever one wishes for years afterward although the person painted is absent or even dead.<span><body><html>

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#### Annotation 1447323634956

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium There are four internal senses: t he imagination, the sensuous memory, the common or central or synthesizing sense, and instinct. The intellect through abstraction produces the concept. The imagination is the meeting ground between the senses and the intellect. From the phantasms in the imagination, the intellect abstracts that which is common and necessary to all the phantasms of similar objects (for example, trees or chairs); this is the essence (that which makes a tree a tree or that which makes a chair a chair). The intellectual apprehension of this essence is the general or universal concept (of a tree or a chair). A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence which exist s in the individual and makes it the kind of thing it is. Therefore, a concept is not arbitrary although the word is. Truth has an objective norm in the real.

#### pdf

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#### Annotation 1447326256396

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium There are four internal senses: The imagination, The sensuous memory, The common or central or synthesizing sense, and instinct.

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There are four internal senses: t he imagination, the sensuous memory, the common or central or synthesizing sense, and instinct. The intellect through abstraction produces the concept. The imagination is the meeting ground between the senses and the intellect. From the phantasms in the imagination, the intellect

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

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#### Flashcard 1447328615692

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
There are four internal senses:

The imagination,

The [...],

The common or central or synthesizing sense,

and instinct.
sensuous memory

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There are four internal senses: The imagination , The sensuous memory , The common or central or synthesizing sense , and instinct .

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#### Annotation 1447330188556

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The imagination is the meeting ground between the senses and the intellect. From the phantasms in the imagination, the intellect abstracts that which is common and necessary to all the phantasms of similar objects (for example, trees or chairs); this is the essence (that which makes a tree a tree or that which makes a chair a chair).

#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
There are four internal senses: t he imagination, the sensuous memory, the common or central or synthesizing sense, and instinct. The intellect through abstraction produces the concept. The imagination is the meeting ground between the senses and the intellect. From the phantasms in the imagination, the intellect abstracts that which is common and necessary to all the phantasms of similar objects (for example, trees or chairs); this is the essence (that which makes a tree a tree or that which makes a chair a chair). The intellectual apprehension of this essence is the general or universal concept (of a tree or a chair). A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having it

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

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#### Flashcard 1447331237132

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The [...] is the meeting ground between the senses and the intellect.
imagination

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The imagination is the meeting ground between the senses and the intellect. From the phantasms in the imagination, the intellect abstracts that which is common and necessary to all the phantasms of sim

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

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#### Flashcard 1447333596428

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
From the [...] in [...], the intellect abstracts that which is common and necessary to all the phantasms of similar objects (for example, trees or chairs); this is the essence (that which makes a tree a tree or that which makes a chair a chair).
phantasms in the imagination

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The imagination is the meeting ground between the senses and the intellect. From the phantasms in the imagination, the intellect abstracts that which is common and necessary to all the phantasms of similar objects (for example, trees or chairs); this is the essence (that which makes a tree a tree o

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#### Annotation 1447335955724

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The intellectual apprehension of this essence (Phantasm of imagination) is the general or universal concept. A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence which exist s in the individual and makes it the kind of thing it is. Therefore, a concept is not arbitrary although the word is. Truth has an objective norm in the real.

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e imagination, the intellect abstracts that which is common and necessary to all the phantasms of similar objects (for example, trees or chairs); this is the essence (that which makes a tree a tree or that which makes a chair a chair). <span>The intellectual apprehension of this essence is the general or universal concept (of a tree or a chair). A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence which exist s in the individual and makes it the kind of thing it is. Therefore, a concept is not arbitrary although the word is. Truth has an objective norm in the real.<span><body><html>

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#### Flashcard 1447337790732

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The intellectual apprehension of [...] (Phantasm of imagination) is the general or universal concept.
essence

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The intellectual apprehension of this essence (Phantasm of imagination) is the general or universal concept. A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

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#### Annotation 1447340150028

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence which exist s in the individual and makes it the kind of thing it is. Therefore, a concept is not arbitrary although the word is. Truth has an objective norm in the real.

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The intellectual apprehension of this essence (Phantasm of imagination) is the general or universal concept. A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence which exist s in the individual and makes it the kind of thing it is. Therefore, a concept is not arbitrary although the word is. Truth has an objective norm in the real.

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

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#### Flashcard 1447341722892

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A concept is [...] although the word is.
not arbitrary

Truth has an objective norm in the real.

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d><head>A general concept is a universal idea existing only in the mind but having its foundation outside the mind in the essence which exist s in the individual and makes it the kind of thing it is. Therefore, a concept is not arbitrary although the word is. Truth has an objective norm in the real.<html>

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#### Annotation 1447344868620

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Percept: the image created by the external senses upon encountering reality

#### pdf

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#### Flashcard 1447345917196

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] the image created by the external senses upon encountering reality
Percept:

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Percept: the image created by the external senses upon encountering reality

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#### Annotation 1447347490060

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Phantasm: the mental image created by the internal sense, primarily the imagination Concept: the abstraction created by the intellect through recognition of the essence

#### pdf

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#### Flashcard 1447349325068

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] the mental image created by the internal sense, primarily the imagination

Phantasm:

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Phantasm: the mental image created by the internal sense, primarily the imagination Concept : the abstraction created by the intellect through recognition of the essence

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#### Flashcard 1447351684364

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question

[...]: the abstraction created by the intellect through recognition of the essence
Concept

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Phantasm: the mental image created by the internal sense, primarily the imagination Concept : the abstraction created by the intellect through recognition of the essence

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#### Annotation 1447354043660

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium A general concept is universal because it is the knowledge of the essence present equally in every member of the class, regardless of time, place, or individual differences. For example, the concept “chair” is the knowledge of the essence “chair,” which must be in every chair at all times and in all places, regardless of size, weight, color, material, and other individual differences.

#### pdf

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#### Flashcard 1447355092236

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A [...] is universal because it is the knowledge of the essence present equally in every member of the class, regardless of time, place, or individual differences.
general concept

​For example, the concept “chair” is the knowledge of the essence “chair,” which must be in every chair at all times and in all places, regardless of size, weight, color, material, and other individual differences.

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A general concept is universal because it is the knowledge of the essence present equally in every member of the class, regardless of time, place, or individual differences. For example, the c

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#### Annotation 1447357451532

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium The real object (a tree or a chair) and likewise the corresponding percept and phantasm, is individual, material, limited to a particular place and time; the concept is universal, immaterial, not limited to a particular place and time.

#### pdf

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#### Annotation 1447359024396

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium Only human beings have the power of intellectual abstraction; therefore, only human beings can form a general or universal concept. Irrational animals have the external and internal senses, which are sometimes keener than those of humans. But because they lack the rational powers (intellect, intellectual memory, and free will), they are incapable of progress or of culture. Despite their remarkable instinct, their productions, intricate though they may be, remain the same through the centuries, for example: beaver dams, bird nests, anthills, beehives.

#### pdf

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#### Flashcard 1447360859404

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Only human beings have the power of intellectual abstraction; therefore, only human beings can form a general or universal [...].
concept

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Only human beings have the power of intellectual abstraction; therefore, only human beings can form a general or universal concept. Irrational animals have the external and internal senses, which are sometimes keener than those of humans. But because they lack the rational powers (intellect, intellectual memory, an

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#### Annotation 1447363218700

 #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium