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Flashcard 3886209174796

Question
In linux, in networking, Name Servers have different pieces of informaiton, known as records, about a particular hostname, the mapping that maps the IP address(es) to the main hostname (e.g. cnn.com) to is known as the [...] record.
Answer

A

^^ A stands for Address, and it would be something like this: 151.101.193.67 example.com


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What's a CNAME record? - DNSimple Help
you have both example.com and www.example.com pointing to the same application and hosted by the same server. In this case, to avoid maintaining two different records, it’s common to create: An <span>A record for example.com pointing to the server IP address A CNAME record for www.example.com pointing to example.com As a result, example.com points to the server IP address, and www.example.com points to the same address via example.com. Shou







Flashcard 4147106417932

Question
In kubernetes, if you have a set of pods (each with a container running the same app), you can group them together for the purpose of internal, or more importantly, external exposure via a kubernetes concept called [...]
Answer

service

^^ note that service is created behind the scenes via issueing the "kubectl expose" command.


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Flashcard 4147108515084

Question
In kubernetes, a [...] is a way to logically group a set of pods together for the purpose of allowing them to be accessed internally (within the cluster) and more importantly externally (from outside the cluster).
Answer
service

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gather up her courage
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pdf

cannot see any pdfs




A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and flooding rain. A tropical cyclone feeds on heat released when moist air rises, resulting in condensation of water vapour contained in the moist air. They are fueled by a different heat mechanism than other cyclonic windstorms such as nor'easters, European windstorms, and polar lows, leading to their classification as "warm core" storm systems.
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
tropical storms rarely have hurricane-force winds, they may become tropical in nature as their cores warm.[40] Tropical Main article: Tropical cyclone 2017 Atlantic hurricane season summary map <span>A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and flooding rain. A tropical cyclone feeds on heat released when moist air rises, resulting in condensation of water vapour contained in the moist air. They are fueled by a different heat mechanism than other cyclonic windstorms such as nor'easters, European windstorms, and polar lows, leading to their classification as "warm core" storm systems.[10] Hurricane Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 The term "tropical" refers to both the geographic origin of




counterclockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise rotation in the Southern Hemisphere. Depending on their location and strength, tropical cyclones are referred to by other names, such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, or simply as a cyclone.
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orm almost exclusively in tropical regions of the globe, and their dependence on Maritime Tropical air masses for their formation. The term "cyclone" refers to the storms' cyclonic nature, with <span>counterclockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise rotation in the Southern Hemisphere. Depending on their location and strength, tropical cyclones are referred to by other names, such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, or simply as a cyclone. While tropical cyclones can produce extremely powerful winds and torrential rain, they are also able to produce high waves and a damaging storm surge.[41] Their winds increase the wave




they are also able to produce high waves and a damaging storm surge.[
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
names, such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, or simply as a cyclone. While tropical cyclones can produce extremely powerful winds and torrential rain, <span>they are also able to produce high waves and a damaging storm surge.[41] Their winds increase the wave size, and in so doing they draw more heat and moisture into their system, thereby increasing their strength. They develop over large bodies of warm wate




They develop over large bodies of warm water,[42] and hence lose their strength if they move over land.[43] This is the reason coastal regions can receive significant damage from a tropical cyclone, while inland regions are relatively safe from strong winds.
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
to produce high waves and a damaging storm surge.[41] Their winds increase the wave size, and in so doing they draw more heat and moisture into their system, thereby increasing their strength. <span>They develop over large bodies of warm water,[42] and hence lose their strength if they move over land.[43] This is the reason coastal regions can receive significant damage from a tropical cyclone, while inland regions are relatively safe from strong winds. Heavy rains, however, can produce significant flooding inland. Storm surges are rises in sea level caused by the reduced pressure of the core that in effect "sucks" the water upward and




They also carry heat and energy away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes, which makes them an important part of the global atmospheric circulation mechanism. As a result, tropical cyclones help to maintain equilibrium in the Earth's troposphere.
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
nsive coastal flooding up to 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the coastline. Although their effects on human populations can be devastating, tropical cyclones can also relieve drought conditions.[44] <span>They also carry heat and energy away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes, which makes them an important part of the global atmospheric circulation mechanism. As a result, tropical cyclones help to maintain equilibrium in the Earth's troposphere. Many tropical cyclones develop when the atmospheric conditions around a weak disturbance in the atmosphere are favorable. Others form when other types of cyclones acquire tropical chara




Many tropical cyclones develop when the atmospheric conditions around a weak disturbance in the atmosphere are favorable. Others form when other types of cyclones acquire tropical characteristics. Tropical systems are then moved by steering winds in the troposphere; if the conditions remain favorable, the tropical disturbance intensifies, and can even develop an eye.
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
temperate latitudes, which makes them an important part of the global atmospheric circulation mechanism. As a result, tropical cyclones help to maintain equilibrium in the Earth's troposphere. <span>Many tropical cyclones develop when the atmospheric conditions around a weak disturbance in the atmosphere are favorable. Others form when other types of cyclones acquire tropical characteristics. Tropical systems are then moved by steering winds in the troposphere; if the conditions remain favorable, the tropical disturbance intensifies, and can even develop an eye. On the other end of the spectrum, if the conditions around the system deteriorate or the tropical cyclone makes landfall, the system weakens and eventually dissipates. A tropical cyclon




A tropical cyclone can become extratropical as it moves toward higher latitudes if its energy source changes from heat released by condensation to differences in temperature between air masses.
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
can even develop an eye. On the other end of the spectrum, if the conditions around the system deteriorate or the tropical cyclone makes landfall, the system weakens and eventually dissipates. <span>A tropical cyclone can become extratropical as it moves toward higher latitudes if its energy source changes from heat released by condensation to differences in temperature between air masses.[10] A tropical cyclone is usually not considered to become subtropical during its extratropical transition.[45] Atlantic hurricane Pacific hurricane Pacific typhoon North Indian Ocean c




A polar, sub-polar, or Arctic cyclone (also known as a polar vortex)[46] is a vast area of low pressure that strengthens in the winter and weakens in the summer.
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
hurricane Pacific typhoon North Indian Ocean cyclone South Pacific cyclone Australian region cyclone South-West Indian Ocean cyclone Upper level types Polar cyclone Main article: Polar cyclone <span>A polar, sub-polar, or Arctic cyclone (also known as a polar vortex)[46] is a vast area of low pressure that strengthens in the winter and weakens in the summer.[47] A polar cyclone is a low-pressure weather system, usually spanning 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi), in which the air circulates in a counterclockwise direct




A polar cyclone is a low-pressure weather system, usually spanning 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi), in which the air circulates in a counterclockwise direction in the northern hemisphere, and a clockwise direction in the southern hemisphere.
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
Main article: Polar cyclone A polar, sub-polar, or Arctic cyclone (also known as a polar vortex)[46] is a vast area of low pressure that strengthens in the winter and weakens in the summer.[47] <span>A polar cyclone is a low-pressure weather system, usually spanning 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi), in which the air circulates in a counterclockwise direction in the northern hemisphere, and a clockwise direction in the southern hemisphere. The Coriolis acceleration acting on the air masses moving poleward at high altitude, causes a counterclockwise circulation at high altitude. The poleward movement of air originates from




When the polar vortex is strong, its effect can be felt at the surface as a westerly wind (toward the east). When the polar cyclone is weak, significant cold outbreaks occur.[49]
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
One center lies near Baffin Island and the other over northeast Siberia.[46] In the southern hemisphere, it tends to be located near the edge of the Ross ice shelf near 160 west longitude.[48] <span>When the polar vortex is strong, its effect can be felt at the surface as a westerly wind (toward the east). When the polar cyclone is weak, significant cold outbreaks occur.[49] TUTT cell Main article: Upper tropospheric cyclonic vortex Under specific circumstances, upper level cold lows can break off from the base of the Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough (TUT




Under specific circumstances, upper level cold lows can break off from the base of the Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough (TUTT), which is located mid-ocean in the Northern Hemisphere during the summer months. These upper tropospheric cyclonic vortices, also known as TUTT cells or TUTT lows, usually move slowly from east-northeast to west-southwest, and their bases generally do not extend below 20,000 feet (6,100 m) in altitude.
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can be felt at the surface as a westerly wind (toward the east). When the polar cyclone is weak, significant cold outbreaks occur.[49] TUTT cell Main article: Upper tropospheric cyclonic vortex <span>Under specific circumstances, upper level cold lows can break off from the base of the Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough (TUTT), which is located mid-ocean in the Northern Hemisphere during the summer months. These upper tropospheric cyclonic vortices, also known as TUTT cells or TUTT lows, usually move slowly from east-northeast to west-southwest, and their bases generally do not extend below 20,000 feet (6,100 m) in altitude. A weak inverted surface trough within the trade wind is generally found underneath them, and they may also be associated with broad areas of high-level clouds. Downward development resu




A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. Also referred to as twisters, a colloquial term in America, or cyclones, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology, in a wider sense, to name any closed low-pressure circulation.
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
gether with updrafts in supercells, where tornadoes may form. About 1,700 mesocyclones form annually across the United States, but only half produce tornadoes.[11] Tornado Main article: Tornado <span>A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. Also referred to as twisters, a colloquial term in America, or cyclones, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology, in a wider sense, to name any closed low-pressure circulation. Dust devil Main article: Dust devil A dust devil is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a metre wide and a few metres tall) to large (mo




A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical cyclone and some characteristics of an extratropical cyclone. They can form between the equator and the 50th parallel.
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
r the more vigorous systems that have near-surface winds of at least 17 m/s.[35] Subtropical Subtropical Storm Alex in the north Atlantic Ocean in January 2016 Main article: Subtropical cyclone <span>A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical cyclone and some characteristics of an extratropical cyclone. They can form between the equator and the 50th parallel.[36] As early as the 1950s, meteorologists were unclear whether they should be characterized as tropical cyclones or extratropical cyclones, and used terms such as quasi-tropical and sem




They have broad wind patterns with maximum sustained winds located farther from the center than typical tropical cyclones, and exist in areas of weak to moderate temperature gradient.
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
National Hurricane Center officially recognized this cyclone category.[38] Subtropical cyclones began to receive names off the official tropical cyclone list in the Atlantic Basin in 2002.[36] <span>They have broad wind patterns with maximum sustained winds located farther from the center than typical tropical cyclones, and exist in areas of weak to moderate temperature gradient.[36] Since they form from extratropical cyclones, which have colder temperatures aloft than normally found in the tropics, the sea surface temperatures required is around 23 degrees Cels




Although subtropical storms rarely have hurricane-force winds, they may become tropical in nature as their cores warm.
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
which is three degrees Celsius (5 °F) lower than for tropical cyclones.[39] This means that subtropical cyclones are more likely to form outside the traditional bounds of the hurricane season. <span>Although subtropical storms rarely have hurricane-force winds, they may become tropical in nature as their cores warm.[40] Tropical Main article: Tropical cyclone 2017 Atlantic hurricane season summary map A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low-pressure center and numerous thunderst




Since they form from extratropical cyclones, which have colder temperatures aloft than normally found in the tropics, the sea surface temperatures required is around 23 degrees Celsius (73 °F) for their formation, which is three degrees Celsius (5 °F) lower than for tropical cyclones.
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
.[36] They have broad wind patterns with maximum sustained winds located farther from the center than typical tropical cyclones, and exist in areas of weak to moderate temperature gradient.[36] <span>Since they form from extratropical cyclones, which have colder temperatures aloft than normally found in the tropics, the sea surface temperatures required is around 23 degrees Celsius (73 °F) for their formation, which is three degrees Celsius (5 °F) lower than for tropical cyclones.[39] This means that subtropical cyclones are more likely to form outside the traditional bounds of the hurricane season. Although subtropical storms rarely have hurricane-force winds, t




A polar low is a small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low-pressure system (depression) that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
arly intense type of extratropical cyclone that strikes during winter is known colloquially as a nor'easter. Polar low Main article: Polar low A polar low over the Sea of Japan in December 2009 <span>A polar low is a small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low-pressure system (depression) that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Polar lows were first identified on the meteorological satellite imagery that became available in the 1960s, which revealed many small-scale cloud vortices at high latitudes. The most a




Polar lows dissipate rapidly when they make landfall. Antarctic systems tend to be weaker than their northern counterparts since the air-sea temperature differences around the continent are generally smaller [ citation needed ]. However, vigorous polar lows can be found over the Southern Ocean.
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udes. The most active polar lows are found over certain ice-free maritime areas in or near the Arctic during the winter, such as the Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, Labrador Sea and Gulf of Alaska. <span>Polar lows dissipate rapidly when they make landfall. Antarctic systems tend to be weaker than their northern counterparts since the air-sea temperature differences around the continent are generally smaller[citation needed]. However, vigorous polar lows can be found over the Southern Ocean. During winter, when cold-core lows with temperatures in the mid-levels of the troposphere reach −45 °C (−49 °F) move over open waters, deep convection forms, which allows polar low deve




Because of the Coriolis effect, the wind flow around a large cyclone is counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
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Cyclone - Wikipedia
he pressure outside the cyclone) and the force from the Coriolis effect must be in an approximate balance, or the cyclone would collapse on itself as a result of the difference in pressure.[18] <span>Because of the Coriolis effect, the wind flow around a large cyclone is counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.[19] In the Northern Hemisphere, the fastest winds relative to the surface of the Earth therefore occur on the eastern side of a northward-moving cyclone and on the northern side of a we




An anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon defined as a large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.[
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Anticyclone - Wikipedia
ere weather terminology Canada Japan United States Weather forecasting Weather modification Glossaries[show] Meteorology Climate change Tornado terms Tropical cyclone terms Weather portal v t e <span>An anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon defined as a large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.[1] Effects of surface-based anticyclones include clearing skies as well as cooler, drier air. Fog can also form overnight within a region of higher pressure. Mid-tropospheric systems, su




Anticyclones aloft can form within warm core lows such as tropical cyclones, due to descending cool air from the backside of upper troughs such as polar highs, or from large scale sinking such as the subtropical ridge.
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Anticyclone - Wikipedia
tropical ridge, deflect tropical cyclones around their periphery and cause a temperature inversion inhibiting free convection near their center, building up surface-based haze under their base. <span>Anticyclones aloft can form within warm core lows such as tropical cyclones, due to descending cool air from the backside of upper troughs such as polar highs, or from large scale sinking such as the subtropical ridge. The evolution of an anticyclone depends upon variables such as its size, intensity, and extent of moist convection, as well as the Coriolis force.[2] Contents 1 History 1.1 Subtropical




Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth. Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild showers to heavy gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, and tornadoes.
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Extratropical cyclone - Wikipedia
ere weather terminology Canada Japan United States Weather forecasting Weather modification Glossaries[show] Meteorology Climate change Tornado terms Tropical cyclone terms Weather portal v t e <span>Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth. Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild showers to heavy gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, and tornadoes. These types of cyclones are defined as large scale (synoptic) low pressure weather systems that occur in the middle latitudes of the Earth. In contrast with tropical cyclones, extratrop




Extratropical cyclones form anywhere within the extratropical regions of the Earth (usually between 30° and 60° latitude from the equator), either through cyclogenesis or extratropical transition
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Extratropical cyclone - Wikipedia
Approximate areas of extratropical cyclone formation worldwide An upper-level jet streak. DIV areas are regions of divergence aloft, which will lead to surface convergence and aid cyclogenesis. <span>Extratropical cyclones form anywhere within the extratropical regions of the Earth (usually between 30° and 60° latitude from the equator), either through cyclogenesis or extratropical transition. A study of extratropical cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere shows that between the 30th and 70th parallels, there are an average of 37 cyclones in existence during any 6-hour period.[




Category 5 is the highest category of the Saffir–Simpson scale. These storms cause complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings, and some complete building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away.
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Saffir–Simpson scale - Wikipedia
37 kn ≥ 252 km/h ≥ 157 mph Dorian in 2019 nearing its Bahamas landfall. See also: List of Category 5 Atlantic hurricanes and List of Category 5 Pacific hurricanes Catastrophic damage will occur <span>Category 5 is the highest category of the Saffir–Simpson scale. These storms cause complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings, and some complete building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away. Collapse of many wide-span roofs and walls, especially those with no interior supports, is common. Very heavy and irreparable damage to many wood frame structures and total destruction




Category 4 hurricanes tend to produce more extensive curtainwall failures, with some complete structural failure on small residences. Heavy, irreparable damage and near-complete destruction of gas station canopies and other wide span overhang type structures are common.
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Saffir–Simpson scale - Wikipedia
kn 209–251 km/h 130–156 mph Eta in 2020 nearing landfall in Nicaragua. See also: List of Category 4 Atlantic hurricanes and List of Category 4 Pacific hurricanes Catastrophic damage will occur <span>Category 4 hurricanes tend to produce more extensive curtainwall failures, with some complete structural failure on small residences. Heavy, irreparable damage and near-complete destruction of gas station canopies and other wide span overhang type structures are common. Mobile and manufactured homes are often flattened. Most trees, except for the hardiest, are uprooted or snapped, isolating many areas. These storms cause extensive beach erosion, while




Tropical cyclones of Category 3 and higher are described as major hurricanes in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific basins. These storms can cause some structural damage to small residences and utility buildings, particularly those of wood frame or manufactured materials with minor curtain wall failures.
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Saffir–Simpson scale - Wikipedia
–112 kn 178–208 km/h 111–129 mph Otto in 2016 at its Nicaragua landfall. See also: List of Category 3 Atlantic hurricanes and List of Category 3 Pacific hurricanes Devastating damage will occur <span>Tropical cyclones of Category 3 and higher are described as major hurricanes in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific basins. These storms can cause some structural damage to small residences and utility buildings, particularly those of wood frame or manufactured materials with minor curtain wall failures. Buildings that lack a solid foundation, such as mobile homes, are usually destroyed, and gable-end roofs are peeled off. Manufactured homes usually sustain severe and irreparable damage




Category 1 storms usually cause no significant structural damage to most well-constructed permanent structures; however, they can topple unanchored mobile homes, as well as uproot or snap weak trees.
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Saffir–Simpson scale - Wikipedia
119–153 km/h 74–95 mph Nana in 2020 approaching Belize. See also: List of Category 1 Atlantic hurricanes and List of Category 1 Pacific hurricanes Very dangerous winds will produce some damage <span>Category 1 storms usually cause no significant structural damage to most well-constructed permanent structures; however, they can topple unanchored mobile homes, as well as uproot or snap weak trees. Poorly attached roof shingles or tiles can blow off. Coastal flooding and pier damage are often associated with Category 1 storms. Power outages are typically widespread to extensive, s




The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), which aims to make India open defecation free (ODF) by October 2019, has now left many people in Haryana reeling under debt.

Under the programme, people can avail reimbursement (Rs 12,000) for constructing toilets in their homes.

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Swachh Bharat Mission: Haryana’s race for ODF tag pushed people in debt traps
to construct toilets, but were not given subsidy promised under SBM NEXT NEWS ❯ By Shagun Kapil Published: Wednesday 18 September 2019 Haryana got the ODF tag in June 2017. Photo: Ignas Kukenys <span>The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), which aims to make India open defecation free (ODF) by October 2019, has now left many people in Haryana reeling under debt. Under the programme, people can avail reimbursement (Rs 12,000) for constructing toilets in their homes. Haryana got the ODF tag in June 2017. However, in the race to get it, the state officials used coercive measures like chasing people with sticks or filing an FIR, to stop people in vill




Even ASHA workers came outside our homes and sat on a dharna and said no one from here will go to the fields.
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Swachh Bharat Mission: Haryana’s race for ODF tag pushed people in debt traps
for constructing a latrine last year, after police threatened him with an FIR if he continued to defecate in the open. He makes hoof parts for buffaloes and earns a meagre Rs 100 per buffalo. “<span>Even ASHA workers came outside our homes and sat on a dharna and said no one from here will go to the fields. But we got no money. I heard there is a subsidy and filled a form but money hasn’t come yet. I can repay some of the loan amount only after I get that money,” he said. Swachh Bharat Mis




The 1995 Basel Ban Amendment, a global waste dumping prohibition, has become an international law after Croatia ratified it on September 6, 2019.
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Basel Ban Amendment becomes law
arties to the Basel Convention in 1995, to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous wastes NEXT NEWS ❯ By DTE Staff Published: Tuesday 10 September 2019 <span>The 1995 Basel Ban Amendment, a global waste dumping prohibition, has become an international law after Croatia ratified it on September 6, 2019. Croatia became the 97th country to ratify the ban, which was adopted by the parties to the Basel Convention in 1995, to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effe




Croatia became the 97th country to ratify the ban, which was adopted by the parties to the Basel Convention in 1995, to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous wastes, according to Basel Action Network (BAN).
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Basel Ban Amendment becomes law
DTE Staff Published: Tuesday 10 September 2019 The 1995 Basel Ban Amendment, a global waste dumping prohibition, has become an international law after Croatia ratified it on September 6, 2019. <span>Croatia became the 97th country to ratify the ban, which was adopted by the parties to the Basel Convention in 1995, to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous wastes, according to Basel Action Network (BAN). BAN is a Unites States-based charity organisation and is one among the organisations and countries, which created the Basel Ban Amendment — hailed as a landmark agreement for global env




BAN is a Unites States-based charity organisation and is one among the organisations and countries, which created the Basel Ban Amendment — hailed as a landmark agreement for global environmental justice.
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Basel Ban Amendment becomes law
was adopted by the parties to the Basel Convention in 1995, to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous wastes, according to Basel Action Network (BAN). <span>BAN is a Unites States-based charity organisation and is one among the organisations and countries, which created the Basel Ban Amendment — hailed as a landmark agreement for global environmental justice. The Ban Amendment prohibits all export of hazardous wastes, including electronic wastes and obsolete ships from 29 wealthiest countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and D




The Ban Amendment prohibits all export of hazardous wastes, including electronic wastes and obsolete ships from 29 wealthiest countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to non-OECD countries.
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Basel Ban Amendment becomes law
ites States-based charity organisation and is one among the organisations and countries, which created the Basel Ban Amendment — hailed as a landmark agreement for global environmental justice. <span>The Ban Amendment prohibits all export of hazardous wastes, including electronic wastes and obsolete ships from 29 wealthiest countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to non-OECD countries. The Ban Amendment had been stalled for all these years due to uncertainty over how to interpret the Convention. It will become a new Article in the Convention and will enter into force




However, countries like the US, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Russia, India, Brazil, and Mexico are yet to ratify the ban.
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Basel Ban Amendment becomes law
, US, said in a release. “We applaud Croatia and all of the 97 countries that have ratified the agreement to date and hope that all others will now do so at the earliest opportunity,” he added. <span>However, countries like the US, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Russia, India, Brazil, and Mexico are yet to ratify the ban. The US produces the most waste per-capita but has failed to ratify the Basel Convention and has actively opposed the Ban Amendment. Non-adherence to international waste trade rules has




Non-adherence to international waste trade rules has allowed unscrupulous US ‘recyclers’ to export many hundreds of containers of hazardous electronic waste each week to developing countries for so-called recycling, according to BAN. Nearly, 40 per cent of e-waste delivered to US recyclers is exported to Asian and African countries.
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Basel Ban Amendment becomes law
Russia, India, Brazil, and Mexico are yet to ratify the ban. The US produces the most waste per-capita but has failed to ratify the Basel Convention and has actively opposed the Ban Amendment. <span>Non-adherence to international waste trade rules has allowed unscrupulous US ‘recyclers’ to export many hundreds of containers of hazardous electronic waste each week to developing countries for so-called recycling, according to BAN. Nearly, 40 per cent of e-waste delivered to US recyclers is exported to Asian and African countries. The recycling involves the burning, melting and chemically stripping electronic waste by desperate, unprotected workers in highly polluting operations. Further, wastes from the shipping




“With the Ban Amendment now a legal certainty, we hope the countries that have to date refused to ratify will do so and close the sad chapter of toxic colonialism done in the name of recycling.”
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Basel Ban Amendment becomes law
onal disease and death due to fires and explosions, BAN said. “There can be no excuse for using the developing world as the dumping ground for the toxic effluent of the affluent,” said Puckett. <span>“With the Ban Amendment now a legal certainty, we hope the countries that have to date refused to ratify will do so and close the sad chapter of toxic colonialism done in the name of recycling.” Hazardous Waste Basel Ban Amendment Basel Action Network (… Waste World Subscribe to Weekly Newsletter : Donate Now We are a voice to you; you have been a support to us. Together we bui




The plant, which was developed based on a technology by IIP researchers, can convert one tonne of plastic waste into 800 litres of diesel every day.
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Harsh Vardhan inaugurates plant to convert plastic waste into diesel in Dehradun
2019, inaugurated a demonstration plant for converting plastic waste to diesel based on at the Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP) of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research in Dehradun. <span>The plant, which was developed based on a technology by IIP researchers, can convert one tonne of plastic waste into 800 litres of diesel every day. The fuel will be of automotive grade. It meets the specifications for use in vehicles. GAIL (India) has sponsored the technology development and provided technical support for the endea




The process is also environmentally friendly. IIP and GAIL have planned to roll out the technology nation-wide after six months of operation of the pilot plant.
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Harsh Vardhan inaugurates plant to convert plastic waste into diesel in Dehradun
. Using the technology, polyolefinic waste can be converted into diesel. This type of waste accounts for about 70 per cent of total plastic waste in the country and is the least bio-degradable. <span>The process is also environmentally friendly. IIP and GAIL have planned to roll out the technology nation-wide after six months of operation of the pilot plant. Vardhan applauded scientists involved in developing the technology and noted that in 2018, he had witnessed the landing of a commercial flight with bio-jet fuel developed by IIP researc




Vardhan applauded scientists involved in developing the technology and noted that in 2018, he had witnessed the landing of a commercial flight with bio-jet fuel developed by IIP researchers. Of the two engines of the aircraft, one had the bio-jet fuel to an extent of 25 per cent.
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Harsh Vardhan inaugurates plant to convert plastic waste into diesel in Dehradun
and is the least bio-degradable. The process is also environmentally friendly. IIP and GAIL have planned to roll out the technology nation-wide after six months of operation of the pilot plant. <span>Vardhan applauded scientists involved in developing the technology and noted that in 2018, he had witnessed the landing of a commercial flight with bio-jet fuel developed by IIP researchers. Of the two engines of the aircraft, one had the bio-jet fuel to an extent of 25 per cent. He urged IIP and GAIL to scale up the technology to develop a 10 tonnes per day plant and offered to conduct experiment in Delhi to solve the menace of plastic waste in the capital. The




Developed with financial support from Petroleum Conservation Research Association, the burner provides better safety by eliminating flame lift and flash back and controlled loss of unburnt fuel to the environment.
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Harsh Vardhan inaugurates plant to convert plastic waste into diesel in Dehradun
plant and offered to conduct experiment in Delhi to solve the menace of plastic waste in the capital. The minister also visited the bio-jet fuel plant and PNG burner facility at the institute. <span>Developed with financial support from Petroleum Conservation Research Association, the burner provides better safety by eliminating flame lift and flash back and controlled loss of unburnt fuel to the environment. The technology has been licensed to 39 manufacturers for fabrication and sale. The burner has been tested. It has shown a fuel saving of 31 per cent. (India Science Wire) PLASTIC WASTE




South Africa’s Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) on August 23, 2019, imposed a ban on all forms of liquid waste from being dumped at landfill sites, six years after it was first announced.
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South Africa bans dumping of liquid waste in landfills
ter reserves from toxic leachate, help hazardous wastes to be used as alternative for fossil fuels and boost the country’s economy NEXT NEWS ❯ By Kiran Pandey Published: Thursday 29 August 2019 <span>South Africa’s Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) on August 23, 2019, imposed a ban on all forms of liquid waste from being dumped at landfill sites, six years after it was first announced. The ban means nearly one million tonnes of liquid waste produced in South Africa annually will now have to be transported to a different waste management facility. “The prohibitions and




According to previous regulations, hazardous liquid waste with calorific values of more than 20 megajoules per kilogram (MJ/kg) such as refinery waste, chemical processed paint waste, hydrocarbon contaminated liquids, sludges and chemical solvents were barred from being disposed in landfills.

The current ban, however, includes reactive wastes, recyclable waste oils, whole waste tyres, lamps, lead acid batteries, besides any waste with a calorific value of more than 20 MJ/kg.

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South Africa bans dumping of liquid waste in landfills
dfill operation and waste diversion from landfill (waste hierarchy) as stipulated in the Waste Act,” Zama Mtembu from DEA’s hazardous waste management division, told Down To Earth, in an email. <span>According to previous regulations, hazardous liquid waste with calorific values of more than 20 megajoules per kilogram (MJ/kg) such as refinery waste, chemical processed paint waste, hydrocarbon contaminated liquids, sludges and chemical solvents were barred from being disposed in landfills. The current ban, however, includes reactive wastes, recyclable waste oils, whole waste tyres, lamps, lead acid batteries, besides any waste with a calorific value of more than 20 MJ/kg. Importantly, the ban will ensure that groundwater reserves in the country are protected from toxic leachate, which seeps hazardous liquids through landfills. Waste disposal facilities w




The Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (IIT KGP) will steer Saraswati 2.0 — a Rs 15-crore project funded by the European Union and the Government of India’s departments of Science and Technology and Biotechnology — to develop affordable technologies for treatment of wastewater and provide solutions for its use in both rural and urban India.
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IIT Kharagpur to steer Saraswati 2.0 for reuse of treated water
ojects to treat wastewater, make it re-usable and also explore its usage in compost or value added products produced free of pathogens NEXT NEWS ❯ By DTE Staff Published: Tuesday 20 August 2019 <span>The Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (IIT KGP) will steer Saraswati 2.0 — a Rs 15-crore project funded by the European Union and the Government of India’s departments of Science and Technology and Biotechnology — to develop affordable technologies for treatment of wastewater and provide solutions for its use in both rural and urban India. Saraswati 2.0, which has been selected under the EU-India Joint Call on Research and Innovation for Water, follows the Saraswati project of 2012-17. The EU will invest up to Rs 323 cror




Saraswati 2.0, which has been selected under the EU-India Joint Call on Research and Innovation for Water, follows the Saraswati project of 2012-17. The EU will invest up to Rs 323 crore on various projects for four years.

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IIT Kharagpur to steer Saraswati 2.0 for reuse of treated water
India’s departments of Science and Technology and Biotechnology — to develop affordable technologies for treatment of wastewater and provide solutions for its use in both rural and urban India. <span>Saraswati 2.0, which has been selected under the EU-India Joint Call on Research and Innovation for Water, follows the Saraswati project of 2012-17. The EU will invest up to Rs 323 crore on various projects for four years. IIT KGP will steer three pilot projects to treat wastewater, make it reusable and also explore its usage in compost or value added products that are produced free of pathogens. For this




For the project, IIT KGP would collaborate with lead European partner BOKU (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna). The other Indian partners in the project are IIT Madras, IIT Bhubaneswar, IIT Roorkee, National Institute of Industrial Engineering Mumbai, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, TERI School of Advanced Studies.
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IIT Kharagpur to steer Saraswati 2.0 for reuse of treated water
n charge of IIT KGP’s Aditya Choubey Center for Re-water Research. Seven more pilot plants will be set up in the partnering Indian institutes. These plants will be commissioned by January 2020. <span>For the project, IIT KGP would collaborate with lead European partner BOKU (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna). The other Indian partners in the project are IIT Madras, IIT Bhubaneswar, IIT Roorkee, National Institute of Industrial Engineering Mumbai, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, TERI School of Advanced Studies. Untreated domestic and municipal wastewater is a major source of water and environmental pollution in India. Treating wastewater can prevent pollution in rivers, lakes and ponds as well




the Centre also launched a new unified Jal Shakti ministry by merging the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation and Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.
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IIT Kharagpur to steer Saraswati 2.0 for reuse of treated water
de an additional source of water supply. The Narendra Modi-led government has, in its second tenure, laid much emphasis on bringing piped water to all rural households by 2024. For the purpose, <span>the Centre also launched a new unified Jal Shakti ministry by merging the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation and Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. Wastewater iit Wastewater Recycling Wastewater treatment jal shakti ministry Water Supply narendra modi Waste India Subscribe to Weekly Newsletter : Donate Now We are a voice to you; yo




Scientists from the Indian Institute of Technology-Guwahati (IIT-G) have developed a membrane that promises to help remove oil and dyes simultaneously from industrial water.
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New membrane to help remove oil, dyes from industrial waste water
ane, developed by team from IIT-G, using graphene oxide, cotton fibre and dopamine removed around 98 per cent of oil from the water NEXT NEWS ❯ By Aditi Jain Published: Wednesday 14 August 2019 <span>Scientists from the Indian Institute of Technology-Guwahati (IIT-G) have developed a membrane that promises to help remove oil and dyes simultaneously from industrial water. Amid the looming water crisis, deterioration of quality of river waters due to discharge of effluents from industries is also a major concern in India. Ganga receives 500 million litres




India set a deadline for the 12th time to take water at the household-level. In the past the country has failed miserably to keep this promise. Modi’s new target has raised hopes.
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Modi’s rural sojourn: Take piped water to 4,620 households everyday
water. On June 15 when the governing council of NITI Aayog met, he annopunced a characteristic target-driven agenda: “The aim is to provide piped water to every rural home by 2024.” With that, <span>India set a deadline for the 12th time to take water at the household-level. In the past the country has failed miserably to keep this promise. Modi’s new target has raised hopes. It would be an enormous exercise: Some 8.43 million households — currently without drinking water facilities — have to be connected to piped water in the next five years. Some 4,620 hou




The grand promise comes on the eve of India becoming open-defecation free by October 2019
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Modi’s rural sojourn: Take piped water to 4,620 households everyday
es — have to be connected to piped water in the next five years. Some 4,620 households would have to be added to the network every day for the next five years, at the rate of 40 litres per day. <span>The grand promise comes on the eve of India becoming open-defecation free by October 2019 — another promise that Modi made in his last tenure and has spectacularly succeeded in delivering. Every household with a toilet would also add to the demand for water at the household-




By April 1, 2018, however, only 20 per cent of rural households could be connected to piped water supply, the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation record showed.
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Modi’s rural sojourn: Take piped water to 4,620 households everyday
e some caveats. In 2017, his government launched the Har Ghar Jal programme with the same objective. It was to ensure safe drinking water to all household with piped supply being the main mode. <span>By April 1, 2018, however, only 20 per cent of rural households could be connected to piped water supply, the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation record showed. Related Stories Does rural India have enough water to sustain open-defecation free status? A worsening water crisis in North Africa and the Middle East 2.1 billion people lack access to




This promise came with enhanced water entitlement for each household. Under Har Ghar Jal, the ministry increased drinking water supply in rural areas to 55 litres per capita per day (lpcd). “But, less than 50 per cent of households receive this amount. The old supply rate was 40 lpcd and almost 80 per cent of households get it,”
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Modi’s rural sojourn: Take piped water to 4,620 households everyday
The promise was to cover 35 per cent of rural households with piped drinking water in 2018-19, Down To Earth earlier reported citing a 2018 report by the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG). <span>This promise came with enhanced water entitlement for each household. Under Har Ghar Jal, the ministry increased drinking water supply in rural areas to 55 litres per capita per day (lpcd). “But, less than 50 per cent of households receive this amount. The old supply rate was 40 lpcd and almost 80 per cent of households get it,” Down To Earth reported. As the new target sets in, India will continue to be haunted by what is known as the “slippage” problem. It means villages/habitations covered with safe drinking




According to the CAG report, which analysed the state of rural water supply between 2012 and 2017
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Modi’s rural sojourn: Take piped water to 4,620 households everyday
covered with safe drinking water facilities slip back to 'not-covered' status due to various reasons that include drying up of the source or collapse of the facilities due to non-maintenances. <span>According to the CAG report, which analysed the state of rural water supply between 2012 and 2017, 4.76 lakh habitations had slipped from 'fully covered' to 'partially covered' state. Numbers of such slippage habitations were high in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Odis




While it is not known from where the piped water supply schemes would draw water, currently India majorly depends on groundwater for all water uses.
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Modi’s rural sojourn: Take piped water to 4,620 households everyday
lpcd shows that between 2016-2017 and 2017-18, there was a decrease in number of habitations in 'fully covered' status with a rise in those in 'partially covered' and quality-affected statuses. <span>While it is not known from where the piped water supply schemes would draw water, currently India majorly depends on groundwater for all water uses. There is an 80 per cent increase in deep tubewells between 2006-07 and 2013-14. Overdependence on groundwater and depletion of underground sources are major reasons why many covered vil




Dipankar Saha, a former member of the Central Ground water Board, terms India as the world’s largest extractor of groundwater.
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Modi’s rural sojourn: Take piped water to 4,620 households everyday
se in deep tubewells between 2006-07 and 2013-14. Overdependence on groundwater and depletion of underground sources are major reasons why many covered villages slip back to not-covered status. <span>Dipankar Saha, a former member of the Central Ground water Board, terms India as the world’s largest extractor of groundwater. “Almost the entire rural water supply and over half of urban water demand is catered by aquifers,” he says. India extracts around 24 billion cubic meter groundwater to cater to 85 per c




nearly 70 per cent of all of the country’s fresh water sources are contaminated. The same agency said 600 million Indians are under water stress due to these reasons.
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Modi’s rural sojourn: Take piped water to 4,620 households everyday
e to a billion Indians depend on it for water demands. On the other hand, the quality of water sources — both surface and ground sources — is hardly suited to drinking. According to NITI Aayog, <span>nearly 70 per cent of all of the country’s fresh water sources are contaminated. The same agency said 600 million Indians are under water stress due to these reasons. In the last 25 years when reaching safe drinking water has been a flagship national goal (not to forget the target under the United Nations-mandated Sustainable Development Goals commit




In the last 25 years when reaching safe drinking water has been a flagship national goal (not to forget the target under the United Nations-mandated Sustainable Development Goals committed for 2030), Indian habitations continue to be haunted by lack of safe drinking water.
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Modi’s rural sojourn: Take piped water to 4,620 households everyday
. According to NITI Aayog, nearly 70 per cent of all of the country’s fresh water sources are contaminated. The same agency said 600 million Indians are under water stress due to these reasons. <span>In the last 25 years when reaching safe drinking water has been a flagship national goal (not to forget the target under the United Nations-mandated Sustainable Development Goals committed for 2030), Indian habitations continue to be haunted by lack of safe drinking water. And at the core of this failure is the safe and sustainable source of water. On both these counts, we have failed. The latest promise has to factor in this challenge. Rural Water Supply




They found that the membrane was able to remove around 98 per cent of oil from the water. The membrane’s properties remained unaffected by bending, creasing, twisting, rolling, rubbing with sand paper and treatment with water with extreme salinity. Further, it was found that it can be used for up to ten times.
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New membrane to help remove oil, dyes from industrial waste water
their positive charge, the dyes were attracted to and adsorbed on the negatively charged membrane, leaving behind clean water. They then tried it on a sample containing a mix of water and oil. <span>They found that the membrane was able to remove around 98 per cent of oil from the water. The membrane’s properties remained unaffected by bending, creasing, twisting, rolling, rubbing with sand paper and treatment with water with extreme salinity. Further, it was found that it can be used for up to ten times. “We are looking to scale up the process and also incorporate additional features in the material for simultaneous separation of organic pollutants, heavy metal ions and oil spills for c




Scientists tested the membrane on a water sample containing two dyes-methylene blue and crystal violet. Due to their positive charge, the dyes were attracted to and adsorbed on the negatively charged membrane, leaving behind clean water. They then tried it on a sample containing a mix of water and oil.
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New membrane to help remove oil, dyes from industrial waste water
developing the membrane, scientists first synthesised molecules of poly-dopamine. They then deposited them on the surface of cotton fibers and subsequently coated the combo with graphene oxide. <span>Scientists tested the membrane on a water sample containing two dyes-methylene blue and crystal violet. Due to their positive charge, the dyes were attracted to and adsorbed on the negatively charged membrane, leaving behind clean water. They then tried it on a sample containing a mix of water and oil. They found that the membrane was able to remove around 98 per cent of oil from the water. The membrane’s properties remained unaffected by bending, creasing, twisting, rolling, rubbing




Dyes are led into water bodies by effluents from textile, printing and cosmetic industries whereas oil enters water due to spillages during oil refinery operations. A single solution to remove both these pollutants was difficult to find since while dyes dissolve in water, oil doesn’t.
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New membrane to help remove oil, dyes from industrial waste water
nna, leader of research team and assistant professor at IIT-Guwahati, while speaking to India Science Wire. The findings have been published in the journal ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. <span>Dyes are led into water bodies by effluents from textile, printing and cosmetic industries whereas oil enters water due to spillages during oil refinery operations. A single solution to remove both these pollutants was difficult to find since while dyes dissolve in water, oil doesn’t. The team sought to tackle the problem by developing a membrane using graphene oxide, cotton fibre and dopamine, an organic chemical, which is more known for its functions as a hormone a




Scientists tested the membrane on a water sample containing two dyes-methylene blue and crystal violet. Due to their positive charge, the dyes were attracted to and adsorbed on the negatively charged membrane, leaving behind clean water. They then tried it on a sample containing a mix of water and oil.

They found that the membrane was able to remove around 98 per cent of oil from the water. The membrane’s properties remained unaffected by bending, creasing, twisting, rolling, rubbing with sand paper and treatment with water with extreme salinity. Further, it was found that it can be used for up to ten times.

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New membrane to help remove oil, dyes from industrial waste water
developing the membrane, scientists first synthesised molecules of poly-dopamine. They then deposited them on the surface of cotton fibers and subsequently coated the combo with graphene oxide. <span>Scientists tested the membrane on a water sample containing two dyes-methylene blue and crystal violet. Due to their positive charge, the dyes were attracted to and adsorbed on the negatively charged membrane, leaving behind clean water. They then tried it on a sample containing a mix of water and oil. They found that the membrane was able to remove around 98 per cent of oil from the water. The membrane’s properties remained unaffected by bending, creasing, twisting, rolling, rubbing with sand paper and treatment with water with extreme salinity. Further, it was found that it can be used for up to ten times. “We are looking to scale up the process and also incorporate additional features in the material for simultaneous separation of organic pollutants, heavy metal ions and oil spills for c




developing a membrane using graphene oxide, cotton fibre and dopamine, an organic chemical, which is more known for its functions as a hormone and a neurotransmitter in human body.
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New membrane to help remove oil, dyes from industrial waste water
during oil refinery operations. A single solution to remove both these pollutants was difficult to find since while dyes dissolve in water, oil doesn’t. The team sought to tackle the problem by <span>developing a membrane using graphene oxide, cotton fibre and dopamine, an organic chemical, which is more known for its functions as a hormone and a neurotransmitter in human body. For developing the membrane, scientists first synthesised molecules of poly-dopamine. They then deposited them on the surface of cotton fibers and subsequently coated the combo with gra




Swachh Bharat Mission has been one of the key missions of Narendra Modi-led government since its launch in 2014. It aims to make India Open defecation free by October 2019
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SBM 2.0 focussed on ODF sustainability: Govt
rent Issue Download Print Archives SIGN IN SUBSCRIBE Coronavirus News In-depth Blogs Videos Book Store Africa Climate Gobar Times डाउन टू अर्थ Waste SBM 2.0 focussed on ODF sustainability: Govt <span>Swachh Bharat Mission has been one of the key missions of Narendra Modi-led government since its launch in 2014. It aims to make India Open defecation free by October 2019 NEXT NEWS ❯ By Shagun Kapil Published: Sunday 11 August 2019 A public toilet in Leh-Ladakh. Photo: Getty Images States have been asked to initiate their versions of National Annual Rura




Nearly 93.1 per cent of rural Indian households have access to toilets and 96.5 per cent of these toilets are in constant usage, according to the findings of second edition of NARSS in 2018-19.
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SBM 2.0 focussed on ODF sustainability: Govt
said a top government official. SBM has been one of the key missions of Narendra Modi-led government since its launch in 2014. It aims to make India Open defecation free (ODF) by October 2019. <span>Nearly 93.1 per cent of rural Indian households have access to toilets and 96.5 per cent of these toilets are in constant usage, according to the findings of second edition of NARSS in 2018-19. The NARSS is a third-party survey that is conducted by the Independent Verification Agency (IVA) under the World Bank support project. “Monitoring of behaviour change is being institute




The NARSS is a third-party survey that is conducted by the Independent Verification Agency (IVA) under the World Bank support project.
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SBM 2.0 focussed on ODF sustainability: Govt
Nearly 93.1 per cent of rural Indian households have access to toilets and 96.5 per cent of these toilets are in constant usage, according to the findings of second edition of NARSS in 2018-19. <span>The NARSS is a third-party survey that is conducted by the Independent Verification Agency (IVA) under the World Bank support project. “Monitoring of behaviour change is being instituted nationwide as SARSS (State Annual Rural Sanitation Survey) in SBM 2.0, so that independent verification of results and claims is bein




investing funds for behaviour change through IEC (Information, Education and Communication) ­exercise, training masons to promote retrofitting of toilets and panchayat pradhans in what needs to be done to sustain ODF status.
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SBM 2.0 focussed on ODF sustainability: Govt
be over,” Shekhar said. SBM 2.0 will now be focussed on sustaining ODF, Shekhar said. “Having invested such huge public money in sanitation, no government would like to see it fail. So, we are <span>investing funds for behaviour change through IEC (Information, Education and Communication) ­exercise, training masons to promote retrofitting of toilets and panchayat pradhans in what needs to be done to sustain ODF status. However, experts raised questions on the government’s IEC exercise in helping to bring behavioural change among sustained toilet use. The government should make a paradigm shift from IE




government’s IEC exercise in helping to bring behavioural change among sustained toilet use.
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SBM 2.0 focussed on ODF sustainability: Govt
and Communication) ­exercise, training masons to promote retrofitting of toilets and panchayat pradhans in what needs to be done to sustain ODF status. However, experts raised questions on the <span>government’s IEC exercise in helping to bring behavioural change among sustained toilet use. The government should make a paradigm shift from IEC to BCC (behaviour change communication) approach, which stems out of disciplinary science, said Ruhi Saith from Oxford Policy Manage




While IEC collects information the use of toilets, BCC talks about underlying factors of why they are not using the toilets and tries to address them through behavioural science.

“BCC and IEC would both address barriers, but the difference is that behaviour change approach focuses on how to put the message across and make environment more conducive for people to access and use toilets,” Saith said.

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SBM 2.0 focussed on ODF sustainability: Govt
e. The government should make a paradigm shift from IEC to BCC (behaviour change communication) approach, which stems out of disciplinary science, said Ruhi Saith from Oxford Policy Management. <span>While IEC collects information the use of toilets, BCC talks about underlying factors of why they are not using the toilets and tries to address them through behavioural science. “BCC and IEC would both address barriers, but the difference is that behaviour change approach focuses on how to put the message across and make environment more conducive for people to access and use toilets,” Saith said. Meanwhile, Shekhar highlighted the ministry’s four pillars for ODF sustainability in SBM 2.0 as: Sustaining investment on ODF, A faecal sludge management dedicated programme, which will




The carbon tax, launched on June 1, 2019, aims to reduce 34 per cent carbon emissions by 2020 and 42 per cent emissions by 2025.
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South Africa’s carbon tax: Aim to ensure zero waste to landfill
asteplan — a Cape Town based on-site waste management company. Lourens was speaking at the 2019 SAPICS, The Professional Body for Supply Chain Management, conference held recently in Cape Town. <span>The carbon tax, launched on June 1, 2019, aims to reduce 34 per cent carbon emissions by 2020 and 42 per cent emissions by 2025. South Africa, has exceeded the UK and France in terms of pollution and is soon approaching a situation of running out of landfill space; the inevitable “day full” is on our doorstep, Lo




South Africa, has exceeded the UK and France in terms of pollution and is soon approaching a situation of running out of landfill space; the inevitable “day full” is on our doorstep, Lourens said.
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South Africa’s carbon tax: Aim to ensure zero waste to landfill
Supply Chain Management, conference held recently in Cape Town. The carbon tax, launched on June 1, 2019, aims to reduce 34 per cent carbon emissions by 2020 and 42 per cent emissions by 2025. <span>South Africa, has exceeded the UK and France in terms of pollution and is soon approaching a situation of running out of landfill space; the inevitable “day full” is on our doorstep, Lourens said. “The carbon tax is an attempt to mitigate this consumer behaviour and reduce high greenhouse gas emissions while stimulating investor appetite for low carbon alternatives,” Lourens said




“The initial marginal carbon tax rate will be South African Rand (R)120 per tonne of CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent). With the below thresholds in mind, the effective tax rate is much lower and ranges between R6 and R48 per tonne,” Lourens said, adding the bill will be implemented in stages.
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South Africa’s carbon tax: Aim to ensure zero waste to landfill
rbon tax is an attempt to mitigate this consumer behaviour and reduce high greenhouse gas emissions while stimulating investor appetite for low carbon alternatives,” Lourens said, in a release. <span>“The initial marginal carbon tax rate will be South African Rand (R)120 per tonne of CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent). With the below thresholds in mind, the effective tax rate is much lower and ranges between R6 and R48 per tonne,” Lourens said, adding the bill will be implemented in stages. To help businesses transition and adopt low carbon alternatives, the country has come up with various tax-free allowances including an additional allowance of up to 10 per cent for proc




To help businesses transition and adopt low carbon alternatives, the country has come up with various tax-free allowances including an additional allowance of up to 10 per cent for process emissions, and a carbon offsets allowance of 5 to 10 per cent per cent, depending on sector.
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South Africa’s carbon tax: Aim to ensure zero waste to landfill
oxide equivalent). With the below thresholds in mind, the effective tax rate is much lower and ranges between R6 and R48 per tonne,” Lourens said, adding the bill will be implemented in stages. <span>To help businesses transition and adopt low carbon alternatives, the country has come up with various tax-free allowances including an additional allowance of up to 10 per cent for process emissions, and a carbon offsets allowance of 5 to 10 per cent per cent, depending on sector. To reduce their tax burden, the companies can increasingly work towards investing in renewable energy, cool carbon projects and biogas digesters, and reducing waste to landfill, he sugg




South Africa's recently introduced carbon tax will ensure zero waste to landfill, reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well boost investments for low carbon alternatives
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South Africa’s carbon tax: Aim to ensure zero waste to landfill
s carbon tax: Aim to ensure zero waste to landfill The tax launched June 1, 2019, aims to cut emissions by a third next year, 42% by 2025 NEXT NEWS ❯ By DTE Staff Published: Monday 22 July 2019 <span>South Africa's recently introduced carbon tax will ensure zero waste to landfill, reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well boost investments for low carbon alternatives, said Bertie Lourens, CEO of Wasteplan — a Cape Town based on-site waste management company. Lourens was speaking at the 2019 SAPICS, The Professional Body for Supply Chain Management,




Artificial-diamond manufacturers from Anhui province allegedly dumped waste water and hazardous solid waste.
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Chinese officials aided industries to defy pollution rules
central environment ministry report. Investigations, conducted last year as part of the country’s crackdown against pollution, discovered thousands of regulatory violations across 10 provinces. <span>Artificial-diamond manufacturers from Anhui province allegedly dumped waste water and hazardous solid waste. However, subsequent investigations found them to be compliant with regulations as goverment officials alerted them of the impending investigations. They concealed the waste, forged wast




air pollution in China caused an average of 1.1 million premature deaths each year and costs its economy $38 billion.
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Chinese officials aided industries to defy pollution rules
icly accused major state enterprises for breaching pollution limit and monitoring standards, according to media reports. A recent study by researchers at Chinese Hong Kong University found that <span>air pollution in China caused an average of 1.1 million premature deaths each year and costs its economy $38 billion. Air Pollution Solid Waste Waste World Subscribe to Weekly Newsletter : Donate Now We are a voice to you; you have been a support to us. Together we build journalism that is independent,




After the gas is produced, some solid matter is left behind in the dome, which takes about 20-25 years to get filled, after which the decomposed waste matter can be scooped out and used as manure in the fields. It is better than having a twin pit system or leach pit, toilet structure,” Khengar added.
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Toilet-linked biogas plants tackle faecal sludge problem in Gujarat’s villages
t of faecal sludge can be taken care of, at least in areas where animal husbandry and dairy is practised on a large scale,” says Rangi Khengar, then Development Consultant with FINISH Society. “<span>After the gas is produced, some solid matter is left behind in the dome, which takes about 20-25 years to get filled, after which the decomposed waste matter can be scooped out and used as manure in the fields. It is better than having a twin pit system or leach pit, toilet structure,” Khengar added. While the initial plan was to link existing toilets with biogas units, owing to religious concerns and psychological taboos associated with human excreta the team faced resistance from




A toilet-linked biogas (TLBG) system eliminates the task of frequent emptying of faecal sludge from septic tanks or twin pits and dumping it in drains or landfill sites.

Under it, a toilet is connected to a biogas digester using a PVC pipe. Faecal slurry flows into the digester with gravity, following which, cattle dung, water, and kitchen waste is regularly added to it to produce biogas, which is then used by families as cooking fuel or for other purposes like heating water.

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Toilet-linked biogas plants tackle faecal sludge problem in Gujarat’s villages
udhary While poor faecal sludge management in India remains a concern, a few hundred households in Valsad district of south Gujarat have shown the way by linking their toilets to biogas plants. <span>A toilet-linked biogas (TLBG) system eliminates the task of frequent emptying of faecal sludge from septic tanks or twin pits and dumping it in drains or landfill sites. Under it, a toilet is connected to a biogas digester using a PVC pipe. Faecal slurry flows into the digester with gravity, following which, cattle dung, water, and kitchen waste is regularly added to it to produce biogas, which is then used by families as cooking fuel or for other purposes like heating water. In a project started by FINISH (Financial Inclusion Improves Sanitation and Health) Society and Vasudhara Milk Cooperative in 2013, 747 households from five clusters of Chikhali, Gandev




The capacity of these plants is 2 cubic metre (m3) per tonne for a family of five to seven people or less and total gas production per day per plant is 1.5 cubic metre. A 2 m3 (production capacity per day) biogas plant will produce total 60 m3 biogas in a month. That is equivalent to 26 kilogram of LPG, 37 litre of kerosene, 88 kg of charcoal, or 210 kg of firewood.
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Toilet-linked biogas plants tackle faecal sludge problem in Gujarat’s villages
ch are below poverty line (BPL) families. Biogas provides a substitute for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cheap fuel for cooking and lighting and allows the use of slurry for crop production. <span>The capacity of these plants is 2 cubic metre (m3) per tonne for a family of five to seven people or less and total gas production per day per plant is 1.5 cubic metre. A 2 m3 (production capacity per day) biogas plant will produce total 60 m3 biogas in a month. That is equivalent to 26 kilogram of LPG, 37 litre of kerosene, 88 kg of charcoal, or 210 kg of firewood. Faecal sludge Open Defecation Waste India Subscribe to Weekly Newsletter : Donate Now We are a voice to you; you have been a support to us. Together we build journalism that is independ




Cocos Keeling Islands, a remote archipelago in the Indian Ocean.
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Indian Ocean island group chokes on 238 tonnes of plastic waste
ics, 373,000 toothbrushes and 977,000 shoes NEXT NEWS ❯ By DTE Staff Published: Friday 17 May 2019 Scientists have found that 414 million plastic waste items, weighing 238 tonnes, are polluting <span>Cocos Keeling Islands, a remote archipelago in the Indian Ocean. The group of islands, touted as Australia’s last unspoilt paradise, is located 2,100 kilometre off the northwest coast of the continent, and has tourism as a primary source of income. T




every year, over eight million tonnes of plastic ends up in the oceans, accounting for up to 80 per cent of all litter in the oceans. Studies have shown that this is estimated to rise by 2025, wreaking havoc on marine ecosystems and tourism.
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Indian Ocean island group chokes on 238 tonnes of plastic waste
found an estimated 373,000 toothbrushes and 977,000 shoes, equivalent to what the island community would produce as waste in about 4,000 years, the study noted. According to the United Nations, <span>every year, over eight million tonnes of plastic ends up in the oceans, accounting for up to 80 per cent of all litter in the oceans. Studies have shown that this is estimated to rise by 2025, wreaking havoc on marine ecosystems and tourism. A recent exploration to the deepest place in the ocean — the Pacific Ocean's Mariana Trench — by American explorer Victor Vescovo revealed plastic waste such as bag and sweet wrappers a




Of the 414 million pieces of plastic pollutants, an estimated 384 million waste was found buried up to 10 centimetres under the surface. About 60 per cent of this comprised of micro-debris that were 2–5 millimetre in size, and could pose significant challenges to wildlife and biodiversity.

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Indian Ocean island group chokes on 238 tonnes of plastic waste
chipelago’s 27 islands while surveying debris on the beach's surface, buried under, and in the beach-back vegetation. They then multiplied their findings by the island chain’s total beach area. <span>Of the 414 million pieces of plastic pollutants, an estimated 384 million waste was found buried up to 10 centimetres under the surface. About 60 per cent of this comprised of micro-debris that were 2–5 millimetre in size, and could pose significant challenges to wildlife and biodiversity. Besides single-use plastics, the team also found an estimated 373,000 toothbrushes and 977,000 shoes, equivalent to what the island community would produce as waste in about 4,000 years




A committee appointed by the National Green Tribunal (NGT) identified 12 sites contaminated from illegal dumping of coal tar-bearing gasifier wastewater in Gujarat's Morbi.
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NGT panel finds 12 illegal dumping sites for gasifier wastewater in Morbi
e found in 568 ceramic industries, which would have discharged an estimated 2160 m3 wastewater and 1176 tonnes coal tar in their premises NEXT NEWS ❯ By DTE Staff Published: Tuesday 14 May 2019 <span>A committee appointed by the National Green Tribunal (NGT) identified 12 sites contaminated from illegal dumping of coal tar-bearing gasifier wastewater in Gujarat's Morbi. The Red / brown wastewater was found discharged in some low-lying areas and abandoned mines, according to a report by the panel. The sites were covered with white slurry from tile polis




The NGT asked a committee including representatives of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) , GPCB and National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) to assess the damage, costs associated with it and suggest a resoration plan.
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NGT panel finds 12 illegal dumping sites for gasifier wastewater in Morbi
versee the execution of the order, the tribunal appointed an oversight committee headed by Just (retd) BC Patel, former Chief Justice of Delhi High Court and former Judge of Gujarat High Court. <span>The NGT asked a committee including representatives of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), GPCB and National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) to assess the damage, costs associated with it and suggest a resoration plan. The GPCB visited 952 industries in the area from March 13-31. Gasifiers were found in 568 ceramic industries. Together, they would have discharged an estimated 2160 cubic metre (m3) was




The Patna Smart City Private Limited will develop a command control centre and an integrated solid waste management plant, besides installing garbage bins with radio frequency identification microchips like the ones already in use in two Spanish cities — Barcelona and Madrid.
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Waste in news on June 8
news on June 8 Here's a round-up of today's news and reports on waste NEXT NEWS ❯ By DTE Staff Published: Friday 08 June 2018 Credit: Bidesha Kumar/CSE Patna bins to have microchips like Spain <span>The Patna Smart City Private Limited will develop a command control centre and an integrated solid waste management plant, besides installing garbage bins with radio frequency identification microchips like the ones already in use in two Spanish cities — Barcelona and Madrid. Heat causes fire at Bathinda waste plant Fire broke out at Bathinda solid waste management plant on Wednesday HC stays debris dumping in Kharghar pond Members of the Kharghar-based Abhi




the dumping site should be at least 200 metres away from a residential area but it is closer than that. The site is also very close to the Hindon river floodplains, which means if the river floods it will wash the waste into the nearby areas.
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Noida landfill protests: Confusion among officials troubles residents
he residents claim that many norms of the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016, notified by the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) have been flouted by the authorities. For example, <span>the dumping site should be at least 200 metres away from a residential area but it is closer than that. The site is also very close to the Hindon river floodplains, which means if the river floods it will wash the waste into the nearby areas. Dumped On May 29, the National Green Tribunal had ordered that waste dumping be stopped at a site in sector 54 after hearing a petition filed by residents’ welfare associations of secto




site in sector 123 is not a waste dumping site but a Sanitary Land Fill (SLF) site
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Noida landfill protests: Confusion among officials troubles residents
plant at the 10.12-hectare site in sector 123. All of it needs to be built. Confused authorities In a public notice, published in news papers on June 15, the Noida Authority clarified that the <span>site in sector 123 is not a waste dumping site but a Sanitary Land Fill (SLF) site, according to the Noida Master Plan 2031. The authority had also assured the public that the waste was being temporarily brought there, but will be processed scientifically by building




as per the E-Waste Management Rules, which were notified in October 2016, manufacturers of electric and electronic equipments must facilitate their collection and return it to authorised dismantlers or recyclers. However, even one and a half years after the law was passed
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Can India manage its toxic e-waste?
isms to manage e-waste NEXT NEWS ❯ By Banjot Kaur Published: Thursday 19 July 2018 How do most of us dispose of a mobile phone or a television set? Usually, by selling it to a scrap dealer. But <span>as per the E-Waste Management Rules, which were notified in October 2016, manufacturers of electric and electronic equipments must facilitate their collection and return it to authorised dismantlers or recyclers. However, even one and a half years after the law was passed, there is little evidence that it is being implemented. The matter came to light in March 2018 when the Delhi High Court was hearing a petition on solid waste management. The court aske




The Global E-waste Monitor 2017, published by the United Nations University
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Can India manage its toxic e-waste?
agement of e-waste in a time-bound manner. The MOEF&CC has to now submit a status report within eight weeks. Growth of e-waste India is one of the biggest producers of e-waste in the world. <span>The Global E-waste Monitor 2017, published by the United Nations University, states that India generates about 2 million tonnes of e-waste annually and ranks fifth among e-waste producing countries, after the US, China, Japan and Germany. However, there is no g




India generates about 2 million tonnes of e-waste annually and ranks fifth among e-waste producing countries, after the US, China, Japan and Germany.
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Can India manage its toxic e-waste?
ort within eight weeks. Growth of e-waste India is one of the biggest producers of e-waste in the world. The Global E-waste Monitor 2017, published by the United Nations University, states that <span>India generates about 2 million tonnes of e-waste annually and ranks fifth among e-waste producing countries, after the US, China, Japan and Germany. However, there is no government data on e-waste generated in the country. According to a reply given by Anil Madhav Dave, former Union environment minister in the Rajya Sabha on March 2




The 2016 law tasks the state pollution control boards (SPCBs) to make the estimates, but no SPCB has done that as yet.
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Can India manage its toxic e-waste?
ha on March 23, 2017, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) had projected in 2005 that by 2010, India would generate 0.8 million tonnes of e-waste. Since then, no projection has been made. <span>The 2016 law tasks the state pollution control boards (SPCBs) to make the estimates, but no SPCB has done that as yet. The law says that producers of electronic items should provide postal address, e-mail and toll-free numbers of collection centres—where consumers can drop their equipments—through websi




there is no government data on e-waste generated in the country.
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Can India manage its toxic e-waste?
ed Nations University, states that India generates about 2 million tonnes of e-waste annually and ranks fifth among e-waste producing countries, after the US, China, Japan and Germany. However, <span>there is no government data on e-waste generated in the country. According to a reply given by Anil Madhav Dave, former Union environment minister in the Rajya Sabha on March 23, 2017, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) had projected in 2005




The producers must obtain an Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) authorisation from CPCB which will ensure that they channelise the e-waste to the recycler/dismantler and meet their annual collection targets. The producers have to meet targets, which should be 20 per cent of the waste generated by their sales.
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Can India manage its toxic e-waste?
rs (all brand owners, makers and importers), manufacturers (all registered companies that make electronic goods), dismantlers and recyclers—have to obtain an authorisation for their operations. <span>The producers must obtain an Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) authorisation from CPCB which will ensure that they channelise the e-waste to the recycler/dismantler and meet their annual collection targets. The producers have to meet targets, which should be 20 per cent of the waste generated by their sales. This will increase by 10 per cent annually for the next five years. Both the dismantlers and recyclers must file reports to SPCB to certify that they have used scientific methods in the




The law states that CPCB and SPCBs have to conduct random checks on those who have been granted authorisations,
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Can India manage its toxic e-waste?
ic methods in their operations. Gaps in the system In the first year of its implementation, though all companies claimed to have met their targets, there is no mechanism to verify their claims. <span>The law states that CPCB and SPCBs have to conduct random checks on those who have been granted authorisations, but CPCB did not respond to Down To Earth on the number of checks it has conducted so far. The law also says that the responsibility of producers is not confined to waste collection, bu




The law also says that the responsibility of producers is not confined to waste collection, but also to ensure that the waste reaches the authorised recycler/dismantler. But the annual returns filed by the producers are silent on this. Since there is no monitoring system, there is no guarantee that the waste collected by producers does not go to unauthorised recyclers.
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Can India manage its toxic e-waste?
tates that CPCB and SPCBs have to conduct random checks on those who have been granted authorisations, but CPCB did not respond to Down To Earth on the number of checks it has conducted so far. <span>The law also says that the responsibility of producers is not confined to waste collection, but also to ensure that the waste reaches the authorised recycler/dismantler. But the annual returns filed by the producers are silent on this. Since there is no monitoring system, there is no guarantee that the waste collected by producers does not go to unauthorised recyclers. According to CPCB, there are 214 authorised recyclers/dismantlers in India. In 2016-17, they treated only 0.036 million tonne of India’s 2 million tonnes of e-waste. According to many s




about 95 per cent of India’s e-waste is recycled in the informal sector and in a crude manner.
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Can India manage its toxic e-waste?
According to CPCB, there are 214 authorised recyclers/dismantlers in India. In 2016-17, they treated only 0.036 million tonne of India’s 2 million tonnes of e-waste. According to many studies, <span>about 95 per cent of India’s e-waste is recycled in the informal sector and in a crude manner. The process includes manual dismantling, separation and shredding; unsafe removal and collection of solder by heating; acidic extraction of metals; and, burning of waste to remove combu




A 2015 report by the United Nations Environment Programme says that China, India Malaysia and Pakistan are the main destinations for large-scale shipments of hazardous wastes, including e-waste, in Asia.
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Can India manage its toxic e-waste?
record, but as per the Manufacturers’ Association for Information Technology, an industry body representing the information-technology sector, the country received about 50,000 tonnes in 2007. <span>A 2015 report by the United Nations Environment Programme says that China, India Malaysia and Pakistan are the main destinations for large-scale shipments of hazardous wastes, including e-waste, in Asia. Ironically, according to the Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Trans-boundary) Rules, 2016, importing e-waste for disposal is banned in India. For recycling, a prior permission




according to the Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Trans-boundary) Rules, 2016, importing e-waste for disposal is banned in India.
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Can India manage its toxic e-waste?
nited Nations Environment Programme says that China, India Malaysia and Pakistan are the main destinations for large-scale shipments of hazardous wastes, including e-waste, in Asia. Ironically, <span>according to the Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Trans-boundary) Rules, 2016, importing e-waste for disposal is banned in India. For recycling, a prior permission from the government is required and in the last five years, the government has given no such permission, said Dave in the Rajya Sabha reply. It is allo




Even if the law allows the import of second-hand products for refurbishing, many terms and conditions are attached. They have to be re-exported to the country of origin in 1-3 years.
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Can India manage its toxic e-waste?
cond-hand products. However, the nodal agency, the Central Board of Excise and Customs, lacks the human resource and the infrastructure to distinguish between a second-hand product and e-waste. <span>Even if the law allows the import of second-hand products for refurbishing, many terms and conditions are attached. They have to be re-exported to the country of origin in 1-3 years. However, according to MOEF&CC officials, there is no mechanism to check whether they have been reexported or not. What’s worse, even if a fraud is detected the law is silent on the




even the authorised recyclers are outsourcing their e-waste to the informal sector.
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Can India manage its toxic e-waste?
pond to DTE's calls. However, Moradabad is just the tip of the iceberg. Pranshu Singhal, founder of Karo Sambhav, an organisation working to integrate the informal sector with formal, says that <span>even the authorised recyclers are outsourcing their e-waste to the informal sector. A senior official with the environment ministry confessed that big producers are finding it difficult to collect e-waste to meet their targets because bulk consumers tend to auction the




over 95 per cent of e-waste recycling is done by the informal sector.
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Can India manage its toxic e-waste?
onitoring and poor implementation has made a mockery of the law.” Informal and invisible Even big producers and authorised recyclers outsource their e-waste to the informal sector to save money <span>over 95 per cent of e-waste recycling is done by the informal sector. One of the major hubs in India, Moradabad in Uttar Pradesh, was in the news recently when the National Green Tribunal (NGT) fined the district magistrate and State Pollution Control Boa




three “mountains of garbage” (landfill sites) at Okhla, Bhalswa and Ghazipur in the national capital.
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Supreme Court asks states to clean up their act
and Deepak Gupta referred to the recent apex court order on the powers of the Delhi government and Lieutenant Governor and asked them to apprise the court on whose responsibility it is to clear <span>three “mountains of garbage” (landfill sites) at Okhla, Bhalswa and Ghazipur in the national capital. India generates 62 million tonnes of waste every year, of which only 20 per cent is processed. Majority of the cities have systems that focus entirely on collection and disposal. The be




The Solid Waste Management Rules came into force on or about April 8, 2016. We are two years down the line, but we are shocked to know that more than two-third of the States/UTs in the country have not yet complied with the basic requirement of the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016,” the bench said.
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Supreme Court asks states to clean up their act
SG) A N S Nadkarni. The ASG replied that as per the Constitution, the states will have to comply with the orders of the top court and their officers can be held accountable for non-compliance. “<span>The Solid Waste Management Rules came into force on or about April 8, 2016. We are two years down the line, but we are shocked to know that more than two-third of the States/UTs in the country have not yet complied with the basic requirement of the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016,” the bench said. While Haryana, Jharkhand, Odisha, Nagaland, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Andaman and Nicobar Island have filed their affidavits with regard to the policy on solid waste management, states




The bench expressed displeasure when it was informed that around 13 states and several union territories have not yet formulated their policy for solid waste management despite the court order.
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Supreme Court asks states to clean up their act
ional capital. India generates 62 million tonnes of waste every year, of which only 20 per cent is processed. Majority of the cities have systems that focus entirely on collection and disposal. <span>The bench expressed displeasure when it was informed that around 13 states and several union territories have not yet formulated their policy for solid waste management despite the court order. The court slapped a fine of Rs 100,000 each on Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, West Bengal, Kerala, Karnataka, Meghalaya, Punjab, Lakshadweep and Puduch




India generates 62 million tonnes of waste every year, of which only 20 per cent is processed.
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Supreme Court asks states to clean up their act
utenant Governor and asked them to apprise the court on whose responsibility it is to clear three “mountains of garbage” (landfill sites) at Okhla, Bhalswa and Ghazipur in the national capital. <span>India generates 62 million tonnes of waste every year, of which only 20 per cent is processed. Majority of the cities have systems that focus entirely on collection and disposal. The bench expressed displeasure when it was informed that around 13 states and several union territor




The LG, in his reply to the SC, said the garbage disposal in the city was the job of the civic body and he was in charge of monitoring it. But, the response from the LG was not taken well by the apex court.
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Who will take onus of clearing Delhi’s landfills? SC asks LG
rder on the powers of the Delhi government and Lieutenant Governor and asked them to apprise the court on whose responsibility it is to clear the three landfills of Bhalswa, Ghazipur and Okhla. <span>The LG, in his reply to the SC, said the garbage disposal in the city was the job of the civic body and he was in charge of monitoring it. But, the response from the LG was not taken well by the apex court. After amicus curiae Colin Gonsalves said no one from the Lieutenant Governor’s office attended a meeting on the clean-up at three main landfill sites, the judges retorted back to the LG




They seem less well developed for more abstract concepts, and such abstractions are often where the deepest understanding lies. In that sense, they may even distract from understanding. That said, it's possible I simply need to figure out better ways of using these ideas, much as I needed to figure out Anki. In particular, it may be worth further investigating some of the techniques used by practitioners to form rich associations. As Foer says, quoting a memory expert, there is great value in learning to “think in more memorable ways”
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Ed then explained to me his procedure for making a name memorable, which he had used in the competition to memorize the first and last names associated with ninety-nine different photographic head shots in the names-and-faces event. It was a technique he promised I could use to remember people's names at parties and meetings. “The trick is actually deceptively simple,” he said. “It is always to associate the sound of a person's name with something you can clearly imagine. It's all about creating a vivid image in your mind that anchors your visual memory of the person's face to a visual memory connected to the person's name. When you need to reach back and remember the person's name at some later date, the image you created will simply pop back into your mind… So, hmm, you said your name was Josh Foer, eh?” He raised an eyebrow and gave his chin a melodramatic stroke. “Well, I'd imagine you joshing me where we first met, outside the competition hall, and I'd imagine myself breaking into four pieces in response. Four/Foer, get it? That little image is more entertaining—to me, at least—than your mere name, and should stick nicely in the mind.”
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Flashcard 6055258098956

Question
95% of Anki's value comes from 5% of the features: Anki has ways of auto- generating cards, of tagging cards, a plugin ecosystem, and much else. In practice, I rarely use any of these features. My cards are always one of two types: the majority are simple question and answer; a substantial minority are what's called a cloze: a kind of fill-in-the-blanks test. For instance, I'll use clozes to test myself on favorite quotes: “if the personal computer is truly a __ then the use of it would actually change the __ of an __", __, __” (Answer: new medium, thought patterns, entire civilization, Alan Kay, 1989). Clozes can also be used to pose questions not involving quotes: The Adelson illusion is also known as the ___ illusion. (Answer: checker-shadow)
Answer
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statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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I know many people who try Anki out, and then go down a rabbit hole learning as many features as possible so they can use it “efficiently”. Usually, they're chasing 1% improvements. Often, those people ultimately give up Anki as “too difficult”, which is often a synonym for “I got nervous I wasn't using it perfectly”. This is a pity. As discussed earlier, Anki offers something like a 20-fold improvement over (say) ordinary flashcards. And so they're giving up a 2,000% improvement because they were worried they were missing a few final 5%, 1% and (in many cases) 0.1% improvements. This kind of rabbit hole seems to be especially attractive to programmers.
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Flashcard 6055260720396

Question
For this reason, when someone is getting started I advise not using any advanced features, and not installing any plugins. Don't, in short, come down with a bad case of programmer's efficiency disease. Learn how to use Anki for basic question and answer, and concentrate on exploring new patterns within that paradigm. That'll serve you far better than any number of hours spent fiddling around with the features. Then, if you build a regular habit of high-quality Anki use, you can experiment with more advanced features.
Answer
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statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Procedural versus declarative memory: There's a big difference between remembering a fact and mastering a process. For instance, while you might remember a Unix command when cued by an Anki question, that doesn't mean you'll recognize an opportunity to use the command in the context of the command line, and be comfortable typing it out. And it's still another thing to find novel, creative ways of combining the commands you know, in order to solve challenging problems. Put another way: to really internalize a process, it's not enough just to review Anki cards. You need to carry out the process, in context. And you need to solve real problems with it. With that said, I've found the transfer process relatively easy. In the case of the command line, I use it often enough that I have plenty of opportunities to make real use of my Ankified knowledge of the command line. Over time, that declarative knowledge is becoming procedural knowledge I routinely use in context. That said, it'd be good to better understand when the transfer works and when it doesn't. Even better would be a memory system that integrates into my actual working environment. For instance, it could query me on Unix commands, while placing me at an actual command line. Or perhaps it would ask me to solve higher-level problems, while at the command line. I've tried one experiment in this vein: miming the action of typing commands while I review my Anki cards. But my subjective impression was that it doesn't work so well, and it was also quite annoying to do. So I stopped.
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Getting past “names don't matter”: I'm a theoretical physicist by training. There is a famous story in physics, told by Richard Feynman, dismissing the value of knowing the names of things. As a child, Feynman was out playing in a field with a know-it-all kid. Here's what happened, in Feynman's telling*: One kid says to me, “See that bird? What kind of bird is that?” I said, “I haven't the slightest idea what kind of a bird it is.” He says, “It'a brown-throated thrush. Your father doesn't teach you anything!” But it was the opposite. He [Feynman's father] had already taught me: “See that bird?” he says. “It's a Spencer's warbler.” (I knew he didn't know the real name.) “Well, in Italian, it's a Chutto Lapittida. In Portuguese, it's a Bom da Peida… You can know the name of that bird in all the languages of the world, but when you're finished, you'll know absolutely nothing whatever about the bird! You'll only know about humans in different places, and what they call the bird. So let's look at the bird and see what it's doing — that's what counts.” (I learned very early the difference between knowing the name of something and knowing something.) Feynman (or his father) goes on to a thoughtful discussion of real knowledge: observing behavior, understanding the reasons for it, and so on. It's a good story. But it goes too far: names do matter. Maybe not as much as the know-it-all kid thought, and they're not usually a deep kind of knowledge. But they're the foundation that allows you to build up a network of knowledge. This trope that names don't matter was repeatedly drilled into me during my scientific training. When I began using Anki, at first I felt somewhat silly putting questions about names for things into the system. But now I do it enthusiastically, knowing that it's an early step along the way to understanding. Anki is useful for names of all kinds of things, but I find it particularly helpful for non-verbal things. For instance, I put in questions about artworks, like: “What does the artist Emily Hare's painting Howl look like?” Answer: I put that question in for two reasons. The main reason is that I like to remember the experience of the painting from time to time. And the other is to put a name to the painting*. If I wanted to think more analytically about the painting – say, about the clever use of color gradients – I could add more detailed questions. But I'm pretty happy just committing the experience of the image to memory.
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What do you do when you get behind? Anki becomes challenging when you get behind with cards. If you skip a day or two – or fifty – the cards begin to back up. It's intimidating to come back to find you have 500 cards to review in a day. Even worse, if you fall out of the Anki habit, you can get a very long way behind. I largely stopped using Anki for a 7-month period, and came back to thousands of backlogged cards. Fortunately, it wasn't that hard to catch up. I set myself gradually increasing quotas (100, 150, 200, 250, and eventually 300) of cards per day, and worked through those quotas each day for several weeks until I'd caught up. While this wasn't too difficult, it was somewhat demoralizing and discouraging. It'd be better if Anki had a “catch up” feature that would spread the excess cards over the next few weeks in your schedule. But it doesn't. In any case, this is a gotcha, but it's not too difficult to address.
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What you Ankify is not a trivial choice: Ankify things that serve your long-term goals. In some measure we become what we remember, so we must be careful what we remember*. This is always true, but Anki makes it especially true. With all that said, one fun pattern is to go back to my old, pre-Anki notes on books, and to Ankify them. This can often be done quickly, and gives me a greater return on the time I've invested in now mostly-forgotten books*
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Something I haven't yet figured out is how to integrate Anki with note taking for my creative projects. I can't replace note taking with Anki – it's too slow, and for many things a poor use of my long-term memory. On the other hand, there are many benefits to using Anki for important items – fluid access to memory is at the foundation of so much creative thought. In practice, I find myself instinctively and unsystematically doing some things as notes, others as Anki questions, and still other things as both. Overall, it works okay, but my sense is that it could be a lot better if I applied more systematic thought and experimentation. Part of the problem is that I don't have a very good system for note taking, period! If I worked more on that, I suspect the whole thing would get a lot better. Still, it works okay.
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Avoid the yes/no pattern: One bad habit I sometimes slide into is having lots of Anki questions with yes/no answers. For instance, here's a not-very-good question I added when learning about graphical models in machine learning: Is computing the partition function intractable for most graphical models? The answer is “yes”. That's fine, as far as it goes. But it'd help my understanding to elaborate the ideas in the question. Can I add a question about for which graphical models the partition function is tractable? Can I give an example of a graphical model for which the partition function is intractable? What does it mean for computing the partition function to be intractable anyway? Yes/no questions should, at the least, be considered as good candidates for question refactoring*
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But for creative work and for problem- solving there is something special about having an internalized understanding. It enables speed in associative thought, an ability to rapidly try out many combinations of ideas, and to intuit patterns, in ways not possible if you need to keep laboriously looking up information.
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Fluency matters in thinking. Alan Kay and Adele Goldberg have proposed* the thought experiment of a flute in which there is “a one-second delay between blowing a note and hearing it!” As they observe, this is “absurd”. In a similar way, certain types of thoughts are much easier to have when all the relevant kinds of understanding are held in mind. And for that, Anki is invaluable.
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f personal memory systems are so great, why aren't they more widely used? This question is analogous to the old joke about two economists who are walking along when one of them spots a $20 bill. They say: “Look! There's $20 on the ground!” The other replies: “Impossible! If it were really there, someone would have picked it up already.” The analogy is only partial. In fact, Anki seems like a continual supply of $20 bills lying on the ground. And it's reasonable to ask why it's not more widely used. One of the most cited papers in the relevant research literature* is a discussion of why these ideas aren't more widely used in education. Although written in 1988, many of the observations in the paper remain true today. My own personal suspicion is that there are three main factors: In experimental research on memory, people consistently underestimate the gains that come from distributing their study in a manner similar to Anki. Instead, they prefer last-minute cramming, and believe it produces better results, though many studies show it does not. The psychologist Robert Bjork has suggested* the “principle of desirable difficulty”, the idea that memories are maximally strengthened if tested when we're on the verge of forgetting them. This suggests that an efficient memory system will intrinsically be somewhat difficult to use. Human beings have a complex relationship to difficult activities, and often dislike performing them, unless strongly motivated (in which case they may become pleasurable). Systems such as Anki are challenging to use well, and easy to use poorly. It is interesting to consider developing systems which may overcome some or all
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How important is long-term memory, anyway? Long-term memory is sometimes disparaged. It's common for people to denigrate “rote memory”, especially in the classroom. I've heard from many people that they dropped some class – organic chemistry is common – because it was “just a bunch of facts, and I wanted something involving more understanding”. I won't defend bad classroom teaching, or the way organic chemistry is often taught. But it's a mistake to underestimate the importance of memory. I used to believe such tropes about the low importance of memory. But I now believe memory is at the foundation of our cognition. There are two main reasons for this change, one a personal experience, the other based on evidence from cognitive science. Let me begin with the personal experience. Over the years, I've often helped people learn technical subjects such as quantum mechanics. Over time you come to see patterns in how people get stuck. One common pattern is that people think they're getting stuck on esoteric, complex issues. But when you dig down it turns out they're having a hard time with basic notation and terminology. It's difficult to understand quantum mechanics when you're unclear about every third word or piece of notation! Every sentence is a struggle. It's like they're trying to compose a beautiful sonnet in French, but only know 200 words of French. They're frustrated, and think the trouble is the difficulty of finding a good theme, striking sentiments and images, and so on. But really the issue is that they have only 200 words with which to compose. My somewhat pious belief was that if people focused more on remembering the basics, and worried less about the “difficult” high-level issues, they'd find the high-level issues took care of themselves. But while I held this as a strong conviction about other people, I never realized it also applied to me. And I had no idea at all how strongly it applied to me. Using Anki to read papers in new fields disabused me of this illusion. I found it almost unsettling how much easier Anki made learning such subjects. I now believe memory of the basics is often the single largest barrier to understanding. If you have a system such as Anki for overcoming that barrier, then you will find it much, much easier to read into new fields.
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As part of Swachh Survekshan Grameen, 6,980 villages in 698 districts across India will be covered. 34,000 public places namely schools, anganwadis, public health centres, haat/bazaars/religious places in these 6,980 villages will be visited during the survey.
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6,980 villages in 698 districts will be surveyed under Swachh Survekshan Grameen 2018
ion, Parameswaran Iyer, said that a countrywide communication campaign will be launched and rural communities will be engaged in improving sanitation and cleanliness of their surrounding areas. <span>As part of Swachh Survekshan Grameen, 6,980 villages in 698 districts across India will be covered. 34,000 public places namely schools, anganwadis, public health centres, haat/bazaars/religious places in these 6,980 villages will be visited during the survey. Citizens’ feedback will be collected from over 5 million citizens on Swachh Bharat Mission-related issues through direct interaction and online feedback. Weightage given to different el




Weightage given to different elements of the SSG:

  1. Direct observation of sanitation in public places: 30 per cent
  2. Citizen’s feedback on sanitation parameters: 35 per cent
  3. Service-level progress on sanitation progress in the country as per SBMG-MIS: 35 per cent
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6,980 villages in 698 districts will be surveyed under Swachh Survekshan Grameen 2018
ages will be visited during the survey. Citizens’ feedback will be collected from over 5 million citizens on Swachh Bharat Mission-related issues through direct interaction and online feedback. <span>Weightage given to different elements of the SSG: Direct observation of sanitation in public places: 30 per cent Citizen’s feedback on sanitation parameters: 35 per cent Service-level progress on sanitation progress in the country as per SBMG-MIS: 35 per cent swachh surveskshan Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan Rural Sanitation Open Defecation Sanitation Waste India Subscribe to Weekly Newsletter : Donate Now We are a voice to you; you have been a supp




Many people's model of accomplished mathematicians is that they are astoundingly bright, with very high IQs, and the ability to deal with very complex ideas in their mind. A common perception is that their smartness gives them the ability to deal with very complex ideas. Basically, they have a higher horsepower engine. It's true that top mathematicians are usually very bright. But here's a different explanation of what's going on. It's that, per Simon, many top mathematicians have, through hard work, internalized many more complex mathematical chunks than ordinary humans. And what this means is that mathematical situations which seem very complex to the rest of us seem very simple to them. So it's not that they have a higher horsepower mind, in the sense of being able to deal with more complexity. Rather, their prior learning has given them better chunking abilities, and so situations most people would see as complex they see as simple, and they find it much easier to reason about.
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In a bold step to move towards a circular economy, the European Council recently adopted a stringent waste package for its member states, a plan which sets new rules for waste management and establishes legally binding targets for recycling.

According to the targets, 50 per cent of plastic packaging will have to be recycled in the EU and 55 per cent by 2030. Currently, only 30 per cent of plastic packaging is recycled in the EU. The new rules come after a gap of four years when a revision of targets was proposed in 2014.

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50% of plastic packaging to be recycled by 2025: European Council
tes must recycle 50% plastic packaging by 2025 NEXT NEWS ❯ By Swati Singh Sambyal Published: Monday 04 June 2018 50% of plastic packaging to be recycled by 2025. Credit: Classroom Camera/Flickr <span>In a bold step to move towards a circular economy, the European Council recently adopted a stringent waste package for its member states, a plan which sets new rules for waste management and establishes legally binding targets for recycling. According to the targets, 50 per cent of plastic packaging will have to be recycled in the EU and 55 per cent by 2030. Currently, only 30 per cent of plastic packaging is recycled in the EU. The new rules come after a gap of four years when a revision of targets was proposed in 2014. Most of the new targets are higher than the current estimates and are bold in its aim to gradually remove landfills from landscapes. For instance, by 2030, all waste that can be recycle




Flashcard 6055288507660

Question

In a bold step to move towards a circular economy, the European Council recently adopted a stringent waste package for its member states, a plan which sets new rules for waste management and establishes legally binding targets for recycling.

According to the targets, 50 per cent of plastic packaging will have to be recycled in the EU and 55 per cent by 2030. Currently, only 30 per cent of plastic packaging is recycled in the EU. The new rules come after a gap of four years when a revision of targets was proposed in 2014.

Answer
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statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill
50% of plastic packaging to be recycled by 2025: European Council
tes must recycle 50% plastic packaging by 2025 NEXT NEWS ❯ By Swati Singh Sambyal Published: Monday 04 June 2018 50% of plastic packaging to be recycled by 2025. Credit: Classroom Camera/Flickr <span>In a bold step to move towards a circular economy, the European Council recently adopted a stringent waste package for its member states, a plan which sets new rules for waste management and establishes legally binding targets for recycling. According to the targets, 50 per cent of plastic packaging will have to be recycled in the EU and 55 per cent by 2030. Currently, only 30 per cent of plastic packaging is recycled in the EU. The new rules come after a gap of four years when a revision of targets was proposed in 2014. Most of the new targets are higher than the current estimates and are bold in its aim to gradually remove landfills from landscapes. For instance, by 2030, all waste that can be recycle







The report also said that although the Union government has banned the import of e-waste for disposal and has not given any permission in the last five years for the import for re-cycling as per Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016, it allows the import of second-hand electrical and electronic equipments for refurbishing. This is where the problem lies. The customs department, the report said, is ill-quipped in terms of manpower and infrastructure to distinguish between the second-hand products and waste.
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Delhi HC directs environment ministry to prepare action plan on e-waste inventory
across the country, not just in Delhi, creates a major block in tackling it. However, a few independent studies suggested that about 2 million tonne of e-waste is generated per annum in India. <span>The report also said that although the Union government has banned the import of e-waste for disposal and has not given any permission in the last five years for the import for re-cycling as per Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016, it allows the import of second-hand electrical and electronic equipments for refurbishing. This is where the problem lies. The customs department, the report said, is ill-quipped in terms of manpower and infrastructure to distinguish between the second-hand products and waste. The report also highlighted that although the producers are mandated to file whether they have met targets of e-waste collection annually, there was no independent mechanism to verify t




E-waste Management Rules, 2016 mandate that every producer furnish the returns under Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR).
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Delhi HC directs environment ministry to prepare action plan on e-waste inventory
highlighted that although the producers are mandated to file whether they have met targets of e-waste collection annually, there was no independent mechanism to verify the claims of producers. <span>E-waste Management Rules, 2016 mandate that every producer furnish the returns under Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). The court gave these instructions while hearing a PIL filed by Arpit Bhargava and Gauri Grover on steps taken to control vector-borne diseases and on solid waste management in Delhi. Th




This is exactly what the Art of Living Foundation’s solid waste management project is doing in collaboration with entities such as Coal India.
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In these temples, offerings do not go waste
s affect the water quality, the pesticides that are used on them, leach into the waters and harms marine life. But the same waste flowers have an enormous potential of being turned into wealth. <span>This is exactly what the Art of Living Foundation’s solid waste management project is doing in collaboration with entities such as Coal India. So, how does the project help? Instead of letting tonnes of waste going down the river or any other water body, it is collected at one place, sent to waste processing units where it und




Black plastics are more dangerous than plastics in general as it cannot be properly recycled due to the low sensitivity of black pigments to infrared radiation, used in conventional plastic sorting facilities, says the study published in Environmental International. Apart from affecting human health, this also affects the marine and coastal environment either as litter or as micro plastics.
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Food can have toxic chemicals from recycling e-waste
ystems as flame retardants. They find their way into food-contact items and other everyday products as the demand for black plastics in consumer products is met partly by sourcing from e-waste. <span>Black plastics are more dangerous than plastics in general as it cannot be properly recycled due to the low sensitivity of black pigments to infrared radiation, used in conventional plastic sorting facilities, says the study published in Environmental International. Apart from affecting human health, this also affects the marine and coastal environment either as litter or as micro plastics. Dr. Andrew Turner, who conducted this study, assessed the levels and range of elements in more than 600 black plastic products, such as food contact items, storage, clothing, toys, jewe




black plastic, used in electronics design, as well as inefficient handling of e-waste introduces toxic chemicals
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Food can have toxic chemicals from recycling e-waste
ryday use, such as food packaging, plastic jewellery, toys, coat hangers, storage containers and office equipment. Scientists at the University of Plymouth, UK found that the growing demand for <span>black plastic, used in electronics design, as well as inefficient handling of e-waste introduces toxic chemicals into the recyclate or the raw materials processed in waste recycling plants. Hazardous chemicals such as bromine, antimony and lead are applied to electronics like laptops and music sys




India is among the top five e-waste generating countries in the world besides China, the US, Japan and Germany, according to a report
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Waste in news on June 5
e environmental effects of non-recyclable waste which includes plastic packaging, plastic bags and other disposable objects India is among the top five e-waste generating countries in the world <span>India is among the top five e-waste generating countries in the world besides China, the US, Japan and Germany, according to a report Experts context Gurugram’s plastic waste daily yield Of nearly 930 tonnes of trash produced by households daily in the city, only around 20 tonnes is plastic waste, says a private agenc




The National Green Tribunal had temporarily allowed the Noida Authority to dump waste at the site in Sector123
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Waste in news on June 6
an Local Bodies in particular, find it difficult to create and manage projects with limited finance,” noted a ASSOCHAM-PwC joint report. Noida authority: NGT allowed waste dumping in sector 123 <span>The National Green Tribunal had temporarily allowed the Noida Authority to dump waste at the site in Sector123, the Authority clarified on Tuesday by releasing a copy of the tribunal order dated May 29 Waste Management Waste India Subscribe to Weekly Newsletter : Donate Now We are a voice to you




These are substances, first discovered in plants, that damage the corpora allata thus preventing juvenile hormone (JH) from doing its normal job. Applied to early larval stages, precocenes induce premature or precocious metamorphosis (like that induced by the surgical removal of the corpora allata [View]).

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Insecticides
s it turns out, JH is too unstable to be practical, but some synthetic JH mimics, e.g., methoprene (Altosid®) pyriproxyfen (Esteem®, Knack®, Distance®) diofenolan are now being used. Precocenes <span>These are substances, first discovered in plants, that damage the corpora allata thus preventing juvenile hormone (JH) from doing its normal job. Applied to early larval stages, precocenes induce premature or precocious metamorphosis (like that induced by the surgical removal of the corpora allata [View]). Not only does precocious metamorphosis cut short the destructive larval phase of the insect, but the adults are abnormal (besides being small). The females, for example, are sterile (be