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Flashcard 1431565634828

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-3-utility-theory #study-session-4
Question

We can represent the utility function as

U=f(Qx1,Qx2,...,Qxn)

where the Qs are the quantities of [...].

Answer
each of the respective goods and services in the bundles


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In general, we can represent the utility function as Equation (1)  U=f(Qx1,Qx2,...,Qxn) where the Qs are the quantities of each of the respective goods and services in the bundles. In the case of two goods—say, ounces of wine (W) and slices of bread (B)—a utility function might be simply Equation (2)  U = f(W,B) = WB or the

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3. UTILITY THEORY: MODELING PREFERENCES AND TASTES
ferences. The number itself is referred to as the utility of that basket and is measured in utils , which are just quantities of happiness, or well-being, or whatever comes to mind such that more of it is better than less of it. <span>In general, we can represent the utility function as Equation (1)  U=f(Qx1,Qx2,...,Qxn) where the Qs are the quantities of each of the respective goods and services in the bundles. In the case of two goods—say, ounces of wine (W) and slices of bread (B)—a utility function might be simply Equation (2)  U = f(W,B) = WB or the product of the number of ounces of wine and the number of slices of bread. The utility of a bundle containing 4 ounces of wine along with 2 slices of bread would equal 8 utils, and it would rank lower than a bundle containing 3 ounces of wine along with 3 slices of bread, which would yield 9 utils. The important point to note is that the utility function is just a ranking of bundles of goods. If someone were to replace all those pieces of paper with new numbers that m







Flashcard 1432381689100

Tags
#comparative #italian #italian-grammar
Question
la pasta napoletana è migliore di quella siciliana
Answer
Neapolitan pasta is better than Sicilian pasta


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When one person, object or activity is compared with another a comparative form is used: mia figlia nuota meglio della sua ‘my daughter swims better than hers’; la pasta napoletana è migliore di quella siciliana ‘Neapolitan pasta is better than Sicilian pasta’.

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Flashcard 1432542645516

Tags
#blue-apron #citychef
Question
Blue Apron detractors often point out environmental impact.

Advocates argue that [...]
Answer
because delivery companies use local farms, they're avoiding a lot of the waste that comes when your tomatoes are flown internationally to your grocery store.


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Blue Apron detractors often point out environmental impact. Advocates argue that because delivery companies use local farms, they're avoiding a lot of the waste that comes when your tomatoes are flown internationally to your grocery store.

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Open it
h vegetables," says Lauren Ornelas, the founder and executive director of the Food Empowerment Project. Yes, the ability to rotate crops is fantastic — but less so if the only ones benefiting are the well-off. <span>Blue Apron detractors often point out two areas where meal-delivery services fall short: cost and environmental impact. Despite an outcry about the packaging these boxes use (small plastic bags for three carrots, little plastic containers of soy sauce, cold packs), the clamor is somewhat of a red herring: Everything included is recyclable, if perhaps difficult to do so. Advocates argue that because delivery companies use local farms, they're avoiding a lot of the waste that comes when your tomatoes are flown internationally to your grocery store. "When things are being flown in from Mexico or somewhere, there's a lot of packaging involved," Goggin says. "Small farms don't use any of that. They deliver







Flashcard 1435053198604

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4 #summary
Question
The relationship among own-price elasticity of demand, changes in price, and changes in total expenditure is as follows:

If demand is elastic, a reduction in price results in an
[...];

if demand is inelastic, a reduction in price results in
[...] ;

if demand is unitary elastic, a change in price
[...]
Answer
increase in total expenditure

a decrease in total expenditure

leaves total expenditure unchanged.


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The relationship among own-price elasticity of demand, changes in price, and changes in total expenditure is as follows: If demand is elastic, a reduction in price results in an increase in total expenditure; if demand is inelastic, a reduction in price results in a decrease in total expenditure; if demand is unitary elastic, a change in price leaves total expenditure unchanged.</spa

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SUMMARY
ood causes an increase in demand for the other good—are called complements. Goods with positive cross-price elasticity of demand—a drop in the price of one good causes a decrease in demand for the other—are called substitutes. <span>The relationship among own-price elasticity of demand, changes in price, and changes in total expenditure is as follows: If demand is elastic, a reduction in price results in an increase in total expenditure; if demand is inelastic, a reduction in price results in a decrease in total expenditure; if demand is unitary elastic, a change in price leaves total expenditure unchanged. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1436257225996

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
Stop recording the session with [...] Note that diary appends material to an existing file—that is, it adds new infor- mation to the end of it
Answer
diary off


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Stop recording the session with diary off Note that diary appends material to an existing file—that is, it adds new infor- mation to the end of it

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Flashcard 1442119552268

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-36-cost-of-capital #study-session-11
Question
For the analyst seeking to evaluate a company’s [...] program and its [...] position, an accurate estimate of a company’s cost of capital is important as well.
Answer
investment

competitive


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For the analyst seeking to evaluate a company’s investment program and its competitive position, an accurate estimate of a company’s cost of capital is important as well.

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1. INTRODUCTION
, the company is producing value today. But, how much value? The answer depends not only on the investments’ expected future cash flows but also on the cost of the funds. Borrowing is not costless. Neither is using owners’ funds. <span>The cost of this capital is an important ingredient in both investment decision making by the company’s management and the valuation of the company by investors. If a company invests in projects that produce a return in excess of the cost of capital, the company has created value; in contrast, if the company invests in projects whose returns are less than the cost of capital, the company has actually destroyed value. Therefore, the estimation of the cost of capital is a central issue in corporate financial management. For the analyst seeking to evaluate a company’s investment program and its competitive position, an accurate estimate of a company’s cost of capital is important as well. Cost of capital estimation is a challenging task. As we have already implied, the cost of capital is not observable but, rather, must be estimated. Arriving at a cost of ca







Flashcard 1447262031116

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
An [...] can symbolize the individual or an aggregate.
Answer
empirical description,

such as the present store manager, this computer, the woman who made the flag, the furniture in this house, the microbe now dividing in the petri dish,


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A particular or empirical description, such as the present store manager, this computer, the woman who made the flag, t he furniture in this house, the microbe now dividing in the petri dish, can symbolize the individual or

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Flashcard 1447777668364

Tags
#psychological-dimension-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The psychological dimension of language is in its [...]
Answer
emotional content

—the related images, nuances, and emotion spontaneously associated with words.


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The psychological dimension of language is in its emotional content—the related images, nuances, and emotion spontaneously associated with words.

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#python #sicp
Every value in Python has a class that determines what type of value it is.

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2.1 Introduction
freely available to all of us online, and computation can be applied to a vast range of different problems. Effective use of built-in and user-defined data types are fundamental to data processing applications. 2.1.1 Native Data Types <span>Every value in Python has a class that determines what type of value it is. Values that share a class also share behavior. For example, the integers 1 and 2 are both instances of the int class. These two values can be treated similarly. For example, they




#python #sicp
Values that share a class also share behavior.

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2.1 Introduction
st range of different problems. Effective use of built-in and user-defined data types are fundamental to data processing applications. 2.1.1 Native Data Types Every value in Python has a class that determines what type of value it is. <span>Values that share a class also share behavior. For example, the integers 1 and 2 are both instances of the int class. These two values can be treated similarly. For example, they can both be negated or added to another integer




#python #sicp
The built-in type function allows us to inspect the class of any value

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2.1 Introduction
e it is. Values that share a class also share behavior. For example, the integers 1 and 2 are both instances of the int class. These two values can be treated similarly. For example, they can both be negated or added to another integer. <span>The built-in type function allows us to inspect the class of any value. >>> type(2) The values we have used so far are instances of a small number of native data types that are built into the Python language. Native data types have the foll




#python #sicp

The values we have used so far are instances of a small number of native data types that are built into the Python language. Native data types have the following properties:

  1. There are expressions that evaluate to values of native types, called literals.
  2. There are built-in functions and operators to manipulate values of native types.

The int class is the native data type used to represent integers. Integer literals (sequences of adjacent numerals) evaluate to int values, and mathematical operators manipulate these values.

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2.1 Introduction
instances of the int class. These two values can be treated similarly. For example, they can both be negated or added to another integer. The built-in type function allows us to inspect the class of any value. >>> type(2) <span>The values we have used so far are instances of a small number of native data types that are built into the Python language. Native data types have the following properties: There are expressions that evaluate to values of native types, called literals. There are built-in functions and operators to manipulate values of native types. The int class is the native data type used to represent integers. Integer literals (sequences of adjacent numerals) evaluate to int values, and mathematical operators manipulate these values. >>> 12 + 3000000000000000000000000 3000000000000000000000012 Python includes three native numeric types: integers ( int ), real numbers ( float ), and complex numbers ( c




#python #sicp
Python includes three native numeric types: integers ( int ), real numbers ( float ), and complex numbers ( complex ).

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2.1 Introduction
data type used to represent integers. Integer literals (sequences of adjacent numerals) evaluate to int values, and mathematical operators manipulate these values. >>> 12 + 3000000000000000000000000 3000000000000000000000012 <span>Python includes three native numeric types: integers ( int ), real numbers ( float ), and complex numbers ( complex ). >>> type(1.5) >>> type(1+1j) Floats. The name float comes from the way in which real numbers are represented in Python and many other programming languages:




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int objects represent integers exactly, without any approximation or limits on their size. On the other hand, float objects can represent a wide range of fractional numbers, but not all numbers can be represented exactly, and there are minimum and maximum values. Therefore, float values should be treated as approximations to real values.

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2.1 Introduction
ming languages: a "floating point" representation. While the details of how numbers are represented is not a topic for this text, some high-level differences between int and float objects are important to know. In particular, <span>int objects represent integers exactly, without any approximation or limits on their size. On the other hand, float objects can represent a wide range of fractional numbers, but not all numbers can be represented exactly, and there are minimum and maximum values. Therefore, float values should be treated as approximations to real values. These approximations have only a finite amount of precision. Combining float values can lead to approximation errors; both of the following expressions would evaluate to 7 if not fo




#python #sicp

Although int values are combined above, dividing one int by another yields a float value: a truncated finite approximation to the actual ratio of the two integers divided.

 >>> type ( 1 / 3 ) <class 'float'> >>> 1 / 3 0.3333333333333333 

Problems with this approximation appear when we conduct equality tests.

 >>> 1 / 3 == 0.333333333333333312345 # Beware of float approximation True 

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The general technique of isolating the parts of a program that deal with how data are represented from the parts that deal with how data are manipulated is a powerful design methodology called data abstraction. Data abstraction makes programs much easier to design, maintain, and modify.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
ta enables us to increase the modularity of our programs. If we can manipulate geographic positions as whole values, then we can shield parts of our program that compute using positions from the details of how those positions are represented. <span>The general technique of isolating the parts of a program that deal with how data are represented from the parts that deal with how data are manipulated is a powerful design methodology called data abstraction. Data abstraction makes programs much easier to design, maintain, and modify. Data abstraction is similar in character to functional abstraction. When we create a functional abstraction, the details of how a function is implemented can be suppressed, and the p




data abstraction isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
r function itself can be replaced by any other function with the same overall behavior. In other words, we can make an abstraction that separates the way the function is used from the details of how the function is implemented. Analogously, <span>data abstraction isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed. The basic idea of data abstraction is to structure programs so that they operate on abstract data. That is, our programs should use data in such a way as to make as few assumptions ab




The basic idea of data abstraction is to structure programs so that they operate on abstract data. That is, our programs should use data in such a way as to make as few assumptions about the data as possible. At the same time, a concrete data representation is defined as an independent part of the program.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
we can make an abstraction that separates the way the function is used from the details of how the function is implemented. Analogously, data abstraction isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed. <span>The basic idea of data abstraction is to structure programs so that they operate on abstract data. That is, our programs should use data in such a way as to make as few assumptions about the data as possible. At the same time, a concrete data representation is defined as an independent part of the program. These two parts of a program, the part that operates on abstract data and the part that defines a concrete representation, are connected by a small set of functions that implement abs




We are using here a powerful strategy for designing programs: wishful thinking. We haven't yet said how a rational number is represented, or how the functions numer , denom , and rational should be implemented. Even so, if we did define these three functions, we could then add, multiply, print, and test equality of rational numbers:

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2.2 Data Abstraction
s the following three functions: rational(n, d) returns the rational number with numerator n and denominator d . numer(x) returns the numerator of the rational number x . denom(x) returns the denominator of the rational number x . <span>We are using here a powerful strategy for designing programs: wishful thinking. We haven't yet said how a rational number is represented, or how the functions numer , denom , and rational should be implemented. Even so, if we did define these three functions, we could then add, multiply, print, and test equality of rational numbers: >>> def add_rationals(x, y): nx, dx = numer(x), denom(x) ny, dy = numer(y), denom(y) return rational(nx * dy + ny * dx, dx * dy) >>> def




a list , which can be constructed by placing expressions within square brackets separated by commas. Such an expression is called a list literal.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
functions. What we need is some way to glue together a numerator and a denominator into a compound value. 2.2.2 Pairs To enable us to implement the concrete level of our data abstraction, Python provides a compound structure called <span>a list , which can be constructed by placing expressions within square brackets separated by commas. Such an expression is called a list literal. >>> [10, 20] [10, 20] The elements of a list can be accessed in two ways. The first way is via our familiar method of multiple assignment, which unpacks a list into its




The elements of a list can be accessed in two ways. The first way is via our familiar method of multiple assignment, which unpacks a list into its elements and binds each element to a different name.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
a abstraction, Python provides a compound structure called a list , which can be constructed by placing expressions within square brackets separated by commas. Such an expression is called a list literal. >>> [10, 20] [10, 20] <span>The elements of a list can be accessed in two ways. The first way is via our familiar method of multiple assignment, which unpacks a list into its elements and binds each element to a different name. >>> pair = [10, 20] >>> pair [10, 20] >>> x, y = pair >>> x 10 >>> y 20 A second method for accessing the elements in a list is by the




One intuition that supports this indexing convention is that the index represents how far an element is offset from the beginning of the list.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
g expression. >>> pair[0] 10 >>> pair[1] 20 Lists in Python (and sequences in most other programming languages) are 0-indexed, meaning that the index 0 selects the first element, index 1 selects the second, and so on. <span>One intuition that supports this indexing convention is that the index represents how far an element is offset from the beginning of the list. The equivalent function for the element selection operator is called getitem , and it also uses 0-indexed positions to select elements from a list. >>> from operator impor




The equivalent function for the element selection operator is called getitem , and it also uses 0-indexed positions to select elements from a list.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
exed, meaning that the index 0 selects the first element, index 1 selects the second, and so on. One intuition that supports this indexing convention is that the index represents how far an element is offset from the beginning of the list. <span>The equivalent function for the element selection operator is called getitem , and it also uses 0-indexed positions to select elements from a list. >>> from operator import getitem >>> getitem(pair, 0) 10 >>> getitem(pair, 1) 20 Two-element lists are not the only method of representing pairs in Pyth




The floor division operator, // , expresses integer division, which rounds down the fractional part of the result of division.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
ms before constructing the pair. As with many useful tools, such a function already exists in the Python Library. >>> from fractions import gcd >>> def rational(n, d): g = gcd(n, d) return (n//g, d//g) <span>The floor division operator, // , expresses integer division, which rounds down the fractional part of the result of division. Since we know that g divides both n and d evenly, integer division is exact in this case. This revised rational implementation ensures that rationals are expressed in lowest te




In general, the underlying idea of data abstraction is to identify a basic set of operations in terms of which all manipulations of values of some kind will be expressed, and then to use only those operations in manipulating the data. By restricting the use of operations in this way, it is much easier to change the representation of abstract data without changing the behavior of a program.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
efore continuing with more examples of compound data and data abstraction, let us consider some of the issues raised by the rational number example. We defined operations in terms of a constructor rational and selectors numer and denom . <span>In general, the underlying idea of data abstraction is to identify a basic set of operations in terms of which all manipulations of values of some kind will be expressed, and then to use only those operations in manipulating the data. By restricting the use of operations in this way, it is much easier to change the representation of abstract data without changing the behavior of a program. For rational numbers, different parts of the program manipulate rational numbers using different operations, as described in this table. Parts of the program that... Treat rationals




An abstraction barrier violation occurs whenever a part of the program that can use a higher level function instead uses a function in a lower level.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
two-element lists list literals and element selection In each layer above, the functions in the final column enforce an abstraction barrier. These functions are called by a higher level and implemented using a lower level of abstraction. <span>An abstraction barrier violation occurs whenever a part of the program that can use a higher level function instead uses a function in a lower level. For example, a function that computes the square of a rational number is best implemented in terms of mul_rational , which does not assume anything about the implementation of a ration




Abstraction barriers make programs easier to maintain and to modify. The fewer functions that depend on a particular representation, the fewer changes are required when one wants to change that representation.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
(x) * numer(x), denom(x) * denom(x)) Assuming that rationals are represented as two-element lists would violate two abstraction barriers. >>> def square_rational_violating_twice(x): return [x[0] * x[0], x[1] * x[1]] <span>Abstraction barriers make programs easier to maintain and to modify. The fewer functions that depend on a particular representation, the fewer changes are required when one wants to change that representation. All of these implementations of square_rational have the correct behavior, but only the first is robust to future changes. The square_rational function would not require updating ev




In general, we can express abstract data using a collection of selectors and constructors, together with some behavior conditions. As long as the behavior conditions are met (such as the division property above), the selectors and constructors constitute a valid representation of a kind of data. The implementation details below an abstraction barrier may change, but if the behavior does not, then the data abstraction remains valid, and any program written using this data abstraction will remain correct.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
enom . In addition, the appropriate relationship must hold among the constructor and selectors. That is, if we construct a rational number x from integers n and d , then it should be the case that numer(x)/denom(x) is equal to n/d . <span>In general, we can express abstract data using a collection of selectors and constructors, together with some behavior conditions. As long as the behavior conditions are met (such as the division property above), the selectors and constructors constitute a valid representation of a kind of data. The implementation details below an abstraction barrier may change, but if the behavior does not, then the data abstraction remains valid, and any program written using this data abstraction will remain correct. This point of view can be applied broadly, including to the pair values that we used to implement rational numbers. We never actually said much about what a pair was, only that the la




The behavior we require to implement a pair is that it glues two values together. Stated as a behavior condition,

  • If a pair p was constructed from values x and y , then select(p, 0) returns x , and select(p, 1) returns y .

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2.2 Data Abstraction
ew can be applied broadly, including to the pair values that we used to implement rational numbers. We never actually said much about what a pair was, only that the language supplied the means to create and manipulate lists with two elements. <span>The behavior we require to implement a pair is that it glues two values together. Stated as a behavior condition, If a pair p was constructed from values x and y , then select(p, 0) returns x , and select(p, 1) returns y . We don't actually need the list type to create pairs. Instead, we can implement two functions pair and select that fulfill this description just as well as a two-element list.




Functions are sufficient to represent compound data.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
gt;>> select(p, 0) 20 >>> select(p, 1) 14 This use of higher-order functions corresponds to nothing like our intuitive notion of what data should be. Nevertheless, these functions suffice to represent pairs in our programs. <span>Functions are sufficient to represent compound data. The point of exhibiting the functional representation of a pair is not that Python actually works this way (lists are implemented more directly, for efficiency reasons) but that it co




#python #sicp
A sequence is an ordered collection of values

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2.3 Sequences
emoization 2.8.3 Orders of Growth 2.8.4 Example: Exponentiation 2.8.5 Growth Categories 2.9 Recursive Objects 2.9.1 Linked List Class 2.9.2 Tree Class 2.9.3 Sets 2.3 Sequences <span>A sequence is an ordered collection of values. The sequence is a powerful, fundamental abstraction in computer science. Sequences are not instances of a particular built-in type or abstract data representation, but instead a collec




#python #sicp
Sequences are not instances of a particular built-in type or abstract data representation, but instead a collection of behaviors that are shared among several different types of data.

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2.3 Sequences
rsive Objects 2.9.1 Linked List Class 2.9.2 Tree Class 2.9.3 Sets 2.3 Sequences A sequence is an ordered collection of values. The sequence is a powerful, fundamental abstraction in computer science. <span>Sequences are not instances of a particular built-in type or abstract data representation, but instead a collection of behaviors that are shared among several different types of data. That is, there are many kinds of sequences, but they all share common behavior. In particular, Length. A sequence has a finite length. An empty sequence has length 0. Element selec




#python #sicp

there are many kinds of sequences, but they all share common behavior. In particular,

Length. A sequence has a finite length. An empty sequence has length 0.

Element selection. A sequence has an element corresponding to any non-negative integer index less than its length, starting at 0 for the first element.

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2.3 Sequences
ful, fundamental abstraction in computer science. Sequences are not instances of a particular built-in type or abstract data representation, but instead a collection of behaviors that are shared among several different types of data. That is, <span>there are many kinds of sequences, but they all share common behavior. In particular, Length. A sequence has a finite length. An empty sequence has length 0. Element selection. A sequence has an element corresponding to any non-negative integer index less than its length, starting at 0 for the first element. Python includes several native data types that are sequences, the most important of which is the list . 2.3.1 Lists A list value is a sequence that can have arbitrary lengt




#python #sicp
A list value is a sequence that can have arbitrary length.

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2.3 Sequences
element corresponding to any non-negative integer index less than its length, starting at 0 for the first element. Python includes several native data types that are sequences, the most important of which is the list . 2.3.1 Lists <span>A list value is a sequence that can have arbitrary length. Lists have a large set of built-in behaviors, along with specific syntax to express those behaviors. We have already seen the list literal, which evaluates to a list instance, as wel




#python #sicp
which evaluates to a list instance, as well as an element selection expression that evaluates to a value in the list.

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2.3 Sequences
which is the list . 2.3.1 Lists A list value is a sequence that can have arbitrary length. Lists have a large set of built-in behaviors, along with specific syntax to express those behaviors. We have already seen the list literal, <span>which evaluates to a list instance, as well as an element selection expression that evaluates to a value in the list. The built-in len function returns the length of a sequence. Below, digits is a list with four elements. The element at index 3 is 8. >>> digits = [1, 8, 2, 8] >>&gt




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lists can be added together and multiplied by integers. For sequences, addition and multiplication do not add or multiply elements, but instead combine and replicate the sequences themselves. That is, the add function in the operator module (and the + operator) yields a list that is the concatenation of the added arguments. The mul function in operator (and the * operator) can take a list and an integer k to return the list that consists of k repetitions of the original list.

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2.3 Sequences
he built-in len function returns the length of a sequence. Below, digits is a list with four elements. The element at index 3 is 8. >>> digits = [1, 8, 2, 8] >>> len(digits) 4 >>> digits[3] 8 Additionally, <span>lists can be added together and multiplied by integers. For sequences, addition and multiplication do not add or multiply elements, but instead combine and replicate the sequences themselves. That is, the add function in the operator module (and the + operator) yields a list that is the concatenation of the added arguments. The mul function in operator (and the * operator) can take a list and an integer k to return the list that consists of k repetitions of the original list. >>> [2, 7] + digits * 2 [2, 7, 1, 8, 2, 8, 1, 8, 2, 8] Any values can be included in a list, including another list. Element selection can be applied multiple times in or




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A for statement is executed by the following procedure:

  1. Evaluate the header <expression> , which must yield an iterable value.
  2. For each element value in that iterable value, in order:
    1. Bind <name> to that value in the current frame.
    2. Execute the <suite> .

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This execution procedure refers to iterable values. Lists are a type of sequence, and sequences are iterable values. Their elements are considered in their sequential order.

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2.3 Sequences
atement is executed by the following procedure: Evaluate the header , which must yield an iterable value. For each element value in that iterable value, in order: Bind to that value in the current frame. Execute the . <span>This execution procedure refers to iterable values. Lists are a type of sequence, and sequences are iterable values. Their elements are considered in their sequential order. Python includes other iterable types, but we will focus on sequences for now; the general definition of the term "iterable" appears in the section on iterators in Chapter 4.




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An important consequence of this evaluation procedure is that <name> will be bound to the last element of the sequence after the for statement is executed. The for loop introduces yet another way in which the environment can be updated by a statement.

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A common pattern in programs is to have a sequence of elements that are themselves sequences, but all of a fixed length. A for statement may include multiple names in its header to "unpack" each element sequence into its respective elements.

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2.3 Sequences
evaluation procedure is that will be bound to the last element of the sequence after the for statement is executed. The for loop introduces yet another way in which the environment can be updated by a statement. Sequence unpacking. <span>A common pattern in programs is to have a sequence of elements that are themselves sequences, but all of a fixed length. A for statement may include multiple names in its header to "unpack" each element sequence into its respective elements. For example, we may have a list of two-element lists. >>> pairs = [[1, 2], [2, 2], [2, 3], [4, 4]] and wish to find the number of these pairs that have the same first an




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This pattern of binding multiple names to multiple values in a fixed-length sequence is called sequence unpacking; it is the same pattern that we see in assignment statements that bind multiple names to multiple values.

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2.3 Sequences
wo names in its header will bind each name x and y to the first and second elements in each pair, respectively. >>> for x, y in pairs: if x == y: same_count = same_count + 1 >>> same_count 2 <span>This pattern of binding multiple names to multiple values in a fixed-length sequence is called sequence unpacking; it is the same pattern that we see in assignment statements that bind multiple names to multiple values. Ranges. A range is another built-in type of sequence in Python, which represents a range of integers. Ranges are created with range , which takes two integer arguments: the first




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A range is another built-in type of sequence in Python, which represents a range of integers.

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count 2 This pattern of binding multiple names to multiple values in a fixed-length sequence is called sequence unpacking; it is the same pattern that we see in assignment statements that bind multiple names to multiple values. Ranges. <span>A range is another built-in type of sequence in Python, which represents a range of integers. Ranges are created with range , which takes two integer arguments: the first number and one beyond the last number in the desired range. >>> range(1, 10) # Includes 1, but




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Calling the list constructor on a range evaluates to a list with the same elements as the range, so that the elements can be easily inspected.

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represents a range of integers. Ranges are created with range , which takes two integer arguments: the first number and one beyond the last number in the desired range. >>> range(1, 10) # Includes 1, but not 10 range(1, 10) <span>Calling the list constructor on a range evaluates to a list with the same elements as the range, so that the elements can be easily inspected. >>> list(range(5, 8)) [5, 6, 7] If only one argument is given, it is interpreted as one beyond the last value for a range that starts at 0. >>> list(range(4))




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If only one argument is given, it is interpreted as one beyond the last value for a range that starts at 0.

 >>> list ( range ( 4 )) [0, 1, 2, 3] 

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(1, 10) # Includes 1, but not 10 range(1, 10) Calling the list constructor on a range evaluates to a list with the same elements as the range, so that the elements can be easily inspected. >>> list(range(5, 8)) [5, 6, 7] <span>If only one argument is given, it is interpreted as one beyond the last value for a range that starts at 0. >>> list(range(4)) [0, 1, 2, 3] Ranges commonly appear as the expression in a for header to specify the number of times that the suite should be executed: A common convention is to use a single underscore charac




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Ranges commonly appear as the expression in a for header to specify the number of times that the suite should be executed: A common convention is to use a single underscore character for the name in the for header if the name is unused in the suite:

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at the elements can be easily inspected. >>> list(range(5, 8)) [5, 6, 7] If only one argument is given, it is interpreted as one beyond the last value for a range that starts at 0. >>> list(range(4)) [0, 1, 2, 3] <span>Ranges commonly appear as the expression in a for header to specify the number of times that the suite should be executed: A common convention is to use a single underscore character for the name in the for header if the name is unused in the suite: >>> for _ in range(3): print('Go Bears!') Go Bears! Go Bears! Go Bears! This underscore is just another name in the environment as far as the interpreter is conce




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Modular components that have sequences as both inputs and outputs can be mixed and matched to perform data processing. Complex components can be defined by chaining together a pipeline of sequence processing operations, each of which is simple and focused.

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2.3 Sequences
mong programmers that indicates the name will not appear in any future expressions. 2.3.3 Sequence Processing Sequences are such a common form of compound data that whole programs are often organized around this single abstraction. <span>Modular components that have sequences as both inputs and outputs can be mixed and matched to perform data processing. Complex components can be defined by chaining together a pipeline of sequence processing operations, each of which is simple and focused. List Comprehensions. Many sequence processing operations can be expressed by evaluating a fixed expression for each element in a sequence and collecting the resulting values in a res




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Many sequence processing operations can be expressed by evaluating a fixed expression for each element in a sequence and collecting the resulting values in a result sequence. In Python, a list comprehension is an expression that performs such a computation.

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2.3 Sequences
as both inputs and outputs can be mixed and matched to perform data processing. Complex components can be defined by chaining together a pipeline of sequence processing operations, each of which is simple and focused. List Comprehensions. <span>Many sequence processing operations can be expressed by evaluating a fixed expression for each element in a sequence and collecting the resulting values in a result sequence. In Python, a list comprehension is an expression that performs such a computation. >>> odds = [1, 3, 5, 7, 9] >>> [x+1 for x in odds] [2, 4, 6, 8, 10] The for keyword above is not part of a for statement, but instead part of a list comprehe




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Another common sequence processing operation is to select a subset of values that satisfy some condition. List comprehensions can also express this pattern, for instance selecting all elements of odds that evenly divide 25 .

 >>> [ x for x in odds if 25 % x == 0 ] [1, 5] 

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2.3 Sequences
statement, but instead part of a list comprehension because it is contained within square brackets. The sub-expression x+1 is evaluated with x bound to each element of odds in turn, and the resulting values are collected into a list. <span>Another common sequence processing operation is to select a subset of values that satisfy some condition. List comprehensions can also express this pattern, for instance selecting all elements of odds that evenly divide 25 . >>> [x for x in odds if 25 % x == 0] [1, 5] The general form of a list comprehension is: [<span><body><html>




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The general form of a list comprehension is:

[<map expression> for <name> in <sequence expression> if <filter expression>]

To evaluate a list comprehension, Python evaluates the <sequence expression> , which must return an iterable value. Then, for each element in order, the element value is bound to <name> , the filter expression is evaluated, and if it yields a true value, the map expression is evaluated. The values of the map expression are collected into a list.

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A third common pattern in sequence processing is to aggregate all values in a sequence into a single value. The built-in functions sum , min , and max are all examples of aggregation functions.

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In the computer science community, the more common name for apply_to_all is map and the more common name for keep_if is filter . In Python, the built-in map and filter are generalizations of these functions that do not return lists

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In Python programs, it is more common to use list comprehensions directly rather than higher-order functions, but both approaches to sequence processing are widely used.

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A value can be tested for membership in a sequence. Python has two operators in and not in that evaluate to True or False depending on whether an element appears in a sequence.

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Sequences contain smaller sequences within them. A slice of a sequence is any contiguous span of the original sequence, designated by a pair of integers. As with the range constructor, the first integer indicates the starting index of the slice and the second indicates one beyond the ending index.

In Python, sequence slicing is expressed similarly to element selection, using square brackets. A colon separates the starting and ending indices. Any bound that is omitted is assumed to be an extreme value: 0 for the starting index, and the length of the sequence for the ending index.

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Slicing can be used on the branches of a tree as well. For example, we may want to place a restriction on the number of branches in a tree. A binary tree is either a leaf or a sequence of at most two binary trees. A common tree transformation called binarization computes a binary tree from an original tree by grouping together adjacent branches.

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The native data type for text in Python is called a string, and corresponds to the constructor str .

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String literals can express arbitrary text, surrounded by either single or double quotation marks.

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Strings satisfy the two basic conditions of a sequence that we introduced at the beginning of this section: they have a length and they support element selection.

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The elements of a string are themselves strings that have only a single character. A character is any single letter of the alphabet, punctuation mark, or other symbol. Unlike many other programming languages, Python does not have a separate character type; any text is a string, and strings that represent single characters have a length of 1.

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Like lists, strings can also be combined via addition and multiplication.

 >>> 'Berkeley' + ', CA' 'Berkeley, CA' >>> 'Shabu ' * 2 'Shabu Shabu ' 

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The behavior of strings diverges from other sequence types in Python. The string abstraction does not conform to the full sequence abstraction that we described for lists and ranges. In particular, the membership operator in applies to strings, but has an entirely different behavior than when it is applied to sequences. It matches substrings rather than elements.

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String Coercion. A string can be created from any object in Python by calling the str constructor function with an object value as its argument. This feature of strings is useful for constructing descriptive strings from objects of various types.

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Our ability to use lists as the elements of other lists provides a new means of combination in our programming language. This ability is called a closure property of a data type.

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a method for combining data values has a closure property if the result of combination can itself be combined using the same method. Closure is the key to power in any means of combination because it permits us to create hierarchical structures — structures made up of parts, which themselves are made up of parts, and so on.

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We can visualize lists in environment diagrams using box-and-pointer notation. A list is depicted as adjacent boxes that contain the elements of the list. Primitive values such as numbers, strings, boolean values, and None appear within an element box. Composite values, such as function values and other lists, are indicated by an arrow.

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The tree is a fundamental data abstraction that imposes regularity on how hierarchical values are structured and manipulated.

A tree has a root value and a sequence of branches. Each branch of a tree is a tree. A tree with no branches is called a leaf. Any tree contained within a tree is called a sub-tree of that tree (such as a branch of a branch). The root value of a sub-tree of a tree is called a node (or node value) in that tree.

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Trees can be constructed by nested expressions.

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Partition trees. Trees can also be used to represent the partitions of an integer. A partition tree for n using parts up to size m is a binary (two branch) tree that represents the choices taken during computation. In a non-leaf partition tree:

  • the left (index 0) branch contains all ways of partitioning n using at least one m ,
  • the right (index 1) branch contains partitions using parts up to m-1 , and
  • the root value is m .

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The values at the leaves of a partition tree express whether the path from the root of the tree to the leaf represents a successful partition of n .

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A linked list is a pair containing the first element of the sequence (in this case 1) and the rest of the sequence (in this case a representation of 2, 3, 4). The second element is also a linked list. The rest of the inner-most linked list containing only 4 is 'empty' , a value that represents an empty linked list.

Linked lists have recursive structure: the rest of a linked list is a linked list or 'empty' . We can define an abstract data representation to validate, construct, and select the components of linked lists.

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The behavior condition for a linked list is that, like a pair, its constructor and selectors are inverse functions.

  • If a linked list s was constructed from first element f and linked list r , then first(s) returns f , and rest(s) returns r .

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a common pattern of computation with linked lists, where each step in an iteration operates on an increasingly shorter suffix of the original list. This incremental processing to find the length and elements of a linked list does take some time to compute. Python's built-in sequence types are implemented in a different way that does not have a large cost for computing the length of a sequence or retrieving its elements.

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Linked lists are particularly useful when constructing sequences incrementally, a situation that arises often in recursive computations.

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We follow the same recursive analysis of the problem as we did while counting: partitioning n using integers up to m involves either

  1. partitioning n-m using integers up to m , or
  2. partitioning n using integers up to m-1 .

For base cases, we find that 0 has an empty partition, while partitioning a negative integer or using parts smaller than 1 is impossible.

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Flashcard 1450654698764



Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
A declining average fixed cost reflects [...] over more and more production units.
Answer
spreading a constant cost


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Dividing total fixed cost by quantity yields average fixed cost (AFC), which decreases throughout the production span. A declining average fixed cost reflects spreading a constant cost over more and more production units. At high production volumes, AFC may be so low that it is a small proportion of average total cost. In Exhibit 13, AFC declines from 100 at 1 unit, t







Flashcard 1450768207116



Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question
there are two breakeven points—[...] (point E) and [...] (point F).
Answer
lower

upper


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there are two breakeven points—lower (point E) and upper (point F).

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Exhibit 18 shows the breakeven point under perfect competition using the total revenue–total cost approach. Actually, there are two breakeven points—lower (point E) and upper (point F). Below point E, the firm is losing money (economic losses), and beyond that point is the region of profitability (shaded area) that extends to the upper breakeven point. Within this prof







Flashcard 1450841607436

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Los dos mercados financieros más importantes son el [...] y el [...]
Answer
Mercado Monetario

Mercado de Capital.


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realizan sin el conocimiento directo de los proveedores de fondos (ahorradores), los intermediarios saben exactamente dónde se están prestando o invirtiendo tales fondos. Los dos mercados financieros más importantes son el <span>Mercado Monetario y el Mercado de Capital.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1450853928204

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
En los [...] se comercializan los valores a largo plazo, como son los bonos y las acciones, es decir, las emisiones de deuda y de capital de las empresas y de los gobiernos.
Answer
Mercados de Capital


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En los Mercados de Capital se comercializan los valores a largo plazo, como son los bonos y las acciones, es decir, las emisiones de deuda y de capital de las empresas y de los gobiernos. Proporcionan

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Flashcard 1450885385484

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
El [...] se hace para alinear la operación con la estructura y no sobrecargar la operación con costos y gastos excesivos que impidan el logro de los objetivos institucionales.
Answer
redimensionamiento empresarial


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El redimensionamiento empresarial es la adecuación del tamaño organizacional al nivel de operación que se conserve conforme a la estrategia de negocios y planeación definidas, con el fin de alinear la op

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Flashcard 1451349642508



Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question
In the case where TC exceeds TR the firm will want to minimize the economic loss. This occurs at Qmin, where the economic loss is calculated as ([...]) on the vertical axis.
Answer
TCMTRN


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In the case where TC exceeds TR the firm will want to minimize the economic loss. This occurs at Q min , where the economic loss is calculated as (TC M – TR N ) on the vertical axis.







#conversation-tactics
Interrupt to show you are really excited about what they are saying.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Masters always want to feel secure in their positions, and superior to those around them in intelligence, wit, and charm.

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Do not fool yourself into thinking that life has changed much since the days of Louis XIV and the Medicis. Those who attain high standing in life are like kings and queens: They want to feel secure in their positions, and superior to those around them in intelligence, wit, and charm.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
If you have to entertaining your master, display limited means to win his sympathy.

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If you are thrust into the position of entertaining him, a display of your limited means may win you his sympathy. Any attempt to impress him with your grace and generosity can prove fatal: Learn from Fouquet or pay the price.

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Use for friends
#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #reversal
A man of power, often has dirty work that has to be done, but for the sake of appearances it is generally preferable to have other people do it for him; friends often do this the best, since their affection for him makes them willing to take chances.

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Although it is generally best not to mix work with friendship, there are times when a friend can be used to greater effect than an enemy. A man of power, for example, often has dirty work that has to be done, but for the sake of appearances it is generally preferable to have other people do it for him; friends often do this the best, since their affection for him makes them willing to take chances. Also, if your plans go awry for some reason, you can use a friend as a convenient scapegoat. This “fall of the favorite” was a trick often used by kings and sovereigns: They would let t

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#conversation-tactics #laughing-at-yourself
The key to this technique is to agree with the critique or joke. Understand that what this person is really doing is that they are just letting you recognize your flaws.

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #social-proof
When somebody asks for your advice you ar in a great position to influence them.

Just convince them to go the direction you want.

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sure of what he should wear to a meeting, then he is sure to consult a colleague and wear a similar outfit. If a child is unsure of which ice cream flavor to pick, then she is sure to consult a friend or sibling to choose a flavor. <span>So, if you position yourself in such a way that you get asked for an advice, and then you can influence them to do what you want them to. That is, you can convince them do as you are and do what you want them to for you.<span><body><html>

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #authority
Any attempt to influence someone in any direction will be instantly more powerful and effective if the person being influenced perceives the person influencing to be of higher authority.

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Any attempt to influence someone in any direction will be instantly more powerful and effective if the person being influenced perceives the person influencing to be of higher authority. This is why you always see so called doctors and celebrity figures used in marketing. We unconsciously see them as being of higher authority and therefore their opinion and d

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #scarcity
When you start using numbers, saying there is only this much tie or this many days, or this many of it left. Then it gets really powerful.

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of scarcity. You can always s find a genuine reason. And it’s best to give a true ‘because’ as well. For example, you might say they do not have much time because you are not sure how much longer this opportunity will be open for. <span>It is vague, but even this will have an unconscious impact on their decision-making process. When you start using numbers, saying there is only this much tie or this many days, or this many of it left. Then it gets really powerful. ​The reason it works so strongly to write the number of spaces open on a course, on the sales page, and then count them down as people sign up. The reason this works so well

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How can you develop an urge to get better at dealing with people? By constantly reminding yourself how important these principles are to you.

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Bernard Shaw once remarked: “If you teach a man anything, he will never learn.” Shaw was right. Learning is an active process. We learn by doing.

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“IF YOU WANT TO GATHER HONEY, DON’T KICK OVER THE BEEHIVE”

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Nobody, doesnt matter how bad they are, blame theirselves for anything.

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If Al Capone, “Two Gun” Crowley, Dutch Schultz, and the desperate men and women behind prison walls don’t blame themselves for anything , what about the people with whom you and I come in contact?

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I personally had to blunder through this old world for a third of a century before it even began to dawn upon me that ninety- nine times out of a hundred, people don’t criticize themselves for anything, no matter how wrong it may be.

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Criticism is futile because it puts a person on the defensive and usually makes them strive to justify themselves. Criticism is dangerous, because it wounds a person’s precious pride, hurts their sense of importance, and arouses resentment

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It is proven that an animal rewarded for good behavior will learn much more rapidly and retain what it learns far more effectively than an animal punished for bad behavior.

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As much as we thirst for approval, we dread condemnation,”

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Honey instead of shit experiment
one safety coordinator dude trying to make people put on their hardhat.

First: He reported that whenever he came across workers not wearing hard hats, he would tell them with a lot of authority of the regulation and that they must comply.
Result:They puted it on, and after he left, they removed the hats.

Experiment: The next time he found some of the workers not wearing their hard hat, he asked if the hats were uncomfortable or did not fit properly. Then he reminded the men that the hat was designed to protect them and suggested that it always be worn on the job.

Result: increased compliance with no resentment or emotional upset.

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Flashcard 1464550165772

Tags
#69-ways-to-influence
Question
it is very effective to influence someone using a strong emotional technique, and then help them along by [...]
Answer
giving them a logical reason to explain to themselves or others by saying ‘because…’ and giving any logical reason.


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it is very effective to influence someone using a strong emotional technique, and then help them along by giving them a logical reason to explain to themselves or others by saying ‘because…’ and giving any logical reason.

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Flashcard 1464552525068

Tags
#69-ways-to-influence
Question
It’s important to remember that people make decisions [...]
Answer
emotionally.
They follow their emotions.


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It’s important to remember that people make decisions emotionally, because then you start to realize that people will follow their emotions. Yet they do not necessarily know where their emotions are coming from. You can lead their emotions, in ma

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#69-ways-to-influence
People do not necessarily know where their emotions are coming from. You can lead their emotions, in many man ways.

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It’s important to remember that people make decisions emotionally, because then you start to realize that people will follow their emotions. Yet they do not necessarily know where their emotions are coming from. You can lead their emotions, in many man ways.

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#conversation-tactics
When you keep referring to that high point but with different reference points and different approaches, you are reawakening the emotional urgency the person you're talking to has in your conversation.

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When you keep referring to that high point but with different reference points and different approaches, you are reawakening the emotional urgency the person you're talking to has in your conversation. If you do this well enough, the overall energy level of your conversation can remain relatively constant.

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Flashcard 1464561437964

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
[...]o show you are really excited about what they are saying.
Answer
Interrupt


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Interrupt to show you are really excited about what they are saying.

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Flashcard 1464563010828

Tags
#every-word-has-power
Question
This is the group brain system that started to evolve as we began to socialize
Answer
Limbic brain


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Limbic brain
The middle brain links mainly with our emotions: fear, anger, love, affection, and communication. It’s called the family, or limbic brain. This is the group brain system that started to evolve as we began to socialize. Its goals are short-term and focus primarily on good/bad, right/wrong, and yours/mine. It’s habitual, hierarchical, and simplistic. It does not have a capacity to visualize or grow bec







Capital expenditure, or CapEx, are funds used by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets such as property, industrial buildings or equipment.

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What is 'Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)' Capital expenditure, or CapEx, are funds used by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets such as property, industrial buildings or equipment. It is often used to undertake new projects or investments by the firm. This type of outlay is also made by companies to maintain or increase the scope of their operations. These expendi

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Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) Definition | Investopedia
<span>What is 'Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)' Capital expenditure, or CapEx, are funds used by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets such as property, industrial buildings or equipment. It is often used to undertake new projects or investments by the firm. This type of outlay is also made by companies to maintain or increase the scope of their operations. These expenditures can include everything from repairing a roof to building, to purchasing a piece of equipment, or building a brand new factory. BREAKING DOWN 'Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)' In terms of accounting, an expense is considered to be a capital expenditure when the asset is a newly




Capex is often used to undertake new projects or investments by the firm.

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What is 'Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)' Capital expenditure, or CapEx, are funds used by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets such as property, industrial buildings or equipment. It is often used to undertake new projects or investments by the firm. This type of outlay is also made by companies to maintain or increase the scope of their operations. These expenditures can include everything from repairing a roof to building, to purc

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Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) Definition | Investopedia
<span>What is 'Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)' Capital expenditure, or CapEx, are funds used by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets such as property, industrial buildings or equipment. It is often used to undertake new projects or investments by the firm. This type of outlay is also made by companies to maintain or increase the scope of their operations. These expenditures can include everything from repairing a roof to building, to purchasing a piece of equipment, or building a brand new factory. BREAKING DOWN 'Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)' In terms of accounting, an expense is considered to be a capital expenditure when the asset is a newly




Capex can include everything from repairing a roof to building, to purchasing a piece of equipment, or building a brand new factory.

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e physical assets such as property, industrial buildings or equipment. It is often used to undertake new projects or investments by the firm. This type of outlay is also made by companies to maintain or increase the scope of their operations. <span>These expenditures can include everything from repairing a roof to building, to purchasing a piece of equipment, or building a brand new factory.<span><body><html>

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Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) Definition | Investopedia
<span>What is 'Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)' Capital expenditure, or CapEx, are funds used by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets such as property, industrial buildings or equipment. It is often used to undertake new projects or investments by the firm. This type of outlay is also made by companies to maintain or increase the scope of their operations. These expenditures can include everything from repairing a roof to building, to purchasing a piece of equipment, or building a brand new factory. BREAKING DOWN 'Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)' In terms of accounting, an expense is considered to be a capital expenditure when the asset is a newly




In terms of accounting, an expense is considered to be a capital expenditure when the asset is a newly purchased capital asset or an investment that improves the useful life of an existing capital asset.

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BREAKING DOWN 'Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)' In terms of accounting, an expense is considered to be a capital expenditure when the asset is a newly purchased capital asset or an investment that improves the useful life of an existing capital asset. If an expense is a capital expenditure, it needs to be capitalized. This requires the company to spread the cost of the expenditure (the fixed cost) over the useful life of the asset. I

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Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) Definition | Investopedia
companies to maintain or increase the scope of their operations. These expenditures can include everything from repairing a roof to building, to purchasing a piece of equipment, or building a brand new factory. <span>BREAKING DOWN 'Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)' In terms of accounting, an expense is considered to be a capital expenditure when the asset is a newly purchased capital asset or an investment that improves the useful life of an existing capital asset. If an expense is a capital expenditure, it needs to be capitalized. This requires the company to spread the cost of the expenditure (the fixed cost) over the useful life of the asset. If, however, the expense is one that maintains the asset at its current condition, the cost is deducted fully in the year of the expense. The amount of capital expenditures a company is likely to have depends on the industry it occupies. Some of the most capital intensive industries have the highest levels of capital ex




If an expense is a capital expenditure, it needs to be capitalized. This requires the company to spread the cost of the expenditure (the fixed cost) over the useful life of the asset.

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NG DOWN 'Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)' In terms of accounting, an expense is considered to be a capital expenditure when the asset is a newly purchased capital asset or an investment that improves the useful life of an existing capital asset. <span>If an expense is a capital expenditure, it needs to be capitalized. This requires the company to spread the cost of the expenditure (the fixed cost) over the useful life of the asset. If, however, the expense is one that maintains the asset at its current condition, the cost is deducted fully in the year of the expense.<span><body><html>

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Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) Definition | Investopedia
companies to maintain or increase the scope of their operations. These expenditures can include everything from repairing a roof to building, to purchasing a piece of equipment, or building a brand new factory. <span>BREAKING DOWN 'Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)' In terms of accounting, an expense is considered to be a capital expenditure when the asset is a newly purchased capital asset or an investment that improves the useful life of an existing capital asset. If an expense is a capital expenditure, it needs to be capitalized. This requires the company to spread the cost of the expenditure (the fixed cost) over the useful life of the asset. If, however, the expense is one that maintains the asset at its current condition, the cost is deducted fully in the year of the expense. The amount of capital expenditures a company is likely to have depends on the industry it occupies. Some of the most capital intensive industries have the highest levels of capital ex




Capital expenditure should not be confused with revenue expenditure or operating expenses (OPEX). Revenue expenses are shorter-term expenses required to meet the ongoing operational costs of running a business, and therefore they are essentially identical to operating expenses.

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Capital expenditure should not be confused with revenue expenditure or operating expenses (OPEX). Revenue expenses are shorter-term expenses required to meet the ongoing operational costs of running a business, and therefore they are essentially identical to operating expenses. Unlike capital expenditures, revenue expenses can be fully tax-deducted in the same year in which the expenses occur.

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Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) Definition | Investopedia
s a company is likely to have depends on the industry it occupies. Some of the most capital intensive industries have the highest levels of capital expenditures including oil exploration and production, telecom, manufacturing and utilities. <span>Capital expenditure should not be confused with revenue expenditure or operating expenses (OPEX). Revenue expenses are shorter-term expenses required to meet the ongoing operational costs of running a business, and therefore they are essentially identical to operating expenses. Unlike capital expenditures, revenue expenses can be fully tax-deducted in the same year in which the expenses occur. Using Capital Expenditures in Multiples for Relative Valuation The cash flow to capital expenditure ratio, or CF/CapEX, relates to a company's ability to acquire long term assets us




Unlike capital expenditures, revenue expenses can be fully tax-deducted in the same year in which the expenses occur.

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nfused with revenue expenditure or operating expenses (OPEX). Revenue expenses are shorter-term expenses required to meet the ongoing operational costs of running a business, and therefore they are essentially identical to operating expenses. <span>Unlike capital expenditures, revenue expenses can be fully tax-deducted in the same year in which the expenses occur.<span><body><html>

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Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) Definition | Investopedia
s a company is likely to have depends on the industry it occupies. Some of the most capital intensive industries have the highest levels of capital expenditures including oil exploration and production, telecom, manufacturing and utilities. <span>Capital expenditure should not be confused with revenue expenditure or operating expenses (OPEX). Revenue expenses are shorter-term expenses required to meet the ongoing operational costs of running a business, and therefore they are essentially identical to operating expenses. Unlike capital expenditures, revenue expenses can be fully tax-deducted in the same year in which the expenses occur. Using Capital Expenditures in Multiples for Relative Valuation The cash flow to capital expenditure ratio, or CF/CapEX, relates to a company's ability to acquire long term assets us




#art-of-memory #linking-methods
Mnemonic Link System or just MLS links dobes together into a story. (IM-based) MLS is the most often used linking technique. * MLS and IM form traditional linking techniques *

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TM and IM are also the basic tools for these two link systems: Mnemonic Link System or just MLS links dobes together into a story. (IM-based) MLS is the most often used linking technique. * MLS and IM form traditional linking techniques * Pinned Link System (PLS) is a special and stronger case of MLS. It picks some additional bases and creates links between them and some dobes of the chain. <

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r30's mnemonics
previously known substitution method, but far more enhanced. Interaction method or just IM. Link: interaction between base and dobe (quite often used to link dobe to peg/locus, but usually used in MLS to link two adjacent dobes in the chain). <span>TM and IM are also the basic tools for these two link systems: Mnemonic Link System or just MLS links dobes together into a story. (IM-based) MLS is the most often used linking technique. * MLS and IM form traditional linking techniques* Pinned Link System (PLS) is a special and stronger case of MLS. It picks some additional bases and creates links between them and some dobes of the chain. To understand the differences between these techniques, look at this picture and read this section. Transforming – changing object's properties like shape, material, color, behaviour, s




#art-of-memory #linking-methods
Pinned Link System (PLS) is a special and stronger case of MLS. It picks some additional bases and creates links between them and some dobes of the chain.

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the basic tools for these two link systems: Mnemonic Link System or just MLS links dobes together into a story. (IM-based) MLS is the most often used linking technique. * MLS and IM form traditional linking techniques * <span>Pinned Link System (PLS) is a special and stronger case of MLS. It picks some additional bases and creates links between them and some dobes of the chain. <span><body><html>

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r30's mnemonics
previously known substitution method, but far more enhanced. Interaction method or just IM. Link: interaction between base and dobe (quite often used to link dobe to peg/locus, but usually used in MLS to link two adjacent dobes in the chain). <span>TM and IM are also the basic tools for these two link systems: Mnemonic Link System or just MLS links dobes together into a story. (IM-based) MLS is the most often used linking technique. * MLS and IM form traditional linking techniques* Pinned Link System (PLS) is a special and stronger case of MLS. It picks some additional bases and creates links between them and some dobes of the chain. To understand the differences between these techniques, look at this picture and read this section. Transforming – changing object's properties like shape, material, color, behaviour, s




Flashcard 1464586341644

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
Masters always want to feel [...]
Answer
secure in their positions,

and superior to those around them in intelligence, wit, and charm.


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Masters always want to feel secure in their positions, and superior to those around them in intelligence, wit, and charm.

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Flashcard 1464589487372

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
If you have to entertaining your master, [...] to win his sympathy.
Answer
display limited means


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If you have to entertaining your master, display limited means to win his sympathy.

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Flashcard 1464591060236

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
being perfectly honest will inevitably hurt and insult a great many people, some of whom [...]
Answer
will choose to injure you in return.


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being perfectly honest will inevitably hurt and insult a great many people, some of whom will choose to injure you in return.

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Flashcard 1464593681676

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #transgression-of-the-law
Question
[...] blind every man to their interests.
Answer
friendship and love

Nobody believes a friend can betray.


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friendship and love blind every man to their interests. Nobody believes a friend can betray.

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Flashcard 1464596040972

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #transgression-of-the-law
Question
Lord, [...]; I can take care of my enemies.

Voltaire, 1694-1778
Answer
protect me from my friends


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Lord, protect me from my friends; I can take care of my enemies. Voltaire, 1694-1778

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#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
Yes, we were friends before, but our friendship was based on what power we had.... I was friends with you, good brahman, because it served my purpose. No pauper is friend to the rich, no fool to the wise, no coward to the brave. An old friend—who needs him? It is two men of equal wealth and equal birth who contract friendship and marriage, not a rich man and a pauper.... An old friend—who needs him?

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xpert in Veda who has become a great archer as well, offers his services to his good friend, who is now the king. The brahman cries out when he sees the king, “Recognize me, your friend!” The king answers him with contempt and then explains: “<span>Yes, we were friends before, but our friendship was based on what power we had.... I was friends with you, good brahman, because it served my purpose. No pauper is friend to the rich, no fool to the wise, no coward to the brave. An old friend—who needs him? It is two men of equal wealth and equal birth who contract friendship and marriage, not a rich man and a pauper.... An old friend—who needs him? THE MAHABHARATA, C. THIRD CENTURY B.C.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1464599448844

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
Question
A Chinese proverb compares friends to the jaws and teeth of a dangerous animal: If you are not careful, [...]
Answer
you will find them chewing you up


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A Chinese proverb compares friends to the jaws and teeth of a dangerous animal: If you are not careful, you will find them chewing you up

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Flashcard 1464601021708

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Question
People want to feel they [...]
Answer
deserve their good fortune.


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When you decide to hire a friend, you gradually discover the qualities he or she has kept hidden. Strangely enough, it is your act of kindness that unbalances everything. People want to feel they deserve their good fortune.

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Flashcard 1464603643148

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Question
When you decide to hire a friend it is your act of kindness that unbalances everything because [...]
Answer
People want to feel they deserve their good fortune.


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When you decide to hire a friend, you gradually discover the qualities he or she has kept hidden. Strangely enough, it is your act of kindness that unbalances everything. People want to feel they deserve their good fortune.

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Flashcard 1464607051020

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Question
The receipt of a favor can become oppressive: It means you have been chosen [...]
Answer
because you are a friend, not necessarily because you are deserving.


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The receipt of a favor can become oppressive: It means you have been chosen because you are a friend, not necessarily because you are deserving.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
If you never expect gratitude from a friend, you will be pleasantly surprised when they do prove grateful.

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Ingratitude has a long and deep history. It has demonstrated its powers for so many centuries, that it is truly amazing that people continue to underestimate them. Better to be wary. If you never expect gratitude from a friend, you will be pleasantly surprised when they do prove grateful.

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#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
An enemy at our heels sharpens our wits, keeping us focused and alert. It is sometimes better, then, to use enemies as enemies rather than transforming them into friends or allies.

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Without enemies around us, we grow lazy. An enemy at our heels sharpens our wits, keeping us focused and alert. It is sometimes better, then, to use enemies as enemies rather than transforming them into friends or allies.

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#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #reversal
This scapegoat “fall of the favorite” was a trick often used by kings and sovereigns: They would let their closest friend at court take the fall for a mistake, since the public would not believe that they would deliberately sacrifice a friend for such a purpose.

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If your plans go awry for some reason, you can use a friend as a convenient scapegoat. This “fall of the favorite” was a trick often used by kings and sovereigns: They would let their closest friend at court take the fall for a mistake, since the public would not believe that they would deliberately sacrifice a friend for such a purpose. Of course, after you play that card, you have lost your friend forever. It is best, then, to reserve the scapegoat role for someone who is close to you but not too close.</sp

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Flashcard 1464613866764

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #reversal
Question
One problem about working with friends is that it confuses the [...] that working requires.
Answer
boundaries and distances


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Finally, the problem about working with friends is that it confuses the boundaries and distances that working requires.

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Flashcard 1464617798924

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
Chapter 9. How to deflect [...]
Answer
and roll with the punches.


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Chapter 9. How to deflect and roll with the punches.

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Flashcard 1464622255372

Tags
#art-of-memory #linking-methods
Question
Base object : Besides it being an "object", it may also be


[...] If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call the base it peg.

In method of loci we call it locus (base has a position with respect to other objects).
Answer
a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc.


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Base object : Besides it being an "object", it may also be a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc. If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call t he base it peg. In method of loci we call it locus (base has a position with respect to other objects

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r30's mnemonics
on? 3.5 3.5 Some exceptions 3.6 Inside vs next-to placement 4 4. Interaction Method 5 5. Link Systems 5.1 5.1 Mnemonic Link System 5.1.1 5.1.1 IM- or TM-based chain? 5.2 5.2 Pinned Link System 6 6. When to use which linking technique? <span>1. Used terminology „Base object“ or just „base“ – real object (or just image) that we already know. In linking techniques it is the first object in your link.Besides it being an "object", it may also be a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc. If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call it peg. In method of loci we call it locus (base has a position with respect to other objects). „Data object“ or just „dobe“– object that we want to memorize. It may be visual or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept. If it is nonvisual then it is useful to first create a mnemonic image for the dobe (see How to Create Mnemonic Images). In MLS (and PLS) a random middle dobe of the chain is also base (you use it to recall the next dobe). Dobe is linked to base (an association made between them). Later you can use that base to recall the dobe. I took the liberty to classify different types of mnemonic linking techniques. The following two methods cover all the ways (that I can think of) to link dobe to base : Transformation m







Flashcard 1464626449676

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #reciprocation
Question
sending in [...] is sure to get you in many people’s good books regardless of whether it is for business purposes or personal use.
Answer
personalized gifts or favors


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sending in personalized gifts or favors is sure to get you in many people’s good books regardless of whether it is for business purposes or personal use.

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Flashcard 1464629595404

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #social-proof
Question
In business you can always find examples of how [...] in that way.
Answer
your target market is acting


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In business you can always find examples of how your target market is acting in that way. And of course, testimonials are the best possible marketing tool, because of this principle.

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Flashcard 1464631954700

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #social-proof
Question
[...] are the best possible marketing tool, because of this principle.
Answer
testimonials


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In business you can always find examples of how your target market is acting in that way. And of course, testimonials are the best possible marketing tool, because of this principle.

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #social-proof
This principle also comes across in the weight we give the advice of other people around us – even people unqualified to give a good opinion.

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This principle also comes across in the weight we give the advice of other people around us – even people unqualified to give a good opinion. So if an office goer is unsure of what he should wear to a meeting, then he is sure to consult a colleague and wear a similar outfit. If a child is unsure of which ice cream flavor to p

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #social-proof
So if an office goer is unsure of what he should wear to a meeting, then he is sure to consult a colleague and wear a similar outfit.

If a child is unsure of which ice cream flavor to pick, then she is sure to consult a friend or sibling to choose a flavor.

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This principle also comes across in the weight we give the advice of other people around us – even people unqualified to give a good opinion. So if an office goer is unsure of what he should wear to a meeting, then he is sure to consult a colleague and wear a similar outfit. If a child is unsure of which ice cream flavor to pick, then she is sure to consult a friend or sibling to choose a flavor.

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
In action, you can influence people to act the way you want them to act by getting them to agree and say ‘yes’ and take very small actions in the direction you want them to go in.

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In action, you can influence people to act the way you want them to act by getting them to agree and say ‘yes’ and take very small actions in the direction you want them to go in. Perhaps a long time before you get to the bigger decision you are actually aiming for. In practice, you can start by simply getting a person to say ‘yes’ and agree that they have acted

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Flashcard 1464640081164

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
Question
In action, you can influence people to act the way you want them to act by getting them to agree and say ‘yes’ and take very small actions [...].

Answer
in the direction you want them to go in


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In action, you can influence people to act the way you want them to act by getting them to agree and say ‘yes’ and take very small actions in the direction you want them to go in. Perhaps a long time before you get to the bigger decision you are actually aiming for. In practice, you can start by simply getting a person to say ‘yes’ and agree that they have acted

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
Try making people to take small actions in the direction you want a long time before you get to the bigger decision. In practice, you can start by simply getting a person to say ‘yes’ and agree that they have acted that way in the past.

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In action, you can influence people to act the way you want them to act by getting them to agree and say ‘yes’ and take very small actions in the direction you want them to go in. Perhaps a long time before you get to the bigger decision you are actually aiming for. In practice, you can start by simply getting a person to say ‘yes’ and agree that they have acted that way in the past.

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Flashcard 1464644799756

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
Question
Try making people to take small actions in the direction you want [...] bigger decision.
Answer
a long time before you get to the


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Try making people to take small actions in the direction you want a long time before you get to the bigger decision. In practice, you can start by simply getting a person to say ‘yes’ and agree that they have acted that way in the past.

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Flashcard 1464647159052

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
Question
In practice, you can start by simply getting a person to say ‘yes’ and agree that [...]
Answer
they have acted that way in the past.


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Try making people to take small actions in the direction you want a long time before you get to the bigger decision. In practice, you can start by simply getting a person to say ‘yes’ and agree that they have acted that way in the past.

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Flashcard 1464649780492

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #scarcity
Question
Even a [...] will have an unconscious impact on their decision-making process.
Answer
vague sense of scarcity


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Even a vague sense of scarcity will have an unconscious impact on their decision-making process. When you start using numbers, saying there is only this much tie or this many days, or this many of it left. Then it ge

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Flashcard 1464652926220

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #scarcity
Question
When you [...]. Then it gets really powerful.
Answer
start using numbers, saying there is only this much tie or this many days, or this many of it left


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When you start using numbers, saying there is only this much tie or this many days, or this many of it left. Then it gets really powerful.

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Flashcard 1464654499084

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #liking
Question
Cialdini says we like people who [...].
Answer
are similar to us


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Who we honestly like in an unconscious automatic, instant reaction kind of way. First and foremost, Cialdini says we like people who are similar to us.

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Flashcard 1464657120524

Tags
#art-of-memory
Question
If the images are [...] (journey or not), then it is harder to recall them in the right order.
Answer
not linked


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If the images are not linked (journey or not), then it is harder to recall them in the right order.

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How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki
How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki How to Link Mnemonic Images From Memory Techniques Wiki Jump to: navigation, search Images can be linked or not linked. If the images are not linked, then it is harder to recall them in the right order. For example when you made a shopping list that you forgot home, then at store you probably won't be able to recall all the items you want to buy. Linked images are somehow connected. For instance if the first two items of the list were oranges and tooth paste, then in order to link the images of orange and toothpaste you could imagine that you drill a hole in the orange and fill it with toothpaste. Types of image links r30 proposed three 3 basic ways to link images with each other: Transforming one image into another Interaction between two images Chaining multiple images with a story (a.k.a the story method) The images of the chain (Story Method) can be connected using interaction and/or transformation. Then the chain becomes what we like to call a story, be the story logical or not. This method is demonstrated at this page. More information and examples (with pictures) of all three linking techniques can be found at r30's website. See Linking Techniques Comparison discussion for some initial ideas. T







Flashcard 1464658693388

Tags
#art-of-memory
Question
Linked images are somehow connected: to link the images of orange and toothpaste you could [...]
Answer
imagine that you drill a hole in the orange and fill it with toothpaste.


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Linked images are somehow connected. For instance if the first two items of the list were oranges and tooth paste, then in order to link the images of orange and toothpaste you could imagine that you drill a hole in the orange and fill it with toothpaste.

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How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki
How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki How to Link Mnemonic Images From Memory Techniques Wiki Jump to: navigation, search Images can be linked or not linked. If the images are not linked, then it is harder to recall them in the right order. For example when you made a shopping list that you forgot home, then at store you probably won't be able to recall all the items you want to buy. Linked images are somehow connected. For instance if the first two items of the list were oranges and tooth paste, then in order to link the images of orange and toothpaste you could imagine that you drill a hole in the orange and fill it with toothpaste. Types of image links r30 proposed three 3 basic ways to link images with each other: Transforming one image into another Interaction between two images Chaining multiple images with a story (a.k.a the story method) The images of the chain (Story Method) can be connected using interaction and/or transformation. Then the chain becomes what we like to call a story, be the story logical or not. This method is demonstrated at this page. More information and examples (with pictures) of all three linking techniques can be found at r30's website. See Linking Techniques Comparison discussion for some initial ideas. T







Flashcard 1464661576972

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
Any attempt to impress your master with your grace and generosity can [...]
Answer
prove fatal: Learn from Fouquet or pay the price.


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Any attempt to impress your master with your grace and generosity can prove fatal: Learn from Fouquet or pay the price.

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Flashcard 1464663149836

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
All superiority is odious, but the superiority of a [...] is not only stupid, it is fatal.
Answer
subject over his prince


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All superiority is odious, but the superiority of a subject over his prince is not only stupid, it is fatal.

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Flashcard 1464666819852

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #interpretation #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #observance-of-the-law
Question
[...], and learn the limitations of kindness.
Answer
Pick up a bee from kindness


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Pick up a bee from kindness, and learn the limitations of kindness.

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Flashcard 1464668654860

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Question
There is almost a touch of [...] in the act of hiring friends that secretly afflicts them.
Answer
condescension


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There is almost a touch of condescension in the act of hiring friends that secretly afflicts them.

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Flashcard 1464670489868

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Question
As Lincoln said, you destroy [...] of him.
Answer
an enemy when you make a friend


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As Lincoln said, you destroy an enemy when you make a friend of him.

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Flashcard 1464672324876

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies
Question
Mao’s strategy of constant conflict has several key components:

First, be [...]


Answer
certain that eventually you will win.

Never pick a fight with someone you are not sure you can defeat, as Mao knew the Japanese would be defeated in time.


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Mao’s strategy of constant conflict has several key components: First, be certain that in the long run you will emerge victorious. Never pick a fight with someone you are not sure you can defeat, as Mao knew the Japanese would be defeated in time. Second, if you have no apparent enemies, you must sometim

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#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #reversal
if both partners in the arrangement understand the dangers involved, a friend often can be employed to great effect. You must never let your guard down in such a venture, however; always be on the lookout for any signs of emotional disturbance such as envy and ingratitude. Nothing is stable in the realm of power, and even the closest of friends can be transformed into the worst of enemies.

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Finally, the problem about working with friends is that it confuses the boundaries and distances that working requires. But if both partners in the arrangement understand the dangers involved, a friend often can be employed to great effect. You must never let your guard down in such a venture, however; always be on the lookout for any signs of emotional disturbance such as envy and ingratitude. Nothing is stable in the realm of power, and even the closest of friends can be transformed into the worst of enemies.

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#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #reversal
Nothing is stable in the realm of power, and even the closest of friends can be transformed into the worst of enemies.

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ment understand the dangers involved, a friend often can be employed to great effect. You must never let your guard down in such a venture, however; always be on the lookout for any signs of emotional disturbance such as envy and ingratitude. <span>Nothing is stable in the realm of power, and even the closest of friends can be transformed into the worst of enemies.<span><body><html>

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#48-laws-of-power #law-2-never-trust-friends-learn-how-to-use-enemies #reversal
if both partners in the arrangement understand the dangers involved, a friend often can be employed to great effect. You must never let your guard down in such a venture, however; always be on the lookout for any signs of emotional disturbance such as envy and ingratitude.

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if both partners in the arrangement understand the dangers involved, a friend often can be employed to great effect. You must never let your guard down in such a venture, however; always be on the lookout for any signs of emotional disturbance such as envy and ingratitude. Nothing is stable in the realm of power, and even the closest of friends can be transformed into the worst of enemies.

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Flashcard 1464680975628

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
Rehearse only your conversational [...]
Answer
bookends.


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Chapter 8. Rehearse only your conversational bookends.

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Flashcard 1464682548492

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
There’s a simple reason to focus on the end of your converstions – that’s where [...]
Answer
people get their impression of you.


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There’s a simple reason to focus on the bookends – that’s where people get their impression of you.

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#conversation-tactics
The more observant you are, the easier it is to carry on a conversation.

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Pay attention to the signals being sent by the people you're talking to, and work with them. The more observant you are, the easier it is to carry on a conversation. Supposed you notice that their shirt is special, or that they just got a haircut.

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Flashcard 1464685694220

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
Patrick, I think that steak you made last night gave me diarrhea. [...]
Answer
You’re lucky if you only got diarrhea.


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Patrick, I think that steak you made last night gave me diarrhea. You’re lucky if you only got diarrhea.

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Flashcard 1464688053516

Tags
#conversation-tactics #laughing-at-yourself
Question
The key to this technique is to [...]
Answer
agree with the critique or joke.


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The key to this technique is to agree with the critique or joke. Understand that what this person is really doing is that they are just letting you recognize your flaws.

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#conversation-tactics
A ridicule has the sole intent to make you appear stupid, and will dig deep without moving on.

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A joke is acceptable, and the difference is usually the intent. A joke can touch upon you, and can be about a wide range of topics personal to you. You are the not the primary target. A ridicule has the sole intent to make you appear stupid, and will dig deep without moving on.

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Flashcard 1464691985676

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #reciprocation
Question
To influence someone to act in a way you desire, try to think how you can first give the impression at least of [...]
Answer
having done them a favor.


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To influence someone to act in a way you desire, try to think how you can first give the impression at least of having done them a favor.

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Flashcard 1464693558540

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #reciprocation
Question
The initial thing could be a gift, and this gift can be in the form of a [.3.].
Answer
physical gift, a favor or a piece of advice

The gifts or advice need not be too expensive and can be economical and yet, useful to the end user.


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The initial thing could be a gift, and this gift can be in the form of a physical gift, a favor or a piece of advice. Perhaps some free information as marketers often use. The gifts or advice need not be too expensive and can be economical and yet, useful to the end user.

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Flashcard 1464699063564

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
Question
We also do not like to [...] once we have begun.
Answer
change course

When we are on a course, we logically explain and we then begin to believe ourselves. This makes it hard to change course.


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We also do not like to change course once we have begun. When we are on a course, we start to logically explain it with all sorts of clever arguments, which we then begin to believe ourselves. This cements us on that given

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Flashcard 1464701422860

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
Question
This is many times more powerful when [...].
Answer
Done publicly

Because it’s evolutionarily most important to use that we are seen to be consistent.


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This is many times more powerful when we have shown our actions to other people, or somehow publically committed to it. This is because it’s evolutionarily most important to use that we are seen to be consistent. And it’s almost physically painful to be seen to be inconsistent.</htm

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Flashcard 1464704568588

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #authority
Question
It's easier to influence if the person being influenced perceives the person influencing to be [...]
Answer
of higher authority.


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Any attempt to influence someone in any direction will be instantly more powerful and effective if the person being influenced perceives the person influencing to be of higher authority.

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Flashcard 1464707190028

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#69-ways-to-influence
Question
[...] key drivers of human behavior as laid out by Cialdini
Answer
6


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6 key drivers of human behavior as laid out by Cialdini

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Flashcard 1464708762892

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#69-ways-to-influence
Question
The 6 factors underling all of our decisions are:

[...] , [...], [...] , authority, scarcity and liking
Answer
reciprocation, social proof, commitment and consistency


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The 6 factors underling all of our decisions are: reciprocation, social proof, commitment and consistency, authority, scarcity and liking

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