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Flashcard 1425681026316

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
labor markets is when [...] sell their labor [...]
Answer
households sell their labor services to firms if payment exceeds the value of the leisure time they must give up.


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In one type of factor market, called labor markets , households offer to sell their labor services when the payment they expect to receive exceeds the value of the leisure time they must forgo. In contrast, firms hire workers when they

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2. TYPES OF MARKETS
fact may seem obvious, but it is fundamental to our understanding of markets. If a buyer values something more than a seller, not only is there an opportunity for an exchange, but that exchange will make both parties better off. <span>In one type of factor market, called labor markets , households offer to sell their labor services when the payment they expect to receive exceeds the value of the leisure time they must forgo. In contrast, firms hire workers when they judge that the value of the productivity of workers is greater than the cost of employing them. A major source of household income and a major cost to firms is compensation paid in exchange for labor services. Additionally, households typically choose to spend less on consumption than they earn from their labor. This behavior is called saving , through which households can accum







Flashcard 1432689446156

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
All Italian nouns have either a masculine or a feminine [...]
Answer
gender


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All Italian nouns have either a masculine or a feminine gender

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Flashcard 1435603963148

Tags
#2-1-types-of-profit-measures #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-2-objectives-of-the-firm #study-session-4
Question
Accounting profit = [...] – Total accounting costs
Answer
Total revenue


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Accounting profit = Total revenue – Total accounting costs

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2. OBJECTIVES OF THE FIRM
he firm’s efficiency in producing that level of output when utilizing inputs, and resource prices as established by resource markets. TR is a function of output and product price as determined by the firm’s product market. <span>2.1. Types of Profit Measures The economics discipline has its own concept of profit, which differs substantially from what accountants consider profit. There are thus two basic types of profit—accounting and economic—and analysts need to be able to interpret each correctly and to understand how they are related to each other. In the theory of the firm, however, profit without further qualification refers to economic profit. 2.1.1. Accounting Profit Accounting profit is generally defined as net income reported on the income statement according to standards established by private and public financial oversight bodies that determine the rules for financial reporting. One widely accepted definition of accounting profit—also known as net profit, net income, or net earnings—states that it equals revenue less all accounting (or explicit) costs . Accounting or explicit costs are payments to non-owner parties for services or resources that they supply to the firm. Often referred to as the “bottom line” (the last income figure in the income statement), accounting profit is what is left after paying all accounting costs—whether the expense is a cash outlay or not. When accounting profit is negative, it is called an accounting loss . Equation 2 summarizes the concept of accounting profit: Equation (2)  Accounting profit = Total revenue – Total accounting costs When defining profit as accounting profit, the TC term in Equation 1 becomes total accounting costs, which include only the explicit costs of doing business. Let us consider two businesses: a start-up company and a publicly traded corporation. Suppose that for the start-up, total revenue in the business’s first year is €3,500,000 and total accounting costs are €3,200,000. Accounting profit is €3,500,000 – €3,200,000 = €300,000. The corresponding calculation for the publicly traded corporation, let us suppose, is $50,000,000 – $48,000,000 = $2,000,000. Note that total accounting costs in either case include interest expense—which represents the return required by suppliers of debt capital—because interest expense is an explicit cost. 2.1.2. Economic Profit and Normal Profit Economic profit (also known as abnormal profit or supernormal profit ) may be defined broadly as acc







Flashcard 1450737274124



Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question
Economic profit occurs when [...]
Answer
price is greater than ATC.

Remember RRR is taken as a fixed cost.


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Point D, which corresponds to output Q 3 , is a position where economic profit occurs because price is greater than ATC.

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cost. However, in the long run, to remain in business, the price must cover all costs. Therefore, in the long run, at any price below the breakeven point, the firm will exit the market, i.e., the firm will no longer participate in the market. <span>Point D, which corresponds to output Q 3 , is a position where economic profit occurs because price is greater than ATC. In the case of perfect competition, the breakeven point is the quantity where price, average revenue, and marginal revenue equal average total cost. It is al







The amount of capital expenditures a company is likely to have depends on the industry it occupies. Some of the most capital intensive industries have the highest levels of capital expenditures including oil exploration and production, telecom, manufacturing and utilities.

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Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) Definition | Investopedia
the company to spread the cost of the expenditure (the fixed cost) over the useful life of the asset. If, however, the expense is one that maintains the asset at its current condition, the cost is deducted fully in the year of the expense. <span>The amount of capital expenditures a company is likely to have depends on the industry it occupies. Some of the most capital intensive industries have the highest levels of capital expenditures including oil exploration and production, telecom, manufacturing and utilities. Capital expenditure should not be confused with revenue expenditure or operating expenses (OPEX). Revenue expenses are shorter-term expenses required to meet the ongoing operational c




#cfa-level-1 #economics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Aproach:
  • the revenue value of the output from the last unit of input employed equals the cost of employing that input unit

This method compares the estimated cost of each unit of input to that input’s contribution with projected total revenue.

If the increase in projected total revenue coming from the input unit exceeds its cost, it contributes to total profit.

If the increase in projected total revenue does not cover the input unit’s cost, total profit is diminished.

Profit maximization based on the employment of inputs occurs where the next input unit for each type of resource used no longer makes any contribution to total profit.

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3.1.4. Output Optimization and Maximization of Profit
ore units because each successive unit adds more to total revenue than it does to total costs. If MC is greater than MR, total profit is decreased when additional units are produced. The point of profit maximization occurs where MR equals MC. <span>The third method compares the estimated cost of each unit of input to that input’s contribution with projected total revenue. If the increase in projected total revenue coming from the input unit exceeds its cost, a contribution to total profit is evident. In turn, this justifies further employment of that input. On the other hand, if the increase in projected total revenue does not cover the input unit’s cost, total profit is diminished. Profit maximization based on the employment of inputs occurs where the next input unit for each type of resource used no longer makes any contribution to total profit. <span><body><html>




A list of length n is an ordered collection of n objects (which might be num- bers, other lists, or more abstract entities) separated by commas and surrounded by parentheses

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Flashcard 1457108159756

Question
A list of length n is [...]
Answer
an ordered collection of n objects (which might be num- bers, other lists, or more abstract entities) separated by commas and surrounded by parentheses


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A list of length n is an ordered collection of n objects (which might be num- bers, other lists, or more abstract entities) separated by commas and surrounded by parentheses

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We will define a vector space to be a set V along with an addition and a scalar multiplication on V that satisfy the properties discussed in the previous paragraph. By an addition on V we mean a function that assigns an element u + v ∈ V to each pair of elements u, v ∈ V.

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Flashcard 1457110781196

Question
We will define a vector space to be a set V along with an addition and a scalar multiplication on V that satisfy the properties discussed in the previous paragraph. By an addition on V we mean [...]
Answer
a function that assigns an element u + v ∈ V to each pair of elements u, v ∈ V.


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We will define a vector space to be a set V along with an addition and a scalar multiplication on V that satisfy the properties discussed in the previous paragraph. By an addition on V we mean a function that assigns an element u + v ∈ V to each pair of elements u, v ∈ V.

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By a scalar multiplication on V we mean a function that assigns an element av ∈ V to each a ∈ F and each v ∈ V.

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Flashcard 1457113402636

Question
By a scalar multiplication on V we mean [...]
Answer
a function that assigns an element av ∈ V to each a ∈ F and each v ∈ V.


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By a scalar multiplication on V we mean a function that assigns an element av ∈ V to each a ∈ F and each v ∈ V.

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Now we are ready to give the formal definition of a vector space. A vector space is a set V along with an addition on V and a scalar multiplication on V such that the following properties hold:

commutativity
u + v = v + u for all u, v ∈ V;

associativity
(u+v)+w = u+(v +w) and (ab)v = a(bv) for all u,v,w ∈ V and all a,b ∈ F;

additive identity
there exists an element 0 ∈ V such that v +0 = v for all v ∈ V;

additive inverse
for every v ∈ V, there exists w ∈ V such that v + w = 0;

multiplicative identity
1v = v for all v ∈ V;

distributive properties
a(u +v) = au +av and (a +b)u = au +bu for all a,b ∈ F and all u,v ∈ V.

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Flashcard 1457116810508

Question
Now we are ready to give the formal definition of a vector space. A vector space is a set V along with an addition on V and a scalar multiplication on V such that the following properties hold:

















[...]
Answer
commutativity
u + v = v + u for all u, v ∈ V;

associativity
(u+v)+w = u+(v +w) and (ab)v = a(bv) for all u,v,w ∈ V and all a,b ∈ F;

additive identity
there exists an element 0 ∈ V such that v +0 = v for all v ∈ V;

additive inverse
for every v ∈ V, there exists w ∈ V such that v + w = 0;

multiplicative identity
1v = v for all v ∈ V;

distributive properties
a(u +v) = au +av and (a +b)u = au +bu for all a,b ∈ F and all u,v ∈ V.


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Now we are ready to give the formal definition of a vector space. A vector space is a set V along with an addition on V and a scalar multiplication on V such that the following properties hold: commutativity u + v = v + u for all u, v ∈ V; associativity (u+v)+w = u+(v +w) and (ab)v = a(bv) for all u,v,w ∈ V and all a,b ∈ F; additive identity there exists an element 0 ∈ V such that v +0 = v for all v ∈ V; additive inverse for every v ∈ V, there exists w ∈ V such that v + w = 0; multiplicative identity 1v = v for all v ∈ V; distributive properties a(u +v) = au +av and (a +b)u = au +bu for all a,b ∈ F and all u,v ∈ V.

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Proposition: A vector space has a unique additive identity.

Proof: Suppose 0 and 0 are both additive identities for some vector space V. Then 0' = 0' +0 = 0. Therefore 0' = 0.

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Flashcard 1457121529100

Question
Proposition: A vector space has a unique additive identity.

[...]
Answer
Proof: Suppose 0 and 0 are both additive identities for some vector space V. Then 0' = 0' +0 = 0. Therefore 0' = 0.


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Proposition: A vector space has a unique additive identity. Proof: Suppose 0 and 0 are both additive identities for some vector space V. Then 0' = 0' +0 = 0. Therefore 0' = 0.

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Proposition: Every element in a vector space has a unique additive inverse. Proof: Suppose V is a vector space. Let v ∈ V. Suppose that w and w' are additive inverses of v. Then w' = w' + 0 = w' +(v + w) = (w'+v)+w = 0 + w = w. Thus w = w', as desired.

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Flashcard 1457125199116

Question
Proposition: Every element in a vector space has a unique additive inverse. Proof: [...]
Answer
Suppose V is a vector space. Let v ∈ V. Suppose that w and w' are additive inverses of v. Then w' = w' + 0 = w' +(v + w) = (w'+v)+w = 0 + w = w. Thus w = w', as desired.


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Proposition: Every element in a vector space has a unique additive inverse. Proof: Suppose V is a vector space. Let v ∈ V. Suppose that w and w' are additive inverses of v. Then w' = w' + 0 = w' +(v + w) = (w'+v)+w = 0 + w = w. Thus w = w', as desired.

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Flashcard 1457126771980

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The summary function [...]
Answer
detects the type, or “class,” of the argument provided to it, and returns a summary appropriate for that class of object.


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The summary function detects the type, or “class,” of the argument provided to it, and returns a summary appropriate for that class of object.

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Flashcard 1457128344844

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The aggregate function is very useful for [...]
Answer
summarizing data according to factor characteristics.


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The aggregate function is very useful for summarizing data according to factor characteristics.

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Flashcard 1457129917708

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
How do you write a function in R?
Answer
In general, a function in R in defined by code of the form: functionName = function( arguments ) { commands }


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In general, a function in R in defined by code of the form: functionName = function( arguments ) { commands } The commands inside the curly braces can extend over many lines of code.

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Flashcard 1457132277004

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
You invoke the function by commanding R thus: [...]
Answer
functionName( arguments=argumentValues )


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You invoke the function by commanding R thus: functionName( arguments=argumentValues )

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Flashcard 1457133849868

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
Where do the curly braces go in a conditional statement (if, else)?
Answer
In particular, the line containing “else” begins with a closing curly brace, which tells R that the “else” clause is continuing the preceding “if.” A line that begins with “else” causes an error


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Notice the arrangement of curly braces across lines in the if-else structure above. In particular, the line containing “else” begins with a closing curly brace, which tells R that the “else” clause is continuing the preceding “if.” A line that begins with “else” causes an error

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Flashcard 1457136209164

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
A simple way to measure processing time is with the [...] function, which returns the current computer-system time.
Answer
proc.time


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A simple way to measure processing time is with the proc.time function, which returns the current computer-system time. To measure the duration of a process, use proc.time at the beginning and end of the process, and compute the difference between

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Flashcard 1457138568460

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
A simple way to measure processing time is with the proc.time function, which returns the current computer-system time. To measure the duration of a process, [...]
Answer
use proc.time at the beginning and end of the process, and compute the difference between the times


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A simple way to measure processing time is with the proc.time function, which returns the current computer-system time. To measure the duration of a process, use proc.time at the beginning and end of the process, and compute the difference between the times

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Flashcard 1457140141324

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
Which is faster? Loops or vectorized operations?
Answer
In general, for loops are slow relative to vectorized operations


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In general, for loops are slow relative to vectorized operations

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Flashcard 1457142500620

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What is a sample space?
Answer
a set of possible outcomes in mind. This set exhausts all possible outcomes, and the outcomes are all mutually exclusive.


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Whenever we ask about how likely an outcome is, we always ask with a set of possible outcomes in mind. This set exhausts all possible outcomes, and the outcomes are all mutually exclusive. This set is called the sample space

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Flashcard 1457144859916

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What is the technical term for heads in a coin?
Answer
“obverse.”


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Many coins minted by governments have the picture of an important person’s head on one side. This side is called “heads” or, technically, the “obverse.”

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Flashcard 1457147219212

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
A more general form of for is [...] where v is any vector. The index moves through each element of the vector in turn, providing a neat way of processing each item in a list.
Answer
for index = v


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A more general form of for is for index = v where v is any vector. The index moves through each element of the vector in turn, providing a neat way of processing each item in a list.

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Flashcard 1457148792076

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
The MATLAB function [...] returns a six-element vector with the current date and time in the format year, month, day, hour, minute, seconds. Thus, t0 records when the calculation starts.
Answer
clock


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The MATLAB function clock returns a six-element vector with the current date and time in the format year, month, day, hour, minute, seconds. Thus, t0 records when the calculation starts.</ht

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Flashcard 1457150364940

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
The MATLAB function clock returns a [...] Thus, t0 records when the calculation starts.
Answer
six-element vector with the current date and time in the format year, month, day, hour, minute, seconds.


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The MATLAB function clock returns a six-element vector with the current date and time in the format year, month, day, hour, minute, seconds. Thus, t0 records when the calculation starts.

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Flashcard 1457151937804

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
The function [...] returns the time in seconds elapsed between its two ar- guments, which must be vectors as returned by clock.
Answer
etime


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The function etime returns the time in seconds elapsed between its two ar- guments, which must be vectors as returned by clock.

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Flashcard 1457153510668

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
The function etime returns the [...], which must be vectors as returned by clock.
Answer
time in seconds elapsed between its two ar- guments


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The function etime returns the time in seconds elapsed between its two ar- guments, which must be vectors as returned by clock.

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Flashcard 1457155083532

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
The function etime returns the time in seconds elapsed between its two ar- guments, which must be [...]
Answer
vectors as returned by clock.


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The function etime returns the time in seconds elapsed between its two ar- guments, which must be vectors as returned by clock.

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#matlab #programming
A complex number may be represented in polar coordinates: z =re

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A complex number may be represented in polar coordinates: z =re iθ angle(z) returns θ between −π and π ; that is, atan2(imag(z), real(z)). abs(z) returns the magnitude r

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Flashcard 1457159015692

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
A complex number may be represented in polar coordinates: z =re iθ angle(z) returns [...]. abs(z) returns the magnitude r
Answer
θ between −π and π ; that is, atan2(imag(z), real(z))


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A complex number may be represented in polar coordinates: z =re iθ angle(z) returns θ between −π and π ; that is, atan2(imag(z), real(z)). abs(z) returns the magnitude r

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Flashcard 1457160588556

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
A complex number may be represented in polar coordinates: z =re angle(z) returns θ between −π and π ; that is, atan2(imag(z), real(z)). abs(z) returns the [...]
Answer
magnitude r


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A complex number may be represented in polar coordinates: z =re iθ angle(z) returns θ between −π and π ; that is, atan2(imag(z), real(z)). abs(z) returns the magnitude r

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Flashcard 1457162161420

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
A vector is [...]
Answer
the mathematical representation of a physical entity that may be characterized by size (or “magnitude”) and direction


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A vector is the mathematical representation of a physical entity that may be characterized by size (or “magnitude”) and direction

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Flashcard 1457163734284

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
In other words, if you were to move the vector shown in Figure 1.1(a) to a different location without varying its length or its pointing direction, would it still be the same vector? In some applications, the answer is “yes,” and those vectors are called [...]
Answer
free vectors.


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ds, if you were to move the vector shown in Figure 1.1(a) to a different location without varying its length or its pointing direction, would it still be the same vector? In some applications, the answer is “yes,” and those vectors are called <span>free vectors.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1457165307148

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
You can move a free vector anywhere you’d like as long as you don’t change its length or direction, and it remains the same vector. But in many physics and engineering problems, you’ll be dealing with vectors that apply at a given location; such vectors are called [...]
Answer
“bound” or “anchored” vectors,


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ctor anywhere you’d like as long as you don’t change its length or direction, and it remains the same vector. But in many physics and engineering problems, you’ll be dealing with vectors that apply at a given location; such vectors are called <span>“bound” or “anchored” vectors,<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1457168452876

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
You may see the term “sliding” vectors used for vectors that are free to move along their length but are not free to change length or direction; such vectors are useful for problems involving [...]
Answer
torque and angular motion


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You may see the term “sliding” vectors used for vectors that are free to move along their length but are not free to change length or direction; such vectors are useful for problems involving torque and angular motion

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Flashcard 1457170025740

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
A scalar is the [...]
Answer
mathematical representation of a physical entity that may be characterized by magnitude only


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A scalar is the mathematical representation of a physical entity that may be characterized by magnitude only

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Flashcard 1457171598604

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
you might suspect that there are other entities involving magnitude and directions that are more complex than vectors (that is, requiring more numbers than the number of spatial dimensions). Indeed there are, and such entities are called [...]
Answer
“tensors.”


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span>you might suspect that there are other entities involving magnitude and directions that are more complex than vectors (that is, requiring more numbers than the number of spatial dimensions). Indeed there are, and such entities are called <span>“tensors.”<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1457173171468

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
A tensor is the [...]
Answer
mathematical representation of a physical entity that may be characterized by magnitude and multiple directions


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A tensor is the mathematical representation of a physical entity that may be characterized by magnitude and multiple directions

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Flashcard 1457174744332

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
Recognizing scalars, vectors, and tensors is easy once you realize that a scalar can be represented by a [...], a vector by an ordered set of numbers, and a tensor by an array of numbers.
Answer
single number


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Recognizing scalars, vectors, and tensors is easy once you realize that a scalar can be represented by a single number, a vector by an ordered set of numbers, and a tensor by an array of numbers.

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Flashcard 1457176317196

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
Recognizing scalars, vectors, and tensors is easy once you realize that a scalar can be represented by a single number, a vector by [...], and a tensor by an array of numbers.
Answer
an ordered set of numbers


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Recognizing scalars, vectors, and tensors is easy once you realize that a scalar can be represented by a single number, a vector by an ordered set of numbers, and a tensor by an array of numbers.

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Flashcard 1457177890060

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
Recognizing scalars, vectors, and tensors is easy once you realize that a scalar can be represented by a single number, a vector by an ordered set of numbers, and a tensor by [...].
Answer
an array of numbers


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Recognizing scalars, vectors, and tensors is easy once you realize that a scalar can be represented by a single number, a vector by an ordered set of numbers, and a tensor by an array of numbers.

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Flashcard 1457179462924

Tags
#biochem
Question
Why do the bases in DNA and RNA stack (2 reasons)
Answer
to optimize the van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between them, as well as to form mutually stabilizing hydrogen bonds where possible.


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Th e bases, in turn, need to stack to optimize the van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between them, as well as to form mutually stabilizing hydrogen bonds where possible.

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Flashcard 1457181822220

Tags
#biochem
Question
What is the difference between the major and minor grooves in A and B-form DNA?
Answer
the major groove in the A-form is deeper and narrower than it is in B-form DNA, while the minor groove is wider and shallower


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the major groove in the A-form is deeper and narrower than it is in B-form DNA, while the minor groove is wider and shallower

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Flashcard 1457184181516

Tags
#biochem
Question
Why is it more difficult for proteins to interact with A-form DNA compared to B-form?
Answer
Th e narrowing and deepening of the major groove in A-form helices means that it is more diffi cult for proteins to read out the sequence-specifi c information at the edges of the bases in A-form helices (that is, α helices cannot readily enter the narrower major groove of the A-form helix).


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Th e narrowing and deepening of the major groove in A-form helices means that it is more diffi cult for proteins to read out the sequence-specifi c information at the edges of the bases in A-form helices (that is, α helices cannot readily enter the narrower major groove of the A-form helix).

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Flashcard 1457186540812

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
An array is a [...]
Answer
generalization of a matrix to multiple dimensions


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An array is a generalization of a matrix to multiple dimensions

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Flashcard 1457188113676

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
n the array function, the first argument specifies the [...], the second argument specifies the size of each dimension, and an optional third argument specifies the names of the dimensions and levels within dimensions
Answer
ordered contents


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n the array function, the first argument specifies the ordered contents, the second argument specifies the size of each dimension, and an optional third argument specifies the names of the dimensions and levels within dimensions

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Flashcard 1457189686540

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
n the array function, the first argument specifies the ordered contents, the second argument specifies the [...], and an optional third argument specifies the names of the dimensions and levels within dimensions
Answer
size of each dimension


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n the array function, the first argument specifies the ordered contents, the second argument specifies the size of each dimension, and an optional third argument specifies the names of the dimensions and levels within dimensions

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Flashcard 1457191259404

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
n the array function, the first argument specifies the ordered contents, the second argument specifies the size of each dimension, and an optional third argument specifies the [...]
Answer
names of the dimensions and levels within dimensions


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n the array function, the first argument specifies the ordered contents, the second argument specifies the size of each dimension, and an optional third argument specifies the names of the dimensions and levels within dimensions

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Flashcard 1457192832268

Tags
#biochem
Question
Why do they call it "Z" DNA?
Answer
The alternation of sugar pucker gives the helix backbone a zigzag appearance


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Th e alternation of sugar pucker gives the helix backbone a zigzag appearance, which gives Z-form DNA its name. Because RNA cannot adopt a C2 ʹ endo sugar pucker, this confor- mation is restricted to DNA.

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Flashcard 1457195191564

Tags
#biochem
Question
Is there Z-RNA? Why or why not?
Answer
No, because RNA cannot adopt a C2 ʹ endo sugar pucker


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Th e alternation of sugar pucker gives the helix backbone a zigzag appearance, which gives Z-form DNA its name. Because RNA cannot adopt a C2 ʹ endo sugar pucker, this confor- mation is restricted to DNA.

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Flashcard 1457197550860

Tags
#biochem
Question
The persistence length of DNA corresponds to the [...]
Answer
maximum length of a segment of DNA that behaves as a rather rigid rod.


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The persistence length of DNA corresponds to the maximum length of a segment of DNA that behaves as a rather rigid rod.

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Flashcard 1457199123724

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What does the first and second indices refer to (wrt row and column)
Answer
the indices are ordered such that the first index refers to the row and the second index refers to the column


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As you may have inferred by now, the indices are ordered such that the first index refers to the row and the second index refers to the column

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Flashcard 1457201483020

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The elements of the data frame can be accessed as for a list, by [...or...]
Answer
using names or single brackets or double brackets


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The elements of the data frame can be accessed as for a list, by using names or single brackets or double brackets

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Flashcard 1457205415180

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
if we construct a vector consisting of numerical values, summary provides the [...], as shown by this example
Answer
minimum value in the vector, median value, etc.


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if we construct a vector consisting of numerical values, summary provides the minimum value in the vector, median value, etc., as shown by this example

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Flashcard 1457206988044

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
However, if we convert the vector to a factor, then the summary function provides a [...]
Answer
table with the frequency of each level


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However, if we convert the vector to a factor, then the summary function provides a table with the frequency of each level

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Flashcard 1457208560908

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
Thehead function returns [...]. The str function returns a compact display of the structure of its argument.
Answer
the first few components of the variable put in its argument


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Thehead function returns the first few components of the variable put in its argument. The str function returns a compact display of the structure of its argument.

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Flashcard 1457210133772

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
Thehead function returns the first few components of the variable put in its argument. The str function returns a [...]
Answer
compact display of the structure of its argument.


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Thehead function returns the first few components of the variable put in its argument. The str function returns a compact display of the structure of its argument.

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Flashcard 1457211706636

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
In R’s basic command window, set the working directory by selecting menu items [...]. In RStudio, set the working directory by selecting menu items Session → Set Working Directory.
Answer
File → Change dir


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In R’s basic command window, set the working directory by selecting menu items File → Change dir. In RStudio, set the working directory by selecting menu items Session → Set Working Directory.

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Flashcard 1457213279500

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
In R’s basic command window, set the working directory by selecting menu items File → Change dir. In RStudio, set the working directory by selecting menu items [...].
Answer
Session → Set Working Directory


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In R’s basic command window, set the working directory by selecting menu items File → Change dir. In RStudio, set the working directory by selecting menu items Session → Set Working Directory.

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Flashcard 1457216687372

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
If you want values displayed in scientific notation (floating-point form) whatever their size, enter the command [...]
Answer
format short e


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If you want values displayed in scientific notation (floating-point form) whatever their size, enter the command format short e

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Flashcard 1457218260236

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
Use [...] for financial calculations; you get fixed point with two dec- imal digits (for cents)
Answer
format bank


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Use format bank for financial calculations; you get fixed point with two dec- imal digits (for cents)

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Flashcard 1457219833100

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
Use [...] to get hexadecimal display.
Answer
format hex


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Use format hex to get hexadecimal display.

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Flashcard 1457221405964

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
The MATLAB function [...] generates a random number in the range 0–1
Answer
rand


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The MATLAB function rand generates a random number in the range 0–1

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Flashcard 1457222978828

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
What is the equivalent of python's elif?
Answer
elseif


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In general, the elseif clause is used: if condition1 statementsA elseif condition2 statementsB

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Flashcard 1457225338124

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
[...] executes certain statements based on the value of a variable or expres- sion.
Answer
switch


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switch executes certain statements based on the value of a variable or expres- sion.

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Flashcard 1457226910988

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
The symbol [...] may be used to assign complex values, for example, z=2+3*
Answer
i


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The symbol i may be used to assign complex values, for example, z=2+3*

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Flashcard 1457228483852

Tags
#electromagnetism #physics
Question
If the vector field is uniform but is not perpendicular to the surface, as in Figure 1.6(b), the flux may be determined simply by [...]
Answer
finding the component of ~ A perpendicular to the surface and then multiplying that value by the surface area


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If the vector field is uniform but is not perpendicular to the surface, as in Figure 1.6(b), the flux may be determined simply by finding the component of ~ A perpendicular to the surface and then multiplying that value by the surface area

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Flashcard 1457234775308

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
What is a collection of bound vectors called?
Answer
A collection of such vectors is called a vector field


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d vector at each point of interest, and each of those vectors would show the speed and direction of the wind at that location (most people draw the vector with its tail – the end without the arrow – at the point to which the vector is bound). <span>A collection of such vectors is called a vector field<span><body><html>

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
In this representation, the values that represent the vector are called the “components” of the vector

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In this representation, the values that represent the vector are called the “components” of the vector, and the number of components it takes to define a vector is equal to the number of dimensions in the space in which the vector exists

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
the number of components it takes to define a vector is equal to the number of dimensions in the space in which the vector exists

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In this representation, the values that represent the vector are called the “components” of the vector, and the number of components it takes to define a vector is equal to the number of dimensions in the space in which the vector exists

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#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
An example of a tensor is the inertia that relates the angular velocity of a rotating object to its angular momentum

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An example of a tensor is the inertia that relates the angular velocity of a rotating object to its angular momentum. Since the angular velocity vector has a direction and the angular momentum vector has a (potentially different) direction, the inertia tensor involves multiple directions

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Flashcard 1457241853196

Tags
#calculus #mathematics #tensors #vectors
Question
a tensor may be represented by an [...]. In this expression, “R” represents the rank of the tensor.
Answer
array of 3 R numbers in 3-dimensional space


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a tensor may be represented by an array of 3 R numbers in 3-dimensional space. In this expression, “R” represents the rank of the tensor.

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Flashcard 1457244212492

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
R has another function, [...], for testing equality up to the degree of precision for the computer being used.
Answer
all.equal


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R has another function, all.equal, for testing equality up to the degree of precision for the computer being used.

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Flashcard 1457245785356

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
One case of trying to make inferences from data without using a model is a method from NHST called [...]
Answer
resampling or bootstrapping.


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One case of trying to make inferences from data without using a model is a method from NHST called resampling or bootstrapping.

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Flashcard 1457247358220

Tags
#biochem
Question
there is much better stacking of the bases in the [...] con- formation, as seen in a form of DNA known as Z-DNA (see Section 2.12) and in some RNA loop structures.
Answer
syn


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there is much better stacking of the bases in the syn con- formation, as seen in a form of DNA known as Z-DNA (see Section 2.12) and in some RNA loop structures.

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Flashcard 1457248931084

Tags
#biochem
Question
there is much better stacking of the bases in the syn con- formation, as seen in a form of DNA known as [...] (see Section 2.12) and in some RNA loop structures.
Answer
Z-DNA


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there is much better stacking of the bases in the syn con- formation, as seen in a form of DNA known as Z-DNA (see Section 2.12) and in some RNA loop structures.

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Flashcard 1457250503948

Tags
#biochem
Question
there is much better stacking of the bases in the syn con- formation, as seen in a form of DNA known as Z-DNA (see Section 2.12) and in some [...] structures.
Answer
RNA loop


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there is much better stacking of the bases in the syn con- formation, as seen in a form of DNA known as Z-DNA (see Section 2.12) and in some RNA loop structures.

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Flashcard 1457252076812

Tags
#biochem
Question
h e distance between the phos- phate oxygen and the hydrogen atom is [...]
Answer
1.9 Å.


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h e distance between the phos- phate oxygen and the hydrogen atom is 1.9 Å.

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Flashcard 1457253649676

Tags
#biochem
Question
in RNA, the sugar adopts a [...] conformation (Figure 2.9), which causes a change in phosphate separation and a general modi- fi cation of the double-helical structure
Answer
C3ʹ endo


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in RNA, the sugar adopts a C3ʹ endo conformation (Figure 2.9), which causes a change in phosphate separation and a general modi- fi cation of the double-helical structure

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Flashcard 1457255222540

Tags
#biochem
Question
in RNA, the sugar adopts a C3ʹ endo conformation (Figure 2.9), which causes [...]
Answer
a change in phosphate separation and a general modi- fi cation of the double-helical structure


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in RNA, the sugar adopts a C3ʹ endo conformation (Figure 2.9), which causes a change in phosphate separation and a general modi- fi cation of the double-helical structure

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Flashcard 1457256795404

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
The [...] op- erator is the complex conjugate transpose, meaning rows and columns are inter- changed and signs of imaginary parts are changed.
Answer


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The op- erator is the complex conjugate transpose, meaning rows and columns are inter- changed and signs of imaginary parts are changed.

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Flashcard 1457258368268

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
The [...] operator, on the other hand, does a pure transpose without taking the complex conjugate.
Answer
.’


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The .’ operator, on the other hand, does a pure transpose without taking the complex conjugate.

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Flashcard 1457302670604

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #introduction #lol #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #study-session-4
Question
What is the main focus of reading 15?
Answer
The cost side of the profit equation for companies competing in market economies under perfect competition.


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The main focus of this reading is the cost side of the profit equation for companies competing in market economies under perfect competition.

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1. INTRODUCTION
ined by the demand and supply behavior in the markets into which the firm sells/provides its goods or services. Costs are a function of the demand and supply interactions in resource markets, such as markets for labor and for physical inputs. <span>The main focus of this reading is the cost side of the profit equation for companies competing in market economies under perfect competition. A subsequent reading will examine the different types of markets into which a firm may sell its output. The study of the profit-maximizing firm in a single time period is t







#conversation-tactics
Chapter 8. Rehearse only your conversational bookends.

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#conversation-tactics
focus and rehearse only the beginnings and ends of your conversation, speech, or performance.

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#conversation-tactics
There’s a simple reason to focus on the bookends – that’s where people get their impression of you.

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#conversation-tactics
First impressions, if you haven’t heard, are fairly important and can influence how a person views your actions for years to come. As for the ending, that is the last memory people will have of you, so you should make sure that it has a chance of being positive.

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#conversation-tactics
Feel free to write out mini-speeches for hellos and goodbyes. Feel free to attempt to memorize them verbatim – they won’t throw off the flow of conversation in those positions.

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#conversation-tactics
And everything between the introduction and conclusion? Assemble a loose and rough outline. That’s it.

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#conversation-tactics
The most I would recommend scripting the meat of a conversation is a few bullet points, with two subheads under each bullet points.

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#conversation-tactics
Pay attention to the signals being sent by the people you're talking to, and work with them. The more observant you are, the easier it is to carry on a conversation. Supposed you notice that their shirt is special, or that they just got a haircut.

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#conversation-tactics
Your conversational bookends should be ironclad and can be highly rehearsed. It just makes sense if you want to make a good impression. However, the meat of the conversation should be free flowing and negotiable because otherwise you will find yourself a distracted robot.

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#conversation-tactics
Chapter 9. How to deflect and roll with the punches.

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#conversation-tactics
For some people, verbal punches (teasing, jokes, sarcasm) are how they relate to others and how they demonstrate affection.

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#conversation-tactics
The best way to deal with a joke at your expense is to not get defensive and angry with them.

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#conversation-tactics
If someone makes a joke at your expense, simply agree with them and exaggerate it to the 10 th degree.

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#conversation-tactics
Patrick, 1980 called and wants your haircut back. Um, I think you mean 1880. Get it right!

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#conversation-tactics
Patrick, I think that steak you made last night gave me diarrhea. You’re lucky if you only got diarrhea.

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#conversation-tactics
What signs does exagerating jokes on you send?

First, it shows that you are approachable and don’t take yourself too seriously.
To take a joke like that and turn it into another joke shows a sense of humor, and is someone that makes people comfortable. They can say what they want around you without having to be too careful.

Second, it shows that you are secure.
To dig yourself a deeper hole, so to speak, shows that you don’t care about what people think. You can roll with jokes, and don’t mind being the occasional butt of jokes. You know it’s all in good fun, and you want to extend the fun.

Finally, it establishes you as having wit and clever banter.
When you have a guideline that you can follow (exaggerate to the 10 th degree), it becomes too easy to think of something clever to say, and people will take notice soon

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#conversation-tactics
When you have a guideline that you can follow (exaggerate to the 10 th degree), it becomes too easy to think of something clever to say, and people will take notice soon.

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#conversation-tactics
The point here is to develop a sense of mutual comfort.

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#conversation-tactics
If you were to take offense and get dramatic on that person, you're going to be sending off signals of discomfort and that people need to walk on eggshells around you. At the very least, people would think that you can't take a joke. People might think that you take yourself too seriously. Eventually, people will just start talking to you less and less.

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#conversation-tactics
Reveling in jokes at each other is how many bonds are built. Who wants to be friends with someone who can’t take a joke? People won’t feel warm or open when they're around you.

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#conversation-tactics
when you take jokes in stride and bounce it back to them by hamming it up, people will see that you're somebody they can be friends with. People can feel that they can open up to you because you're not going to take offense and you're not going to judge.

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#conversation-tactics #laughing-at-yourself
The key to this technique is to agree with the critique or joke. Understand that what this person is really doing is that they are just letting you recognize your flaws.

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#conversation-tactics
Play along and indulge them. Always seek to disarm people. Why? When you disarm them and you exaggerate their joke, they're less likely to make fun of you

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Nothing is personal.
#conversation-tactics #rolling-with-punches
This is crucial. Sometimes when you try to exaggerate the joke or play it off, if you go to extremes, it actually sends the wrong message. It actually comes off as like you're pushing back or you're paying them back.

Patrick, your haircut is so weird. Yeah, it’s terrible. Everything I do is terrible and all my clothes are pieces of crap too. I’m going to go to the homeless shelter now. Thanks.

Very unnecessary escalation.

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#conversation-tactics
A joke is acceptable, and the difference is usually the intent. A joke can touch upon you, and can be about a wide range of topics personal to you. You are the not the primary target. A ridicule has the sole intent to make you appear stupid, and will dig deep without moving on.

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#conversation-tactics
You can deal with jokes in a very pleasant way, and it won’t lead to unnecessary drama. However, if you're dealing with somebody who is flat out ridiculing you, then you need to be more careful.

Don't come off as so defensive that it's obvious that you're insecure. Instead, call them out. A simple “What are you doing?” will suffice and stop most people.

The whole point here is to send the signal that you're not a pushover. You're communicating that you saw what they did, and highlighting the fact that you won’t stand for it.

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#conversation-tactics
This is crucial because this impacts the respect that others will have for you. If people are subjecting you to ridicule left and right, then people are going to lose respect for you if you don't push back.

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#conversation-tactics
Chapter 10. Celebrate people’s idiosyncrasies.

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Flashcard 1461287783692

Question
The amount of capital expenditures a company is likely to have depends on [...].
Answer
the industry it occupies


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The amount of capital expenditures a company is likely to have depends on the industry it occupies. Some of the most capital intensive industries have the highest levels of capital expenditures including oil exploration and production, telecom, manufacturing and utilities.</sp

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Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) Definition | Investopedia
the company to spread the cost of the expenditure (the fixed cost) over the useful life of the asset. If, however, the expense is one that maintains the asset at its current condition, the cost is deducted fully in the year of the expense. <span>The amount of capital expenditures a company is likely to have depends on the industry it occupies. Some of the most capital intensive industries have the highest levels of capital expenditures including oil exploration and production, telecom, manufacturing and utilities. Capital expenditure should not be confused with revenue expenditure or operating expenses (OPEX). Revenue expenses are shorter-term expenses required to meet the ongoing operational c







Some of the most capital intensive industries have the highest levels of capital expenditures including oil exploration and production, telecom, manufacturing and utilities.

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The amount of capital expenditures a company is likely to have depends on the industry it occupies. Some of the most capital intensive industries have the highest levels of capital expenditures including oil exploration and production, telecom, manufacturing and utilities.

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Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) Definition | Investopedia
the company to spread the cost of the expenditure (the fixed cost) over the useful life of the asset. If, however, the expense is one that maintains the asset at its current condition, the cost is deducted fully in the year of the expense. <span>The amount of capital expenditures a company is likely to have depends on the industry it occupies. Some of the most capital intensive industries have the highest levels of capital expenditures including oil exploration and production, telecom, manufacturing and utilities. Capital expenditure should not be confused with revenue expenditure or operating expenses (OPEX). Revenue expenses are shorter-term expenses required to meet the ongoing operational c




#sets
Russell’s Paradox. Consider the set S whose elements are all those (and only those) sets that are not members of themselves: S = {X : X/∈ X}. Question: Does S belong to S? If S belongs to S,then S is not a member of itself, and so S/∈ S. On the other hand, if S/∈ S,thenS belongs to S.In either case, we have a contradiction.

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Flashcard 1461353319692

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question
Aproach:
  • the revenue value of the output from the last unit of input employed equals [...]
Answer
  • the cost of employing that input unit


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Aproach: the revenue value of the output from the last unit of input employed equals the cost of employing that input unit The third method compares the estimated cost of each unit of input to that input’s contribution with projected total revenue. If the increase in projected total revenue comi

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3.1.4. Output Optimization and Maximization of Profit
ore units because each successive unit adds more to total revenue than it does to total costs. If MC is greater than MR, total profit is decreased when additional units are produced. The point of profit maximization occurs where MR equals MC. <span>The third method compares the estimated cost of each unit of input to that input’s contribution with projected total revenue. If the increase in projected total revenue coming from the input unit exceeds its cost, a contribution to total profit is evident. In turn, this justifies further employment of that input. On the other hand, if the increase in projected total revenue does not cover the input unit’s cost, total profit is diminished. Profit maximization based on the employment of inputs occurs where the next input unit for each type of resource used no longer makes any contribution to total profit. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1461509819660

Tags
#sets
Question
What is Russell’s Paradox?
Answer
Consider the set S whose elements are all those (and only those) sets that are not members of themselves: S = {X : X/∈ X}. Question: Does S belong to S? If S belongs to S, then S is not a member of itself, and so S/∈ S. On the other hand, if S/∈ S, then S belongs to S. In either case, we have a contradiction


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Russell’s Paradox. Consider the set S whose elements are all those (and only those) sets that are not members of themselves: S = {X : X/∈ X}. Question: Does S belong to S? If S belongs to S,then S is not a member of itself, and so S/∈ S. On the other hand, if S/∈ S,thenS belongs to S.In either case, we have a contradiction.

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#art-of-memory #linking-methods
Base object “ or just „ base “ – real object (or just image) that we already know. In linking techniques it is the first object in your link.

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Base object “ or just „ base “ – real object (or just image) that we already know. In linking techniques it is the first object in your link. Besides it being an "object", it may also be a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc. If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call it peg. In

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r30's mnemonics
on? 3.5 3.5 Some exceptions 3.6 Inside vs next-to placement 4 4. Interaction Method 5 5. Link Systems 5.1 5.1 Mnemonic Link System 5.1.1 5.1.1 IM- or TM-based chain? 5.2 5.2 Pinned Link System 6 6. When to use which linking technique? <span>1. Used terminology „Base object“ or just „base“ – real object (or just image) that we already know. In linking techniques it is the first object in your link.Besides it being an "object", it may also be a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc. If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call it peg. In method of loci we call it locus (base has a position with respect to other objects). „Data object“ or just „dobe“– object that we want to memorize. It may be visual or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept. If it is nonvisual then it is useful to first create a mnemonic image for the dobe (see How to Create Mnemonic Images). In MLS (and PLS) a random middle dobe of the chain is also base (you use it to recall the next dobe). Dobe is linked to base (an association made between them). Later you can use that base to recall the dobe. I took the liberty to classify different types of mnemonic linking techniques. The following two methods cover all the ways (that I can think of) to link dobe to base : Transformation m




Flashcard 1461570112780

Tags
#art-of-memory #linking-methods
Question
[...] “ – real object (or just image) that we already know. In linking techniques it is the first object in your link.
Answer
Base object “ or just „ base


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Base object “ or just „ base “ – real object (or just image) that we already know. In linking techniques it is the first object in your link.

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r30's mnemonics
on? 3.5 3.5 Some exceptions 3.6 Inside vs next-to placement 4 4. Interaction Method 5 5. Link Systems 5.1 5.1 Mnemonic Link System 5.1.1 5.1.1 IM- or TM-based chain? 5.2 5.2 Pinned Link System 6 6. When to use which linking technique? <span>1. Used terminology „Base object“ or just „base“ – real object (or just image) that we already know. In linking techniques it is the first object in your link.Besides it being an "object", it may also be a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc. If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call it peg. In method of loci we call it locus (base has a position with respect to other objects). „Data object“ or just „dobe“– object that we want to memorize. It may be visual or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept. If it is nonvisual then it is useful to first create a mnemonic image for the dobe (see How to Create Mnemonic Images). In MLS (and PLS) a random middle dobe of the chain is also base (you use it to recall the next dobe). Dobe is linked to base (an association made between them). Later you can use that base to recall the dobe. I took the liberty to classify different types of mnemonic linking techniques. The following two methods cover all the ways (that I can think of) to link dobe to base : Transformation m







#art-of-memory #linking-methods
Base object : Besides it being an "object", it may also be a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc.


If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call the base it peg.

In method of loci we call it locus (base has a position with respect to other objects).

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Base object “ or just „ base “ – real object (or just image) that we already know. In linking techniques it is the first object in your link. Besides it being an "object", it may also be a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc. If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call it peg. In method of loci we call it locus (base has a position with respect to other objects). „ Data object “ or just „ dobe “– object that we want to memorize. It may be visual or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept. If it is nonvisual then it is useful to first c

Original toplevel document

r30's mnemonics
on? 3.5 3.5 Some exceptions 3.6 Inside vs next-to placement 4 4. Interaction Method 5 5. Link Systems 5.1 5.1 Mnemonic Link System 5.1.1 5.1.1 IM- or TM-based chain? 5.2 5.2 Pinned Link System 6 6. When to use which linking technique? <span>1. Used terminology „Base object“ or just „base“ – real object (or just image) that we already know. In linking techniques it is the first object in your link.Besides it being an "object", it may also be a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc. If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call it peg. In method of loci we call it locus (base has a position with respect to other objects). „Data object“ or just „dobe“– object that we want to memorize. It may be visual or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept. If it is nonvisual then it is useful to first create a mnemonic image for the dobe (see How to Create Mnemonic Images). In MLS (and PLS) a random middle dobe of the chain is also base (you use it to recall the next dobe). Dobe is linked to base (an association made between them). Later you can use that base to recall the dobe. I took the liberty to classify different types of mnemonic linking techniques. The following two methods cover all the ways (that I can think of) to link dobe to base : Transformation m




#art-of-memory #linking-methods
Data object or dobe – object that we want to memorize. It may be visual or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept.

If a dobe is nonvisual then it is useful to first create a mnemonic image for the dobe.

In Mnemonic Link System (and PLS) a random middle dobe of the chain is also base (you use it to recall the next dobe).

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, it may also be a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc. If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call it peg. In method of loci we call it locus (base has a position with respect to other objects). „ <span>Data object “ or just „ dobe “– object that we want to memorize. It may be visual or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept. If it is nonvisual then it is useful to first create a mnemonic image for the dobe. In MLS (and PLS) a random middle dobe of the chain is also base (you use it to recall the next dobe). Dobe is linked to base (an association made between them). Later you can use that base to recall the dobe. <span><body><html>

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r30's mnemonics
on? 3.5 3.5 Some exceptions 3.6 Inside vs next-to placement 4 4. Interaction Method 5 5. Link Systems 5.1 5.1 Mnemonic Link System 5.1.1 5.1.1 IM- or TM-based chain? 5.2 5.2 Pinned Link System 6 6. When to use which linking technique? <span>1. Used terminology „Base object“ or just „base“ – real object (or just image) that we already know. In linking techniques it is the first object in your link.Besides it being an "object", it may also be a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc. If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call it peg. In method of loci we call it locus (base has a position with respect to other objects). „Data object“ or just „dobe“– object that we want to memorize. It may be visual or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept. If it is nonvisual then it is useful to first create a mnemonic image for the dobe (see How to Create Mnemonic Images). In MLS (and PLS) a random middle dobe of the chain is also base (you use it to recall the next dobe). Dobe is linked to base (an association made between them). Later you can use that base to recall the dobe. I took the liberty to classify different types of mnemonic linking techniques. The following two methods cover all the ways (that I can think of) to link dobe to base : Transformation m




Flashcard 1461805255948

Tags
#art-of-memory #linking-methods
Question
[...] – object that we want to memorize. It may be visual or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept.

Answer
Data object or dobe


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Data object or dobe – object that we want to memorize. It may be visual or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept. If a dobe is nonvisual then it is useful to first create a mnemonic image for the

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r30's mnemonics
on? 3.5 3.5 Some exceptions 3.6 Inside vs next-to placement 4 4. Interaction Method 5 5. Link Systems 5.1 5.1 Mnemonic Link System 5.1.1 5.1.1 IM- or TM-based chain? 5.2 5.2 Pinned Link System 6 6. When to use which linking technique? <span>1. Used terminology „Base object“ or just „base“ – real object (or just image) that we already know. In linking techniques it is the first object in your link.Besides it being an "object", it may also be a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc. If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call it peg. In method of loci we call it locus (base has a position with respect to other objects). „Data object“ or just „dobe“– object that we want to memorize. It may be visual or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept. If it is nonvisual then it is useful to first create a mnemonic image for the dobe (see How to Create Mnemonic Images). In MLS (and PLS) a random middle dobe of the chain is also base (you use it to recall the next dobe). Dobe is linked to base (an association made between them). Later you can use that base to recall the dobe. I took the liberty to classify different types of mnemonic linking techniques. The following two methods cover all the ways (that I can think of) to link dobe to base : Transformation m







#art-of-memory #linking-methods
Dobe is linked to base (an association made between them). Later you can use that base to recall the dobe.

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al or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept. If it is nonvisual then it is useful to first create a mnemonic image for the dobe. In MLS (and PLS) a random middle dobe of the chain is also base (you use it to recall the next dobe). <span>Dobe is linked to base (an association made between them). Later you can use that base to recall the dobe. <span><body><html>

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r30's mnemonics
on? 3.5 3.5 Some exceptions 3.6 Inside vs next-to placement 4 4. Interaction Method 5 5. Link Systems 5.1 5.1 Mnemonic Link System 5.1.1 5.1.1 IM- or TM-based chain? 5.2 5.2 Pinned Link System 6 6. When to use which linking technique? <span>1. Used terminology „Base object“ or just „base“ – real object (or just image) that we already know. In linking techniques it is the first object in your link.Besides it being an "object", it may also be a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc. If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call it peg. In method of loci we call it locus (base has a position with respect to other objects). „Data object“ or just „dobe“– object that we want to memorize. It may be visual or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept. If it is nonvisual then it is useful to first create a mnemonic image for the dobe (see How to Create Mnemonic Images). In MLS (and PLS) a random middle dobe of the chain is also base (you use it to recall the next dobe). Dobe is linked to base (an association made between them). Later you can use that base to recall the dobe. I took the liberty to classify different types of mnemonic linking techniques. The following two methods cover all the ways (that I can think of) to link dobe to base : Transformation m





#art-of-memory #has-images #linking-methods
(mnemo) deduction – Process of recalling dobe from its base (when the link between base and dobe is already made and we try to recall the dobe when seeing the base). In case of MLS the deduction would be recalling dobe from another dobe.

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Transformation method
ch spike can be thought as seperate object). We use this fact for letting base be constructed of little dobes (e.g lamp bulbs instead of spikes and skin) or just from dobe's surface (bulb's glass covering the skin and spikes). <span>( mnemo ) deduction – Process of recalling dobe from its base (when the link between base and dobe is already made and we try to recall the dobe when seeing the base). In case of MLS the deduction would be recalling dobe from another dobe. I use often term deduction instead of recall because in lot of cases the link between base and dobe is somehow logical and thus dobe can be deduced from its base. In case of




Flashcard 1461906181388



Tags
#art-of-memory #has-images #linking-methods
Question
[...] – Process of recalling dobe from its base (when the link between base and dobe is already made and we try to recall the dobe when seeing the base). In case of MLS the deduction would be recalling dobe from another dobe.
Answer
(mnemo) deduction


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( mnemo ) deduction – Process of recalling dobe from its base (when the link between base and dobe is already made and we try to recall the dobe when seeing the base). In case of MLS the deduction would be

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Transformation method
ch spike can be thought as seperate object). We use this fact for letting base be constructed of little dobes (e.g lamp bulbs instead of spikes and skin) or just from dobe's surface (bulb's glass covering the skin and spikes). <span>( mnemo ) deduction – Process of recalling dobe from its base (when the link between base and dobe is already made and we try to recall the dobe when seeing the base). In case of MLS the deduction would be recalling dobe from another dobe. I use often term deduction instead of recall because in lot of cases the link between base and dobe is somehow logical and thus dobe can be deduced from its base. In case of







The Third Meditation promises to establish a meta- physical result, “the existence of God.”

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#69-ways-to-influence
We never admit that we made this decision based on what other people are doing, or because we felt a strong emotional need to do it, without understanding where that need came from.

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#69-ways-to-influence
you are simply using the enormous forces that are already driving people, and are redirecting them a little. To go where you want them to go.

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#69-ways-to-influence
6 key drivers of human behavior as laid out by Cialdini

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#69-ways-to-influence
The 6 factors underling all of our decisions are:

reciprocation, social proof, commitment and consistency, authority, scarcity and liking

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1. Reciprocation
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #reciprocation
When we feel that someone has done something for us, our hardwiring kicks in and we feel a very strong urge to return the favor. Throughout evolution humans have survived by cleanly and clearly reciprocating favors – it is one of the foundations of a successful society. People who did not feel a natural and strong desire to reciprocate would often have been kicked out of a social group. Which in the past, meant death. This is why the urge is so strong in us.

To influence someone to act in a way you desire, try to think how you can first give the impression at least of having done them a favor.

The initial thing could be a gift, and this gift can be in the form of a physical gift, a favor or a piece of advice. Perhaps some free information as marketers often use. The gifts or advice need not be too expensive and can be economical and yet, useful to the end user.

For example: by giving a free gift with a product, marketing companies make people buy something. This gift need not be something expensive but can be something of great use to the user.

At the workplace, if a particular thing is required to be done by a particular person, then attaching something as small as a nice hand written note will probably push your chances by 20%. Similarly, sending in personalized gifts or favors is sure to get you in many people’s good books regardless of whether it is for business purposes or personal use.

Here, it is important to understand that you have to have your favor returned and if you don’t, then it will be your loss. So what you give in the first place should be carefully thought for and you must make it worthwhile to the extent that the other person will return the favor even if he or she is not in a position to. They should take it upon themselves to give you what you ask for and when you ask for it owing to you having done the same to them

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #reciprocation
When we feel that someone has done something for us, our hardwiring kicks in and we feel a very strong urge to return the favor.

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When we feel that someone has done something for us, our hardwiring kicks in and we feel a very strong urge to return the favor. Throughout evolution humans have survived by cleanly and clearly reciprocating favors – it is one of the foundations of a successful society. People who did not feel a natural and stron

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #reciprocation
People who did not feel a natural and strong desire to reciprocate would often have been kicked out of a social group. Which in the past, meant death. This is why the urge is so strong in us.

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s done something for us, our hardwiring kicks in and we feel a very strong urge to return the favor. Throughout evolution humans have survived by cleanly and clearly reciprocating favors – it is one of the foundations of a successful society. <span>People who did not feel a natural and strong desire to reciprocate would often have been kicked out of a social group. Which in the past, meant death. This is why the urge is so strong in us. To influence someone to act in a way you desire, try to think how you can first give the impression at least of having done them a favor. The initial thing could b

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #reciprocation
To influence someone to act in a way you desire, try to think how you can first give the impression at least of having done them a favor.

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he foundations of a successful society. People who did not feel a natural and strong desire to reciprocate would often have been kicked out of a social group. Which in the past, meant death. This is why the urge is so strong in us. <span>To influence someone to act in a way you desire, try to think how you can first give the impression at least of having done them a favor. The initial thing could be a gift, and this gift can be in the form of a physical gift, a favor or a piece of advice. Perhaps some free information as marketers often use. Th

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #reciprocation
The initial thing could be a gift, and this gift can be in the form of a physical gift, a favor or a piece of advice. Perhaps some free information as marketers often use. The gifts or advice need not be too expensive and can be economical and yet, useful to the end user.

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al group. Which in the past, meant death. This is why the urge is so strong in us. To influence someone to act in a way you desire, try to think how you can first give the impression at least of having done them a favor. <span>The initial thing could be a gift, and this gift can be in the form of a physical gift, a favor or a piece of advice. Perhaps some free information as marketers often use. The gifts or advice need not be too expensive and can be economical and yet, useful to the end user. For example: by giving a free gift with a product, marketing companies make people buy something. This gift need not be something expensive but can be something of great use

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #reciprocation
For example: by giving a free gift with a product, marketing companies make people buy something. This gift need not be something expensive but can be something of great use to the user.

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is gift can be in the form of a physical gift, a favor or a piece of advice. Perhaps some free information as marketers often use. The gifts or advice need not be too expensive and can be economical and yet, useful to the end user. <span>For example: by giving a free gift with a product, marketing companies make people buy something. This gift need not be something expensive but can be something of great use to the user. At the workplace, if a particular thing is required to be done by a particular person, then attaching something as small as a nice hand written note will probably push your c

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #reciprocation
sending in personalized gifts or favors is sure to get you in many people’s good books regardless of whether it is for business purposes or personal use.

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thing of great use to the user. At the workplace, if a particular thing is required to be done by a particular person, then attaching something as small as a nice hand written note will probably push your chances by 20%. Similarly, <span>sending in personalized gifts or favors is sure to get you in many people’s good books regardless of whether it is for business purposes or personal use. Here, it is important to understand that you have to have your favor returned and if you don’t, then it will be your loss. So what you give in the first place should be caref

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #reciprocation
At the workplace, if a particular thing is required to be done by a particular person, then attaching something as small as a nice hand written note will probably push your chances by 20%.

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and yet, useful to the end user. For example: by giving a free gift with a product, marketing companies make people buy something. This gift need not be something expensive but can be something of great use to the user. <span>At the workplace, if a particular thing is required to be done by a particular person, then attaching something as small as a nice hand written note will probably push your chances by 20%. Similarly, sending in personalized gifts or favors is sure to get you in many people’s good books regardless of whether it is for business purposes or personal use. Here, it

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #reciprocation
Here, it is important to understand that you have to have your favor returned and if you don’t, then it will be your loss. So what you give in the first place should be carefully thought for and you must make it worthwhile to the extent that the other person will return the favor even if he or she is not in a position to. They should take it upon themselves to give you what you ask for and when you ask for it owing to you having done the same to them

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s a nice hand written note will probably push your chances by 20%. Similarly, sending in personalized gifts or favors is sure to get you in many people’s good books regardless of whether it is for business purposes or personal use. <span>Here, it is important to understand that you have to have your favor returned and if you don’t, then it will be your loss. So what you give in the first place should be carefully thought for and you must make it worthwhile to the extent that the other person will return the favor even if he or she is not in a position to. They should take it upon themselves to give you what you ask for and when you ask for it owing to you having done the same to them<span><body><html>

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2. Social Proof
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #social-proof
We are extremely responsive to what we perceive others around us to be doing. This unconscious function has helped us make quick and good life-saving decisions throughout history. We quickly look around, see what everyone else is doing, assume that is the wise choice of action, and follow the resulting desire to act.

Study after study after study have shown how powerful this factor is. One practical experiment was an experiment conducted where a hotel wished their guests to reuse the towels in their rooms. They decided to put out a few signs, you have probably seen similar signs in your travels.

The first sign cited environmental reasons to encourage visitors to reuse their towels. The second sign said the hotel would donate a portion of end-of-year laundry savings to an environmental cause – trying to appeal to guests’ altruistic motives.

The third sign said the hotel had already given a donation and asked: “Will you please join us?” And the fourth sign said the majority of guests reused their towels at least once during their stay.

To their surprise, 48% responded positively to the fourth sign as opposed to 38% for the first, 36% for the second and 46% for the third.

If you want to influence people to act a certain way, there are few more powerful methods than to give the impression that other people – preferably people like them – are doing the action you desire them to do. Try to find examples of this to show them, or simply mention in conversation that others are doing it.

Always try to think of intelligent ways to demonstrate this. In business you can always find examples of how your target market is acting in that way. And of course, testimonials are the best possible marketing tool, because of this principle.

This principle also comes across in the weight we give the advice of other people around us – even people unqualified to give a good opinion. So if an office goer is unsure of what he should wear to a meeting, then he is sure to consult a colleague and wear a similar outfit. If a child is unsure of which ice cream flavor to pick, then she is sure to consult a friend or sibling to choose a flavor.

So, if you position yourself in such a way that you get asked for an advice, and then you can influence them to do what you want them to. That is, you can convince them do as you are and do what you want them to for you.

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #social-proof
We are extremely responsive to what we perceive others around us to be doing.

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We are extremely responsive to what we perceive others around us to be doing. This unconscious function has helped us make quick and good life-saving decisions throughout history. We quickly look around, see what everyone else is doing, assume that is the wise ch

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #social-proof
This unconscious function has helped us make quick and good life-saving decisions throughout history. We quickly look around, see what everyone else is doing, assume that is the wise choice of action, and follow the resulting desire to act.

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We are extremely responsive to what we perceive others around us to be doing. This unconscious function has helped us make quick and good life-saving decisions throughout history. We quickly look around, see what everyone else is doing, assume that is the wise choice of action, and follow the resulting desire to act. Study after study after study have shown how powerful this factor is. One practical experiment was an experiment conducted where a hotel wished their guests to reuse the tow

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #social-proof
If you want to influence people to act a certain way, there are few more powerful methods than to give the impression that other people – preferably people like them – are doing the action you desire them to do. Try to find examples of this to show them, or simply mention in conversation that others are doing it.

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n said the majority of guests reused their towels at least once during their stay. To their surprise, 48% responded positively to the fourth sign as opposed to 38% for the first, 36% for the second and 46% for the third. <span>If you want to influence people to act a certain way, there are few more powerful methods than to give the impression that other people – preferably people like them – are doing the action you desire them to do. Try to find examples of this to show them, or simply mention in conversation that others are doing it. Always try to think of intelligent ways to demonstrate this. In business you can always find examples of how your target market is acting in that way. And of course, testimon

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #social-proof
In business you can always find examples of how your target market is acting in that way. And of course, testimonials are the best possible marketing tool, because of this principle.

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ably people like them – are doing the action you desire them to do. Try to find examples of this to show them, or simply mention in conversation that others are doing it. Always try to think of intelligent ways to demonstrate this. <span>In business you can always find examples of how your target market is acting in that way. And of course, testimonials are the best possible marketing tool, because of this principle. This principle also comes across in the weight we give the advice of other people around us – even people unqualified to give a good opinion. So if an office goer is unsure o

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #social-proof
Always try to think of intelligent ways to demonstrate this.

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ethods than to give the impression that other people – preferably people like them – are doing the action you desire them to do. Try to find examples of this to show them, or simply mention in conversation that others are doing it. <span>Always try to think of intelligent ways to demonstrate this. In business you can always find examples of how your target market is acting in that way. And of course, testimonials are the best possible marketing tool, because of this principle.&#1

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #social-proof
This principle also comes across in the weight we give the advice of other people around us – even people unqualified to give a good opinion. So if an office goer is unsure of what he should wear to a meeting, then he is sure to consult a colleague and wear a similar outfit. If a child is unsure of which ice cream flavor to pick, then she is sure to consult a friend or sibling to choose a flavor.

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o think of intelligent ways to demonstrate this. In business you can always find examples of how your target market is acting in that way. And of course, testimonials are the best possible marketing tool, because of this principle. <span>This principle also comes across in the weight we give the advice of other people around us – even people unqualified to give a good opinion. So if an office goer is unsure of what he should wear to a meeting, then he is sure to consult a colleague and wear a similar outfit. If a child is unsure of which ice cream flavor to pick, then she is sure to consult a friend or sibling to choose a flavor. So, if you position yourself in such a way that you get asked for an advice, and then you can influence them to do what you want them to. That is, you can convince them do as

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #social-proof
When somebody asks for your advice you ar in a great position to influence them.

Just convince them to go the direction you want.

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sure of what he should wear to a meeting, then he is sure to consult a colleague and wear a similar outfit. If a child is unsure of which ice cream flavor to pick, then she is sure to consult a friend or sibling to choose a flavor. <span>So, if you position yourself in such a way that you get asked for an advice, and then you can influence them to do what you want them to. That is, you can convince them do as you are and do what you want them to for you.<span><body><html>

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3. Commitment & Consistency
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
This is by far one of the most powerful forces in our lives when it comes to making decisions. In the short term and long term too.

Throughout human history, it was always important for individuals to appear consistent in their thoughts and actions and character. People who change from moment to moment can appear ‘unreliable’ or ‘unpredictable’ which is why we all sometimes end up continuing to do something when we don’t even remember why we started doing it.

We also do not like to change course once we have begun. When we are on a course, we start to logically explain it with all sorts of clever arguments, which we then begin to believe ourselves. This cements us on that given track, and makes it hard to change course.

So our brains are hardwired to hold to commitments, and to remain consistent to our previous actions. This is many times more powerful when we have shown our actions to other people, or somehow publically committed to it. This is because it’s evolutionarily most important to use that we are seen to be consistent. And it’s almost physically painful to be seen to be inconsistent.

In action, you can influence people to act the way you want them to act by getting them to agree and say ‘yes’ and take very small actions in the direction you want them to go in. Perhaps a long time before you get to the bigger decision you are actually aiming for. In practice, you can start by simply getting a person to say ‘yes’ and agree that they have acted that way in the past.

Simply by reminding someone that they have acted a certain way in the past, will start to cement their minds onto that track of thought and action. Also, always get someone to speak out loud about their previous actions in that direction. If they at least speak it to you, and preferably many people, they are in a way cementing in their chosen course. And they will immediately begin in that direction and start justifying it to themselves.

Start small, and gradually get bigger and bigger

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
Commitment and consistency is by far one of the most powerful forces in our lives when it comes to making decisions. In the short term and long term too.

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This is by far one of the most powerful forces in our lives when it comes to making decisions. In the short term and long term too. Throughout human history, it was always important for individuals to appear consistent in their thoughts and actions and character. People who change from moment to moment ca

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
Throughout human history, it was always important for individuals to appear consistent in their thoughts and actions and character. People who change from moment to moment can appear ‘unreliable’ or ‘unpredictable’ which is why we all sometimes end up continuing to do something when we don’t even remember why we started doing it.

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This is by far one of the most powerful forces in our lives when it comes to making decisions. In the short term and long term too. Throughout human history, it was always important for individuals to appear consistent in their thoughts and actions and character. People who change from moment to moment can appear ‘unreliable’ or ‘unpredictable’ which is why we all sometimes end up continuing to do something when we don’t even remember why we started doing it. We also do not like to change course once we have begun. When we are on a course, we start to logically explain it with all sorts of clever arguments, which we then begin to

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
We also do not like to change course once we have begun. When we are on a course, we start to logically explain it with all sorts of clever arguments, which we then begin to believe ourselves. This cements us on that given track, and makes it hard to change course.

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ghts and actions and character. People who change from moment to moment can appear ‘unreliable’ or ‘unpredictable’ which is why we all sometimes end up continuing to do something when we don’t even remember why we started doing it. <span>We also do not like to change course once we have begun. When we are on a course, we start to logically explain it with all sorts of clever arguments, which we then begin to believe ourselves. This cements us on that given track, and makes it hard to change course. So our brains are hardwired to hold to commitments, and to remain consistent to our previous actions. This is many times more powerful when we have shown our actions to other

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency

So our brains are hardwired to hold to commitments, and to remain consistent to our previous actions.

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se once we have begun. When we are on a course, we start to logically explain it with all sorts of clever arguments, which we then begin to believe ourselves. This cements us on that given track, and makes it hard to change course. <span>So our brains are hardwired to hold to commitments, and to remain consistent to our previous actions. This is many times more powerful when we have shown our actions to other people, or somehow publically committed to it. This is because it’s evolutionarily most important to use that we

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
This is many times more powerful when we have shown our actions to other people, or somehow publically committed to it. This is because it’s evolutionarily most important to use that we are seen to be consistent. And it’s almost physically painful to be seen to be inconsistent.

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ver arguments, which we then begin to believe ourselves. This cements us on that given track, and makes it hard to change course. So our brains are hardwired to hold to commitments, and to remain consistent to our previous actions. <span>This is many times more powerful when we have shown our actions to other people, or somehow publically committed to it. This is because it’s evolutionarily most important to use that we are seen to be consistent. And it’s almost physically painful to be seen to be inconsistent. In action, you can influence people to act the way you want them to act by getting them to agree and say ‘yes’ and take very small actions in the direction you want them to g

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
In action, you can influence people to act the way you want them to act by getting them to agree and say ‘yes’ and take very small actions in the direction you want them to go in. Perhaps a long time before you get to the bigger decision you are actually aiming for. In practice, you can start by simply getting a person to say ‘yes’ and agree that they have acted that way in the past.

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hown our actions to other people, or somehow publically committed to it. This is because it’s evolutionarily most important to use that we are seen to be consistent. And it’s almost physically painful to be seen to be inconsistent. <span>In action, you can influence people to act the way you want them to act by getting them to agree and say ‘yes’ and take very small actions in the direction you want them to go in. Perhaps a long time before you get to the bigger decision you are actually aiming for. In practice, you can start by simply getting a person to say ‘yes’ and agree that they have acted that way in the past. Simply by reminding someone that they have acted a certain way in the past, will start to cement their minds onto that track of thought and action. Also, always get someone t

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
Simply by reminding someone that they have acted a certain way in the past, will start to cement their minds onto that track of thought and action.

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you want them to go in. Perhaps a long time before you get to the bigger decision you are actually aiming for. In practice, you can start by simply getting a person to say ‘yes’ and agree that they have acted that way in the past. <span>Simply by reminding someone that they have acted a certain way in the past, will start to cement their minds onto that track of thought and action. Also, always get someone to speak out loud about their previous actions in that direction. If they at least speak it to you, and preferably many people, they are in a way cementing in t

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
Simply by reminding someone that they have acted a certain way in the past, will start to cement their minds onto that track of thought and action. Also, always get someone to speak out loud about their previous actions in that direction. If they at least speak it to you, and preferably many people, they are in a way cementing in their chosen course. And they will immediately begin in that direction and start justifying it to themselves.

Start small, and gradually get bigger and bigger

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you want them to go in. Perhaps a long time before you get to the bigger decision you are actually aiming for. In practice, you can start by simply getting a person to say ‘yes’ and agree that they have acted that way in the past. <span>Simply by reminding someone that they have acted a certain way in the past, will start to cement their minds onto that track of thought and action. Also, always get someone to speak out loud about their previous actions in that direction. If they at least speak it to you, and preferably many people, they are in a way cementing in their chosen course. And they will immediately begin in that direction and start justifying it to themselves. Start small, and gradually get bigger and bigger<span><body><html>

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4. Authority
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence
Any attempt to influence someone in any direction will be instantly more powerful and effective if the person being influenced perceives the person influencing to be of higher authority.

This is why you always see so called doctors and celebrity figures used in marketing. We unconsciously see them as being of higher authority and therefore their opinion and decision is a better one for us too.

This principle doesn’t serve us in society today as it once did, but you can use it to your advantage by thinking how you can give the impression of having authority. This might be as simple as the way you dress.

In one experiment there was a man standing at a road crossing, dressed normally. Many times he waited until there was a large crowd of people around him, then when the light was still red he suddenly crossed the road (when there were no cars and no danger). A few people followed his example and crossed the road with him.

However, they repeated the experiment many times, but this time the man was dressed in a really nice suit – a symbol of authority in most cultures. When he crossed the road twice as many people followed him on average!

This principle is so powerful that generally speaking if you have a very qualified person lying to you and someone of a lesser stature telling you the truth, then you are more likely to believe the qualified person’s lie more than the other person’s truth. It’s unfortunate but true.

This might not only have to do with qualifications and titles and things like owning a posh car or living in a palatial house are also things that people will take an instant liking to and be influenced easily.

Another ‘costume’ or way of dressing to symbolize authority is a lab coat or doctors clothing. There was an infamous experiment conducted known as the Miligram experiment where test subjects were wired up to electricity, so that by pressing a button people in the room next door could give them electric shocks of increasing power.

Scientists (really experimenters pretending to be scientists) were dressed in lab coats and they asked the actors wired up to answer a few questions correctly. Next to them were participants who didn’t know the whole thing was fake with actors.

The scientists asked the wired up actors in the other room a series of questions. Every time they were wrong they told the participant to give them an electric shock. Each time the shock got stronger, and the actors wired up were showing great amounts of pain. In about 4 times out of 5 the people giving the shock kept on going all the way up to high voltage that would kill anyone. Just because the person in authority was telling them to.

Do not underestimate the power of this principle.

Always think how you can apply it. In marketing, you should get testimonials from people in authority like doctors – this doubles up social proof with authority. Think about the way you dress. Think about your credentials. And think about who the person you are trying to influence sees as authority figures.

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1 I know with certainty that I am a thinking thing. 2 This knowledge is based solely on a clear and distinct perception of its truth. 3 Clear and distinct perception would not be sufficient to yield such knowledge if it were in any way fallible. 4 Therefore, clear and distinct perception provides a sufficient ground for knowledge; whatever I so perceive is true.

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #authority
Any attempt to influence someone in any direction will be instantly more powerful and effective if the person being influenced perceives the person influencing to be of higher authority.

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Any attempt to influence someone in any direction will be instantly more powerful and effective if the person being influenced perceives the person influencing to be of higher authority. This is why you always see so called doctors and celebrity figures used in marketing. We unconsciously see them as being of higher authority and therefore their opinion and d

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In principle, there is nothing wrong with this procedure, as long as other appropriate conditions are met, such as that the paradigmatic instance really is acquired solely through the method in question. This condition is asserted by premise 2, which does the real work in the argument and so requires further examination.

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The argument given above is logically valid. For it to be sound, premise 2 must report the actual method used by the meditator to establish the extended cogito.

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doubt about mathematical truths cannot arise when one is directly contemplating them; it can arise only when one turns to the deceiving-God hypothesis.

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But when considering the deceiving-God hypothesis, she can apparently doubt anything. (However, we may note that since this very act of doubting provides grounds for subsequently reaffirming the cogito, a blanket doubt covering the cogito conclusion provides grounds for undermining itself, in a way that a blanket doubt covering mathematical truths does not; hence the cogito retains its special status [see 7:145–6].)

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in order to remove even this slight reason for doubt, as soon as the opportu- nity arises I must examine whether there is a God, and, if there is, whether he can be a deceiver. For if I do not know this, it seems that I can never be quite certain about anything else. [7:36]

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The meditator now finds that ideas seem to fall into three categories, according to their source. Some are “innate,” some “adventitious,” and some “invented” (7:38). Innate ideas include “my understanding of what a thing is, what truth is, and what thought is.” Here Descartes affirms what we found to be presupposed in the cogito reasoning, namely, that the mind is innately stocked with a variety of ideas, including those just mentioned. Adventitious ideas are those that arise unbidden, and that the meditator hitherto believed to come from external causes; examples would include a noise, or the warmth felt from a fire. Invented ideas are like those of a “siren” (a mythical sea nymph) or a “hippogryph” (a mythical monster with the head and wings of an eagle and the body of a horse).

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the resemblance thesis holds that “there were things outside me which were the sources of my ideas and which resembled them in all respects”

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The meditator now examines three reasons, offered as the original grounds for the belief: that nature “taught me to think this,” that sensory ideas “do not depend on my will, and hence that they do not depend simply on me,” and that the most obvious thing to believe was that “the thing in question transmits to me its own likeness rather than something else”

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This “natural impulse” is laid aside here by an argument from fallibility. The meditator recalls that her natural impulses have led her astray previously, so she sees no reason to trust them now (7:39)

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Descartes offered two exam- ples to show that even though these ideas are not under the control of the meditator’s will, they might still be caused by an unknown faculty in her rather than have an external cause. First, natural impulses, whether concerning sensory objects or our own choices and desires, can seem “opposed” to our wills, and yet these impulses arise within us. Second, in dreams ideas are produced in us “without any assistance from external things” (7:39). Hence, sensory ideas might be produced in us like dreams are.

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As to the “obvious judgment” that the contents of our ideas fully resemble external objects, the meditator asserts: “even if these ideas did come from things other than myself, it would not follow that they must resemble those things” (7:39). In support of this assertion, she considers two ideas of the Sun. Our sensory idea of the Sun makes it appear small in the sky. The other idea is based on astronomical reasoning, which teaches that the Sun is much larger than the Earth

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Since her present aim is to determine whether anything, including God, exists outside her (7:40), she now asks whether any of her ideas have a content that could not exist unless produced by the thing represented through that content. In other words, do horses have to exist for me to

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According to Descartes, formal reality is what something has simply in virtue of existing (7:41, 161). All the ideas in a mind have formal reality, merely as states or modes of mind.

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By contrast, the objective reality of an idea is the “reality” of the “object” presented in the idea, considered merely insofar as it is represented in the idea.

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In Descartes’ terminology, what has “objective reality” is something contained in the subject’s mental state and so may even be called “subjective” in present-day terms.

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Descartes held that all human ideas have the same degree of formal reality – they are simply states of a human mind.

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But they differ in degree of objective reality according to whether the object represented has more or less “reality.”

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“It is manifest by the natural light that there must be at least as much in the efficient and total cause as in the effect of that cause” (7:40).

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He is saying here that the content of the idea requires a cause equal to the degree of being of the thing represented. The content needs a cause, which may be inde- pendent of the cause of the formal reality of the idea (as simply a state of mind).

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #authority

This is why you always see so called doctors and celebrity figures used in marketing. We unconsciously see them as being of higher authority and therefore their opinion and decision is a better one for us too.

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Any attempt to influence someone in any direction will be instantly more powerful and effective if the person being influenced perceives the person influencing to be of higher authority. This is why you always see so called doctors and celebrity figures used in marketing. We unconsciously see them as being of higher authority and therefore their opinion and decision is a better one for us too. This principle doesn’t serve us in society today as it once did, but you can use it to your advantage by thinking how you can give the impression of having authority. This mi

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The existence of the idea of God is the basis for Descartes’ first proof from effects. The proof claims that the content of the meditator’s idea of God could exist only if God produced that content himself.

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #authority
This principle doesn’t serve us in society today as it once did, but you can use it to your advantage by thinking how you can give the impression of having authority. This might be as simple as the way you dress.

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authority. This is why you always see so called doctors and celebrity figures used in marketing. We unconsciously see them as being of higher authority and therefore their opinion and decision is a better one for us too. <span>This principle doesn’t serve us in society today as it once did, but you can use it to your advantage by thinking how you can give the impression of having authority. This might be as simple as the way you dress. In one experiment there was a man standing at a road crossing, dressed normally. Many times he waited until there was a large crowd of people around him, then when the light

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #authority
However, they repeated the experiment many times, but this time the man was dressed in a really nice suit – a symbol of authority in most cultures. When he crossed the road twice as many people followed him on average!

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he waited until there was a large crowd of people around him, then when the light was still red he suddenly crossed the road (when there were no cars and no danger). A few people followed his example and crossed the road with him. <span>However, they repeated the experiment many times, but this time the man was dressed in a really nice suit – a symbol of authority in most cultures. When he crossed the road twice as many people followed him on average! This principle is so powerful that generally speaking if you have a very qualified person lying to you and someone of a lesser stature telling you the truth, then you are mor

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #authority
This principle is so powerful that generally speaking if you have a very qualified person lying to you and someone of a lesser stature telling you the truth, then you are more likely to believe the qualified person’s lie more than the other person’s truth.

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. However, they repeated the experiment many times, but this time the man was dressed in a really nice suit – a symbol of authority in most cultures. When he crossed the road twice as many people followed him on average! <span>This principle is so powerful that generally speaking if you have a very qualified person lying to you and someone of a lesser stature telling you the truth, then you are more likely to believe the qualified person’s lie more than the other person’s truth. It’s unfortunate but true. This might not only have to do with qualifications and titles and things like owning a posh car or living in a palatial house are also things that

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Descartes’ argument requires that the meditator find within herself the idea of God, or of “a substance that is infinite, independent, supremely intelligent, supremely powerful, and which created both myself and everything else (if anything else there be) that exists” (7:45).

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Two challenges might be posed to this requirement. First, the meditator might claim that she does not possess such an idea. Second, granting that one has the idea, one might question whether it really requires an infinite cause; perhaps the idea of an infinite substance could be constructed by thinking of a finite substance and then saying that God is like that, except without any limit (7:186).

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #authority
Do not underestimate the power of this principle.

Always think how you can apply it. In marketing, you should get testimonials from people in authority like doctors – this doubles up social proof with authority. Think about the way you dress. Think about your credentials. And think about who the person you are trying to influence sees as authority figures.

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ctors wired up were showing great amounts of pain. In about 4 times out of 5 the people giving the shock kept on going all the way up to high voltage that would kill anyone. Just because the person in authority was telling them to. <span>Do not underestimate the power of this principle. Always think how you can apply it. In marketing, you should get testimonials from people in authority like doctors – this doubles up social proof with authority. Think about the way you dress. Think about your credentials. And think about who the person you are trying to influence sees as authority figures.<span><body><html>

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Her very conception of the finite presupposes a positive idea of the infinite, for her idea of the finite arises from introducing limits to this infinity (see also 3:547, 5:355–6). Compare this problem with that of a finite or infinite spatial extent. Consider a shaped area that has a determinate boundary. To think away the boundary is to remove it in thought. And yet, one might argue, the very presence of the boundary can serve only to divide the finite area from a surrounding area. No matter how large the bounded shape, it would still presuppose a surrounding area. Generalizing, infinite or unlimited being is implicated in the thought of finite being, which is conceived by introducing limits into this prior notion

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This question leads to the second proof, which argues that the existence of any finite being can be explained only if there exists an infinite creative power.

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5. Scarcity
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #scarcity
Similar to social proof is the principle of scarcity. We naturally start to desire something as soon as we sense that it is scarce. That it is somehow limited in time or number.

We see this all the time in marketing because it is so very effective. Think of a time when you thought you were about to lose something or someone. It greatly heightens the feeling of desire, doesn’t it!

When you are trying to influence someone, always say something to create an air of scarcity. You can always s find a genuine reason. And it’s best to give a true ‘because’ as well. For example, you might say they do not have much time because you are not sure how much longer this opportunity will be open for.

It is vague, but even this will have an unconscious impact on their decision-making process. When you start using numbers, saying there is only this much tie or this many days, or this many of it left. Then it gets really powerful.

​The reason it works so strongly to write the number of spaces open on a course, on the sales page, and then count them down as people sign up. The reason this works so well is because it combines scarcity with social proof. And as soon as you begin combining these factors you get what Charlie Munger calls the ‘Lollapalooza’ affect. The secret weapon of world-class influencers. More on that in the next chapter.

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Any contributing cause less powerful than God would still have to depend on the infinite power of God for its very being. God’s power is left as the only explanation of the continuing existence of all finite beings.

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #scarcity
We naturally start to desire something as soon as we sense that it is scarce. That it is somehow limited in time or number.

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Similar to social proof is the principle of scarcity. We naturally start to desire something as soon as we sense that it is scarce. That it is somehow limited in time or number. We see this all the time in marketing because it is so very effective. Think of a time when you thought you were about to lose something or someone. It greatly heightens the

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #scarcity
Think of a time when you thought you were about to lose something or someone. It greatly heightens the feeling of desire, doesn’t it!

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proof is the principle of scarcity. We naturally start to desire something as soon as we sense that it is scarce. That it is somehow limited in time or number. We see this all the time in marketing because it is so very effective. <span>Think of a time when you thought you were about to lose something or someone. It greatly heightens the feeling of desire, doesn’t it! When you are trying to influence someone, always say something to create an air of scarcity. You can always s find a genuine reason. And it’s best to give a true ‘because’ as

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #scarcity
When you are trying to influence someone, always say something to create an air of scarcity. You can always s find a genuine reason. And it’s best to give a true ‘because’ as well. For example, you might say they do not have much time because you are not sure how much longer this opportunity will be open for.

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time or number. We see this all the time in marketing because it is so very effective. Think of a time when you thought you were about to lose something or someone. It greatly heightens the feeling of desire, doesn’t it! <span>When you are trying to influence someone, always say something to create an air of scarcity. You can always s find a genuine reason. And it’s best to give a true ‘because’ as well. For example, you might say they do not have much time because you are not sure how much longer this opportunity will be open for. It is vague, but even this will have an unconscious impact on their decision-making process. When you start using numbers, saying there is only this much tie or this many day

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Finally, the meditator returns to the deceiving-God hypothesis. From the idea of God as an infinite, perfect being, she concludes that God “is subject to no defect whatsoever.” From this, it follows “that he cannot be a deceiver, since it is manifest by the natural light that all fraud and deception depend on some defect” (7:52). God’s perfection excludes deception.

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #scarcity
When you start using numbers, saying there is only this much tie or this many days, or this many of it left. Then it gets really powerful.

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of scarcity. You can always s find a genuine reason. And it’s best to give a true ‘because’ as well. For example, you might say they do not have much time because you are not sure how much longer this opportunity will be open for. <span>It is vague, but even this will have an unconscious impact on their decision-making process. When you start using numbers, saying there is only this much tie or this many days, or this many of it left. Then it gets really powerful. ​The reason it works so strongly to write the number of spaces open on a course, on the sales page, and then count them down as people sign up. The reason this works so well

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The Cartesian circle In the Third Meditation, Descartes appeals to the natural light, or the faculty of clear and distinct perception, to prove the existence and non-deceptiveness of God (7:40–50). The fact that God exists and is no deceiver releases the meditator from the doubt about the reliability of clear and distinct perception (7:35, 52).

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A particular method of ascertaining the truth (clear and distinct perception) is vindicated by proving that God exists and is no deceiver, but this proof relies on that very method.

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Arnauld: I have one further worry, namely how the author avoids reasoning in a circle when he says that we are sure that what we clearly and distinctly perceive is true only because God exists. But we can be sure that God exists only because we clearly and distinctly perceive this. Hence, before we can be sure that God exists, we ought to be able to be sure that whatever we perceive clearly and distinctly is true. [7:214]

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #scarcity
The reason it works so strongly to write the number of spaces open on a course, on the sales page, and then count them down as people sign up. The reason this works so well is because it combines scarcity with social proof. And as soon as you begin combining these factors you get what Charlie Munger calls the ‘Lollapalooza’ affect. The secret weapon of world-class influencers.

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t is vague, but even this will have an unconscious impact on their decision-making process. When you start using numbers, saying there is only this much tie or this many days, or this many of it left. Then it gets really powerful. ​<span>The reason it works so strongly to write the number of spaces open on a course, on the sales page, and then count them down as people sign up. The reason this works so well is because it combines scarcity with social proof. And as soon as you begin combining these factors you get what Charlie Munger calls the ‘Lollapalooza’ affect. The secret weapon of world-class influencers. More on that in the next chapter.<span><body><html>

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6. Liking
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #liking
One of the simplest and most powerful principles of persuasion is liking. We listen to people we like. We do what people we like want us to do. Simple.

The interesting thing here is who we like. Who we honestly like in an unconscious automatic, instant reaction kind of way. First and foremost, Cialdini says we like people who are similar to us. This is perfectly understandable.

As we will discover in later chapters – with NLP and chapter 5,6 and 7 – there are many ways to create this liking and sense of bonding and trust through creating a feeling of great similarity. IN fact, you can create this instantly with anyone though creating rapport.

To illustrate the power of this similarity factor, there was an experiment conducted where a certain number of people were mailed a survey and asked to return the form after filling it.

Those who received it from someone who had a similar sounding name returned the forms more that those who received it from people whose names were not identical or similar. This experiment proved that most people get influenced easily if they find that there is a similarity between them and their influencer.

Perhaps unfairly, we also like people who we find to be attractive. There is a theory, which states that, people who are attractive are also going to possess other qualities such as being loyal and committed and thus, people are more likely to listen to them and also get influenced by them. This is perhaps the least easy principle of influence for anyone to replicate, but it is worth remembering!

If you can begin to utilize and combine Cialdini’s factors of influence, you will see instant results. Remember, it is like Aikido. You are not doing anything new, people are constantly responding to and using these forces all day long. You are simply going to be more intelligent about it from now on.

The next chapter will show you more powerful principles of human behavior which will allow you to influence people with ease. And also the incredible power of combining factors all together, and how you can do this in your life starting today.

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Descartes responded to this charge of circularity in the Fourth Replies (drawing also on the Second): I have already given an adequate explanation of this point in my reply to the Second Objections, under the headings Thirdly and Fourthly, where I made a distinction between what we in fact perceive clearly and what we remember having perceived clearly on a previous occasion. To begin with, we are sure that God exists because we attend to the arguments which prove this; but subse- quently it is enough for us to remember that we perceived something clearly in order for us to be certain that it is true. This would not be sufficient if we did not know that God exists and is not a deceiver. [7:246]

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Descartes seems to be claiming that the charge of circu- larity is not a problem, because the proof of God’s existence (which relies on clear and distinct perception) merely gives the meditator license to trust the remembered results of clear and distinct percep- tions when she is not having them – presumably, by removing the “slight” and “metaphysical” doubt of the deceiving-God hypothesis. But, this reply presupposes, there was no need to justify clear and distinct perception itself, even as the power that investigates the grounds for doubt.

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #liking
One of the simplest and most powerful principles of persuasion is liking. We listen to people we like. We do what people we like want us to do.

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One of the simplest and most powerful principles of persuasion is liking. We listen to people we like. We do what people we like want us to do. Simple. The interesting thing here is who we like. Who we honestly like in an unconscious automatic, instant reaction kind of way. First and foremost, Cialdini says we like p

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on one reading, suggest that he merely sought to show that his meta- physics achieves maximal human certainty.

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If we accept this distinction for the moment, Descartes’ response to Arnauld can yield the following strategy for avoiding the circle. We will suppose that his aim is perfect, or unshakeable, certainty (now distinguished from truth). Clear and distinct perceptions provide such certainty while we are having them. When we are not having them, the deceiving-God hypothesis can undermine that certainty, for it raises a general doubt about whether such perceptions should be accepted. The proofs for the existence of a non-deceiving God use clear and distinct perceptions, and we are utterly convinced of those proofs; hence, we are no longer moved by the deceiving-God hypothesis.

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Assuming, as seems reasonable, that Descartes was seeking meta- physical truths, the “certainty, not truth” approach neither accords with his intent nor reveals what he would need to achieve his goal

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On the “remove the doubt” strategy, Descartes was not aiming to prove that clear and distinct perception is true, only to show that the grounds for doubting such perception do not withstand scrutiny.

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #liking
Who we honestly like in an unconscious automatic, instant reaction kind of way. First and foremost, Cialdini says we like people who are similar to us.

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One of the simplest and most powerful principles of persuasion is liking. We listen to people we like. We do what people we like want us to do. Simple. The interesting thing here is who we like. Who we honestly like in an unconscious automatic, instant reaction kind of way. First and foremost, Cialdini says we like people who are similar to us. This is perfectly understandable. As we will discover in later chapters – with NLP and chapter 5,6 and 7 – there are many ways to create this liking and sense of bonding and

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #liking
there are many ways to create this liking and sense of bonding and trust through creating a feeling of great similarity. IN fact, you can create this instantly with anyone though creating rapport.

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unconscious automatic, instant reaction kind of way. First and foremost, Cialdini says we like people who are similar to us. This is perfectly understandable. As we will discover in later chapters – with NLP and chapter 5,6 and 7 – <span>there are many ways to create this liking and sense of bonding and trust through creating a feeling of great similarity. IN fact, you can create this instantly with anyone though creating rapport. To illustrate the power of this similarity factor, there was an experiment conducted where a certain number of people were mailed a survey and asked to return the form after

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #liking
Those who received an email from someone who had a similar sounding name returned the forms more that those who didnt.

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th anyone though creating rapport. To illustrate the power of this similarity factor, there was an experiment conducted where a certain number of people were mailed a survey and asked to return the form after filling it. <span>Those who received it from someone who had a similar sounding name returned the forms more that those who received it from people whose names were not identical or similar. This experiment proved that most people get influenced easily if they find that there is a similarity between them and their influencer. Perhaps unfairly, we also like people

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What if Descartes believed that the meditator could reasonably begin with, or at some point adopt, a presumption in favor of the human intellect? That is, what if the burden of proof were on the doubter? In that case, a “remove the doubt” strategy might suffice, when paired with this presumption.

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #liking
we also like people who we find to be attractive. There is a theory, which states that, people who are attractive are also going to possess other qualities such as being loyal and committed and thus, people are more likely to listen to them and also get influenced by them.

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those who received it from people whose names were not identical or similar. This experiment proved that most people get influenced easily if they find that there is a similarity between them and their influencer. Perhaps unfairly, <span>we also like people who we find to be attractive. There is a theory, which states that, people who are attractive are also going to possess other qualities such as being loyal and committed and thus, people are more likely to listen to them and also get influenced by them. This is perhaps the least easy principle of influence for anyone to replicate, but it is worth remembering! If you can begin to utilize and combine Cialdini’s factors of infl

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#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #liking
Remember, it is like Aikido. You are not doing anything new, people are constantly responding to and using these forces all day long. You are simply going to be more intelligent about it from now on.

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influenced by them. This is perhaps the least easy principle of influence for anyone to replicate, but it is worth remembering! If you can begin to utilize and combine Cialdini’s factors of influence, you will see instant results. <span>Remember, it is like Aikido. You are not doing anything new, people are constantly responding to and using these forces all day long. You are simply going to be more intelligent about it from now on. The next chapter will show you more powerful principles of human behavior which will allow you to influence people with ease. And also the incredible power of combining facto

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Loolapalloza Example
#69-ways-to-influence
For example, instead of just showing that many people are taking this choice (social proof), you could show that many very similar people to the individual are taking the choice (liking) and among them are people of authority, and also, because there are so many of them doing it there are not many places left and they are going fast (scarcity).

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