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Flashcard 1410432634124

Tags
#rhetoric
Question
THE THREE CORE ISSUES: [...], values, choice.
Answer
Blame


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THE THREE CORE ISSUES: Blame, values, choice.







Flashcard 1425514564876

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
Gross national product (GNP) measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production supplied by residents of a country, regardless of whether such production takes place [...]
Answer
within the country or outside of the country.


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>Gross national product (GNP) measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) supplied by residents of a country, regardless of whether such production takes place within the country or outside of the country.<span><body><html>

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2.1. Basic Terminology
ic product (GDP) measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) located within a country/economy during a given period of time, generally a year or a quarter. <span>Gross national product (GNP), however, measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) supplied by residents of a country, regardless of whether such production takes place within the country or outside of the country. The difference between a country’s GDP and its GNP is that GDP includes, and GNP excludes, the production of goods and services by foreigners within that country, whereas GNP







Flashcard 1425533177100

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a [...] .


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’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a <span>trade surplus (deficit) .<span><body><html>

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2.1. Basic Terminology
e while those in Europe and the Middle East (which benefited from rising prices of their petroleum exports) experienced a substantial increase. Africa also experienced a small improvement in its terms of trade during this period. <span>Net exports is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of its imports (i.e., value of exports minus imports). If the value of exports equals the value of imports, then trade is balanced. If the value of exports is greater (less) than the value of imports, then there is a trade surplus (deficit) . When a country has a trade surplus, it lends to foreigners or buys assets from foreigners reflecting the financing needed by foreigners running trade deficits with that country. Similarly, when a country has a trade deficit, it has to borrow from foreigners or sell some of its assets to foreigners. Section 4 on the balance of payments explains these relationships more fully. Autarky is a state in which a country does not trade with other countries. This means that all goods and services are produced and consumed domestically. The price of a go







Flashcard 1425571450124

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Reading 15 provides the basis for understanding [...]
Answer
the cost side of firms’ profit equation.


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Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation.

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Study Session 4
quantities. Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption. <span>Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools fo







Flashcard 1425593994508

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and [...]
Answer
national income.


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Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income.

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1. INTRODUCTION
In a general sense, economics is the study of production, distribution, and consumption and can be divided into two broad areas of study: macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with aggregate economic quantities, such as national output and national income. Macroeconomics has its roots in microeconomics , which deals with markets and decision making of individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logi







Flashcard 1425602120972

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Demand and supply analysis is the study of [...]
Answer
how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.


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Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities.

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1. INTRODUCTION
f individual economic units, including consumers and businesses. Microeconomics is a logical starting point for the study of economics. This reading focuses on a fundamental subject in microeconomics: demand and supply analysis. <span>Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to determine transaction prices and quantities. As we will see, prices simultaneously reflect both the value to the buyer of the next (or marginal) unit and the cost to the seller of that unit. In private enterprise market economies,







Flashcard 1425618111756

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
[...] are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production.


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Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital,

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2. TYPES OF MARKETS
n markets. Investment analysts need at least a basic understanding of those markets and the demand and supply model that provides a framework for analyzing them. Markets are broadly classified as factor markets or goods markets. <span>Factor markets are markets for the purchase and sale of factors of production. In capitalist private enterprise economies, households own the factors of production (the land, labor, physical capital, and materials used in production). Goods markets are markets for the output of production. From an economics perspective, firms, which ultimately are owned by individuals either singly or in some corporate form, are or







Flashcard 1425640918284

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
Countries that have large differences between GDP and GNP generally pay more for the use of [...] in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada).
Answer
foreign-owned capital


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Countries that have large differences between GDP and GNP generally have a large number of citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada).

Original toplevel document

2.1. Basic Terminology
NP is that GDP includes, and GNP excludes, the production of goods and services by foreigners within that country, whereas GNP includes, and GDP excludes, the production of goods and services by its citizens outside of the country. <span>Countries that have large differences between GDP and GNP generally have a large number of citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada). Therefore, GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.







#12-dic-2016 #el-financiero #noticias
La Bolsa Mexicana de Valores (BMV) y los bancos del país no registrarán operaciones este lunes 12 de diciembre, cuando se celebra el Día del Empleado Bancario, que coincide con el festejo religioso de la Virgen de Guadalupe.

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Bolsa y bancos mexicanos cerrados por feriado
No obstante que es un día festivo por el Día del Empleado Bancario, se dará servicio dentro de almacenes comerciales y supermercados en los horarios tradicionales, aseguró la Asociación de Bancos de México (ABM). CIUDAD DE MÉXICO.- <span>La Bolsa Mexicana de Valores (BMV) y los bancos del país no registrarán operaciones este lunes 12 de diciembre, cuando se celebra el Día del Empleado Bancario, que coincide con el festejo religioso de la Virgen de Guadalupe. De acuerdo con las disposiciones de carácter general de la Comisión Nacional Bancaria y de Valores (CNBV), órgano que regula a las entidades financieras del país, el 12 de di




#12-dic-2016 #el-financiero #noticias
la Ley para la Transparencia y Ordenamiento de los Servicios Financieros establece que, en caso de que la fecha límite de un pago corresponda a un día inhábil, el pago podrá efectuarse al día hábil siguiente.

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Bolsa y bancos mexicanos cerrados por feriado
tivo. Recordó que los clientes de la Banca tienen a su disposición, los 365 días del año, los servicios de Banca por teléfono, Banca por internet, así como una red de más de 47 mil cajeros automáticos. Cabe mencionar que <span>la Ley para la Transparencia y Ordenamiento de los Servicios Financieros establece que, en caso de que la fecha límite de un pago corresponda a un día inhábil, el pago podrá efectuarse al día hábil siguiente.<span><body><html>




Article 1427786042636

La actitud de Carlos Slim frente a Trump
#12-dic-2016 #el-financiero #noticias

El jueves 1 de diciembre poco antes de las 10:00 de la mañana lo esperaba en el estrado Michael Bloomberg amén de unas 200 personas congregadas a manera de auditorio en el patio central del Exconvento de San Hipólito en la Ciudad de México. Si continuaba encerrado en su automóvil atrapado por el tráfico sobre Paseo de la Reforma, Carlos Slim retrasaría ese diálogo público con el empresario y exalcalde de Nueva York. El magnate mexicano reaccionó. Ante la prisa, bajó del automóvil y a pleno sol saltó a la motocicleta de su escolta quien esquivó hábilmente portezuelas y espejos laterales hasta depositar a su pasajero en la entrada del recinto, casi a tiempo. Slim ágilmente cruzó el portón y avanzó casi a trote por el oscuro pasillo que lo llevaría a su silla. Iniciado el diálogo, el moderador del histórico encuentro entre el dueto de personajes, el conductor televisivo canadiense Erik Schatzker, soltó a un Slim aún cargado de adrenalina: ¿Qué debería hacer México para mejorar su deteriorada imagen?



#12-dic-2016 #el-financiero #noticias
Vicente Yáñez

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Por tipo de tienda, el ANTAD que preside Vicente Yáñez revela que las cadenas departamentales (como Liverpool, Sears, Palacio de Hierro) lideraron el desempeño del sector con un aumento de 8.6 en ventas a tiendas comparables y 12 por ciento

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Ventas de la ANTAD suben 5.9% en noviembre
eses sin intereses. A diferencia del onceavo mes del año pasado, noviembre del 2016 tuvo un domingo menos. Si se descontara este efecto, el incremento hubiera sido de entre 7 y 8 por ciento respecto a noviembre del 2015. <span>Por tipo de tienda, el organismo empresarial que preside Vicente Yáñez revela que las cadenas departamentales (como Liverpool, Sears, Palacio de Hierro) lideraron el desempeño del sector con un aumento de 8.6 en ventas a tiendas comparables y 12 por ciento a totales. Le siguieron las especializadas (como Office Depot, Oxxo, Lowe´s y TodoModa) con avances de 6 y 10.6 por ciento, en el mismo orden, al tiempo que los autoservicios (incluidos




Flashcard 1427800722700

Tags
#12-dic-2016 #el-financiero #noticias
Question
la [...] establece que, en caso de que la fecha límite de un pago corresponda a un día inhábil, el pago podrá efectuarse al día hábil siguiente.
Answer
Ley para la Transparencia y Ordenamiento de los Servicios Financieros


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la Ley para la Transparencia y Ordenamiento de los Servicios Financieros establece que, en caso de que la fecha límite de un pago corresponda a un día inhábil, el pago podrá efectuarse al día hábil siguiente.

Original toplevel document

Bolsa y bancos mexicanos cerrados por feriado
tivo. Recordó que los clientes de la Banca tienen a su disposición, los 365 días del año, los servicios de Banca por teléfono, Banca por internet, así como una red de más de 47 mil cajeros automáticos. Cabe mencionar que <span>la Ley para la Transparencia y Ordenamiento de los Servicios Financieros establece que, en caso de que la fecha límite de un pago corresponda a un día inhábil, el pago podrá efectuarse al día hábil siguiente.<span><body><html>







Flashcard 1427802295564

Tags
#12-dic-2016 #el-financiero #noticias
Question
[...] asumirá como máximo responsable de Coca Cola en mayo próximo.
Answer
James Quincey


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James Quincey, que asumirá como máximo responsable de Coca Cola en mayo próximo, está bajo presión para reducir drásticamente las calorías de la línea de productos de Coca-Cola –una medida necesaria

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El mayor reto del nuevo jefe de Coca-Cola eres tú, millennial
als, un sector que se inclina por productos más saludables con menos azúcar. El próximo presidente ejecutivo de Coca-Cola tiene asignada la tarea de traer a la compañía de 130 años a la era dominada por los millennials. <span>James Quincey, que asumirá como máximo responsable en mayo próximo, está bajo presión para reducir drásticamente las calorías de la línea de productos de Coca-Cola –una medida necesaria por los cambios en los gustos del consumidor y las campañas contra la obesidad. Y no puede confiar demasiado en la actual oferta de edulcorantes artificiales para ello, ya que muchos clientes se han alejado del aspartame y otros aditivos. El e







Article 1427803868428

Dólar, en mínimo de un mes y podría bajar más
#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero #noticias

Las decisiones de la Reserva Federal de Estados Unidos y del Banco de México, esta semana, darían un nuevo impulso a la moneda mexicana, aseguran analistas. Tras registrar ganancias en 10 de las últimas 12 sesiones, el tipo de cambio del peso frente al dólar tocó ayer un nivel de 20.21 unidades, el más bajo en casi un mes, y podría bajar todavía más, prevén especialistas. La ganancia de la moneda mexicana registrada ayer se debió principalmente al avance de casi 3 por ciento en los precios del petróleo y al debilitamiento del dólar de 0.7 por ciento en el mercado internacional. El tipo de cambio en el mercado Forex (Foreign Exchange) quedó por debajo de los 20.36 registrados el viernes por el Banco de México. Esa institución no ofreció un cierre oficial ayer, debido al feriado por el Día del Empleado Bancario. Por la misma razón, la cotización de ventanilla quedó inmóvil, en 20.70 unidades, según cifras de Banamex. Durante esta semana, los participantes del mercado cambiario estarán atentos a la



#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero #noticias
Las decisiones de la Reserva Federal de Estados Unidos y del Banco de México, esta semana, darían un nuevo impulso a la moneda mexicana, aseguran analistas.

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Dólar, en mínimo de un mes y podría bajar más
Las decisiones de la Reserva Federal de Estados Unidos y del Banco de México, esta semana, darían un nuevo impulso a la moneda mexicana, aseguran analistas. Tras registrar ganancias en 10 de las últimas 12 sesiones, el tipo de cambio del peso frente al dólar tocó ayer un nivel de 20.21 unidades, el más bajo en casi un mes, y pod




#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero #noticias
Durante esta semana, los participantes del mercado cambiario estarán atentos a la decisión de política monetaria de la Reserva Federal y del Banco de México, en donde se verían incrementos de 25 puntos base a las respectivas tasas de referencia, de acuerdo con las previsiones.

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Dólar, en mínimo de un mes y podría bajar más
r el Banco de México. Esa institución no ofreció un cierre oficial ayer, debido al feriado por el Día del Empleado Bancario. Por la misma razón, la cotización de ventanilla quedó inmóvil, en 20.70 unidades, según cifras de Banamex. <span>Durante esta semana, los participantes del mercado cambiario estarán atentos a la decisión de política monetaria de la Reserva Federal y del Banco de México, en donde se verían incrementos de 25 puntos base a las respectivas tasas de referencia, de acuerdo con las previsiones. Para algunos especialistas, los movimientos de ambos bancos centrales podrían dar un mayor impulso a la moneda mexicana, debido a que los inversionistas ya los tienen incorp




#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero #noticias
La decisión de la Organización de Países Exportadores de Petróleo(OPEP) de reducir la producción por primera vez en ocho años hizo que los precios del petróleo se dispararan

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Dólar, en mínimo de un mes y podría bajar más
ás hawkish por parte de la Fed”. Con las ganancias acumuladas en las últimas dos semanas y media, el peso mexicano se ubicó como la quinta moneda emergente con mayores alzas frente al dólar. PETRÓLEO LE DA ‘ENERGÍA’ <span>La decisión de la Organización de Países Exportadores de Petróleo(OPEP) de reducir la producción por primera vez en ocho años hizo que los precios del petróleo se dispararan, lo que benefició al peso mexicano. Los precios del crudo han subido casi 20 por ciento desde el 30 de noviembre, mientras que la moneda ganó 2.8 por ciento en el mismo periodo y se ale




Article 1427809897740

Un dólar estable… e incierto
#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero #enrique-quintana #noticias

Ayer, la cotización del peso frente al dólar estaba en 20.23 por la noche, lo que representa uno de los niveles más bajos en un mes completo. Después del triunfo de Donald Trump y de la reiterada afirmación, hecha por él y sus colaboradores, de que pretende renegociar el Tratado de Libre Comercio, existía la impresión de que el valor del dólar frente a nuestra moneda se podría ir al cielo. Entre el 7 y el 9 de noviembre, como secuela de las elecciones en EU, nuestra divisa se depreció en 6.3 por ciento y, con mucho, fue la más golpeada del mundo. Pero, entre el 9 de noviembre y el día de ayer, la depreciación ya fue de sólo 1.9 por ciento, a pesar de que, en ese lapso, adicionalmente al ‘efecto Trump’, se conoció la decisión de Carstens de dejar el Banco de México en julio del próximo año. Además, hay que considerar que en los mercados financieros se da por un hecho que mañana será anunciada un alza en la tasa de interés por parte de la Reserva Federal y que el jueves el Banco de México hará lo pr



#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero #enrique-quintana #noticias
en los mercados financieros se da por un hecho que mañana será anunciada un alza en la tasa de interés por parte de la Reserva Federal y que el jueves el Banco de México hará lo propio.

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Un dólar estable… e incierto
la depreciación ya fue de sólo 1.9 por ciento, a pesar de que, en ese lapso, adicionalmente al ‘efecto Trump’, se conoció la decisión de Carstens de dejar el Banco de México en julio del próximo año. Además, hay que considerar que <span>en los mercados financieros se da por un hecho que mañana será anunciada un alza en la tasa de interés por parte de la Reserva Federal y que el jueves el Banco de México hará lo propio. Pese a todo ello, la paridad peso/dólar parece estabilizada. ¿Es así? Lamentablemente no. Pero, al menos por ahora, creo que pueden desterrarse los temores, que se




#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero #enrique-quintana #noticias
La ganancia de ayer en nuestra moneda se debió en buena medida al incremento de los precios del crudo, tras el acuerdo de reducción de producción que se obtuvo.

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Un dólar estable… e incierto
sustantivo del Acuerdo, entonces quizás haya alivio en el mercado cambiario y el peso podría incluso ganar terreno. Así de abiertas están en este momento las posibilidades. También hay que observar el mercado petrolero. <span>La ganancia de ayer en nuestra moneda se debió en buena medida al incremento de los precios del crudo, tras el acuerdo de reducción de producción que se obtuvo. Si los precios del crudo mantuvieran una tendencia hacia arriba, entonces, quizás habría otro factor que pudiera propiciar una paridad más fuerte del peso. Para lo




#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero #enrique-quintana #noticias
Para los importadores, el dólar caro ha sido costoso y creo que inevitablemente tendrá repercusión en la inflación.

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Un dólar estable… e incierto
crudo, tras el acuerdo de reducción de producción que se obtuvo. Si los precios del crudo mantuvieran una tendencia hacia arriba, entonces, quizás habría otro factor que pudiera propiciar una paridad más fuerte del peso. <span>Para los importadores, el dólar caro ha sido costoso y creo que inevitablemente tendrá repercusión en la inflación. Pero para otros sectores se trata de una bendición. Este fin de año se pronostica como el mejor en una década para el turismo nacional, por la reducción de viajes al extranje




#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero #enrique-quintana #noticias
Pero para otros sectores se trata de una bendición. Este fin de año se pronostica como el mejor en una década para el turismo nacional, por la reducción de viajes al extranjero

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Un dólar estable… e incierto
hacia arriba, entonces, quizás habría otro factor que pudiera propiciar una paridad más fuerte del peso. Para los importadores, el dólar caro ha sido costoso y creo que inevitablemente tendrá repercusión en la inflación. <span>Pero para otros sectores se trata de una bendición. Este fin de año se pronostica como el mejor en una década para el turismo nacional, por la reducción de viajes al extranjero. Así que no todo es terrible con el dólar caro.<span><body><html>




Article 1427817499916

Blim supera a Claro video
#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero

A menos de un año de su entrada al mercado de las OTT, blim superó a Claro video en el segundo lugar de preferencia de los clientes detrás de Netflix, que domina con 4.43 millones de clientes. El fuerte posicionamiento de Netflix y en menor medida de Claro videoen el negocio de contenidos bajo demanda levantó muchas dudas sobre el éxito y viabilidad de blim, plataforma lanzada en febrero pasado por Grupo Televisa. Sin embargo, a menos de un año de su entrada al mercado, la plataforma se posicionó en el segundo lugar de preferencia en los consumidores, al desplazar a Claro video, propiedad de Carlos Slim. ​ De acuerdo con datos de la empresa de consultoría The Competitive Intelligence Unit (CIU), al tercer trimestre de este año, blim contaba con el 17.5 por ciento del total de los clientes de las plataformas OTT en México, por encima del 9.3 por ciento que registró Claro video, ambos detrás de Netflix, quien sigue siendo ‘el rey’ en la oferta de contenidos a través de estos sistemas con el 70.1 por



#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero #enrique-quintana #noticias
A menos de un año de su entrada al mercado de las OTT, blim superó a Claro video en el segundo lugar de preferencia de los clientes detrás de Netflix, que domina con 4.43 millones de clientes.

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Blim supera a Claro video
A menos de un año de su entrada al mercado de las OTT, blim superó a Claro video en el segundo lugar de preferencia de los clientes detrás de Netflix, que domina con 4.43 millones de clientes. El fuerte posicionamiento de Netflix y en menor medida de Claro videoen el negocio de contenidos bajo demanda levantó muchas dudas sobre el éxito y viabilidad de blim, pla




#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero #enrique-quintana #noticias
El fuerte posicionamiento de Netflix y en menor medida de Claro videoen el negocio de contenidos bajo demanda levantó muchas dudas sobre el éxito y viabilidad de blim, plataforma lanzada en febrero pasado por Grupo Televisa.

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Blim supera a Claro video
html>A menos de un año de su entrada al mercado de las OTT, blim superó a Claro video en el segundo lugar de preferencia de los clientes detrás de Netflix, que domina con 4.43 millones de clientes. El fuerte posicionamiento de Netflix y en menor medida de Claro videoen el negocio de contenidos bajo demanda levantó muchas dudas sobre el éxito y viabilidad de blim, plataforma lanzada en febrero pasado por Grupo Televisa. Sin embargo, a menos de un año de su entrada al mercado, la plataforma se posicionó en el segundo lugar de preferencia en los consumidores, al desplazar a Claro video, propie




#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero #enrique-quintana #noticias
a menos de un año de su entrada al mercado, la plataforma se posicionó en el segundo lugar de preferencia en los consumidores, al desplazar a Claro video, propiedad de Carlos Slim.

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Blim supera a Claro video
rte posicionamiento de Netflix y en menor medida de Claro videoen el negocio de contenidos bajo demanda levantó muchas dudas sobre el éxito y viabilidad de blim, plataforma lanzada en febrero pasado por Grupo Televisa. Sin embargo, <span>a menos de un año de su entrada al mercado, la plataforma se posicionó en el segundo lugar de preferencia en los consumidores, al desplazar a Claro video, propiedad de Carlos Slim. ​ De acuerdo con datos de la empresa de consultoría The Competitive Intelligence Unit (CIU), al tercer trimestre de este año, blim contaba con el 17.5 por ciento del total de




Article 1427824315660

Carstens fue muy importante, pero el Banxico va a seguir
#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero

El banco central azteca gana credibilidad y mantiene su compromiso de bajar la inflación, expone Manuel Sánchez, integrante de la Junta de Gobierno del Banxico y quien culminará su mandato en unas semanas. A unas cuantas semanas de concluir su mandato como integrante de la Junta de Gobierno de Banxico, Manuel Sánchez hace una evaluación del banco central, de su gestión en la junta, de la salida de Carstens y de los retos para la institución en entrevista para El Financierorealizada el pasado jueves 8 de diciembre. ___¿Qué cambió en el Banco de México entre 2009, cuando se integró a la Junta y 2016, ahora que está por terminar su mandato? ___El Banxico ha ido evolucionando, haciéndose cada vez más una institución sólida que ha ganado credibilidad en su política monetaria. Eso no comienza con mi llegada ni terminará con mi salida. En ese contexto, puede destacarse en estos años una mayor apertura. Banxico ha publicado una serie de documentos que reflejan una mayor transparencia, en particular las mi



#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero
El banco central azteca gana credibilidad y mantiene su compromiso de bajar la inflación, expone Manuel Sánchez, integrante de la Junta de Gobierno del Banxico y quien culminará su mandato en unas semanas

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Carstens fue muy importante, pero el Banxico va a seguir
El banco central azteca gana credibilidad y mantiene su compromiso de bajar la inflación, expone Manuel Sánchez, integrante de la Junta de Gobierno del Banxico y quien culminará su mandato en unas semanas. A unas cuantas semanas de concluir su mandato como integrante de la Junta de Gobierno de Banxico, Manuel Sánchez hace una evaluación del banco central, de su gestión en l




#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero
El Banxico ha ido evolucionando, haciéndose cada vez más una institución sólida que ha ganado credibilidad en su política monetaria. Eso no comienza con mi llegada ni terminará con mi salida. En ese contexto, puede destacarse en estos años una mayor apertura. Banxico ha publicado una serie de documentos que reflejan una mayor transparencia, en particular las minutas de las reuniones de política monetaria.

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Carstens fue muy importante, pero el Banxico va a seguir
a la institución en entrevista para El Financierorealizada el pasado jueves 8 de diciembre. ___¿Qué cambió en el Banco de México entre 2009, cuando se integró a la Junta y 2016, ahora que está por terminar su mandato? ___<span>El Banxico ha ido evolucionando, haciéndose cada vez más una institución sólida que ha ganado credibilidad en su política monetaria. Eso no comienza con mi llegada ni terminará con mi salida. En ese contexto, puede destacarse en estos años una mayor apertura. Banxico ha publicado una serie de documentos que reflejan una mayor transparencia, en particular las minutas de las reuniones de política monetaria. La mejor contribución que hace la política monetaria al crecimiento económico es mantener la inflación baja, que se traduce en un ambiente de mayor confianza




#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero
La mejor contribución que hace la política monetaria al crecimiento económico es mantener la inflación baja, que se traduce en un ambiente de mayor confianza

statusnot read reprioritisations
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Carstens fue muy importante, pero el Banxico va a seguir
mi salida. En ese contexto, puede destacarse en estos años una mayor apertura. Banxico ha publicado una serie de documentos que reflejan una mayor transparencia, en particular las minutas de las reuniones de política monetaria. <span>La mejor contribución que hace la política monetaria al crecimiento económico es mantener la inflación baja, que se traduce en un ambiente de mayor confianza También podemos hacer muy bien nuestro trabajo fortaleciendo la institución o hacerlo muy mal, debilitando la institución Son una pieza de informa




#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero
El Banxico decidió desde hace algunos años publicar los estados financieros completos cada tres meses. Una tercera avenida dentro de esta mayor apertura es el hecho de que ahora los miembros de la Junta —en particular yo— valoramos mucho la posibilidad de comunicar las decisiones de política monetaria y nuestra visión de la economía en diferentes foros.

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Carstens fue muy importante, pero el Banxico va a seguir
a. La discusión que acompaña la decisión que se muestra en la minuta enriquece la comprensión del público respecto a las razones por la que se toma una u otra decisión. Otro aspecto es la rendición de cuentas en materia financiera. <span>El Banxico decidió desde hace algunos años publicar los estados financieros completos cada tres meses. Una tercera avenida dentro de esta mayor apertura es el hecho de que ahora los miembros de la Junta —en particular yo— valoramos mucho la posibilidad de comunicar las decisiones de política monetaria y nuestra visión de la economía en diferentes foros. ___¿Qué tan relevantes son los individuos dentro de la Junta de Gobierno del Banxico? ___Me he hecho esta reflexión en las últimas semanas. Yo escuchaba esta frase




#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero
Con frecuencia se plantea un falso dilema entre mantener la inflación o favorecer el crecimiento. Creo que la mejor contribución que hace la política monetaria al crecimiento económico es mantener la inflación baja, que se traduce en un ambiente de mayor confianza. En la Junta siempre tomamos en cuenta la fase del ciclo por la que atraviesa la economía. Es un insumo importantísimo en la decisión. Cuando la economía tiene un bajo vigor, es un elemento importante que puede ayudar a predecir las presiones futuras de inflación. Siempre se toma en cuenta el crecimiento económico.

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Carstens fue muy importante, pero el Banxico va a seguir
io, que es mantener la inflación baja. Es un momento muy importante que llama a seguir tomando las medidas para mantener controlada la inflación. ___Controlar la inflación, ¿no tiene costos en materia de crecimiento? ___ <span>Con frecuencia se plantea un falso dilema entre mantener la inflación o favorecer el crecimiento. Creo que la mejor contribución que hace la política monetaria al crecimiento económico es mantener la inflación baja, que se traduce en un ambiente de mayor confianza. En la Junta siempre tomamos en cuenta la fase del ciclo por la que atraviesa la economía. Es un insumo importantísimo en la decisión. Cuando la economía tiene un bajo vigor, es un elemento importante que puede ayudar a predecir las presiones futuras de inflación. Siempre se toma en cuenta el crecimiento económico. ___Entre los analistas se te ha caracterizado como un “hawkish”. ¿Lo eres? ___Esa distinción (hawkish y dovish) que es un poco pictórico o hasta folclórica, tiene




#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero
Entre los analistas se te ha caracterizado como un “hawkish”. ¿Lo eres?

___Esa distinción (hawkish y dovish) que es un poco pictórico o hasta folclórica, tiene más que ver con esta necesidad que tienen algunos comentaristas de predecir cómo va a ser la votación en la Junta, pero la realidad es que, como decía, siempre se toma en cuenta el crecimiento económico. Lo que me parece inadecuada de esa clasificación es que parece sugerir que las personas que se preocupan por la inflación desprecian el crecimiento.

statusnot read reprioritisations
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Carstens fue muy importante, pero el Banxico va a seguir
a. Es un insumo importantísimo en la decisión. Cuando la economía tiene un bajo vigor, es un elemento importante que puede ayudar a predecir las presiones futuras de inflación. Siempre se toma en cuenta el crecimiento económico. ___<span>Entre los analistas se te ha caracterizado como un “hawkish”. ¿Lo eres? ___Esa distinción (hawkish y dovish) que es un poco pictórico o hasta folclórica, tiene más que ver con esta necesidad que tienen algunos comentaristas de predecir cómo va a ser la votación en la Junta, pero la realidad es que, como decía, siempre se toma en cuenta el crecimiento económico. Lo que me parece inadecuada de esa clasificación es que parece sugerir que las personas que se preocupan por la inflación desprecian el crecimiento. ___¿Cómo visualizas al Banxico en la coyuntura del próximo cambio del gobernador Carstens? ___Lo visualizó como la continuación de una institución sólida que funci




#13-dic-2016 #el-financiero
¿Cómo visualizas al Banxico en la coyuntura del próximo cambio del gobernador Carstens?

___Lo visualizó como la continuación de una institución sólida que funciona muy bien, con una Junta de 5 miembros. Estoy seguro de que el reemplazo será de una persona capaz y calificada. El Banxico tiene una arquitectura institucional muy sólida. Esto no significa que el liderazgo del gobernador Carstens sea irrelevante. Ha sido muy importante su liderazgo y ha contribuido a la credibilidad del Banxico. Lo va a extrañar el Banxico, pero eso no significa que la institución tenga ningún demérito en su funcionamiento y estoy seguro de que el que lo vaya a reemplazar va a hacer un extraordinario trabajo.

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Carstens fue muy importante, pero el Banxico va a seguir
ealidad es que, como decía, siempre se toma en cuenta el crecimiento económico. Lo que me parece inadecuada de esa clasificación es que parece sugerir que las personas que se preocupan por la inflación desprecian el crecimiento. ___<span>¿Cómo visualizas al Banxico en la coyuntura del próximo cambio del gobernador Carstens? ___Lo visualizó como la continuación de una institución sólida que funciona muy bien, con una Junta de 5 miembros. Estoy seguro de que el reemplazo será de una persona capaz y calificada. El Banxico tiene una arquitectura institucional muy sólida. Esto no significa que el liderazgo del gobernador Carstens sea irrelevante. Ha sido muy importante su liderazgo y ha contribuido a la credibilidad del Banxico. Lo va a extrañar el Banxico, pero eso no significa que la institución tenga ningún demérito en su funcionamiento y estoy seguro de que el que lo vaya a reemplazar va a hacer un extraordinario trabajo. <span><body><html>




Flashcard 1427837685004

Tags
#finance #inflation #inflation-derivatives #inflation-derivatives-barcap
Question
many Fed speakers had hinted at it on several occasions it was not until 1 December 2004 that
Answer
[default - edit me]


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

pdf

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Article 1427839520012

Prevén aumenten casas hasta 20%
#13-dic-2016 #mural

El aumento en el precio de las viviendas se debe al incremento en insumos para construir, como el cemento, la varilla, y la malla de acero. Foto: Especial "Definitivamente sí va a subir, yo creo que entre un 15 y un 20 por ciento (para los segmentos residencial y de lujo)", advirtió Gustavo Núñez, vicepresidente de Operaciones de la Asociación de Desarrolladores Inmobiliarios (ADI). Aunque algunos proveedores de la industria de la construcción han buscado absorber parte de estos incrementos, lo natural es que terminen trasladando el costo al los desarrolladores, indicó Benjamín Cárdenas, presidente de la Cámara Nacional de la Industria de la Construcción (CMIC) en Jalisco. "En las obras nuevas, en las propuestas se va a actualizar el costo de los insumos para que ya en el costo total de la obra vayan los insumos al precio actual", expuso Cárdenas. Y el impacto puede ser mayor, ya que los líderes del sector anticipan incrementos en el aluminio y material eléctrico para el siguiente año.



#13-dic-2016 #mural
El aumento en el precio de las viviendas se debe al incremento en insumos para construir, como el cemento, la varilla, y la malla de acero.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
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Prevén aumenten casas hasta 20%
El aumento en el precio de las viviendas se debe al incremento en insumos para construir, como el cemento, la varilla, y la malla de acero. Foto: Especial "Definitivamente sí va a subir, yo creo que entre un 15 y un 20 por ciento (para los segmentos residencial y de lujo)", advirtió Gustavo Núñez, vice




#13-dic-2016 #mural
"Definitivamente sí va a subir, yo creo que entre un 15 y un 20 por ciento (para los segmentos residencial y de lujo)", advirtió Gustavo Núñez, vicepresidente de Operaciones de la Asociación de Desarrolladores Inmobiliarios (ADI).

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Prevén aumenten casas hasta 20%
El aumento en el precio de las viviendas se debe al incremento en insumos para construir, como el cemento, la varilla, y la malla de acero. Foto: Especial "Definitivamente sí va a subir, yo creo que entre un 15 y un 20 por ciento (para los segmentos residencial y de lujo)", advirtió Gustavo Núñez, vicepresidente de Operaciones de la Asociación de Desarrolladores Inmobiliarios (ADI). Aunque algunos proveedores de la industria de la construcción han buscado absorber parte de estos incrementos, lo natural es que terminen trasladando el costo al los desarrol




#13-dic-2016 #mural
Aunque algunos proveedores de la industria de la construcción han buscado absorber parte de estos incrementos, lo natural es que terminen trasladando el costo al los desarrolladores, indicó Benjamín Cárdenas, presidente de la Cámara Nacional de la Industria de la Construcción (CMIC) en Jalisco.

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Prevén aumenten casas hasta 20%
initivamente sí va a subir, yo creo que entre un 15 y un 20 por ciento (para los segmentos residencial y de lujo)", advirtió Gustavo Núñez, vicepresidente de Operaciones de la Asociación de Desarrolladores Inmobiliarios (ADI). <span>Aunque algunos proveedores de la industria de la construcción han buscado absorber parte de estos incrementos, lo natural es que terminen trasladando el costo al los desarrolladores, indicó Benjamín Cárdenas, presidente de la Cámara Nacional de la Industria de la Construcción (CMIC) en Jalisco. "En las obras nuevas, en las propuestas se va a actualizar el costo de los insumos para que ya en el costo total de la obra vayan los insumos al precio actual", exp




#13-dic-2016 #mural
Va a subir el costo (de la vivienda) por los incrementos en los materiales, por el incremento de la energía y por los incrementos que hemos tenido constantemente de las gasolinas y ahora también viene un incremento fuerte de la mano de obra que también tendrá que verse reflejado. Esto va a causar inflación, no cabe duda", advirtió Guillermo Salcedo, presidente de la Cámara Nacional de la Industria de Desarrollo y Promoción de Vivienda (Canadevi) Delegación Jalisco.

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Prevén aumenten casas hasta 20%
tal de la obra vayan los insumos al precio actual", expuso Cárdenas. Y el impacto puede ser mayor, ya que los líderes del sector anticipan incrementos en el aluminio y material eléctrico para el siguiente año. "<span>Va a subir el costo (de la vivienda) por los incrementos en los materiales, por el incremento de la energía y por los incrementos que hemos tenido constantemente de las gasolinas y ahora también viene un incremento fuerte de la mano de obra que también tendrá que verse reflejado. Esto va a causar inflación, no cabe duda", advirtió Guillermo Salcedo, presidente de la Cámara Nacional de la Industria de Desarrollo y Promoción de Vivienda (Canadevi) Delegación Jalisco.<span><body><html>




Article 1427847646476

Encarecerá combustible mercancías
#13-dic-2016 #mural

Para 2017 se espera que se encarezcan las mercancías por efecto del gasolinazo. Según estimaciones de la Cámara Nacional del Autotransporte de Carga, el precio del diesel subirá entre 15 y 20 por ciento para el siguiente año. Este aumento, considera la Cámara, podría ser trasladado al costo del flete, el cual podría subir entre 6 y 8 por ciento, pero eso dependerá de las negociaciones que cada transportista logre con sus clientes. Refugio Muñoz, vicepresidente ejecutivo de ese órgano empresarial, explicó que el combustible representa, en promedio, entre 30 y 35 por ciento de los costos operativos de los transportistas, y en algunos casos llega al 40 por ciento. "No creo que haya un solo (transportista), por pequeño o grande, que quiera absorber el incremento en el combustible; de por sí los márgenes están muy castigados. Cualquiera que quiera comerse el incremento, una de dos: o está comprando diesel robado o está operando con pérdidas", dijo. Leonardo Gómez, presidente de la Asociación Naci



#13-dic-2016 #mural
Para 2017 se espera que se encarezcan las mercancías por efecto del gasolinazo.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Encarecerá combustible mercancías
Para 2017 se espera que se encarezcan las mercancías por efecto del gasolinazo. Según estimaciones de la Cámara Nacional del Autotransporte de Carga, el precio del diesel subirá entre 15 y 20 por ciento para el siguiente año. Este aumento, co




#13-dic-2016 #mural
Según estimaciones de la Cámara Nacional del Autotransporte de Carga, el precio del diesel subirá entre 15 y 20 por ciento para el siguiente año.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Encarecerá combustible mercancías
Para 2017 se espera que se encarezcan las mercancías por efecto del gasolinazo. Según estimaciones de la Cámara Nacional del Autotransporte de Carga, el precio del diesel subirá entre 15 y 20 por ciento para el siguiente año. Este aumento, considera la Cámara, podría ser trasladado al costo del flete, el cual podría subir entre 6 y 8 por ciento, pero eso dependerá de las negociaciones




#13-dic-2016 #mural
Según estimaciones de la Cámara Nacional del Autotransporte de Carga, el precio del diesel subirá entre 15 y 20 por ciento para el siguiente año.

Este aumento, considera la Cámara, podría ser trasladado al costo del flete, el cual podría subir entre 6 y 8 por ciento, pero eso dependerá de las negociaciones que cada transportista logre con sus clientes.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Encarecerá combustible mercancías
Para 2017 se espera que se encarezcan las mercancías por efecto del gasolinazo. Según estimaciones de la Cámara Nacional del Autotransporte de Carga, el precio del diesel subirá entre 15 y 20 por ciento para el siguiente año. Este aumento, considera la Cámara, podría ser trasladado al costo del flete, el cual podría subir entre 6 y 8 por ciento, pero eso dependerá de las negociaciones que cada transportista logre con sus clientes. Refugio Muñoz, vicepresidente ejecutivo de ese órgano empresarial, explicó que el combustible representa, en promedio, entre 30 y 35 por ciento de los costos operativos de lo




#13-dic-2016 #mural
Este aumento, considera la Cámara, podría ser trasladado al costo del flete, el cual podría subir entre 6 y 8 por ciento, pero eso dependerá de las negociaciones que cada transportista logre con sus clientes.

Refugio Muñoz, vicepresidente ejecutivo de ese órgano empresarial, explicó que el combustible representa, en promedio, entre 30 y 35 por ciento de los costos operativos de los transportistas, y en algunos casos llega al 40 por ciento.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Encarecerá combustible mercancías
017 se espera que se encarezcan las mercancías por efecto del gasolinazo. Según estimaciones de la Cámara Nacional del Autotransporte de Carga, el precio del diesel subirá entre 15 y 20 por ciento para el siguiente año. <span>Este aumento, considera la Cámara, podría ser trasladado al costo del flete, el cual podría subir entre 6 y 8 por ciento, pero eso dependerá de las negociaciones que cada transportista logre con sus clientes. Refugio Muñoz, vicepresidente ejecutivo de ese órgano empresarial, explicó que el combustible representa, en promedio, entre 30 y 35 por ciento de los costos operativos de los transportistas, y en algunos casos llega al 40 por ciento. "No creo que haya un solo (transportista), por pequeño o grande, que quiera absorber el incremento en el combustible; de por sí los márgenes están muy castigados. Cualqu




#13-dic-2016 #mural
Según estimaciones de la Cámara Nacional del Autotransporte de Carga, el precio del diesel subirá entre 15 y 20 por ciento para el siguiente año.

Este aumento, considera la Cámara, podría ser trasladado al costo del flete, el cual podría subir entre 6 y 8 por ciento, pero eso dependerá de las negociaciones que cada transportista logre con sus clientes.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Encarecerá combustible mercancías
Para 2017 se espera que se encarezcan las mercancías por efecto del gasolinazo. Según estimaciones de la Cámara Nacional del Autotransporte de Carga, el precio del diesel subirá entre 15 y 20 por ciento para el siguiente año. Este aumento, considera la Cámara, podría ser trasladado al costo del flete, el cual podría subir entre 6 y 8 por ciento, pero eso dependerá de las negociaciones que cada transportista logre con sus clientes. Refugio Muñoz, vicepresidente ejecutivo de ese órgano empresarial, explicó que el combustible representa, en promedio, entre 30 y 35 por ciento de los costos operativos de lo




#13-dic-2016 #mural
Refugio Muñoz, vicepresidente ejecutivo de ese órgano empresarial, explicó que el combustible representa, en promedio, entre 30 y 35 por ciento de los costos operativos de los transportistas, y en algunos casos llega al 40 por ciento.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Encarecerá combustible mercancías
iente año. Este aumento, considera la Cámara, podría ser trasladado al costo del flete, el cual podría subir entre 6 y 8 por ciento, pero eso dependerá de las negociaciones que cada transportista logre con sus clientes. <span>Refugio Muñoz, vicepresidente ejecutivo de ese órgano empresarial, explicó que el combustible representa, en promedio, entre 30 y 35 por ciento de los costos operativos de los transportistas, y en algunos casos llega al 40 por ciento. "No creo que haya un solo (transportista), por pequeño o grande, que quiera absorber el incremento en el combustible; de por sí los márgenes están muy castigados. Cualqu




#13-dic-2016 #mural
No creo que haya un solo (transportista), por pequeño o grande, que quiera absorber el incremento en el combustible; de por sí los márgenes están muy castigados. Cualquiera que quiera comerse el incremento, una de dos: o está comprando diesel robado o está operando con pérdidas"

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Encarecerá combustible mercancías
uñoz, vicepresidente ejecutivo de ese órgano empresarial, explicó que el combustible representa, en promedio, entre 30 y 35 por ciento de los costos operativos de los transportistas, y en algunos casos llega al 40 por ciento. "<span>No creo que haya un solo (transportista), por pequeño o grande, que quiera absorber el incremento en el combustible; de por sí los márgenes están muy castigados. Cualquiera que quiera comerse el incremento, una de dos: o está comprando diesel robado o está operando con pérdidas", dijo. Leonardo Gómez, presidente de la Asociación Nacional del Transporte Privado, explicó que las empresas con flotas propias afiliadas a esta institución tendrán un impact




#13-dic-2016 #mural
Leonardo Gómez, presidente de la Asociación Nacional del Transporte Privado, explicó que las empresas con flotas propias afiliadas a esta institución tendrán un impacto menor, porque el combustible representa 20 por ciento de sus costos.

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Encarecerá combustible mercancías
de, que quiera absorber el incremento en el combustible; de por sí los márgenes están muy castigados. Cualquiera que quiera comerse el incremento, una de dos: o está comprando diesel robado o está operando con pérdidas", dijo. <span>Leonardo Gómez, presidente de la Asociación Nacional del Transporte Privado, explicó que las empresas con flotas propias afiliadas a esta institución tendrán un impacto menor, porque el combustible representa 20 por ciento de sus costos. Ayer, Grupo REFORMA publicó que se espera un incremento de las gasolinas de 20.6 por ciento por la liberación del mercado.<span><body><html>




Article 1427861802252

Amenazan bancos a selvas tropicales
#13-dic-2016 #mural #new-york-times

A principios del 2015, los científicos que monitoreaban imágenes satelitales en Global Forest Watch hicieron sonar la alarma sobre la destrucción de selvas tropicales en Indonesia. Grupos ambientales se lanzaron al área en la Provincia de Kalimantan Occidental, en la iFsla de Borneo, y encontraron un yermo carbonizado: incendios que ardían lentamente, orangutanes expulsados de sus nidos, y señales de una extensa liberación de dióxido de carbono a la atmósfera. “Prácticamente no quedaba selva”, dijo Karmele Llano Sánchez, directora del grupo de rescate de orangutanes de International Animal Rescue, organización sin fines de lucro. “Toda la selva se había quemado”. Se apuntaba al Rajawali Group, un extenso conglomerado local conocido por sus vínculos con políticos poderosos como el Primer Ministro plagado de escándalos de Malasia. Pero menos conocido es cómo algunos de los bancos más grandes del mundo han ayudado a Rajawali —y otras potencias agrícolas globales— a expandir sus imperios de plantac



#13-dic-2016 #mural #new-york-times
Se apuntaba al Rajawali Group, un extenso conglomerado local conocido por sus vínculos con políticos poderosos como el Primer Ministro plagado de escándalos de Malasia. Pero menos conocido es cómo algunos de los bancos más grandes del mundo han ayudado a Rajawali —y otras potencias agrícolas globales— a expandir sus imperios de plantaciones.

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Amenazan bancos a selvas tropicales
tmósfera. “Prácticamente no quedaba selva”, dijo Karmele Llano Sánchez, directora del grupo de rescate de orangutanes de International Animal Rescue, organización sin fines de lucro. “Toda la selva se había quemado”. <span>Se apuntaba al Rajawali Group, un extenso conglomerado local conocido por sus vínculos con políticos poderosos como el Primer Ministro plagado de escándalos de Malasia. Pero menos conocido es cómo algunos de los bancos más grandes del mundo han ayudado a Rajawali —y otras potencias agrícolas globales— a expandir sus imperios de plantaciones. El año antes de la tala de árboles en Kalimantan Occidental, la división de plantaciones de Rajawali obtuvo 235 millones de dólares en préstamos —fondos que la compañía ind




#13-dic-2016 #mural #new-york-times
El año antes de la tala de árboles en Kalimantan Occidental, la división de plantaciones de Rajawali obtuvo 235 millones de dólares en préstamos —fondos que la compañía indonesia usó para adquirir el control mayoritario de un socio y reforzar su tenencia de tierras— de bancos entre los que se contaban Credit Suisse y Bank of America, según un análisis de The New York Times de los datos de los préstamos.

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Amenazan bancos a selvas tropicales
o el Primer Ministro plagado de escándalos de Malasia. Pero menos conocido es cómo algunos de los bancos más grandes del mundo han ayudado a Rajawali —y otras potencias agrícolas globales— a expandir sus imperios de plantaciones. <span>El año antes de la tala de árboles en Kalimantan Occidental, la división de plantaciones de Rajawali obtuvo 235 millones de dólares en préstamos —fondos que la compañía indonesia usó para adquirir el control mayoritario de un socio y reforzar su tenencia de tierras— de bancos entre los que se contaban Credit Suisse y Bank of America, según un análisis de The New York Times de los datos de los préstamos. El trato forma parte de al menos 43 mil millones de dólares en préstamos y seguros a empresas vinculadas con la deforestación y la quema de bosques tan sólo en el sureste d




#13-dic-2016 #mural #new-york-times
El trato forma parte de al menos 43 mil millones de dólares en préstamos y seguros a empresas vinculadas con la deforestación y la quema de bosques tan sólo en el sureste de Asia, de acuerdo con Rainforest Action Network, con sede en California, la consultoría holandesa Profundo y la organización no gubernamental indonesia TuK Indonesia. Más de un tercio de eso proviene de bancos estadounidenses, europeos y japoneses. Esa cifra casi seguramente está incompleta porque no todo el financiamiento se hace público.

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Amenazan bancos a selvas tropicales
a usó para adquirir el control mayoritario de un socio y reforzar su tenencia de tierras— de bancos entre los que se contaban Credit Suisse y Bank of America, según un análisis de The New York Times de los datos de los préstamos. <span>El trato forma parte de al menos 43 mil millones de dólares en préstamos y seguros a empresas vinculadas con la deforestación y la quema de bosques tan sólo en el sureste de Asia, de acuerdo con Rainforest Action Network, con sede en California, la consultoría holandesa Profundo y la organización no gubernamental indonesia TuK Indonesia. Más de un tercio de eso proviene de bancos estadounidenses, europeos y japoneses. Esa cifra casi seguramente está incompleta porque no todo el financiamiento se hace público. El dinero ayuda a un proceso que los científicos dicen destruye los ecosistemas, desplaza a comunidades indígenas y cubre la región cada año con un smog denso y asfixiante




#13-dic-2016 #mural #new-york-times

El dinero ayuda a un proceso que los científicos dicen destruye los ecosistemas, desplaza a comunidades indígenas y cubre la región cada año con un smog denso y asfixiante que se extiende desde Yakarta hasta Hong Kong.

La deforestación —y los incendios que frecuentemente la acompañan— también genera una décima parte de las emisiones del calentamiento global totales, lo cual hace que la pérdida forestal sea uno de los mayores contribuidores al calentamiento global, de acuerdo con la Unión de Científicos Preocupados.

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Amenazan bancos a selvas tropicales
organización no gubernamental indonesia TuK Indonesia. Más de un tercio de eso proviene de bancos estadounidenses, europeos y japoneses. Esa cifra casi seguramente está incompleta porque no todo el financiamiento se hace público. <span>El dinero ayuda a un proceso que los científicos dicen destruye los ecosistemas, desplaza a comunidades indígenas y cubre la región cada año con un smog denso y asfixiante que se extiende desde Yakarta hasta Hong Kong. La deforestación —y los incendios que frecuentemente la acompañan— también genera una décima parte de las emisiones del calentamiento global totales, lo cual hace que la pérdida forestal sea uno de los mayores contribuidores al calentamiento global, de acuerdo con la Unión de Científicos Preocupados. “Destruir los bosques del mundo hace que combatir el cambio climático sea casi imposible”, dijo Andrew W. Mitchell, director ejecutivo del Global Canopy Programme, grupo pe




#13-dic-2016 #mural #new-york-times
“Destruir los bosques del mundo hace que combatir el cambio climático sea casi imposible”, dijo Andrew W. Mitchell, director ejecutivo del Global Canopy Programme, grupo pensante sobre la silvicultura. “El sector de las finanzas está realmente rezagado en desarrollar esa consciencia”.

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Amenazan bancos a selvas tropicales
én genera una décima parte de las emisiones del calentamiento global totales, lo cual hace que la pérdida forestal sea uno de los mayores contribuidores al calentamiento global, de acuerdo con la Unión de Científicos Preocupados. <span>“Destruir los bosques del mundo hace que combatir el cambio climático sea casi imposible”, dijo Andrew W. Mitchell, director ejecutivo del Global Canopy Programme, grupo pensante sobre la silvicultura. “El sector de las finanzas está realmente rezagado en desarrollar esa consciencia”. Al financiar las plantaciones de aceite de palma de Rajawali, los bancos parecen haber violado sus propias políticas de sustentabilidad. En su política, Credit Suisse indic




#13-dic-2016 #mural #new-york-times
Al financiar las plantaciones de aceite de palma de Rajawali, los bancos parecen haber violado sus propias políticas de sustentabilidad. En su política, Credit Suisse indica que no financiará ni aconsejará a compañías con operaciones en “selvas tropicales húmedas primarias” como las de Kalimantan Occidental. Bank of America afirma que no financiará proyectos comerciales que resulten en la tala de selvas tropicales húmedas primarias.

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Amenazan bancos a selvas tropicales
bio climático sea casi imposible”, dijo Andrew W. Mitchell, director ejecutivo del Global Canopy Programme, grupo pensante sobre la silvicultura. “El sector de las finanzas está realmente rezagado en desarrollar esa consciencia”. <span>Al financiar las plantaciones de aceite de palma de Rajawali, los bancos parecen haber violado sus propias políticas de sustentabilidad. En su política, Credit Suisse indica que no financiará ni aconsejará a compañías con operaciones en “selvas tropicales húmedas primarias” como las de Kalimantan Occidental. Bank of America afirma que no financiará proyectos comerciales que resulten en la tala de selvas tropicales húmedas primarias. El trato del 2014 financió la incursión de Rajawali en el aceite de palma. La demanda por el aceite de palma se dispara a nivel mundial, impulsada por los ingresos al alza




#13-dic-2016 #mural #new-york-times
El trato del 2014 financió la incursión de Rajawali en el aceite de palma. La demanda por el aceite de palma se dispara a nivel mundial, impulsada por los ingresos al alza en mercados como China e India y el rechazo de estadounidenses y europeos de las grasas trans.

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Amenazan bancos a selvas tropicales
compañías con operaciones en “selvas tropicales húmedas primarias” como las de Kalimantan Occidental. Bank of America afirma que no financiará proyectos comerciales que resulten en la tala de selvas tropicales húmedas primarias. <span>El trato del 2014 financió la incursión de Rajawali en el aceite de palma. La demanda por el aceite de palma se dispara a nivel mundial, impulsada por los ingresos al alza en mercados como China e India y el rechazo de estadounidenses y europeos de las grasas trans. Las plantaciones de Rajawali han sido acusadas por grupos ambientales y laborales de deforestación y quema ilegal. Indonesia es uno de los productores de aceite de palma má




#13-dic-2016 #mural #new-york-times
Las preocupaciones climáticas se han puesto de relieve marcadamente por la inminente Presidencia de Donald J. Trump, que ha calificado al cambio climático como un engaño. Trump ha dicho que sacará a Estados Unidos del Acuerdo de París, un compromiso de 195 países de tomar medidas concretas para reducir las emisiones de carbono que calientan el planeta.

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Amenazan bancos a selvas tropicales
e se negó a comentar sobre su trato con Rajawali. Un portavoz de Bank of America, Bill Halldin, dijo que las acusaciones más serias contra Rajawali se dieron tras el préstamo del 2014, en que el banco tuvo “un papel muy pequeño”. <span>Las preocupaciones climáticas se han puesto de relieve marcadamente por la inminente Presidencia de Donald J. Trump, que ha calificado al cambio climático como un engaño. Trump ha dicho que sacará a Estados Unidos del Acuerdo de París, un compromiso de 195 países de tomar medidas concretas para reducir las emisiones de carbono que calientan el planeta. Las emisiones diarias de los incendios forestales de Indonesia el año pasado en ocasiones excedían las emisiones producidas por toda la actividad económica en EU. Un estudi




#13-dic-2016 #mural #new-york-times
Las emisiones diarias de los incendios forestales de Indonesia el año pasado en ocasiones excedían las emisiones producidas por toda la actividad económica en EU. Un estudio reciente halló que los incendios causaron 100 mil muertes prematuras en el sureste de Asia. El Banco Mundial estima que los fuegos costaron 16 mil millones de dólares a la economía de Indonesia.

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Amenazan bancos a selvas tropicales
alificado al cambio climático como un engaño. Trump ha dicho que sacará a Estados Unidos del Acuerdo de París, un compromiso de 195 países de tomar medidas concretas para reducir las emisiones de carbono que calientan el planeta. <span>Las emisiones diarias de los incendios forestales de Indonesia el año pasado en ocasiones excedían las emisiones producidas por toda la actividad económica en EU. Un estudio reciente halló que los incendios causaron 100 mil muertes prematuras en el sureste de Asia. El Banco Mundial estima que los fuegos costaron 16 mil millones de dólares a la economía de Indonesia. Rajawali originalmente operaba su negocio de plantaciones de palmas, Green Eagle Holdings, como una coinversión con el conglomerado francés Louis Dreyfus. Pero en el 2014,




#13-dic-2016 #mural #new-york-times
Rajawali originalmente operaba su negocio de plantaciones de palmas, Green Eagle Holdings, como una coinversión con el conglomerado francés Louis Dreyfus. Pero en el 2014, Rajawali tomó el primer paso para consolidar el negocio del aceite bajo su control e invertir en infraestructura nueva.

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Amenazan bancos a selvas tropicales
ividad económica en EU. Un estudio reciente halló que los incendios causaron 100 mil muertes prematuras en el sureste de Asia. El Banco Mundial estima que los fuegos costaron 16 mil millones de dólares a la economía de Indonesia. <span>Rajawali originalmente operaba su negocio de plantaciones de palmas, Green Eagle Holdings, como una coinversión con el conglomerado francés Louis Dreyfus. Pero en el 2014, Rajawali tomó el primer paso para consolidar el negocio del aceite bajo su control e invertir en infraestructura nueva. Sus préstamos de bancos occidentales eran críticos. En enero del 2014, Green Eagle atrajo un préstamo de 120 millones de dólares de un grupo de prestamistas dirigido por AB




Article 1427878841612

Alertan por lavado en el outsourcing
#13-dic-2016 #mural

Las empresas de outsourcing son vulnerables al lavado de dinero debido a que muchas de ellas operan de manera irregular y mantienen en la informalidad a sus trabajadores, advirtió Edmundo Escobar, presidente de Asociación Mexicana de Empresas en Capital Humano (Amech). El directivo aseguró que la Unidad de Inteligencia Financiera de la Secretaría de Hacienda emitió una opinión en la que se destaca que esta actividad es vulnerable para operaciones de lavado de dinero, por ello es menester establecer lineamientos de calidad y crear una norma para formalizar a las empresas irregulares. "Las autoridades han expresado opiniones muy delicadas sobre la forma en que se realiza esta actividad, inclusive hablaban de que pueden ser consideradas actividades vulnerables a lavado de dinero", dijo Escobar. Las empresas de subcontratación operan bajo diferentes figuras: cooperativa, organizaciones civiles, sindicato o un régimen conocido como asimilables a salarios. Esta última modalidad consiste en contratar a



#13-dic-2016 #mural
Las empresas de outsourcing son vulnerables al lavado de dinero debido a que muchas de ellas operan de manera irregular y mantienen en la informalidad a sus trabajadores, advirtió Edmundo Escobar, presidente de Asociación Mexicana de Empresas en Capital Humano (Amech).

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Alertan por lavado en el outsourcing
Las empresas de outsourcing son vulnerables al lavado de dinero debido a que muchas de ellas operan de manera irregular y mantienen en la informalidad a sus trabajadores, advirtió Edmundo Escobar, presidente de Asociación Mexicana de Empresas en Capital Humano (Amech). El directivo aseguró que la Unidad de Inteligencia Financiera de la Secretaría de Hacienda emitió una opinión en la que se destaca que esta actividad es vulnerable para opera




#13-dic-2016 #mural
la Unidad de Inteligencia Financiera de la Secretaría de Hacienda emitió una opinión en la que se destaca que esta actividad es vulnerable para operaciones de lavado de dinero, por ello es menester establecer lineamientos de calidad y crear una norma para formalizar a las empresas irregulares.

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Alertan por lavado en el outsourcing
debido a que muchas de ellas operan de manera irregular y mantienen en la informalidad a sus trabajadores, advirtió Edmundo Escobar, presidente de Asociación Mexicana de Empresas en Capital Humano (Amech). El directivo aseguró que <span>la Unidad de Inteligencia Financiera de la Secretaría de Hacienda emitió una opinión en la que se destaca que esta actividad es vulnerable para operaciones de lavado de dinero, por ello es menester establecer lineamientos de calidad y crear una norma para formalizar a las empresas irregulares. "Las autoridades han expresado opiniones muy delicadas sobre la forma en que se realiza esta actividad, inclusive hablaban de que pueden ser consideradas actividades vul




#13-dic-2016 #mural
Las empresas de subcontratación operan bajo diferentes figuras: cooperativa, organizaciones civiles, sindicato o un régimen conocido como asimilables a salarios.

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Alertan por lavado en el outsourcing
3; "Las autoridades han expresado opiniones muy delicadas sobre la forma en que se realiza esta actividad, inclusive hablaban de que pueden ser consideradas actividades vulnerables a lavado de dinero", dijo Escobar. <span>Las empresas de subcontratación operan bajo diferentes figuras: cooperativa, organizaciones civiles, sindicato o un régimen conocido como asimilables a salarios. Esta última modalidad consiste en contratar a un trabajador pero simulando que es un prestador de servicios independiente, por lo que se le paga por honorarios. De esta




#13-dic-2016 #mural
La Amech trabaja, en conjunto con las Secretarías del Trabajo y Previsión Social y de Economía, en la conformación de una nueva Norma Oficial Mexicana que ayudará a regularizar el cumplimiento de las obligaciones laborales y el pago de impuestos en todas las empresas de subcontratación del País.

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Alertan por lavado en el outsourcing
organ prestaciones de ley a los trabajadores. "Tenemos una norma de calidad que está respaldada por una auditoría, lo que garantiza que siempre se realiza en pleno cumplimento de la ley", advirtió el directivo. <span>La Amech trabaja, en conjunto con las Secretarías del Trabajo y Previsión Social y de Economía, en la conformación de una nueva Norma Oficial Mexicana que ayudará a regularizar el cumplimiento de las obligaciones laborales y el pago de impuestos en todas las empresas de subcontratación del País. Se espera que entre en vigor en los próximos meses. El presidente de Amech manifestó que las empresas afiliadas representan a 150 mil trabajadores y se espera que




Article 1427886705932

¿Qué es una sola China?
#13-dic-2016 #internacional #mural

La política de "una sola China" hace referencia a las relaciones chino-taiwanesas, y es vista como un interés fundamental y principio imprescindible por Beijing. Durante las últimas cuatro décadas, sin importar la ideología de las sucesivas administraciones, Estados Unidos respetó ese principio. Sin embargo, el ahora Presidente electo, Donald Trump, amenazó con dejar de aceptarlo, lo cual podría afectar gravemente la relación entre China y Estados Unidos. Es el reconocimiento de que existe un único país en el mundo llamado China, y su representante es el Gobierno de Beijing. Estados Unidos y el resto de los países que lo aceptan mantienen relaciones diplomáticas con Beijing y no con Taiwán, que China considera parte integral de su territorio. Es una de las principales bases de la política exterior de China, un país que vivió de manera traumática la pérdida de territorio a manos de las potencias extranjeras durante su siglo de oprobio, entre mediados del siglo 19 y 1949. ¿CUAL ES SU ORIGEN? En 1949



#13-dic-2016 #internacional #mural
La política de "una sola China" hace referencia a las relaciones chino-taiwanesas, y es vista como un interés fundamental y principio imprescindible por Beijing. Durante las últimas cuatro décadas, sin importar la ideología de las sucesivas administraciones, Estados Unidos respetó ese principio. Sin embargo, el ahora Presidente electo, Donald Trump, amenazó con dejar de aceptarlo, lo cual podría afectar gravemente la relación entre China y Estados Unidos.

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¿Qué es una sola China?
La política de "una sola China" hace referencia a las relaciones chino-taiwanesas, y es vista como un interés fundamental y principio imprescindible por Beijing. Durante las últimas cuatro décadas, sin importar la ideología de las sucesivas administraciones, Estados Unidos respetó ese principio. Sin embargo, el ahora Presidente electo, Donald Trump, amenazó con dejar de aceptarlo, lo cual podría afectar gravemente la relación entre China y Estados Unidos. Es el reconocimiento de que existe un único país en el mundo llamado China, y su representante es el Gobierno de Beijing. Estados Unidos y el resto de los países que lo acep




#13-dic-2016 #internacional #mural
Es el reconocimiento de que existe un único país en el mundo llamado China, y su representante es el Gobierno de Beijing. Estados Unidos y el resto de los países que lo aceptan mantienen relaciones diplomáticas con Beijing y no con Taiwán, que China considera parte integral de su territorio.
Es una de las principales bases de la política exterior de China, un país que vivió de manera traumática la pérdida de territorio a manos de las potencias extranjeras durante su siglo de oprobio, entre mediados del siglo 19 y 1949.

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¿Qué es una sola China?
s sucesivas administraciones, Estados Unidos respetó ese principio. Sin embargo, el ahora Presidente electo, Donald Trump, amenazó con dejar de aceptarlo, lo cual podría afectar gravemente la relación entre China y Estados Unidos. <span>Es el reconocimiento de que existe un único país en el mundo llamado China, y su representante es el Gobierno de Beijing. Estados Unidos y el resto de los países que lo aceptan mantienen relaciones diplomáticas con Beijing y no con Taiwán, que China considera parte integral de su territorio. Es una de las principales bases de la política exterior de China, un país que vivió de manera traumática la pérdida de territorio a manos de las potencias extranjeras durante su siglo de oprobio, entre mediados del siglo 19 y 1949. ¿CUAL ES SU ORIGEN? En 1949, las Fuerzas comunistas de Mao Zedong se habían impuesto en la Guerra Civil de China. Derrotados, los nacionalistas del Presidente Chiang Kai




#13-dic-2016 #internacional #mural
En 1949, las Fuerzas comunistas de Mao Zedong se habían impuesto en la Guerra Civil de China.

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¿Qué es una sola China?
bases de la política exterior de China, un país que vivió de manera traumática la pérdida de territorio a manos de las potencias extranjeras durante su siglo de oprobio, entre mediados del siglo 19 y 1949. ¿CUAL ES SU ORIGEN? <span>En 1949, las Fuerzas comunistas de Mao Zedong se habían impuesto en la Guerra Civil de China. Derrotados, los nacionalistas del Presidente Chiang Kai-shek buscaron refugio en la isla de Taiwán, donde establecieron su propio gobierno, que denominaron República de China. En Beijin




#13-dic-2016 #internacional #mural
En 1949, las Fuerzas comunistas de Mao Zedong se habían impuesto en la Guerra Civil de China. Derrotados, los nacionalistas del Presidente Chiang Kai-shek buscaron refugio en la isla de Taiwán, donde establecieron su propio gobierno, que denominaron República de China. En Beijing, los triunfadores proclamaron la República Popular China. Cada parte aseguraba representar a toda China y ser su verdadero gobierno.
Estados Unidos, que había apoyado a Chiang durante la Guerra Civil, reconoció a la RC. Los países del bloque comunista, a la RPC.
Las diferencias ideológicas entre las dos grandes potencias comunistas, China y la Unión Soviética, crearon un espacio para el acercamiento entre Beijing y Washington durante la presidencia de Richard Nixon. Un acercamiento que se consolidó con el restablecimiento de relaciones en 1972. En 1979, Estados Unidos dejó de mantener relaciones diplomáticas con Taiwán, un paso que han seguido la mayoría de las naciones.

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¿Qué es una sola China?
bases de la política exterior de China, un país que vivió de manera traumática la pérdida de territorio a manos de las potencias extranjeras durante su siglo de oprobio, entre mediados del siglo 19 y 1949. ¿CUAL ES SU ORIGEN? <span>En 1949, las Fuerzas comunistas de Mao Zedong se habían impuesto en la Guerra Civil de China. Derrotados, los nacionalistas del Presidente Chiang Kai-shek buscaron refugio en la isla de Taiwán, donde establecieron su propio gobierno, que denominaron República de China. En Beijing, los triunfadores proclamaron la República Popular China. Cada parte aseguraba representar a toda China y ser su verdadero gobierno. Estados Unidos, que había apoyado a Chiang durante la Guerra Civil, reconoció a la RC. Los países del bloque comunista, a la RPC. Las diferencias ideológicas entre las dos grandes potencias comunistas, China y la Unión Soviética, crearon un espacio para el acercamiento entre Beijing y Washington durante la presidencia de Richard Nixon. Un acercamiento que se consolidó con el restablecimiento de relaciones en 1972. En 1979, Estados Unidos dejó de mantener relaciones diplomáticas con Taiwán, un paso que han seguido la mayoría de las naciones. ¿Qué consecuencias ha tenido para Taiwán? En la actualidad, Taiwán sólo mantiene relaciones diplomáticas con 22 Estados, la mayoría de ellos en África y América Latina




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En la actualidad, Taiwán sólo mantiene relaciones diplomáticas con 22 Estados, la mayoría de ellos en África y América Latina. Pero muchos otros, encabezados por Estados Unidos, disfrutan de amistosas relaciones informales. Para Washington, el principio de Una sola China, y los tres comunicados conjuntos suscritos con Beijing, se complementan con su Ley de Relaciones con Taiwán de 1979, que le permite vender armamento a la isla. Según declaraba el ex Secretario de Estado adjunto James Kelly en una audiencia en la Cámara de Representantes en abril de 2004, Estados Unidos promueve una firme relación bilateral entre el país y la PRC, y una firme relación no oficial entre Estados Unidos y Taiwán. El Gobierno de Taipéi ha buscado varias veces su reconocimiento de Naciones Unidas, bajo las denominaciones de "República de China (Taiwán)" y "República de China en Taiwán".

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¿Qué es una sola China?
solidó con el restablecimiento de relaciones en 1972. En 1979, Estados Unidos dejó de mantener relaciones diplomáticas con Taiwán, un paso que han seguido la mayoría de las naciones. ¿Qué consecuencias ha tenido para Taiwán? <span>En la actualidad, Taiwán sólo mantiene relaciones diplomáticas con 22 Estados, la mayoría de ellos en África y América Latina. Pero muchos otros, encabezados por Estados Unidos, disfrutan de amistosas relaciones informales. Para Washington, el principio de Una sola China, y los tres comunicados conjuntos suscritos con Beijing, se complementan con su Ley de Relaciones con Taiwán de 1979, que le permite vender armamento a la isla. Según declaraba el ex Secretario de Estado adjunto James Kelly en una audiencia en la Cámara de Representantes en abril de 2004, Estados Unidos promueve una firme relación bilateral entre el país y la PRC, y una firme relación no oficial entre Estados Unidos y Taiwán. El Gobierno de Taipéi ha buscado varias veces su reconocimiento de Naciones Unidas, bajo las denominaciones de "República de China (Taiwán)" y "República de China en Taiwán". ¿Cuál es la política de EU?​ Estados Unidos habla de su política de una sola China y evita el término principio de una sola China, preferido por Beijing. La política d




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La política de Estados Unidos considera la situación de Taiwán como indeterminada: no reconoce la soberanía de China ni la independencia de la isla.

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¿Qué es una sola China?
ca de China (Taiwán)" y "República de China en Taiwán". ¿Cuál es la política de EU?​ Estados Unidos habla de su política de una sola China y evita el término principio de una sola China, preferido por Beijing. <span>La política de Estados Unidos considera la situación de Taiwán como indeterminada: no reconoce la soberanía de China ni la independencia de la isla. Según explicaba Kelly en 2004, Estados Unidos no apoya la independencia de Taiwán o movimientos unilaterales que pudieran cambiar el statu quo tal y como lo definen. Para Beijing, esto




Article 1427912920332

4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

In general, elasticity is simply a measure of how sensitive one variable is to change in the value of another variable. Quantity demanded of a good is a function not only of its own price, but also consumer income. If income changes, the quantity demanded can respond, so the analyst needs to understand the income sensitivity as well as price sensitivity. Income elasticity of demand is defined as the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in income (I), holding all other things constant, and can be represented as in Equation 25. Equation (25)  EdI=%ΔQdx%ΔI=ΔQdxQdxΔII=(ΔQdxΔI)(IQdx) Note that the structure of this expression is identical to the structure of own-price elasticity in Equation 24. Indeed, all elasticity measures that we shall examine will have the same general structure, so essentially if you’ve seen one, you’ve seen them all. The only thing that changes is the independent variable of interest. For example, if the income elasticity of dem



#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
elasticity is simply a measure of how sensitive one variable is to change in the value of another variable

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
In general, elasticity is simply a measure of how sensitive one variable is to change in the value of another variable. Quantity demanded of a good is a function not only of its own price, but also consumer income. If income changes, the quantity demanded can respond, so the analyst needs to understand




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

Income elasticity of demand is defined as the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in income (I), holding all other things constant, and can be represented as in Equation 25.

Equation (25) 

EdI=%ΔQdx%ΔI=ΔQdxQdxΔII=(ΔQdxΔI)(IQdx)

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
y demanded of a good is a function not only of its own price, but also consumer income. If income changes, the quantity demanded can respond, so the analyst needs to understand the income sensitivity as well as price sensitivity. <span>Income elasticity of demand is defined as the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in income (I), holding all other things constant, and can be represented as in Equation 25. Equation (25)  EdI=%ΔQdx%ΔI=ΔQdxQdxΔII=(ΔQdxΔI)(IQdx) Note that the structure of this expression is identical to the structure of own-price elasticity in Equation 24. Indeed, all elasticity measures that we shall examine will




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Although own-price elasticity of demand will almost always be negative because of the law of demand, income elasticity can be negative, positive, or zero.

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
interest. For example, if the income elasticity of demand for some good has a value of 0.8, we would interpret that to mean that whenever income rises by one percent, the quantity demanded at each price would rise by 0.8 percent. <span>Although own-price elasticity of demand will almost always be negative because of the law of demand, income elasticity can be negative, positive, or zero. Positive income elasticity simply means that as income rises, quantity demanded also rises, as is characteristic of most consumption goods. We define a good with positive income elastic




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Positive income elasticity simply means that as income rises, quantity demanded also rises, as is characteristic of most consumption goods.

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
ne percent, the quantity demanded at each price would rise by 0.8 percent. Although own-price elasticity of demand will almost always be negative because of the law of demand, income elasticity can be negative, positive, or zero. <span>Positive income elasticity simply means that as income rises, quantity demanded also rises, as is characteristic of most consumption goods. We define a good with positive income elasticity as a normal good . It is perhaps unfortunate that economists often take perfectly good English words and give them different definition




normal goods
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We define a good with positive income elasticity as a normal good

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
always be negative because of the law of demand, income elasticity can be negative, positive, or zero. Positive income elasticity simply means that as income rises, quantity demanded also rises, as is characteristic of most consumption goods. <span>We define a good with positive income elasticity as a normal good . It is perhaps unfortunate that economists often take perfectly good English words and give them different definitions. When an economist speaks of a normal good, he is saying nothing




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
It is perhaps unfortunate that economists often take perfectly good English words and give them different definitions. When an economist speaks of a normal good, he is saying nothing other than that the demand for that particular good rises when income increases and falls when income decreases. Hence, if we find that when income rises, people buy more meals at restaurants, then dining out is defined to be a normal good.

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
n be negative, positive, or zero. Positive income elasticity simply means that as income rises, quantity demanded also rises, as is characteristic of most consumption goods. We define a good with positive income elasticity as a normal good . <span>It is perhaps unfortunate that economists often take perfectly good English words and give them different definitions. When an economist speaks of a normal good, he is saying nothing other than that the demand for that particular good rises when income increases and falls when income decreases. Hence, if we find that when income rises, people buy more meals at restaurants, then dining out is defined to be a normal good. For some goods, there is an inverse relationship between quantity demanded and consumer income. That is, when people experience a rise in income, they buy absolutely less o




Inferior goods
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For some goods, there is an inverse relationship between quantity demanded and consumer income. That is, when people experience a rise in income, they buy absolutely less of some goods, and they buy more when their income falls. Hence, income elasticity of demand for those goods is negative. By definition, goods with negative income elasticity are called inferior goods .

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
that the demand for that particular good rises when income increases and falls when income decreases. Hence, if we find that when income rises, people buy more meals at restaurants, then dining out is defined to be a normal good. <span>For some goods, there is an inverse relationship between quantity demanded and consumer income. That is, when people experience a rise in income, they buy absolutely less of some goods, and they buy more when their income falls. Hence, income elasticity of demand for those goods is negative. By definition, goods with negative income elasticity are called inferior goods . Again, the word inferior means nothing other than that the income elasticity of demand for that good is observed to be negative. It does not necessarily indicate anything at all about t




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Again, the word inferior means nothing other than that the income elasticity of demand for that good is observed to be negative. It does not necessarily indicate anything at all about the quality of that good.

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
se in income, they buy absolutely less of some goods, and they buy more when their income falls. Hence, income elasticity of demand for those goods is negative. By definition, goods with negative income elasticity are called inferior goods . <span>Again, the word inferior means nothing other than that the income elasticity of demand for that good is observed to be negative. It does not necessarily indicate anything at all about the quality of that good. Typical examples of inferior goods might be rice, potatoes, or less expensive cuts of meat. One study found that income elasticity of demand for beer is slightly negative, whereas incom




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Typical examples of inferior goods might be rice, potatoes, or less expensive cuts of meat.

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
ity are called inferior goods . Again, the word inferior means nothing other than that the income elasticity of demand for that good is observed to be negative. It does not necessarily indicate anything at all about the quality of that good. <span>Typical examples of inferior goods might be rice, potatoes, or less expensive cuts of meat. One study found that income elasticity of demand for beer is slightly negative, whereas income elasticity of demand for wine is significantly positive. An economist would therefore say




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
One study found that income elasticity of demand for beer is slightly negative, whereas income elasticity of demand for wine is significantly positive.

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
income elasticity of demand for that good is observed to be negative. It does not necessarily indicate anything at all about the quality of that good. Typical examples of inferior goods might be rice, potatoes, or less expensive cuts of meat. <span>One study found that income elasticity of demand for beer is slightly negative, whereas income elasticity of demand for wine is significantly positive. An economist would therefore say that beer is inferior whereas wine is normal. Ultimately, whether a good is called inferior or normal is simply a matter of empirical statistical analys




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
One study found that income elasticity of demand for beer is slightly negative, whereas income elasticity of demand for wine is significantly positive. An economist would therefore say that beer is inferior whereas wine is normal

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
income elasticity of demand for that good is observed to be negative. It does not necessarily indicate anything at all about the quality of that good. Typical examples of inferior goods might be rice, potatoes, or less expensive cuts of meat. <span>One study found that income elasticity of demand for beer is slightly negative, whereas income elasticity of demand for wine is significantly positive. An economist would therefore say that beer is inferior whereas wine is normal. Ultimately, whether a good is called inferior or normal is simply a matter of empirical statistical analysis. And a good could be normal for one income group and inferior for another i




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Ultimately, whether a good is called inferior or normal is simply a matter of empirical statistical analysis. And a good could be normal for one income group and inferior for another income group. (A BMW 3-series automobile might very well be normal for a moderate-income group but inferior for a high-income group of consumers. As their respective income levels rose, the moderate group might purchase more BMWs whereas the upper-income group might buy fewer 3-series as they traded up to a 5- or 7-series.)

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
ts of meat. One study found that income elasticity of demand for beer is slightly negative, whereas income elasticity of demand for wine is significantly positive. An economist would therefore say that beer is inferior whereas wine is normal. <span>Ultimately, whether a good is called inferior or normal is simply a matter of empirical statistical analysis. And a good could be normal for one income group and inferior for another income group. (A BMW 3-series automobile might very well be normal for a moderate-income group but inferior for a high-income group of consumers. As their respective income levels rose, the moderate group might purchase more BMWs whereas the upper-income group might buy fewer 3-series as they traded up to a 5- or 7-series.) Clearly, for some goods and some ranges of income, consumer income might not have an impact on purchase decision at all. Hence for those goods, income elasticity of demand is zero. &#13




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
for some goods and some ranges of income, consumer income might not have an impact on purchase decision at all. Hence for those goods, income elasticity of demand is zero.

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
up but inferior for a high-income group of consumers. As their respective income levels rose, the moderate group might purchase more BMWs whereas the upper-income group might buy fewer 3-series as they traded up to a 5- or 7-series.) Clearly, <span>for some goods and some ranges of income, consumer income might not have an impact on purchase decision at all. Hence for those goods, income elasticity of demand is zero. Thinking back to our discussion of the demand curve, recall that we invoked the assumption of “holding all other things constant” when we plotted the relationship between p




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For normal goods, a rise in income would shift the entire demand curve upward and to the right, resulting in an increase in demand. If the good were inferior, however, a rise in income would result in a downward and leftward shift in the entire demand curve.

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
all other things constant” when we plotted the relationship between price and quantity demanded. One of the variables we held constant was consumer income. If income were to change, obviously the whole curve would shift one way or the other. <span>For normal goods, a rise in income would shift the entire demand curve upward and to the right, resulting in an increase in demand. If the good were inferior, however, a rise in income would result in a downward and leftward shift in the entire demand curve. <span><body><html>




Article 1427938086156

4.4. Cross-price Elasticity of Demand: Substitutes and Complements
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

It should be clear by now that any variable on the right-hand side of the demand function can serve as the basis for its own elasticity. Recall that the price of another good might very well have an impact on the demand for a good or service, so we should be able to define an elasticity with respect to the other price, as well. That elasticity is called the cross-price elasticity of demand and takes on the same structure as own-price elasticity and income elasticity of demand, as represented in Equation 26. Equation (26)  Edpy=%ΔQdx%ΔPy=ΔQdxQdxΔPyPy=(ΔQdxΔPy)(PyQdx) Note how similar in structure this equation is to own-price elasticity. The only difference is that the subscript on P is now y, indicating the price of some other good, Y, instead of the own-price, X. This cross-price elasticity of demand measures how sensitive the demand for good X is to changes in the price of some other good, Y, holding all other things constant. For some pairs of goods, X and Y, when the price of Y ris



#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
any variable on the right-hand side of the demand function can serve as the basis for its own elasticity.

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4.4. Cross-price Elasticity of Demand: Substitutes and Complements
It should be clear by now that any variable on the right-hand side of the demand function can serve as the basis for its own elasticity. Recall that the price of another good might very well have an impact on the demand for a good or service, so we should be able to define an elasticity with respect to the other price, a




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

Recall that the price of another good might very well have an impact on the demand for a good or service, so we should be able to define an elasticity with respect to the other price, as well. That elasticity is called the cross-price elasticity of demand and takes on the same structure as own-price elasticity and income elasticity of demand, as represented in Equation 26.

Equation (26) 

Edpy=%ΔQdx%ΔPy=ΔQdxQdxΔPyPy=(ΔQdxΔPy)(PyQdx)

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4.4. Cross-price Elasticity of Demand: Substitutes and Complements
It should be clear by now that any variable on the right-hand side of the demand function can serve as the basis for its own elasticity. Recall that the price of another good might very well have an impact on the demand for a good or service, so we should be able to define an elasticity with respect to the other price, as well. That elasticity is called the cross-price elasticity of demand and takes on the same structure as own-price elasticity and income elasticity of demand, as represented in Equation 26. Equation (26)  Edpy=%ΔQdx%ΔPy=ΔQdxQdxΔPyPy=(ΔQdxΔPy)(PyQdx) Note how similar in structure this equation is to own-price elasticity. The only difference is that the subscript on P is now y, indicating the price of some other good, Y,




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
For some pairs of goods, X and Y, when the price of Y rises, more of good X is demanded. That is, the cross-price elasticity of demand is positive. Those goods are defined to be substitutes .Substitutes are defined empirically. If the cross-price elasticity of two goods is positive, they are substitutes, irrespective of whether someone would consider them “similar.”

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4.4. Cross-price Elasticity of Demand: Substitutes and Complements
, indicating the price of some other good, Y, instead of the own-price, X. This cross-price elasticity of demand measures how sensitive the demand for good X is to changes in the price of some other good, Y, holding all other things constant. <span>For some pairs of goods, X and Y, when the price of Y rises, more of good X is demanded. That is, the cross-price elasticity of demand is positive. Those goods are defined to be substitutes .Substitutes are defined empirically. If the cross-price elasticity of two goods is positive, they are substitutes, irrespective of whether someone would consider them “similar.” This concept is intuitive if you think about two goods that are seen to be close substitutes, perhaps like two brands of beer. When the price of one of your favorite brands




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two goods whose cross-price elasticity of demand is negative are defined to be complements . Typically, these goods would tend to be consumed together as a pair, such as gasoline and automobiles or houses and furniture

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4.4. Cross-price Elasticity of Demand: Substitutes and Complements
eer. When the price of one of your favorite brands of beer rises, what would you do? You would probably buy less of that brand and more of a cheaper brand, so the cross-price elasticity of demand would be positive. Alternatively, <span>two goods whose cross-price elasticity of demand is negative are defined to be complements . Typically, these goods would tend to be consumed together as a pair, such as gasoline and automobiles or houses and furniture. When automobile prices fall, we might expect the quantity of autos demanded to rise, and thus we might expect to see a rise in the demand for gasoline. Ultimately, though, whether two




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If, when the price of one good rises the demand for the other good also rises, they are substitutes. If the demand for that other good falls, they are complements.

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4.4. Cross-price Elasticity of Demand: Substitutes and Complements
autos demanded to rise, and thus we might expect to see a rise in the demand for gasoline. Ultimately, though, whether two goods are substitutes or complements is an empirical question answered solely by observation and statistical analysis. <span>If, when the price of one good rises the demand for the other good also rises, they are substitutes. If the demand for that other good falls, they are complements. And the result might not immediately resonate with our intuition. For example, grocery stores often put something like coffee on sale in the hope that customers will come in for coffee




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For example, grocery stores often put something like coffee on sale in the hope that customers will come in for coffee and end up doing their weekly shopping there as well. In that case, coffee and, say, cabbage could very well empirically turn out to be complements even though we do not normally think of consuming coffee and cabbage together as a pair (i.e., that the price of coffee has a relation to the sales of cabbage).

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4.4. Cross-price Elasticity of Demand: Substitutes and Complements
al analysis. If, when the price of one good rises the demand for the other good also rises, they are substitutes. If the demand for that other good falls, they are complements. And the result might not immediately resonate with our intuition. <span>For example, grocery stores often put something like coffee on sale in the hope that customers will come in for coffee and end up doing their weekly shopping there as well. In that case, coffee and, say, cabbage could very well empirically turn out to be complements even though we do not normally think of consuming coffee and cabbage together as a pair (i.e., that the price of coffee has a relation to the sales of cabbage). For substitute goods, an increase in the price of one good would shift the demand curve for the other good upward and to the right. For complements, however, the impact is




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
For substitute goods, an increase in the price of one good would shift the demand curve for the other good upward and to the right

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4.4. Cross-price Elasticity of Demand: Substitutes and Complements
say, cabbage could very well empirically turn out to be complements even though we do not normally think of consuming coffee and cabbage together as a pair (i.e., that the price of coffee has a relation to the sales of cabbage). <span>For substitute goods, an increase in the price of one good would shift the demand curve for the other good upward and to the right. For complements, however, the impact is in the other direction: When the price of one good rises, the quantity demanded of the other good shifts downward and to the left.




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For complements, however, the impact is in the other direction: When the price of one good rises, the quantity demanded of the other good shifts downward and to the left.

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4.4. Cross-price Elasticity of Demand: Substitutes and Complements
bbage together as a pair (i.e., that the price of coffee has a relation to the sales of cabbage). For substitute goods, an increase in the price of one good would shift the demand curve for the other good upward and to the right. <span>For complements, however, the impact is in the other direction: When the price of one good rises, the quantity demanded of the other good shifts downward and to the left. <span><body><html>




Article 1427952241932

4.5. Calculating Demand Elasticities from Demand Functions
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Although the concept of different elasticities of demand is helpful in sorting out the qualitative and directional effects among variables, the analyst will also benefit from having an empirically estimated demand function from which to calculate the magnitudes as well. There is no substitute for actual observation and statistical (regression) analysis to yield insights into the quantitative behavior of a market. (Empirical analysis, however, is outside the scope of this reading.) To see how an analyst would use such an equation, let us return to our hypothetical market demand function for gasoline in Equation 13 duplicated here: Equation (27)  Qdx=8,400−400Px+60I−10Py As we found when we calculated own-price elasticity of demand earlier, we need to identify “where to look” by choosing actual values for the independent variables, P x , I, and P y . We choose $3 for P x , $50 (thousands) for I, and $20 (thousands) for P y . By inserting these values into the “estimated” demand function (E



#calculating-demand-elasticity-from-demand-function #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

Although the concept of different elasticities of demand is helpful in sorting out the qualitative and directional effects among variables, the analyst will also benefit from having an empirically estimated demand function from which to calculate the magnitudes as well. There is no substitute for actual observation and statistical (regression) analysis to yield insights into the quantitative behavior of a market. (Empirical analysis, however, is outside the scope of this reading.) To see how an analyst would use such an equation, let us return to our hypothetical market demand function for gasoline in Equation 13 duplicated here:

Equation (27) 

Qdx=8,400−400Px+60I−10Py

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4.5. Calculating Demand Elasticities from Demand Functions
Although the concept of different elasticities of demand is helpful in sorting out the qualitative and directional effects among variables, the analyst will also benefit from having an empirically estimated demand function from which to calculate the magnitudes as well. There is no substitute for actual observation and statistical (regression) analysis to yield insights into the quantitative behavior of a market. (Empirical analysis, however, is outside the scope of this reading.) To see how an analyst would use such an equation, let us return to our hypothetical market demand function for gasoline in Equation 13 duplicated here: Equation (27)  Qdx=8,400−400Px+60I−10Py As we found when we calculated own-price elasticity of demand earlier, we need to identify “where to look” by choosing actual values for the independent variables, P x , I,




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SUMMARY
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4 #summary

This reading has surveyed demand and supply analysis. Because markets (goods, factor, and capital) supply the foundation for today’s global economy, an understanding of the demand and supply model is essential for any analyst who hopes to grasp the implications of economic developments on investment values. Among the points made are the following: The basic model of markets is the demand and supply model. The demand function represents buyers’ behavior and can be depicted (in its inverse demand form) as a negatively sloped demand curve. The supply function represents sellers’ behavior and can be depicted (in its inverse supply form) as a positively sloped supply curve. The interaction of buyers and sellers in a market results in equilibrium. Equilibrium exists when the highest price willingly paid by buyers is just equal to the lowest price willingly accepted by sellers. Goods markets are the interactions of consumers as buyers and firms as sellers of goods and services produced by fir



#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4 #summary
The basic model of markets is the demand and supply model. The demand function represents buyers’ behavior and can be depicted (in its inverse demand form) as a negatively sloped demand curve. The supply function represents sellers’ behavior and can be depicted (in its inverse supply form) as a positively sloped supply curve. The interaction of buyers and sellers in a market results in equilibrium. Equilibrium exists when the highest price willingly paid by buyers is just equal to the lowest price willingly accepted by sellers.

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SUMMARY
ay’s global economy, an understanding of the demand and supply model is essential for any analyst who hopes to grasp the implications of economic developments on investment values. Among the points made are the following: <span>The basic model of markets is the demand and supply model. The demand function represents buyers’ behavior and can be depicted (in its inverse demand form) as a negatively sloped demand curve. The supply function represents sellers’ behavior and can be depicted (in its inverse supply form) as a positively sloped supply curve. The interaction of buyers and sellers in a market results in equilibrium. Equilibrium exists when the highest price willingly paid by buyers is just equal to the lowest price willingly accepted by sellers. Goods markets are the interactions of consumers as buyers and firms as sellers of goods and services produced by firms and bought by households. Factor markets are the i




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4 #summary

Goods markets are the interactions of consumers as buyers and firms as sellers of goods and services produced by firms and bought by households. Factor markets are the interactions of firms as buyers and households as sellers of land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurial risk-taking ability. Capital markets are used by firms to sell debt or equity to raise long-term capital to finance the production of goods and services.

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sloped supply curve. The interaction of buyers and sellers in a market results in equilibrium. Equilibrium exists when the highest price willingly paid by buyers is just equal to the lowest price willingly accepted by sellers. <span>Goods markets are the interactions of consumers as buyers and firms as sellers of goods and services produced by firms and bought by households. Factor markets are the interactions of firms as buyers and households as sellers of land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurial risk-taking ability. Capital markets are used by firms to sell debt or equity to raise long-term capital to finance the production of goods and services. Demand and supply curves are drawn on the assumption that everything except the price of the good itself is held constant (an assumption known as ceteris paribus or “hol




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4 #summary
Demand and supply curves are drawn on the assumption that everything except the price of the good itself is held constant (an assumption known as ceteris paribus or “holding all other things constant”). When something other than price changes, the demand curve or the supply curve will shift relative to the other curve. This shift is referred to as a change in demand or supply, as opposed to quantity demanded or quantity supplied. A new equilibrium generally will be obtained at a different price and a different quantity than before. The market mechanism is the ability of prices to adjust to eliminate any excess demand or supply resulting from a shift in one or the other curve.

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SUMMARY
s and households as sellers of land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurial risk-taking ability. Capital markets are used by firms to sell debt or equity to raise long-term capital to finance the production of goods and services. <span>Demand and supply curves are drawn on the assumption that everything except the price of the good itself is held constant (an assumption known as ceteris paribus or “holding all other things constant”). When something other than price changes, the demand curve or the supply curve will shift relative to the other curve. This shift is referred to as a change in demand or supply, as opposed to quantity demanded or quantity supplied. A new equilibrium generally will be obtained at a different price and a different quantity than before. The market mechanism is the ability of prices to adjust to eliminate any excess demand or supply resulting from a shift in one or the other curve. If, at a given price, the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied, there is excess demand and price will rise. If, at a given price, the quantity supplied exceed




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4 #summary
If, at a given price, the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied, there is excess demand and price will rise. If, at a given price, the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded, there is excess supply and price will fall.

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lly will be obtained at a different price and a different quantity than before. The market mechanism is the ability of prices to adjust to eliminate any excess demand or supply resulting from a shift in one or the other curve. <span>If, at a given price, the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied, there is excess demand and price will rise. If, at a given price, the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded, there is excess supply and price will fall. Sometimes auctions are used to seek equilibrium prices. Common value auctions sell items that have the same value to all bidders, but bidders can only estimate that valu




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4 #summary
Sometimes auctions are used to seek equilibrium prices. Common value auctions sell items that have the same value to all bidders, but bidders can only estimate that value before the auction is completed. Overly optimistic bidders overestimate the true value and end up paying a price greater than that value. This result is known as the winner’s curse. Private value auctions sell items that (generally) have a unique subjective value for each bidder. Ascending price auctions use an auctioneer to call out ever increasing prices until the last, highest bidder ultimately pays his/her bid price and buys the item. Descending price, or Dutch, auctions begin at a very high price and then reduce that price until one bidder is willing to buy at that price. Second price sealed bid auctions are sometimes used to induce bidders to reveal their true reservation prices in private value auctions. Treasury notes and some other financial instruments are sold using a form of Dutch auction (called a single price auction) in which competitive and non-competitive bids are arrayed in descending price (increasing yield) order. The winning bidders all pay the same price, but marginal bidders might not be able to fill their entire order at the market clearing price.

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ven price, the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied, there is excess demand and price will rise. If, at a given price, the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded, there is excess supply and price will fall. <span>Sometimes auctions are used to seek equilibrium prices. Common value auctions sell items that have the same value to all bidders, but bidders can only estimate that value before the auction is completed. Overly optimistic bidders overestimate the true value and end up paying a price greater than that value. This result is known as the winner’s curse. Private value auctions sell items that (generally) have a unique subjective value for each bidder. Ascending price auctions use an auctioneer to call out ever increasing prices until the last, highest bidder ultimately pays his/her bid price and buys the item. Descending price, or Dutch, auctions begin at a very high price and then reduce that price until one bidder is willing to buy at that price. Second price sealed bid auctions are sometimes used to induce bidders to reveal their true reservation prices in private value auctions. Treasury notes and some other financial instruments are sold using a form of Dutch auction (called a single price auction) in which competitive and non-competitive bids are arrayed in descending price (increasing yield) order. The winning bidders all pay the same price, but marginal bidders might not be able to fill their entire order at the market clearing price. Markets that work freely can optimize society’s welfare, as measured by consumer surplus and producer surplus. Consumer surplus is the difference between the total value




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Markets that work freely can optimize society’s welfare, as measured by consumer surplus and producer surplus. Consumer surplus is the difference between the total value to buyers and the total expenditure necessary to purchase a given amount. Producer surplus is the difference between the total revenue received by sellers from selling a given amount and the total variable cost of production of that amount. When equilibrium price is reached, total surplus is maximized.

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SUMMARY
ive and non-competitive bids are arrayed in descending price (increasing yield) order. The winning bidders all pay the same price, but marginal bidders might not be able to fill their entire order at the market clearing price. <span>Markets that work freely can optimize society’s welfare, as measured by consumer surplus and producer surplus. Consumer surplus is the difference between the total value to buyers and the total expenditure necessary to purchase a given amount. Producer surplus is the difference between the total revenue received by sellers from selling a given amount and the total variable cost of production of that amount. When equilibrium price is reached, total surplus is maximized. Sometimes, government policies interfere with the free working of markets. Examples include price ceilings, price floors, and specific taxes. Whenever the imposition of




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Sometimes, government policies interfere with the free working of markets. Examples include price ceilings, price floors, and specific taxes. Whenever the imposition of such a policy alters the free market equilibrium quantity (the quantity that maximizes total surplus), there is a redistribution of surplus between buyers and sellers; but there is also a reduction of total surplus, called deadweight loss. Other influences can result in an imbalance between demand and supply. Search costs are impediments in the ability of willing buyers and willing sellers to meet in a transaction. Brokers can add value if they reduce search costs and match buyers and sellers. In general, anything that improves information about the willingness of buyers and sellers to engage will reduce search costs and add value.

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ducer surplus is the difference between the total revenue received by sellers from selling a given amount and the total variable cost of production of that amount. When equilibrium price is reached, total surplus is maximized. <span>Sometimes, government policies interfere with the free working of markets. Examples include price ceilings, price floors, and specific taxes. Whenever the imposition of such a policy alters the free market equilibrium quantity (the quantity that maximizes total surplus), there is a redistribution of surplus between buyers and sellers; but there is also a reduction of total surplus, called deadweight loss. Other influences can result in an imbalance between demand and supply. Search costs are impediments in the ability of willing buyers and willing sellers to meet in a transaction. Brokers can add value if they reduce search costs and match buyers and sellers. In general, anything that improves information about the willingness of buyers and sellers to engage will reduce search costs and add value. Economists use a quantitative measure of sensitivity called elasticity. In general, elasticity is the ratio of the percentage change in the dependent variable to the per




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Economists use a quantitative measure of sensitivity called elasticity. In general, elasticity is the ratio of the percentage change in the dependent variable to the percentage change in the independent variable of interest. Important specific elasticities include own-price elasticity of demand, income elasticity of demand, and cross-price elasticity of demand.

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tion. Brokers can add value if they reduce search costs and match buyers and sellers. In general, anything that improves information about the willingness of buyers and sellers to engage will reduce search costs and add value. <span>Economists use a quantitative measure of sensitivity called elasticity. In general, elasticity is the ratio of the percentage change in the dependent variable to the percentage change in the independent variable of interest. Important specific elasticities include own-price elasticity of demand, income elasticity of demand, and cross-price elasticity of demand. Based on algebraic sign and magnitude of the various elasticities, goods can be classified into groups. If own-price elasticity of demand is less than one in absolute va




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Based on algebraic sign and magnitude of the various elasticities, goods can be classified into groups. If own-price elasticity of demand is less than one in absolute value, demand is called “inelastic”; it is called “elastic” if own-price elasticity of demand is greater than one in absolute value. Goods with positive income elasticity of demand are called normal goods, and those with negative income elasticity of demand are called inferior goods. Two goods with negative cross-price elasticity of demand—a drop in the price of one good causes an increase in demand for the other good—are called complements. Goods with positive cross-price elasticity of demand—a drop in the price of one good causes a decrease in demand for the other—are called substitutes.

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he dependent variable to the percentage change in the independent variable of interest. Important specific elasticities include own-price elasticity of demand, income elasticity of demand, and cross-price elasticity of demand. <span>Based on algebraic sign and magnitude of the various elasticities, goods can be classified into groups. If own-price elasticity of demand is less than one in absolute value, demand is called “inelastic”; it is called “elastic” if own-price elasticity of demand is greater than one in absolute value. Goods with positive income elasticity of demand are called normal goods, and those with negative income elasticity of demand are called inferior goods. Two goods with negative cross-price elasticity of demand—a drop in the price of one good causes an increase in demand for the other good—are called complements. Goods with positive cross-price elasticity of demand—a drop in the price of one good causes a decrease in demand for the other—are called substitutes. The relationship among own-price elasticity of demand, changes in price, and changes in total expenditure is as follows: If demand is elastic, a reduction in price resul




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The relationship among own-price elasticity of demand, changes in price, and changes in total expenditure is as follows: If demand is elastic, a reduction in price results in an increase in total expenditure; if demand is inelastic, a reduction in price results in a decrease in total expenditure; if demand is unitary elastic, a change in price leaves total expenditure unchanged.

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ood causes an increase in demand for the other good—are called complements. Goods with positive cross-price elasticity of demand—a drop in the price of one good causes a decrease in demand for the other—are called substitutes. <span>The relationship among own-price elasticity of demand, changes in price, and changes in total expenditure is as follows: If demand is elastic, a reduction in price results in an increase in total expenditure; if demand is inelastic, a reduction in price results in a decrease in total expenditure; if demand is unitary elastic, a change in price leaves total expenditure unchanged. <span><body><html>




#blue-apron #citychef
The company works with local farmers to create delivery boxes of perfectly portioned dinners that minimize food waste and allow users to try new ingredients and recipes, at an affordable price of $10 per meal per person.

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Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
olving a prescient problem facing many Americans today: they love to cook but feel they don’t have the time. Blue Apron “delivers farm fresh ingredients and original recipes so [people] can create an incredible meal any night of the week 2 .” <span>The company works with local farmers to create delivery boxes of perfectly portioned dinners that minimize food waste and allow users to try new ingredients and recipes, at an affordable price of $10 per meal per person. Blue Apron curates meal kits, boxes of ingredients and instructions for cooking exactly three dinners a week. They are sold on a subscription basis for two or four people. As of Decem




#blue-apron #citychef
Blue Apron creates and captures value by solving a prescient problem facing many Americans today: they love to cook but feel they don’t have the time.

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Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
Written by SRT, Posted on December 9, 2015 Blue Apron leverages supply chain innovation to get fresh ingredients, great recipes delivered weekly to your home. [imagelink] <span>Blue Apron creates and captures value by solving a prescient problem facing many Americans today: they love to cook but feel they don’t have the time. Blue Apron “delivers farm fresh ingredients and original recipes so [people] can create an incredible meal any night of the week 2 .” The company works with local farmers to create deli




#blue-apron #citychef
Blue Apron curates meal kits, boxes of ingredients and instructions for cooking exactly three dinners a week. They are sold on a subscription basis for two or four people. As of December 2015, Blue Apron delivers 5 million meals a month, up from 500,000 just 18 months ago1.

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Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
ht of the week 2 .” The company works with local farmers to create delivery boxes of perfectly portioned dinners that minimize food waste and allow users to try new ingredients and recipes, at an affordable price of $10 per meal per person. <span>Blue Apron curates meal kits, boxes of ingredients and instructions for cooking exactly three dinners a week. They are sold on a subscription basis for two or four people. As of December 2015, Blue Apron delivers 5 million meals a month, up from 500,000 just 18 months ago 1 . [imagelink]Blue Apron delivers value both to its customers and suppliers. For its customers, Blue Apron offers the opportunity to learn to cook delicious new recipes with seasonal ing




#blue-apron #citychef
Blue Apron delivers value both to its customers and suppliers. For its customers, Blue Apron offers the opportunity to learn to cook delicious new recipes with seasonal ingredients at a better value than the local grocery store. As COO Matt Wadiak says, “everybody who wants to cook is our customer1”.

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Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
nts and instructions for cooking exactly three dinners a week. They are sold on a subscription basis for two or four people. As of December 2015, Blue Apron delivers 5 million meals a month, up from 500,000 just 18 months ago 1 . [imagelink]<span>Blue Apron delivers value both to its customers and suppliers. For its customers, Blue Apron offers the opportunity to learn to cook delicious new recipes with seasonal ingredients at a better value than the local grocery store. As COO Matt Wadiak says, “everybody who wants to cook is our customer 1 ”. The recipes are simple, with instructions written in a clear and direct way, complete with pictures. The business model focuses on removing the biggest obstacle to cooking – deciding wh




#blue-apron #citychef
The business model focuses on removing the biggest obstacle to cooking – deciding what to cook.

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Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
asonal ingredients at a better value than the local grocery store. As COO Matt Wadiak says, “everybody who wants to cook is our customer 1 ”. The recipes are simple, with instructions written in a clear and direct way, complete with pictures. <span>The business model focuses on removing the biggest obstacle to cooking – deciding what to cook. The service is convenient, offering free delivery in refrigerated boxes whenever best fits the customer’s schedule. The step-by-step recipes are appropriate for beginner and experienced




#blue-apron #citychef
The service is convenient, offering free delivery in refrigerated boxes whenever best fits the customer’s schedule. The step-by-step recipes are appropriate for beginner and experienced cooks alike. The menus, which change weekly based on seasonal needs, are created by the culinary team and renowned guest chefs.

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Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
rybody who wants to cook is our customer 1 ”. The recipes are simple, with instructions written in a clear and direct way, complete with pictures. The business model focuses on removing the biggest obstacle to cooking – deciding what to cook. <span>The service is convenient, offering free delivery in refrigerated boxes whenever best fits the customer’s schedule. The step-by-step recipes are appropriate for beginner and experienced cooks alike. The menus, which change weekly based on seasonal needs, are created by the culinary team and renowned guest chefs. For its suppliers, Blue Apron works with family-run farmers and artisans to source the highest quality ingredients. On the recipe cards, they provide an information sheet that highlight




#blue-apron #citychef
For its suppliers, Blue Apron works with family-run farmers and artisans to source the highest quality ingredients.

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Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
whenever best fits the customer’s schedule. The step-by-step recipes are appropriate for beginner and experienced cooks alike. The menus, which change weekly based on seasonal needs, are created by the culinary team and renowned guest chefs. <span>For its suppliers, Blue Apron works with family-run farmers and artisans to source the highest quality ingredients. On the recipe cards, they provide an information sheet that highlights the farms which provided the produce alongside information about how to cut and cook. Click here to view a video f




#blue-apron #citychef
On the recipe cards, they provide an information sheet that highlights the farms which provided the produce alongside information about how to cut and cook.

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Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
ooks alike. The menus, which change weekly based on seasonal needs, are created by the culinary team and renowned guest chefs. For its suppliers, Blue Apron works with family-run farmers and artisans to source the highest quality ingredients. <span>On the recipe cards, they provide an information sheet that highlights the farms which provided the produce alongside information about how to cut and cook. Click here to view a video featuring Blue Apron’s Ghee Supplier. Blue Apron aligns its operating model with its business model through: Control of the supply chain . Blue Apron’s m




#blue-apron #business-model #citychef #operational-model

Blue Apron aligns its operating model with its business model through:

  • Control of the supply chain. Blue Apron’s model centers on delivering fresh ingredients. To maintain control of quality, the company manages its own distribution channel. The company sources farms differently for each of their three regional fulfilment centers, so the food is local and fresh and the delivery costs are low. The boxes are delivered in refrigerated boxes to maintain freshness, however, so delivery is outsourced to the cheapest partner for a given shipment.
  • Bulk purchasing, portioned delivery. Blue Apron built its model on the idea of reducing food waste. At each fulfilment center, workers on assembly lines pack boxes with poultry, meat, vegetables and condiments to be delivered anywhere from 1-7 days later. Purchasing in bulk allows the company to negotiate prices with farmers, who are happy to receive a slightly lower price for a guaranteed volume. By only offering 6 recipes per week, Blue Apron can allocate the ingredients in a way that reduces food waste. Everything subscribers receive is pre-measured to the precise proportions the recipe requires, meaning less spending on unnecessary produce and less food waste.
  • Data analytics. As a subscription business, Blue Apron collects data on its customers that allows for predictive modeling of demand. They built an internal suite of tools that manage the workflow of purchasing, fulfilment operations, ecommerce and order processing, shipping software, customer service software6. The software can estimate how many customers will cancel an order in any given week, for example, which allows the company to plan meals based on the expected availability and price of certain crops. Using this data helps create processes that improve operational efficiency and lower costs, supporting the $10 per meal price.
  • Supporting Suppliers. There is a team at Blue Apron responsible for negotiating with farms to source ingredients, but they also work closely with farmers on crop rotation and management. This allows the company to work with farmers to plan production in a way that is more seasonal, more efficient and utilizes their resources better, all of which results in higher quality crops at lower prices for consumers. Additionally, by helping farmers to plan to rotate “heavy feeder” plants with less hungry plants like legumes, the farms use less pesticide and fertilize, resulting in healthier farms.

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Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
lity ingredients. On the recipe cards, they provide an information sheet that highlights the farms which provided the produce alongside information about how to cut and cook. Click here to view a video featuring Blue Apron’s Ghee Supplier. <span>Blue Apron aligns its operating model with its business model through: Control of the supply chain . Blue Apron’s model centers on delivering fresh ingredients. To maintain control of quality, the company manages its own distribution channel. The company sources farms differently for each of their three regional fulfilment centers, so the food is local and fresh and the delivery costs are low. The boxes are delivered in refrigerated boxes to maintain freshness, however, so delivery is outsourced to the cheapest partner for a given shipment. Bulk purchasing, portioned delivery . Blue Apron built its model on the idea of reducing food waste. At each fulfilment center, workers on assembly lines pack boxes with poultry, meat, vegetables and condiments to be delivered anywhere from 1-7 days later. Purchasing in bulk allows the company to negotiate prices with farmers, who are happy to receive a slightly lower price for a guaranteed volume. By only offering 6 recipes per week, Blue Apron can allocate the ingredients in a way that reduces food waste. Everything subscribers receive is pre-measured to the precise proportions the recipe requires, meaning less spending on unnecessary produce and less food waste. Data analytics . As a subscription business, Blue Apron collects data on its customers that allows for predictive modeling of demand. They built an internal suite of tools that manage the workflow of purchasing, fulfilment operations, ecommerce and order processing, shipping software, customer service software 6 . The software can estimate how many customers will cancel an order in any given week, for example, which allows the company to plan meals based on the expected availability and price of certain crops. Using this data helps create processes that improve operational efficiency and lower costs, supporting the $10 per meal price. Supporting Suppliers. There is a team at Blue Apron responsible for negotiating with farms to source ingredients, but they also work closely with farmers on crop rotation and management. This allows the company to work with farmers to plan production in a way that is more seasonal, more efficient and utilizes their resources better, all of which results in higher quality crops at lower prices for consumers. Additionally, by helping farmers to plan to rotate “heavy feeder” plants with less hungry plants like legumes, the farms use less pesticide and fertilize, resulting in healthier farms. Blue Apron focuses on bringing their customers an easy way to cook through a high quality food delivery service that has never bene available at scale before. Key operational decision




#blue-apron #citychef
Blue Apron focuses on bringing their customers an easy way to cook through a high quality food delivery service that has never bene available at scale before. Key operational decisions about supply chain control, supplier relations, and use of data to drive decision making, help the company succeed in its goal of delivering fresh ingredients at a low price, helping people cook great meals any night of the week.

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Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
in higher quality crops at lower prices for consumers. Additionally, by helping farmers to plan to rotate “heavy feeder” plants with less hungry plants like legumes, the farms use less pesticide and fertilize, resulting in healthier farms. <span>Blue Apron focuses on bringing their customers an easy way to cook through a high quality food delivery service that has never bene available at scale before. Key operational decisions about supply chain control, supplier relations, and use of data to drive decision making, help the company succeed in its goal of delivering fresh ingredients at a low price, helping people cook great meals any night of the week. 1 http://www.vogue.com/13375872/men-love-blue-apron/ 2 https://www.blueapron.com/ 3 http://www.forbes.com/sites/alexkonrad/2015/10/14/inside-blue-apron-and-the-meal-kit-rush/




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According to Blue Apron, the majority of its members are couples. But even men who aren’t in a relationship are taking advantage of it. “It’s good for a date night, if you want to impress someone,” said Ricky, 29, who tried it out for two weeks.

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Why Men Love Blue Apron - Vogue
ioned my husband’s newfound love for cooking at the office and a coworker told me she was having a similar experience at her house. We both wondered if Blue Apron was somehow secretly targeting men—after all, three guys founded the company. <span>According to Blue Apron, the majority of its members are couples. But even men who aren’t in a relationship are taking advantage of it. “It’s good for a date night, if you want to impress someone,” said Ricky, 29, who tried it out for two weeks. “I wouldn’t sign up for it regularly, but I’ll definitely do it again for a special occasion.” Andee and her boyfriend, Tom, decided to try out Blue Apron after seeing an offer to join




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when I asked cofounder and COO Wadiak whether men were their target customers, he quickly dispelled that notion. “Everybody who wants to cook is our customer,” he explained over the phone. “But we have actually found that we have a high percentage of customers who have never cooked before.”

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Why Men Love Blue Apron - Vogue
t is about having a nice home-cooked meal,” he said. “We throw on some music and divide the tasks. I’m the meat-and-stove guy. She’s better at dicing.” Adding to my hunch, I noted that the hands pictured on their recipe cards were male. But <span>when I asked cofounder and COO Wadiak whether men were their target customers, he quickly dispelled that notion. “Everybody who wants to cook is our customer,” he explained over the phone. “But we have actually found that we have a high percentage of customers who have never cooked before.” Wadiak worked for years as a chef, both in restaurants and in people’s homes. “If you ever teach a class to someone who has never cooked before, you really learn quickly what people can




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Wadiak worked for years as a chef, both in restaurants and in people’s homes. “If you ever teach a class to someone who has never cooked before, you really learn quickly what people can and can’t do,” he said.

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Why Men Love Blue Apron - Vogue
were their target customers, he quickly dispelled that notion. “Everybody who wants to cook is our customer,” he explained over the phone. “But we have actually found that we have a high percentage of customers who have never cooked before.” <span>Wadiak worked for years as a chef, both in restaurants and in people’s homes. “If you ever teach a class to someone who has never cooked before, you really learn quickly what people can and can’t do,” he said. This experience helped him craft Blue Apron’s inital 350 or so recipes. Each card is written in such a clear and direct way that even those who don’t know the difference between basting




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Aside from the simplicity of their recipes, variety is said to be another major factor in a guy’s decision to sign up for the service.

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Why Men Love Blue Apron - Vogue
[emptylink] [emptylink] [emptylink] [emptylink] Photo: Courtesy of Blue Apron <span>Aside from the simplicity of their recipes, variety is said to be another major factor in a guy’s decision to sign up for the service. “You don’t have to be thinking about what you’re going to make when you get home at night,” explained 32-year-old Henrique. My husband—who only knows how to cook one or two meals off th




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“You don’t have to be thinking about what you’re going to make when you get home at night,” explained 32-year-old Henrique. My husband—who only knows how to cook one or two meals off the top of his head—agreed with Henrique’s reasoning. “I don’t have to come up with new recipes,” he said. “If the planning were left to me, I would just eat the same thing over and over again.”

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Why Men Love Blue Apron - Vogue
[emptylink] [emptylink] Photo: Courtesy of Blue Apron Aside from the simplicity of their recipes, variety is said to be another major factor in a guy’s decision to sign up for the service. <span>“You don’t have to be thinking about what you’re going to make when you get home at night,” explained 32-year-old Henrique. My husband—who only knows how to cook one or two meals off the top of his head—agreed with Henrique’s reasoning. “I don’t have to come up with new recipes,” he said. “If the planning were left to me, I would just eat the same thing over and over again.” As for the explanation behind the man hands pictured in their recipe cards, Wadiak said that was purely a coincidence. “Those hands are either my hands, [culinary director] Chris Soren




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[culinary director] Chris Sorensen’s

[culinary manager] Tim Kemp’s hands.”

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Why Men Love Blue Apron - Vogue
ho only knows how to cook one or two meals off the top of his head—agreed with Henrique’s reasoning. “I don’t have to come up with new recipes,” he said. “If the planning were left to me, I would just eat the same thing over and over again.” <span>As for the explanation behind the man hands pictured in their recipe cards, Wadiak said that was purely a coincidence. “Those hands are either my hands, [culinary director] Chris Sorensen’s hands, or [culinary manager] Tim Kemp’s hands.” The three of them are responsible for testing new recipes in the Blue Apron’s test kitchen and thus end up being photographed the majority of the time. “We’ve had a couple of recipes where it’s women testing,” he said. “But if you have one of those cards, they’re basically considered a collector’s item.” [emptylink] [imagelink] Subscribe now6 Issues for $




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a farmer named Patrick Johnston, explains to his eager guests from a startup called Blue Apron that the zucchini have already been sold to someone else and that the corn Blue Apron has contracted to buy is farther down the road. But Matt Wadiak, Blue Apron's master chef, barely hears him. He's focused on a little yellow flower he's spotted growing in the field. "Who's taking your zucchini blossoms?

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. Loading ... Loading ... This story appears in the {{article.article.magazine.pretty_date}} issue of {{article.article.magazine.pubName}}. Subscribe It's June, and the summer zucchini are just starting to poke out from the vine. Their owner, <span>a farmer named Patrick Johnston, explains to his eager guests from a startup called Blue Apron that the zucchini have already been sold to someone else and that the corn Blue Apron has contracted to buy is farther down the road. But Matt Wadiak, Blue Apron's master chef, barely hears him. He's focused on a little yellow flower he's spotted growing in the field. "Who's taking your zucchini blossoms?" he asks the bemused farmer. The answer is no one. No one buys zucchini blossoms--except maybe these two guys from Blue Apron, who have a quick exchange. The flowers, they agree,




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Johnston, who farms 800 acres in Oakley, Calif., is at a loss for words. He'd met Wadiak two years before at a sustainable agriculture conference down the coast, and he's already selling Blue Apron--just three years old--entire acres of sweet corn and beans.

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except maybe these two guys from Blue Apron, who have a quick exchange. The flowers, they agree, would make a nice garnish for a fish dish. "If you could grow enough," Wadiak tells the farmer, "we'd pay a lot for these." <span>Johnston, who farms 800 acres in Oakley, Calif., is at a loss for words. He'd met Wadiak two years before at a sustainable agriculture conference down the coast, and he's already selling Blue Apron--just three years old--entire acres of sweet corn and beans. The two plaid-shirted thirtysomethings from the food-tech startup also discuss taking the purslane, an edible weed, growing alongside Johnston's beans. And should he convert more acreag




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Founded in 2012 by Wadiak along with Matt Salzberg, a Harvard M.B.A. with venture capital experience, and Ilia Papas, an engineer and former consultant, Blue Apron ordered 3 million pounds of produce from 100 family-run farms this summer.

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scuss taking the purslane, an edible weed, growing alongside Johnston's beans. And should he convert more acreage to organic crops, they promise to buy whatever he grows. "I had no idea you did all that," says the farmer. Few did. <span>Founded in 2012 by Wadiak along with Matt Salzberg, a Harvard M.B.A. with venture capital experience, and Ilia Papas, an engineer and former consultant, Blue Apron ordered 3 million pounds of produce from 100 family-run farms this summer. The greens will go into the company's meal kits, boxes of precisely portioned ingredients and instructions needed to cook exactly three dinners a week and sold on a subscription basis i




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Blue Apron is tapping a rich vein. Americans spend $1 trillion each year on food, about $400 billion of that on dinner, but they're not spending as much time as they used to cooking the food themselves.

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now delivers 5 million meals a month, up from 500,000 just 18 months ago. Last November, FORBES estimates, sales crossed an annualized rate of $100 million; this year they'll more than triple. In 2016 the company should top half a billion. <span>Blue Apron is tapping a rich vein. Americans spend $1 trillion each year on food, about $400 billion of that on dinner, but they're not spending as much time as they used to cooking the food themselves. Less than 60% of dinners eaten at home are cooked there, according to a recent study by market research firm NPD Group, down from 71% in 1985. Startups of all stripes have been eager




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Startups of all stripes have been eager to step in. Munchery, Sprig and Maple, for example, have bet tens of millions on cutting out the restaurants and cooking hot meals to order in centralized locations.

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hat on dinner, but they're not spending as much time as they used to cooking the food themselves. Less than 60% of dinners eaten at home are cooked there, according to a recent study by market research firm NPD Group, down from 71% in 1985. <span>Startups of all stripes have been eager to step in. Munchery, Sprig and Maple, for example, have bet tens of millions on cutting out the restaurants and cooking hot meals to order in centralized locations. 2 FREE Issues of Forbes But surveys show that Americans still love to cook--they just feel they don't have the time. Blue Apron's approach, the meal kit, offers the convenience of




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Blue Apron's approach, the meal kit, offers the convenience of delivery while keeping home cooks in the kitchen. The precisely portioned dinners minimize waste and allow consumers to try ingredients they might not otherwise buy, at a price they'd have trouble matching--roughly $10 per meal per person.

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mple, have bet tens of millions on cutting out the restaurants and cooking hot meals to order in centralized locations. 2 FREE Issues of Forbes But surveys show that Americans still love to cook--they just feel they don't have the time. <span>Blue Apron's approach, the meal kit, offers the convenience of delivery while keeping home cooks in the kitchen. The precisely portioned dinners minimize waste and allow consumers to try ingredients they might not otherwise buy, at a price they'd have trouble matching--roughly $10 per meal per person. And yet, Blue Apron, which has raised more than $190 million and has been valued at $2 billion, has not yet demonstrated profitability and faces well-funded competitors. It also faces




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Blue Apron, which has raised more than $190 million and has been valued at $2 billion, has not yet demonstrated profitability and faces well-funded competitors.

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while keeping home cooks in the kitchen. The precisely portioned dinners minimize waste and allow consumers to try ingredients they might not otherwise buy, at a price they'd have trouble matching--roughly $10 per meal per person. And yet, <span>Blue Apron, which has raised more than $190 million and has been valued at $2 billion, has not yet demonstrated profitability and faces well-funded competitors. It also faces the looming threat of a bursting tech bubble that could turn off the venture capital spigot. It is one of no fewer than three fast-growing, venture-backed meal kit start




Competition
#blue-apron #citychef
Blue Apron is one of three fast-growing, venture-backed meal kit startups are based in New York City.

Plated, which was founded by Salzberg's former business school classmates, scored a Shark Tank deal and has annual revenue estimated in the tens of millions.

HelloFresh, which was founded in Berlin but operates a regional headquarters in New York, just raised $85 million at a valuation of $2.9 billion and has global revenue of about $40 million a month (HelloFresh declined comment).

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d more than $190 million and has been valued at $2 billion, has not yet demonstrated profitability and faces well-funded competitors. It also faces the looming threat of a bursting tech bubble that could turn off the venture capital spigot. <span>It is one of no fewer than three fast-growing, venture-backed meal kit startups based in New York City. Plated, which was founded by Salzberg's former business school classmates, scored a Shark Tank deal and has annual revenue estimated in the tens of millions. And HelloFresh, which was founded in Berlin but operates a regional headquarters in New York, just raised $85 million at a valuation of $2.9 billion and has global revenue of about $40 million a month (HelloFresh declined comment). Food? Delivery? Talk of a bubble? People could be forgiven for mistaking Blue Apron, Plated and HelloFresh for Kozmo and Webvan, two delivery companies that were among the notorious f




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Food? Delivery? Talk of a bubble? People could be forgiven for mistaking Blue Apron, Plated and HelloFresh for Kozmo and Webvan, two delivery companies that were among the notorious flameouts of the first dot-com era. Or they could be the future of food.

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illions. And HelloFresh, which was founded in Berlin but operates a regional headquarters in New York, just raised $85 million at a valuation of $2.9 billion and has global revenue of about $40 million a month (HelloFresh declined comment). <span>Food? Delivery? Talk of a bubble? People could be forgiven for mistaking Blue Apron, Plated and HelloFresh for Kozmo and Webvan, two delivery companies that were among the notorious flameouts of the first dot-com era. Or they could be the future of food. WALKING THROUGH Blue Apron's distribution center in New Jersey, Salzberg and Papas weave through packing boxes stacked ceiling high to the command center, where a large screen shows t




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Blue Apron's distribution center in New Jersey, Salzberg and Papas weave through packing boxes stacked ceiling high to the command center, where a large screen shows the shipping schedules for packages destined for cities as far away as Chicago.

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le? People could be forgiven for mistaking Blue Apron, Plated and HelloFresh for Kozmo and Webvan, two delivery companies that were among the notorious flameouts of the first dot-com era. Or they could be the future of food. WALKING THROUGH <span>Blue Apron's distribution center in New Jersey, Salzberg and Papas weave through packing boxes stacked ceiling high to the command center, where a large screen shows the shipping schedules for packages destined for cities as far away as Chicago. Software predicts incoming demand and costs, and workers on custom assembly lines pack boxes with meat and vegetables that could land on dinner tables that day. IPads attached to each l




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Software predicts incoming demand and costs, and workers on custom assembly lines pack boxes with meat and vegetables that could land on dinner tables that day. IPads attached to each line track its pace and check for missing items.

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e Apron's distribution center in New Jersey, Salzberg and Papas weave through packing boxes stacked ceiling high to the command center, where a large screen shows the shipping schedules for packages destined for cities as far away as Chicago. <span>Software predicts incoming demand and costs, and workers on custom assembly lines pack boxes with meat and vegetables that could land on dinner tables that day. IPads attached to each line track its pace and check for missing items. The operation is a far cry from the chaos of Blue Apron's early days, when the three founders packed boxes for their friends out of a small kitchen in Queens. In high school in middle




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A technical consultant in Boston, Papas had just given up on the idea of moving to New York and was planning to settle down with his girlfriend. But then he and Salzberg connected on an idea: a Kickstarter-like crowdfunding platform for research scientists that they would call Petridish.

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rtner Bob Goodman he would leave eventually to start a company. "Somehow I got the job anyway," Salzberg says. One night at a happy hour for Boston-based Insight Squared, the creation of another classmate, Salzberg ran into Papas. <span>A technical consultant in Boston, Papas had just given up on the idea of moving to New York and was planning to settle down with his girlfriend. But then he and Salzberg connected on an idea: a Kickstarter-like crowdfunding platform for research scientists that they would call Petridish. Over e-mails and beer Salzberg convinced Papas to move to New York and start the company. Salzberg walked away from Bessemer and raised $800,000 in seed funding. It didn't take them l




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The company did outsource delivery, building a matrix to determine the cheapest partner for each shipment.

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with employees, taking on early complications and costs to control quality. "It's a hot trend in startups to put employees on contractor forms," he says. "We took the position from day one that we didn't want to do that." <span>The company did outsource delivery, building a matrix to determine the cheapest partner for each shipment. When Salzberg landed a $3 million Series A investment round led by Bessemer and First Round Capital, Blue Apron was ready to hire staff and try to ease some of the founders' burden. W




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When Salzberg landed a $3 million Series A investment round led by Bessemer and First Round Capital, Blue Apron was ready to hire staff and try to ease some of the founders' burden. Within six months the company was serving nearly everywhere east of the Mississippi. The following year it opened a San Francisco-area facility. A bigger facility in Jersey City and a rapidly growing headquarters in Manhattan's SoHo neighborhood came next. Eventually a third facility in Dallas gave Blue Apron coverage of the entire country, all served by 2,600 salaried employees.

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ps to put employees on contractor forms," he says. "We took the position from day one that we didn't want to do that." The company did outsource delivery, building a matrix to determine the cheapest partner for each shipment. <span>When Salzberg landed a $3 million Series A investment round led by Bessemer and First Round Capital, Blue Apron was ready to hire staff and try to ease some of the founders' burden. Within six months the company was serving nearly everywhere east of the Mississippi. The following year it opened a San Francisco-area facility. A bigger facility in Jersey City and a rapidly growing headquarters in Manhattan's SoHo neighborhood came next. Eventually a third facility in Dallas gave Blue Apron coverage of the entire country, all served by 2,600 salaried employees. As a subscription business Blue Apron knows a lot about its collective customers, including how many will cancel an order in any given week and what ingredients will be needed months




#blue-apron #citychef
As a subscription business Blue Apron knows a lot about its collective customers, including how many will cancel an order in any given week and what ingredients will be needed months down the road. That allows it to plan meals based on the expected availability and price of certain crops, as well as to win a better price with farmers, who'll gladly charge less to lock in a bulk order for pork chops or broccoli. And with just the three central hubs, Blue Apron avoids the major overhead costs of food waste, maintaining grocery stores and cooking food locally.

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y. A bigger facility in Jersey City and a rapidly growing headquarters in Manhattan's SoHo neighborhood came next. Eventually a third facility in Dallas gave Blue Apron coverage of the entire country, all served by 2,600 salaried employees. <span>As a subscription business Blue Apron knows a lot about its collective customers, including how many will cancel an order in any given week and what ingredients will be needed months down the road. That allows it to plan meals based on the expected availability and price of certain crops, as well as to win a better price with farmers, who'll gladly charge less to lock in a bulk order for pork chops or broccoli. And with just the three central hubs, Blue Apron avoids the major overhead costs of food waste, maintaining grocery stores and cooking food locally. Blue Apron says it acquires many of its customers through word of mouth. But it also must fight to keep those customers. Many subscription companies lose customers as early as one mon




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Blue Apron says that when customers leave it's generally because they find they don't have enough time to cook three meals a week or because they tire of having their meals dictated by someone else.

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es and cooking food locally. Blue Apron says it acquires many of its customers through word of mouth. But it also must fight to keep those customers. Many subscription companies lose customers as early as one month into their subscriptions. <span>Blue Apron says that when customers leave it's generally because they find they don't have enough time to cook three meals a week or because they tire of having their meals dictated by someone else. A change in household size can also make a difference--as can the packaging. "We ended up canceling the service after three weeks mainly because the packaging seemed really wastefu




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Blue Apron says it acquires many of its customers through word of mouth.

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with farmers, who'll gladly charge less to lock in a bulk order for pork chops or broccoli. And with just the three central hubs, Blue Apron avoids the major overhead costs of food waste, maintaining grocery stores and cooking food locally. <span>Blue Apron says it acquires many of its customers through word of mouth. But it also must fight to keep those customers. Many subscription companies lose customers as early as one month into their subscriptions. Blue Apron says that when customers leave it's




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while the company did make its packaging more eco-friendly, it has also instituted a box-return program.

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n the kitchen at La Marina in Forbes video here.] Blue Apron is attempting to tackle those issues. More meal options are coming in the next few months, Salzberg says, and customers who make a fuss can cancel delivery at the last minute. And <span>while the company did make its packaging more eco-friendly, it has also instituted a box-return program. And it's adding new services, too. In September it announced a program to sell wine pairings for its meals. "If half of our customers subscribed to wine, we'd be the largest wine




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Plated, which once projected 2015 revenue of $100 million, is much smaller than Blue Apron, and the gap is growing.

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fallen apart; eventually fellow Shark Kevin O'Leary stepped in. "My investment thesis," says O'Leary, "is that if this company does not end up the leader, it will be acquired by a larger competitor for its subscribers." <span>Plated, which once projected 2015 revenue of $100 million, is much smaller than Blue Apron, and the gap is growing. "The goal is not to be the biggest but the best," says Taranto. His cofounder, Hix, adds, "This isn't about Plated vs. Blue Apron. It's about Plated vs. Whole Foods and a




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So far Plated has been charging about $12 per meal and Blue Apron about $10. While many have speculated about how good a deal this is for consumers, the real question may be whether Blue Apron can make money at that price. It claims that its overwhelming buying power does in fact allow it to sell its boxes for more than the cost of its ingredients. But if you include the cost of marketing, the meal kit companies likely lose money for at least a few weeks on each user before breaking even.

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inue to grow and ultimately turn a profit--"It could take a long time," says Darren Seifer, an analyst with NPD--may depend on how much it costs to acquire customers and whether those customers believe they are getting a good value. <span>So far Plated has been charging about $12 per meal and Blue Apron about $10. While many have speculated about how good a deal this is for consumers, the real question may be whether Blue Apron can make money at that price. It claims that its overwhelming buying power does in fact allow it to sell its boxes for more than the cost of its ingredients. But if you include the cost of marketing, the meal kit companies likely lose money for at least a few weeks on each user before breaking even. And outsiders aren't so sure that Blue Apron, Plated and the rest can keep those costs from ballooning. Meal kit businesses could face price challenges from VC-backed meal delivery star




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Meal kit businesses could face price challenges from VC-backed meal delivery startups, says Battery Ventures executive-in-residence Jonathan Sills.

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if you include the cost of marketing, the meal kit companies likely lose money for at least a few weeks on each user before breaking even. And outsiders aren't so sure that Blue Apron, Plated and the rest can keep those costs from ballooning. <span>Meal kit businesses could face price challenges from VC-backed meal delivery startups, says Battery Ventures executive-in-residence Jonathan Sills. And aggressive marketing through channels like Facebook could lose its luster as the sites compete for the same customers. "No one quite knows how this will all play out," say




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Kozmo and Webvan struggled to sustain their growth. Ultimately, they both burned through millions of dollars of investment capital around the turn of the millennium by chasing market share with murderous discounts for services that weren't ultimately in demand. "The problem with the most promising companies in today's market," says Paul Madera, managing director of Meritech Capital, "is that they are priced for perfect execution on their business plans over the next five years--and then they go public at very favorable valuations. And that means there is no room for the setbacks and adjustments that 99% of companies face."

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customers. "No one quite knows how this will all play out," says Sills. CEO Matt Salzberg guided Blue Apron to "unicorn" status in less than three years. (Credit: Jamel Toppin for Forbes) THE LAST TIME AROUND <span>Kozmo and Webvan struggled to sustain their growth. Ultimately, they both burned through millions of dollars of investment capital around the turn of the millennium by chasing market share with murderous discounts for services that weren't ultimately in demand. "The problem with the most promising companies in today's market," says Paul Madera, managing director of Meritech Capital, "is that they are priced for perfect execution on their business plans over the next five years--and then they go public at very favorable valuations. And that means there is no room for the setbacks and adjustments that 99% of companies face." The execs at Blue Apron and Plated, no surprise, dispute those concerns, arguing that they have better reach and better retention than some might guess. "If I could show you our




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Blue Apron is another reinvention of the CSA model — in which subscribers commit to purchasing a "share" of a farmer's seasonal crop, with the produce then distributed throughout the year. Instead, Blue Apron provides a lifestyle upgrade, granting subscribers access to well-balanced meals without the stress of meal planning. It's the joy of cooking distilled to its essence: Chop the provided ingredients, combine as directed, and enjoy your basically-homemade meal. But simplicity comes at a cost. When produce comes in a box, experts worry consumers are losing their understanding of the food chain, instead buying into a one-size-fits-all approach to nutrition. Are services like Blue Apron the future of home-cooked food — or are they a mindless extravagance for wealthy Americans? It makes sense that consumers' thirst for efficiency would eventually enter the healthy food market: While the market for locally-grown, organic produce has been booming, figuring out how to use them can be tricky, especially if yo



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Blue Apron is another reinvention of the CSA model — in which subscribers commit to purchasing a "share" of a farmer's seasonal crop, with the produce then distributed throughout the year.

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Open it
Blue Apron is another reinvention of the CSA model — in which subscribers commit to purchasing a "share" of a farmer's seasonal crop, with the produce then distributed throughout the year. Instead, Blue Apron provides a lifestyle upgrade, granting subscribers access to well-balanced meals without the stress of meal planning. It's the joy of cooking distilled to its essenc




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Blue Apron provides a lifestyle upgrade, granting subscribers access to well-balanced meals without the stress of meal planning.

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tml>Blue Apron is another reinvention of the CSA model — in which subscribers commit to purchasing a "share" of a farmer's seasonal crop, with the produce then distributed throughout the year. Instead, Blue Apron provides a lifestyle upgrade, granting subscribers access to well-balanced meals without the stress of meal planning. It's the joy of cooking distilled to its essence: Chop the provided ingredients, combine as directed, and enjoy your basically-homemade meal. But simplicity comes at a cost. When produc




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It's the joy of cooking distilled to its essence: Chop the provided ingredients, combine as directed, and enjoy your basically-homemade meal.

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a "share" of a farmer's seasonal crop, with the produce then distributed throughout the year. Instead, Blue Apron provides a lifestyle upgrade, granting subscribers access to well-balanced meals without the stress of meal planning. <span>It's the joy of cooking distilled to its essence: Chop the provided ingredients, combine as directed, and enjoy your basically-homemade meal. But simplicity comes at a cost. When produce comes in a box, experts worry consumers are losing their understanding of the food chain, instead buying into a one-size-fits-all approach t




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Integrating that locally-grown food into your diet requires paying careful attention to hyper-local seasonality — as well as the growing schedules of nearby farmers.

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em "a safety net and a recipe," he says. "If you can cook with it and interact with it on an emotional level, it changes your perception. It's the secret sauce to educating people about food and biodiversity." <span>Integrating that locally-grown food into your diet requires paying careful attention to hyper-local seasonality — as well as the growing schedules of nearby farmers. "The idea of planning ahead is a challenge," says Jennifer Goggin, the co-founder of FarmersWeb, an online marketplace designed to connect farmers with services like Blue Apro




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Currently, 31 farmers are working with Blue Apron to create their "ideal crop rotation," Wadiak says

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ce pests. The end result? Less pesticide and fertilizer — and healthier farms. Blue Apron’s farms currently have 1.1 million pounds of produce in the ground, but critics say it’s "serving a niche audience." <span>Currently, 31 farmers are working with Blue Apron to create their "ideal crop rotation," Wadiak says. Its team of recipe developers works with farms months in advance, creating a planting schedule that best suits their soil and scheduling the resulting produce into a meal plan. "W




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ts team of recipe developers works with farms months in advance, creating a planting schedule that best suits their soil and scheduling the resulting produce into a meal plan.

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rrently have 1.1 million pounds of produce in the ground, but critics say it’s "serving a niche audience." Currently, 31 farmers are working with Blue Apron to create their "ideal crop rotation," Wadiak says. I<span>ts team of recipe developers works with farms months in advance, creating a planting schedule that best suits their soil and scheduling the resulting produce into a meal plan. "We allow them to do what they do best," Wadiak says. The company's network of farms have 1.1 million pounds of produce in the ground which, once harvested, will be portioned




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Blue Apron detractors often point out environmental impact.

Advocates argue that because delivery companies use local farms, they're avoiding a lot of the waste that comes when your tomatoes are flown internationally to your grocery store.

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h vegetables," says Lauren Ornelas, the founder and executive director of the Food Empowerment Project. Yes, the ability to rotate crops is fantastic — but less so if the only ones benefiting are the well-off. <span>Blue Apron detractors often point out two areas where meal-delivery services fall short: cost and environmental impact. Despite an outcry about the packaging these boxes use (small plastic bags for three carrots, little plastic containers of soy sauce, cold packs), the clamor is somewhat of a red herring: Everything included is recyclable, if perhaps difficult to do so. Advocates argue that because delivery companies use local farms, they're avoiding a lot of the waste that comes when your tomatoes are flown internationally to your grocery store. "When things are being flown in from Mexico or somewhere, there's a lot of packaging involved," Goggin says. "Small farms don't use any of that. They deliver




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The footprint of food is usually much bigger than the footprint of packaging," she says. "If the packaging can extend the shelf life even a small amount, it is worth it."

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iver the product in wooden bushel boxes. Even if they add packaging, it evens out." Nina Goodrich, executive director of sustainable materials management group GreenBlue, says that Blue Apron probably does provide a fair trade-off. "<span>The footprint of food is usually much bigger than the footprint of packaging," she says. "If the packaging can extend the shelf life even a small amount, it is worth it." Unsurprisingly, Wadiak also agrees — although he does want the company to improve its packaging to be more eco-friendly. "Because we're buying direct, our product comes in crates i




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"Because we're buying direct, our product comes in crates instead of corrugated boxes. Consumers don't see a lot of the packaging on the early end of the supply chain, which we've completely eliminated," he says.

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of packaging," she says. "If the packaging can extend the shelf life even a small amount, it is worth it." Unsurprisingly, Wadiak also agrees — although he does want the company to improve its packaging to be more eco-friendly. <span>"Because we're buying direct, our product comes in crates instead of corrugated boxes. Consumers don't see a lot of the packaging on the early end of the supply chain, which we've completely eliminated," he says. "You treat vegetables differently when they don’t just show up on your doorstep." What of learning where our food comes from? For years, it seemed th




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Blue Apron has just announced that it closed a $135 million round of funding led by Fidelity Management and Research Company, with participation from existing investors

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Blue Apron Eats Up $135M At A $2B Valuation | TechCrunch
[emptylink] Next Story Inside GoPro’s Ambitious Plan To Connect Their Cameras To The Cloud <span>Blue Apron has just announced that it closed a $135 million round of funding led by Fidelity Management and Research Company, with participation from existing investors. The WSJ reported last month that this round was being sought at a $2 billion valuation. Update 10:30am ET: A Blue Apron spokesperson has just confirmed to TechCrunch that this rou