Edited, memorised or added to reading list

on 09-Sep-2017 (Sat)

Do you want BuboFlash to help you learning these things? Click here to log in or create user.

Flashcard 1430478261516

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Arc elasticity of demand is still defined as the percentage change in quantity by the percentage change in price but, because the choice of base for calculating percentage changes has an effect on the calculation, economists have chosen to use the [...] and the [...] as the base for calculating the percentage changes.
Answer
average quantity

average price


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
still defined as the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in price. However, because the choice of base for calculating percentage changes has an effect on the calculation, economists have chosen to use the <span>average quantity and the averageprice as the base for calculating the percentage changes.<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

4.1. Own-Price Elasticity of Demand
e know that when price is 5, quantity demanded is 9,200, and when price is 6, quantity demanded is 8,800, but we do not know anything more about the demand function. Under these circumstances, economists use something called arc elasticity . <span>Arc elasticity of demand is still defined as the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in price. However, because the choice of base for calculating percentage changes has an effect on the calculation, economists have chosen to use the average quantity and the averageprice as the base for calculating the percentage changes. (Suppose, for example, that you are making a wage of €10 when your boss says, “I’ll increase your wage by 10 percent.” You are then earning €11. But later that day, if your boss then re







Flashcard 1432487333132

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is the first intrinsic and actual principle of a corporeal essence
Answer
Form


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Form is the first intrinsic and actual principle of a corporeal essence

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1435808173324

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
Marginal cost (MC)[...]
Answer
Change in total cost divided by change in quantity; (∆TC ÷ ∆Q


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Marginal cost (MC)Change in total cost divided by change in quantity; (∆TC ÷ ∆Q

Original toplevel document

3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
umber of time periods). For example, average revenue is calculated by dividing total revenue by the number of items sold. To calculate a marginal term, take the change in the total and divide by the change in the quantity number. <span>Exhibit 3 shows a summary of the terminology and formulas pertaining to profit maximization, where profit is defined as total revenue minus total economic costs. Note that the definition of profit is the economic version, which recognizes that the implicit opportunity costs of equity capital, in addition to explicit accounting costs, are economic costs. The first main category consists of terms pertaining to the revenue side of the profit equation: total revenue, average revenue, and marginal revenue. Cost terms follow with an overview of the different types of costs—total, average, and marginal. Exhibit 3. Summary of Profit, Revenue, and Cost Terms Term Calculation Profit (Economic) profit Total revenue minus total economic cost; (TR – TC) Revenue Total revenue (TR) Price times quantity (P × Q), or the sum of individual units sold times their respective prices; ∑(P i × Q i ) Average revenue (AR) Total revenue divided by quantity; (TR ÷ Q) Marginal revenue (MR) Change in total revenue divided by change in quantity; (∆TR ÷ ∆Q) Costs Total fixed cost (TFC) Sum of all fixed expenses; here defined to include all opportunity costs Total variable cost (TVC) Sum of all variable expenses, or per unit variable cost times quantity; (per unit VC × Q) Total costs (TC) Total fixed cost plus total variable cost; (TFC + TVC) Average fixed cost (AFC) Total fixed cost divided by quantity; (TFC ÷ Q) Average variable cost (AVC) Total variable cost divided by quantity; (TVC ÷ Q) Average total cost (ATC) Total cost divided by quantity; (TC ÷ Q) or (AFC + AVC) Marginal cost (MC) Change in total cost divided by change in quantity; (∆TC ÷ ∆Q) 3.1. Profit Maximization In free markets—and even in regulated market economies—profit maximization tends to promote economic welfare and a hig







Flashcard 1438499867916

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 #subject-2-basic-principles-of-capital-budgeting
Question

Consider the following statement: A firm that earns negative net income will quickly find itself in financial distress.

I. This statement is false because it is possible for a firm to have negative profits but still have positive cash flows.

II. This statement is false because accounting profits do not generally equal cash flow and it is a lack of cash, not profits, that causes financial distress.

III. This statement is true because negative profits mean negative cash flows.

Answer
Correct Answer: I and II


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
ties create costs for other parts of the firm. For example, if the bookstore is considering opening a branch two blocks away, some customers who buy books at the old store will switch to the new branch. The customers lost by the old store are <span>a negative externality. The primary type of negative externality is cannibalization, which occurs when the introduction of a new product causes sales of existing products to decline. &#13

Original toplevel document

Subject 2. Basic Principles of Capital Budgeting
d in the estimated cash flows since the effects of debt financing are reflected in the cost of capital used to discount the cash flows. The existence of a project depends on business factors, not financing. <span>Important capital budgeting concepts: A sunk cost is a cash outlay that has already been incurred and which cannot be recovered regardless of whether a project is accepted or rejected. Since sunk costs are not increment costs, they should not be included in the capital budgeting analysis. For example, a small bookstore is considering opening a coffee shop within its store, which will generate an annual net cash outflow of $10,000 from selling coffee. That is, the coffee shop will always be losing money. In the previous year, the bookstore spent $5,000 to hire a consultant to perform an analysis. This $5,000 consulting fee is a sunk cost; whether the coffee shop is opened or not, the $5,000 is spent. Incremental cash flow is the net cash flow attributable to an investment project. It represents the change in the firm's total cash flow that occurs as a direct result of accepting the project. Forget sunk costs. Subtract opportunity costs. Consider side effects on other parts of the firm: externalities and cannibalization. Recognize the investment and recovery of net working capital. Opportunity cost is the return on the best alternative use of an asset or the highest return that will not be earned if funds are invested in a particular project. For example, to continue with the bookstore example, the space to be occupied by the coffee shop is an opportunity cost - it could be used to sell books and generate a $5,000 annual net cash inflow. Externalities are the effects of a project on cash flows in other parts of a firm. Although they are difficult to quantify, they should be considered. Externalities can be either positive or negative: Positive externalities create benefits for other parts of the firm. For example, the coffee shop may generate some additional customers for the bookstore (who otherwise may not buy books there). Future cash flows generated by positive externalities occur with the project and do not occur without the project, so they are incremental. Negative externalities create costs for other parts of the firm. For example, if the bookstore is considering opening a branch two blocks away, some customers who buy books at the old store will switch to the new branch. The customers lost by the old store are a negative externality. The primary type of negative externality is cannibalization, which occurs when the introduction of a new product causes sales of existing products to decline. Future cash flows represented by negative externalities occur regardless of the project, so they are non-incremental. Such cash flows represent a transfer from existing projects to new projects, and thus should be subtracted from the new projects' cash flows. Conventional versus non-conventional cash flows. A conventional cash flow pattern is one with an initial outflow followed by a series of inflows. In a non-conventional cash flow pattern, the initial outflow can be followed by inflows and/or outflows. Some project interactions: Indepe







Flashcard 1438517169420

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 #subject-2-basic-principles-of-capital-budgeting
Question

Which of the following statements is false?

A. Externalities refer to the effect of a project on other parts of the firm.

B. Cannibalization, when a new project takes sales from an existing product, is one type of externality that occurs.

C. The effect of externalities and cannibalization on cash flow is not incremental and should not be included in the capital budgeting decision.

Answer
Correct Answer: C

Externalities and cannibalization affect the cash flows of a firm and are a direct consequence of accepting a project. Therefore, they affect incremental cash flows and their effect on cash flows should be included in the capital budgeting decision.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
ties create costs for other parts of the firm. For example, if the bookstore is considering opening a branch two blocks away, some customers who buy books at the old store will switch to the new branch. The customers lost by the old store are <span>a negative externality. The primary type of negative externality is cannibalization, which occurs when the introduction of a new product causes sales of existing products to decline. &#13

Original toplevel document

Subject 2. Basic Principles of Capital Budgeting
d in the estimated cash flows since the effects of debt financing are reflected in the cost of capital used to discount the cash flows. The existence of a project depends on business factors, not financing. <span>Important capital budgeting concepts: A sunk cost is a cash outlay that has already been incurred and which cannot be recovered regardless of whether a project is accepted or rejected. Since sunk costs are not increment costs, they should not be included in the capital budgeting analysis. For example, a small bookstore is considering opening a coffee shop within its store, which will generate an annual net cash outflow of $10,000 from selling coffee. That is, the coffee shop will always be losing money. In the previous year, the bookstore spent $5,000 to hire a consultant to perform an analysis. This $5,000 consulting fee is a sunk cost; whether the coffee shop is opened or not, the $5,000 is spent. Incremental cash flow is the net cash flow attributable to an investment project. It represents the change in the firm's total cash flow that occurs as a direct result of accepting the project. Forget sunk costs. Subtract opportunity costs. Consider side effects on other parts of the firm: externalities and cannibalization. Recognize the investment and recovery of net working capital. Opportunity cost is the return on the best alternative use of an asset or the highest return that will not be earned if funds are invested in a particular project. For example, to continue with the bookstore example, the space to be occupied by the coffee shop is an opportunity cost - it could be used to sell books and generate a $5,000 annual net cash inflow. Externalities are the effects of a project on cash flows in other parts of a firm. Although they are difficult to quantify, they should be considered. Externalities can be either positive or negative: Positive externalities create benefits for other parts of the firm. For example, the coffee shop may generate some additional customers for the bookstore (who otherwise may not buy books there). Future cash flows generated by positive externalities occur with the project and do not occur without the project, so they are incremental. Negative externalities create costs for other parts of the firm. For example, if the bookstore is considering opening a branch two blocks away, some customers who buy books at the old store will switch to the new branch. The customers lost by the old store are a negative externality. The primary type of negative externality is cannibalization, which occurs when the introduction of a new product causes sales of existing products to decline. Future cash flows represented by negative externalities occur regardless of the project, so they are non-incremental. Such cash flows represent a transfer from existing projects to new projects, and thus should be subtracted from the new projects' cash flows. Conventional versus non-conventional cash flows. A conventional cash flow pattern is one with an initial outflow followed by a series of inflows. In a non-conventional cash flow pattern, the initial outflow can be followed by inflows and/or outflows. Some project interactions: Indepe







Flashcard 1439249861900

Tags
#eximbank #octopus #usa
Question
Financing is available for medium-term (up to [...]) and long-term (generally up to [...] ) transactions.
Answer
5 years

10 years


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Financing is available for medium-term (up to 5 years) and long-term (generally up to 10 years) transactions.

Original toplevel document

Government-Assisted Foreign Buyer Financing (Eximbank USA)
oods or services and exports to large-scale projects. This type of financing provides direct loans to foreign buyers at a fixed interest rate or provides guarantees for term financing offered by commercial lenders. <span>Financing is available for medium-term (up to 5 years) and long-term (generally up to 10 years) transactions. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENT‑ASSISTED FOREIGN BUYER FINANCING Applicability Suitable for the export of high-value capital goods or services or large-scale







Flashcard 1451133635852

Tags
#rentabilidad-productividad
Question
La rentabilidad es la relación entre [...]
Answer
utilidad e inversión


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1474124975372

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #reading-22-financial-statement-analysis-intro
Question
The standard independent [...] for a publicly traded company normally has several paragraphs under both the international and US auditing standards.
Answer
audit report


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The standard independent audit report for a publicly traded company normally has several paragraphs under both the international and US auditing standards.

Original toplevel document

3.1.7. Auditor’s Reports
financial statements are fairly presented, meaning that there is a high probability that the audited financial statements are free from materialerror, fraud, or illegal acts that have a direct effect on the financial statements. <span>The standard independent audit report for a publicly traded company normally has several paragraphs under both the international and US auditing standards. The first or “introductory” paragraph describes the financial statements that were audited and the responsibilities of both management and the independent auditor. The second or “scope”







Flashcard 1475127151884

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #reading-22-financial-statement-analysis-intro
Question
(FRC).
Answer
UK Financial Reporting Council


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Inclusion of a management report is recommended by the International Organization of Securities Commissions and frequently required by regulatory authorities, such as the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) or the UK Financial Reporting Council (FRC).

Original toplevel document

3.1.6. Management Commentary or Management’s Discussion and Analysis
he nature of the business, past results, and future outlook. This section is referred to by a variety of names, including management report(ing), management commentary, operating and financial review, and management’s discussion and analysis. <span>Inclusion of a management report is recommended by the International Organization of Securities Commissions and frequently required by regulatory authorities, such as the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) or the UK Financial Reporting Council (FRC). In Germany, management reporting has been required since 1931 and is audited. The discussion by management is arguably one of the most useful parts of a company’s annual report besides







Flashcard 1476231040268

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #reading-23-financial-reporting-mechanics
Question
[...] are referred to as the right side of the balance sheet (and accounting equation)
Answer
Liabilities and owners’ equity


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Liabilities and owners’ equity are referred to as the right side of the balance sheet (and accounting equation)

Original toplevel document

APPENDIX 23: A DEBIT/CREDIT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM
he T-account. Assets are, therefore, recorded with a debit balance. In other words, to record an increase in an asset, an entry is made to the left-hand side of a T-account. A decrease to an asset is recorded on the right side of a T-account. <span>Liabilities and owners’ equity are referred to as the right side of the balance sheet (and accounting equation). Increases to liabilities and owners’ equity are recorded on the right side of a T-account; decreases to liabilities and owners’ equity are recorded on the left side. At an







Flashcard 1479150800140

Tags
#daniel-goleman #emotional-brain #emotional-iq #how-the-brain-grew #what-are-emotions-for #when-passions-overwhelm-reasons
Question
Because this part of the brain rings and borders the brainstem, it was called the "limbic" system, from "[...]," the Latin word for " [...].
Answer
limbus

ring


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Because this part of the brain rings and borders the brainstem, it was called the "limbic" system, from "limbus," the Latin word for "ring.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Key Points Gluteal tendinopathy is the most prevalent lower limb tendinopathy, substantially impacting quality of life. Excessive hip adduction, in conjunction with other muscle and bone factors, is considered a key driver in the pathomechanics of gluteal tendinopathy. Load and exercise management based on pathomechanics is proposed as a biologically plausible and viable approach to rehabilitation

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Gluteal tendinopathy is most prevalent in women aged over 40 years [6, 7], with reports of up to 23.5 % of women and 8.5 % of men between the ages of 50 and 79 years being afflicted with the condition

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Non-inflam- matory insertional tendinopathy of the gluteus medius (GMed) and/or gluteus minimus (GMin) is now considered the primary pathology underpinning lateral hip pain [13–18]. Bursal distention may coexist, but this is unlikely to be pri- marily inflamm atory in nature (referring to the suffix ‘‘-itis’’) [19] and is thought to be secondary [17].

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




At any time, a tendon undergoes both catabol ic and anabolic processes. Under conditions of normal loading, these pro- cesses are balanced and provide the basis for a healthy homeostatic state within the tissue. This balance may be disturbed by the type, intensity and frequency of loading (see Magnussen et al. [20] for a detailed review). A load may be applied to a tendon longitudinal to its collagen fibres (tension or tensile load) or perpendicular to the line of the fibres (compression), the latter particularly at its bony enthesis. Tensile loads may be applied actively via muscle contraction or passively via stretching. Tendon loads will be particularly high when the muscle is active and the tendon is lengthening at the same time, i.e. ec- centric contractions in the outer range, where anatomical compression may also occur [21].

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




A rapid increase in the intensity and/or frequency of tensile loading may lead to failure to adapt and a net catabolic effect. Net catabolism also results from lack of tensile loading (stress deprivation) and compression (Table 1).

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




At a cellular level, stress deprivation and com- pression induce expression of catabolic enzymes, which break down type 1 collagen [22], and increase tenocyte expression of large proteoglycans, which cleave apart collagen fibres [23]. Matrix degradation and changes in tenocyte behaviour reduce load-bearing capacity and pre- dispose to injury at relatively low tensile loads [24

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




The tendons of GMed and GMin, and the associated bur- sae, can be compressed by the iliotibial band (ITB) at their insertion into the greater trochanter. The compressive load is influenced by the hip joint position. Birnbaum et al. [26] demonstrated compressive loads in this region of 4 N at 0° hip adduction, which rise to 36 N at 10° adduction and 106 N at 40° adduction [26

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Accumulation of compressive tendon loading is likely to result from excessive hip ad- duction adopted during static postures and dynamic tasks. Examples include standing with one hip in adduction (hanging on one hip), sitting with knees together or crossed in adduction, and an excessive lateral pelvic tilt or shift during dynamic single-leg loading tasks

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




midline or cross-midline foot–ground contact pattern, on the camber of a road or in the same direction around a track, are examples of dynamic activities that also adduct the hip and could increase the risk of development of lat- eral hip pain

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




The abductor mechanism of the hip involves two muscle synergies: (1) the trochanteric abductor muscles (GMed and GMin); and (2) the ITB-tensing muscles or ITBten- sioners [the upper abducting portion of the gluteus max- imus (UGM), tensor fascia lata (TFL) and vastus lateralis (VL)] [26, 32–34] (Fig. 1). Kummer [35] calculated the potential for trochanteric abductor muscles to provide 70 % of the abductor force required for pelvic control in a single-leg stance, with the remaining 30 % provided by the ITB-tensing muscles. The TFL has been shown to hyper- trophy [36] and GMed and GMin atrophy [18 ] in those with gluteal tendon pathology

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




This pattern of imbalance in the relative proportions of the trochanteric abductors and ITB tension ers could feasibly alter the relative contribution of these muscle groups in controlling frontal-plane motion or postures. Although it is unclear whether these changes precede or result from tendinopathy, it is tempting to speculate that the predominant activity of ITB tensioner muscles could impose greater trochanter ic compression in hip adduction

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




We propose that a combination of a hip-adducted po- sition and ITB tensioner muscle activity contribute to the compression of the tendons of GMed and GMin. A com- mon clinical observation is that in single-leg standing ac- tivities, patients adopt a greater hip-adducted position. The ITB is passively pre-tensioned when the hip is in adduc- tion, which provides a mechanical advantage for the ITB tensioners and may provide the basis for an enhanced contribution to control in the frontal plane. Compressive loads on the gluteal tendons in passive hip adduction would then be amplified by added active tensioning by the ITB tensioner muscles. Detailed biomechanical analysis is re- quired to test this proposed interaction between muscle activation and joint position on the tendons of GMed and GMin in individuals with lateral hip pain.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




The differential diagnosis of lateral hip pain may be challenging because of the possibility of referral from sources other than the local soft tissues of the greater tro- chanter—most com monly, the lumbar spine and hip joint [40, 41].

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




The most salient feature of the presentation of gluteal tendinopathy is pain and tenderness primarily at the greater trochanter [13, 4244]. There may be some radiation around the trochanter and often down the lateral thigh [42, 44]. The onset of pain is frequently insidious, tends to worsen over time and is sometimes associated with chan- ges in training load or physical activity [42, 43], though it can occur acutely after a strong contraction of the abductor musculature, such as that occurring during a slip or fall or a forceful sporting action, such as a sidestep.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Pain is often worst at night—those affected having difficulty sleeping on their side [14]. This can have a substantial negative influence on sleep quality. Other problem functions include single-leg loading tasks, such as walking, standing on one leg to dress, and climbing stairs and hills [38, 42]. Patients with gluteal tendinopathy also frequently report lateral hip pain and stiffness on extending the hip on rising to stand or walking after sitting [42].

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Pain on extending the hip during these tasks is also common in hip osteoarthritis, but a key feature that differentiates these pathologies is that those with hip osteoarthritis have difficulty with manipulating shoes and socks, whereas those with tendinopathy do not [41

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Tests include those involving active abductor muscle contraction—hip abduction and internal rotation, Ober’s test, single-leg stance assessment, flexion/abduction/exter- nal rotation (FABER) and palpation. These diagnostic tes ts generally impart either a tensile or compressive load—or a combination of both—across the gluteal tendons.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Using the principles discussed in Sect. 2.2, adding compression to the gluteal tendons could potentially enhance pain provocation

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Assessing active abduction in a position of hip adduction may be more useful.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




On the basis of the foregoing pathomechanical considerations, diagnostic tests are more likely to be maximally provoca- tive of symptoms if they apply both active tensile and compressive loads simultaneously to the GMed and GMin tendons.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




The sustained single-leg stance test should, in most cases, provide such a scenario, designed as a pain provo- cation test [45] rather than a test of muscle function [13, 44] or balance [41

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Fearon et al. [41] found that when participants reported pain reproduction at the greater trochanter on the FABER test, in the absence of difficulty manipulating shoes and socks (which will be difficult if limited in FABER), this formed a strong basis for diagnosis of greater trochanteric pain syndrome, together with pain on palpation of the greater trochanter.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




If motion is lim- ited, then hip joint–based pathology cannot be excluded. This holds promise as a tool for differential diagnosis and is worthy of further study.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Pain on palpation (direct compression) of the soft tissues overlying the greater trochanter is generally regarded as the most important sign in the diagnosis of gluteal tendinopa- thy (±bursa l distention). There is widespread agreement that this is a cardinal sign for the diagnosis of lateral hip tendinous or bursal pathology

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Cook and Purdam [55] recommend functional loading tests to assess and monitor a tendon’s response to management over time. For the gluteal tendons, these authors suggest standing on one leg as a low-load test and hopping as a high-load test. Reduced pain on subsequent testing is thought to reflect improved load tolerance by the tendon. Improvement after a period of rehabilitation could be identified as either reduced pain on a specified number of hops or a greater number of hops before the onset of pain

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




The running cadence and stride length will also influence frontal-plane hip and pelvic mechanics. A slower cadence and longer stride length have been associated with greater peak hip adduction and higher energy absorption and generation around the hip during the stance phase of running [56

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Ultrasound and MRI are the predominant investigations for lateral hip pain. Ultrasound is usually offered first, because of cost and availability.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




It may be necessary to exclude bony or significant soft tissue injury that could require surgical intervention. Imaging of the hip and lum- bar spine may also assist if the differential diagnosis is unclear. Caution is required, as tendon and lumbar pathology often coexist and occur frequently in the asymptomatic population [59, 60]. To be relevant, findings on imaging should correlate with clinical features

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




For athletes, controlling tendon load will be a central tenet of management of gluteal tendinopathy. While complete rest is catabolic for tendons, avoiding rapid changes in loading/training and reducing activities involving provocative combinations of compression and high tensile load are recommended [67]. This may involve restriction of longer-distance and higher-speed running and other activities involving high eccentric abductor loads, such as hopping and bounding. Modifications of running technique might also be required. Reductions in peak hip adduction in running can be successfully altered with visual biofeedback [69] and increases in cadence [70]. Increasing cadence by 10 % has also been shown to result in increased activity of GMed during the late swing phase but not during the stance phase [71].

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




It would also seem prudent to avoid hip flexion/adduction stretches (e.g.ITB and gluteal stretches), as these place compressive and tensile loads on the gluteal tendon insertions.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




However, corticosteroid injection does not completely al- leviate the pain (average pain reduction 55 % [4]), and medium- and longer-term responses are much lower than its initial effects. Positive responses drop to 41–55 % at 3–4 months [1, 2, 54], and after 12 months, Brinks et al. [1] showed no difference in outcomes between subjects receiving corticosteroid injection and those receiving usual care (analgesics as required). This pattern of poorer out- comes in the longer term, with high rates of recurrence, has been shown for other insertional tendinopathies, such as tendinopathy of the lateral elbow [75, 76].

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Recurrence of pain following corticosteroid injection may reflect the failure of this intervention to address the underlying pathology and the associated central mechanisms now thought to be important co-drivers of longer-term tendon pain [78– 80

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




The evidence for the best management is poor, and the underlying mechanisms of the condition are only beginning to be understood. Compression and stress shielding of the deep fibres of the gluteal tendons in hip adduction are likely to be central to the development of tendon degen- eration.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 1687589358860

Tags
#gluteal #pathology #tendinopathy
Question
What is the first sign of gluteal tendinopathy?
Answer
The most salient feature of the presentation of gluteal tendinopathy is pain and tenderness primarily at the greater trochanter


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The most salient feature of the presentation of gluteal tendinopathy is pain and tenderness primarily at the greater trochanter [13, 42–44]. There may be some radiation around the trochanter and often down the lateral thigh [42, 44]. The onset of pain is frequently insidious, tends to worsen over time and is som

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1687591193868

Question
What is the common pain presentation of gluteal tendinopathy?
Answer
There may be some radiation around the trochanter and often down the lateral thigh


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The most salient feature of the presentation of gluteal tendinopathy is pain and tenderness primarily at the greater trochanter [13, 42–44]. There may be some radiation around the trochanter and often down the lateral thigh [42, 44]. The onset of pain is frequently insidious, tends to worsen over time and is sometimes associated with chan- ges in training load or physical activity [42, 43], though it can o

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Other problem functions include single-leg loading tasks, such as walking, standing on one leg to dress, and climbing stairs and hills

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Pain is often worst at night—those affected having difficulty sleeping on their side [14]. This can have a substantial negative influence on sleep quality. Other problem functions include single-leg loading tasks, such as walking, standing on one leg to dress, and climbing stairs and hills [38, 42]. Patients with gluteal tendinopathy also frequently report lateral hip pain and stiffness on extending the hip on rising to stand or walking after sitting [42]. <

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 1687595650316

Question
Other problem functions include [...], such as walking, standing on one leg to dress, and climbing stairs and hills
Answer
single-leg loading tasks


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Other problem functions include single-leg loading tasks, such as walking, standing on one leg to dress, and climbing stairs and hills

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1687598796044

Question
Other problem functions include single-leg loading tasks, such as [...], standing on one leg to dress, and climbing stairs and hills
Answer
walking


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Other problem functions include single-leg loading tasks, such as walking, standing on one leg to dress, and climbing stairs and hills

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1687600368908

Question
Other problem functions include single-leg loading tasks, such as walking, [...] to dress, and climbing stairs and hills
Answer
standing on one leg


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Other problem functions include single-leg loading tasks, such as walking, standing on one leg to dress, and climbing stairs and hills

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1687601941772

Question
Other problem functions include single-leg loading tasks, such as walking, standing on one leg to dress, and [...] stairs and hills
Answer
climbing


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Other problem functions include single-leg loading tasks, such as walking, standing on one leg to dress, and climbing stairs and hills

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1687603776780

Question
How can I tell the difference between hip osteoarthritis and gluteal tendinopathy?
Answer
a key feature that differentiates these pathologies is that those with hip osteoarthritis have difficulty with manipulating shoes and socks, whereas those with tendinopathy do not


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Pain on extending the hip during these tasks is also common in hip osteoarthritis, but a key feature that differentiates these pathologies is that those with hip osteoarthritis have difficulty with manipulating shoes and socks, whereas those with tendinopathy do not [41

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1688278011148

Question
Conspicuous
    Answer
    1. standing out so as to be clearly visible. "he was very thin, with a conspicuous Adam's apple"
      • attracting notice or attention. "he showed conspicuous bravery"


    statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
    repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
    scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill
    conspicuous - Buscar con Google
    earch help Tools Any time Any time Past hour Past 24 hours Past week Past month Past year Custom range... Customised date range From To All results All results Verbatim About 26,100,000 results (0.48 seconds) Search Results Dictionary <span>con·spic·u·ous kənˈspikyo͞oəs/ adjective adjective: conspicuous standing out so as to be clearly visible. "he was very thin, with a conspicuous Adam's apple" attracting notice or attention. "he showed conspicuous bravery" synonyms: easily seen, clear, visible, noticeable, discernible, perceptible, detectable; More obvious, manifest, evident, apparent, marked, pronounced, prominent, patent, crystal clear; striking, eye-catching, impactful, overt, blatant; distinct, recognizable, unmistakab







    #python
    Common List Methods

    There are number of methods for lists, but we will at least cover how to add and delete items from them. All of the list methods can be found on Python's documentation website. Methods follow the list name. In the statement listName.append(2) , append() is the method.

    • .append(value) - appends element to end of the list
    • .count('x') - counts the number of occurrences of 'x' in the list
    • .index('x') - returns the index of 'x' in the list
    • .insert('y','x') - inserts 'x' at location 'y'
    • .pop() - returns last element then removes it from the list
    • .remove('x') - finds and removes first 'x' from list
    • .reverse() - reverses the elements in the list
    • .sort() - sorts the list alphabetically in ascending order, or numerical in ascending order

    statusnot read reprioritisations
    last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
    started reading on finished reading on

    Python Lists Tutorial
    told you we would come back to see how awesome the for loop is. Basically, variable a is the actual element in the list. We are incrementing an implicit index. Don't get too worried about it. Just remember we are cycling through the list. <span>Common List Methods There are number of methods for lists, but we will at least cover how to add and delete items from them. All of the list methods can be found on Python's documentation website. Methods follow the list name. In the statement listName.append(2), append() is the method. .append(value) - appends element to end of the list .count('x') - counts the number of occurrences of 'x' in the list .index('x') - returns the index of 'x' in the list .insert('y','x') - inserts 'x' at location 'y' .pop() - returns last element then removes it from the list .remove('x') - finds and removes first 'x' from list .reverse() - reverses the elements in the list .sort() - sorts the list alphabetically in ascending order, or numerical in ascending order Try playing around with a few of the methods to get a feel for lists. They are fairly straightforward, but they are very crucial to understanding how to harness the power of Python.




    bootloaders

    statusnot read reprioritisations
    last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
    started reading on finished reading on

    microcontroller - Why execute code from RAM? - Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange
    up vote 32 down vote In addition to the speed & other features which others have already mentioned, executing code from RAM can be useful in <span>bootloaders where you need to reprogram your micro's flash - you can't execute code from flash which you're in the middle of erasing & reprogramming. share|edit




    Flashcard 1688298196236

    Question

    a program that loads an operating system when a computer is turned on.
    Answer
    bootloaders


    statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
    repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
    scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

    Parent (intermediate) annotation

    Open it
    bootloaders

    Original toplevel document

    microcontroller - Why execute code from RAM? - Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange
    up vote 32 down vote In addition to the speed & other features which others have already mentioned, executing code from RAM can be useful in <span>bootloaders where you need to reprogram your micro's flash - you can't execute code from flash which you're in the middle of erasing & reprogramming. share|edit







    Flashcard 1688300817676

    Tags
    #flash_memory
    Question
    what is a flash memory?
    Answer
    is a memory storage device for computers and electronics


    statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
    repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
    scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill
    microcontroller - Why execute code from RAM? - Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange
    up vote 19 down vote I didn't look at the datasheet for that micro. However, it is often the case in this situation that fetching from RAM is faster than fetching from the <span>flash the program memory is implemented from. The advantage of flash is that large amounts can be relatively cheap. Microcontroller manufacturers therefore sometimes put a lot of flash on







    Flashcard 1688303963404

    Question
    Flash memory is a memory storage device for computers and electronics
    Answer
    [default - edit me]


    statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
    repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
    scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill
    Flash memory - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    lopedia Jump to: navigation, search [imagelink] An opened USB Flash drive. The chip on the left (with Samsung) contains the flash memory. The chip on the right is the controller chip <span>Flash memory is a memory storage device for computers and electronics. It is most often used in devices like digital cameras, USB flash drives, and video games. It is quite similar to EEPROM. Flash memory is different from RAM because RAM is volatile (n